International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 2014 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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September 2014 publication has started and publication will continue till 16th September 2014.
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      Simon Osilama Izuagie, Adrian Bowman, Marian Scott, Kibuchi M. Eluid

Abstract: This study seeks to update understanding of the public health issues round the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in Scotland between 2006 and 2012. By examining the patterns, trends and seasonal effects of cases of cryptosporidiosis amongst different age groups, sex and health boards in Scotland during the reference periods. Data Sources, Design and Methods: Data on notified cases of cryptosporidiosis was supplied by Health Board Scotland between 2006 -2012, based on 16 health boards, which were modified to 14 health boards. Other variable used is the population data which was sourced from the website of the General Register office for Scotland.

      Ilham binti Ismail, Assistant Professor Dr. Yaakob bin Daud

Abstract: Effective leadership is one of the important indicators to determine the successful of organizational commitment in schools. This study aimed to identify the influence of ethical leadership towards the organizational commitment in schools. This cross-sectional survey involved 324 secondary school teachers in Kedah (state of peninsular Malaysia). The instrument included Ethical Leadership at Work (ELW) and Three-Component Model Employee Commitment Survey (TCM-ECS). Results showed that ethical leadership influence the organizational commitment in schools. Implication of this study is ethical leadership contributed to the organizational commitment in schools. Thus, ethical leadership should be applied and practiced by school leaders to improve the success of organizational commitment, thereby improving school performance .

      Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, Masih Khan

Abstract: Neck pain has become a common epidemiological problem. One major reason for the neck pain is a sedentary way of life, along with using a personal computer in all daily activities. Work place and work duration have not been properly modified to the personal physical conditions of these employees. Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects. Ergonomic intervention results in enhancement of working posture and a decline in incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms. The human body is designed to move and health depends on it.

      Mamunuwa A. M. V. G. N., Dorabawila S. S. K. B. M.

Abstract: Clinical pharmacy is a discipline utilized in most countries to rationalize medication use. The key functions of a Clinical Pharmacist include the identification, prevention and solution of Drug Related Problems (DRPs). The objectives of this study were to assess the need for clinical pharmacists in Sri Lankan hospital inpatient care focusing on the prevalence of DRPs to understand the perception of doctors and nurses on introducing this service to Sri Lanka.

      Olaniyi O.O., Odeyemi O. A., Adewale B. D., Oloyede A.A., Anagbogu C.F., Adeigbe O.O. and Adenuga O.O

Abstract: The understanding of the genetic resource status of an economic and medicinal crop such as tea (Camellia simensis) is a very relevant prerequisite for its improvement and advancing its research attention. This review summarises the available information on tea breeding in Nigeria. Tea cultivation in Nigeria contributes significantly to the economic development of the tea growing communities especially women who are about 75% in the tea industry. The available information showed that 2045 tonnes, 2914 tonnes made tea were produced in 2006 and 2007 respectively. The major breeding achievement was the adaptability of three tea clones to the lowland regions in Nigeria, standardization of pluck quality, the grouping of tea clones into three distinct groups for further hybridization studies. Induction of callus from tea stem cuttings, shoot apices and flower buds were not left out. Germplasm collection, introduction, hybridization and introduction of biotechnology techniques become urgent steps for tea improvement in Nigeria.

      Razak W. Abedalla, Lark S. Escobar, Dhiaadeen A. Al-Quraishi

Abstract: In recent years, social media has become one of the most important factors accompanying the development of the Iraqi society. The media industry has experienced tremendous growth and development over the last ten years in Iraq. During Saddam Hussein’s administration, the Iraqi media was restricted and lacked the freedom of speech. After the 2003 war, the media became more liberal and somewhat less restricted. However, the problem is that it still lacks the well-organized strategic plans to get to the hearts of the Iraqi citizens and to make them believe in all what they say either online or on T.V. This study attempts to answer the following research question: what is the state of the Iraqi media during and post Saddam Hussein’s era? The aim of this research is to identify the state of the media industry in Iraq during and post Saddam Hussein’s era. To examine the research problem, the researchers investigated the state of social media in Iraq and shared the participant’s lived experience of the use of media as a means of communication while he was in Iraq. To collect the data, the researchers interviewed an Iraqi man who moved to the U.S. in 2005. The results indicate that the social media in Iraq is more powerful and effective now than it was before 2003 and the number of Internet and social media male and female users increased in the last ten years.

      Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar

Abstract: Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular ‘Turquoise’ (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a ‘High Exhaustion’ class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.

      Loganathan, P.

Abstract: The study was carried out in Government Seed farm Vavuniya from June 2012 to September 2012 by Random Completely Block Design (RCBD) with nine treatments and three replicates to study the role of Sebania rostrata in relation to soil properties and to evaluate the suitability of Sesbania and inorganic fertilizers on the yield of onion. The green manure (Sesbania rostrata and Crotalaria juncea (sunhemp)) were incorporated into the soil before 14 days of planting by manually. Onion bulb( Vethalam variety) was planted fourteen days after incorporation of organic material with spacing of 10 cm x 10 cm in a plot size of 1m x 1m. The treatments’ T2 – T9 plots were fertilized with urea, Sesbania rostrata and sunhemp and it’s combinations at the equivalent of 6.21g total N per m2 (Department Recommendation ). Plants were irrigated once in 4 days as farmer practiced.

      Edio C. Neto, Keiny Hosoume, Luiz F. M. P. Leitão, Pedro L. H. Mello, Guilherme Muzy, Bárbara L. Azevedo, Fernanda L. Abrantes, Guilherme M. De Carvalho, Sandra R. S. Sprovieri, Vitor Sobreira, Tammy Fumiko Messias Takara

Abstract: Rhabdomyolysis is the consequence of some diseases commonly seen in the emergency services, with several complications. In addition, there are lots of Rhabdomyolysis protocols in different countries and also in Brazil, with many points of agreement and others with divergent opinions, like the time of drugs administration and their posology. There are many variations and little evidences in the few studies and researches on humans.. Objectives: This paper aims to discuss the various protocols and reviews existing literature in order to adapt them to our institutional reality and the best treatment protocol. Methods: This study analysed protocols and updated concepts on Rhabdomyolysis. An non systematic review of protocols of all over the countries was performed. Results: All protocols focus on hydration and in a earlier diagnosis. Support treatments differs from service to service. Discussion and Final Comments: We hope that this study and research standardise the current treatment of the Rhabdomyolysis, based on evidences and clinical findings of various countries and thereby decrease the risk of it’s most important complication: acute renal failure.

      Emendu, Nnamdi B., Emendu, Ebele Rita

Abstract: This work is on Proximate analysis, characterization and utilization of bambara nut oil (Mmanu –Okpa). Bambara groundnut was collected from a local market and analysised. The bambara groundnut has many content, such as carbohydrate, protein ash, water, and oil. The emphasis of this study is on the oil. From the analysis it shows that bambara nut is not an oily seed. As it has high carbohydrate and protein, it is very nutritious and good for human consumption. It can serve as a food supplement. Hence it is good to cultivate the bambara nut in a large quantity to supplement the availability of food in the society.

      Ramanathan Mohan, Tharini Ramanathan, Ganesh Rajendran

Abstract: Middleware becomes a strong research area. The reason is the ability of middleware technologies to solve all the integration problems in an enterprise. This technology combined with other technologies can solve pressing problems for mankind.

      Tharini Ramanathan, Ramanathan Mohan, Ganesh Rajendran

Abstract: Today IT workplace stress is becoming a major issue and a matter of concern for the employees and the organizations. It has become a part of life for the women employees, as life today has become so complex at home as well as outside that it is impossible to avoid stress. Selye [1936] defines stress as “a dynamic activity wherein an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand”.

      Dr. G. Nirmala, C. Sujatha

Abstract: Complexity theory has many facts. Its motivations and goals however, are similar; to determine the computational “difficulty” or complexity of a problem. In this work, we propose an NP- completeness proof for the Steiner tree problem in graphs

      Arijit Maity

Abstract: In India, there are multiple cement brands available in the market which makes the brands selection a difficult process. The project focuses on studying the major factors retailer consider important compare to other factors in selecting cement for their retail business. This will give an insight into the market and try to identify the major product features and services expected by the retailer from the cement companies. Exploratory research was done initially with sample size 10 which include individual home builder, masons, engineer/architect, contractors, builders and dealer to get an insight into the product features and services they are aware off and the variables that influence the selection of cement. The questionnaire listing various factors affecting their selection process was further modified and administered with a sample of 100 retailers. Further, the author applied factor analysis to summarize the major factors that influenced decision making process using SPSS software.

      Dr.Debesh Bhowmik

Abstract: The paper tried to explore the various studies on the nexus between the productivity growth and the employment through VAR model of Dritsakis(2012) and Blanchand, Solow and Wilson(1995) model and found cointegration and causality but the association went to either direction. In the short run, the nexus was seen negative but not in all countries and in the long run , the association was found both positive and negative in the world economies like Europe, America ,Africa and in Asia. No general conclusion could not be drawn on the nexus because state of technology, employees benefit, wage structure, hours of labour vary from country to country whether it was in USA,France,UK ,India or in EU. Even, the association is different from sectors to sectors. Above all, if the scale of measurement of labour productivity differs, the association between labour productivity and employment may also differ.

      Rachita Gupta*, SeemaPuri, Harish Chellani and Geeta Chopra

Abstract: Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major challenges in achievement of the Millennium Development Goals particularly in low and middle-income countries, the incidence in India being reported to be around 28 percent. The risk of a poor outcome in the LBW infants is increased in a background of poor nutrition, both of the mother and the infant. Recent estimates suggest that stunting, wasting, and intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for 2.2 million deaths and 21% of disability-adjusted life years lost among children younger than 5 years [1]. The LBW infant is faced with rapid rate of anabolic processes and brain growth but has poor reserves. Thus the infant’s need for optimal nutrition and special care is critical. Deficient nutrition and improper care lead to fatal outcome. LBW is universally the single most important determinant of the chance of newborn to survive and experience healthy growth and development. LBW as a health indicator is very sensitive to socio-economic factors, in particular to adverse conditions such as hunger, draught, infections and physical stress which specifically affect the poorest segment of population. Determinants of LBW need to be studied in order to identify potentially modifiable risk factors. This brief review explores the available epidemiologic data to investigate the questions of what are the causes and consequences of LBW.

      Ardit Bido

Abstract: This paper examines the role that Greek Metropolitan Iakovos played in Albanian-Greek relations from the end of World War I to the establishment of a national Autocephalous Orthodox Albanian Church in 1922. As a result of the political and social structure that was in place during the Ottoman Empire, religion played a significant role in post-Ottoman politics. This was amplified in countries like Albania, where no national religious institutions existed. At the end of World War I, Greece used its influence towards the Patriarchate of Constantinople to increase its opportunity to annex the terra irredenta of Korçë and Gjirokastër, while Albania tried and managed to nationalize religious communities that existed in its territory.

      Dr. Nidhi Marya, Dr. Suman Yadav, Dr. Anshum Datta, Khyati Gupta, Dr. Swati Budhiraja

Abstract: Variations in root and root canal is always a challenge and failure to recognize these variations can result in unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Mandibular molars can sometimes present a variation called radix entomolaris, wherein the tooth has an extra root attached to its lingual aspect. This additional root may complicate the endodontic management of the tooth if it is misdiagnosed or maltreated. The case reports in the present article focus on the radiographic identification and endodontic management of Radix Entomolaris in permanent mandibular first molars.

      A,H.Hemanth Kumar S.Franklin John , S.Senith

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate internal and external influences on consumers purchasing decisions on cosmetic products in Tamilnadu and Kerala. The questionnaires were given to 500 consumers who are all using cosmetics. Out of 500 consumers contacted, 412 questionnaires were received with required coverage and details. The instruments of this study involved two parts: the first section of the instrument consisted of forced-choice questions about demographic characteristics: gender, marital status, age, occupation, monthly income level. The second section variables chosen for this study in order to measure the influence of consumer buying behaviour in cosmetics products. The Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) for Microsoft Windows 20.00 was used to complete the analysis of the collected data.

      Dr Tomar S, Dr Aga P, Dr Sharma P.K, Dr Manik P, Dr Srivastava A.K

Abstract: In most of the cases two coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart, the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left coronary artery (LCA). One of the important branches of RCA is the conus artery (CA) which supplies the infundibulum of the right ventricle or pulmonary conus.

      Dr.D vijayalakshmir, R.kalaivani

Abstract: A spanning tree of a connected graph is a sub graph that is a tree and connects all the verticestogether. A single graph can have many different spanning trees. We can also assign a weight to each edge, which is a number representing how unfavorable it is, and use this to assign a weight to a spanning tree by computing the sum of the weights of the edges in that spanning tree. A minimum spanning tree (MST) or minimum weight spanning tree is then a spanning tree with weight less than or equal to the weight of every other spanning tree. More generally, any undirected graph (not necessarily connected) has a minimum spanning forest, which is a union of minimum spanning trees for its components. Our objective is to find minimum cost (weight) spanning tree using the algorithm which is based on the weight matrix of weighted graph.

      N J Nawarathna, D Chandrasekara, N R Kmarasinghe, P Ratnayake, B M R S Balasooriya, R A A Shaminda, M M Rizmi, R J K Senevirathne

Abstract: In patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix treated by radiation, 9-27% may develop distant metastasis. Common sites of distant metastasis are lungs, bones and para-aortic lymph nodes. Metastasis to the colon is very rare. We report a case of a 62 year old lady who was treated by Wertheim hysterectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy for stage III carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Three years later, she developed a metastatic growth in the transverse colon which was resected. It is important to differentiate squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the colon from a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the colon as latter has a better prognosis. Palliative resection of the colonic metastasis prevent further dissemination.

      Anshu Rajput

Abstract: The rationale for HSR investment is not different to any other public investment decision. Public funds should be allocated to this mode of transport if its net expected social benefit is higher than in the next best alternative. The exam of data on costs and demand shows that the case for investing in HSR is strongly dependent on the existing volume of traffic where the new lines are built, the expected time savings and generated traffic and the average willingness to pay of potential users, the release of capacity in congested roads, airports or conventional rail lines and the net reduction of external effects.

      R.E Ogunsakin, A. B. Adebayo

Abstract: This paper examined logistic regression for describing the relationship between an indications of suffering from complications pulmonary tuberculosis and its associated risk factors (predictors). Logistic regression was used as a tool to see the performance on tuberculosis data. The data used for this paper was collected from the Records Department of Federal Medical Centre, Ido Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between the period of 2010 to 2011. At the end of the analysis, the estimated function revealed that complications of pulmonary tuberculosis were positively associated with social history of the patients , previous exposure to tuberculosis infection but negatively associated with age, nature of occupation. Also, the absence of complications of pulmonary tuberculosis was influenced by the presence of malaria fever.

      Dr.D.S.Selva kumar , V. Geetha Rani MA

Abstract: Learning disabilities are problems that affect the brains’ ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. These problems can make it difficult for a student to learn as quickly as someone who isn’t affected by learning disabilities. There are many kinds of learning disabilities. Most students affected by learning disabilities have more than one kind. Certain kinds of learning disabilities can interfere with a person’s ability to concentrate or focus and can cause someone’s mind to wander too much. Other learning disabilities can make it difficult for a student to read, write, spell, or solve math problems. This paper focuses on difficulties, huntresses and lists faced by LD students in “English language learning and tries to solve the problems faced by LD students in schools with special reference to Kalyan School, Trivandrum.

      Mohammad Shafeeq

Abstract: The previous princely state of Bahawalpur deceit south of the Punjab in Pakistan.Now the governmental division of Bahawalpur,it encompasses the districts of Bahawalpur and neighbouring Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan,maintaining accurately the equal boundaries as it did before the partition of the Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947.Established in AD 1727,Bahawalpur emerged as one of the most notable Muslim States of British India.Located in southern Punjab,it funtioned as a princely state for about 229 years before finally ceding to Pakistan in 1956.Now,i come to the point the word "camel" is derived via Latin and Greek (camelus and kamēlos respectively) from Hebrew or Phoenician gāmāl. The Hebrew meaning of the word gāmāl is derived from the verb root g.m.l, meaning stopping, weaning, going without or repaying in kind.

      Praveen Kumar Sharma, Sourav Saha,Saraswati Kumari

Abstract: The heart rhythm is directly related to the electrical activity of the heart. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is generally used for obtaining information about the heart rhythm. In this paper, a method for calculating heart rhythm variation using the Phonocardiogram (PCG) and a method for finding characteristics of the that signal is described. The average heart rate is calculated from the Shannon energy signal and characteristics are found using mean, variance and autocorrelation. The analysis window for calculating the instantaneous heart rate is repeated for entire signal for every one second shift. It is shown that even for normal persons there is significant variation in the heart rate. Heart rate variation shows bi-modal distribution for an abnormal case.

      Dhruba Raj Ghimire

Abstract: Food security is significant issue for development programming given this is a basic need that impacts survival, growth and development of human being.. As 49% of the households in Nepal are food insecure (National Demographic and Health Survey: NDSH, 2011), it is very important to explore how households in the rural communities are coping with food insecurity situation and discuss about the way out. Disasters, climate change effects on production, exploitative economic systems, growing distraction of youth from agriculture are some significant issues that are likely to intensify the risks for food security in future. Food insecurity further puts households and communities vulnerable to disasters and weakens their capacity to restore to the normal life.

      Dr. Vaibhav Patil, Dr. Prashant Bhingare, Dr. Bhaskar Murthy

Abstract: To study maternal and foetal outcome of pregnancy in women with heart disease with history of corrective surgery/ intervention

      Dr Apurva Tiwari, Ankita Tiwari

Abstract: Outsourcing of non-core activities has become a growing trend in healthcare industry. It provides multiple advantages to the healthcare organizations, like increased operational efficiency, technical expertise & risk sharing. However at the same time is found to be associated with various types of risks. Periodic evaluation of the services provided by the third party service provider & matching them against set standards is primary requisite to mitigate occurrence of such risks. This study evaluated the performance of outsourced medical equipment maintenance service in a tertiary care teaching hospital by retrospective analysis of records. A set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were used for this purpose. Outsourcing ensured high operational efficiency of the department in terms of high completion rates of planned preventive maintenance (PPM) and breakdown maintenance (BM) work orders(WO) as well as maintenance of equipment uptimes above 95%.User satisfaction score of 83.67% and Cost of service ratio(COSR) of 4.20% portrays outsourcing as a cost effective decision for the organization.

      Kiran Malleshappa

Abstract: The explanation of Time in Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity¹ is different from the explanation of Time in Classical Mechanics. In Relativity¹, Time is considered as fourth dimension. But, I would argue against Einstein’s concept of Time as I do not see Time as a separate dimension. In this paper, I would explain Time Dilation and details of when and why it happens.

      Mahasweta Bhattacharya, Nilanjan Mukherjee

Abstract: A power system is considered to be transiently stable if it can regain and maintain synchronism after a sudden disturbance. Circuit breakers play a pivotal role in maintaining transient stability of power systems. Using high speed circuit breakers, transient stability can be achieved efficiently in power systems. The project has aimed at the improvement of the transient stability using high speed breakers. The implementation of the technique has been carried out through MATLAB R2009b.

      Ajitkaur Saini, Bhushan Borse, Pratiksha Kulkarni

Abstract: A chasm exists between the desktop and mobile worlds in terms of hardware performance, graphics capabilities and input devices. Some kinds of software, such as 3D graphics or advanced word-processing tools, are still out of reach for handheld devices. So, although redesigning a desktop application for mobile environments is often possible, mobile devices’ limitations discourage using such software in nomadic scenarios. One type of solution to this problem employs well-known remote-computing techniques in which a remote server executes specific application and sends only the resulting graphics representations to the client devices a sequence of still images or a video stream.1, 2 In most cases, these techniques require shrinking the server’s video output (including the application interface) to fit mobile displays’ low resolution and wireless-network bandwidth.

      Shyam R Nair, Shalini R Nair, Elsa Paul

Abstract: Orientation of cables in a suspension bridge is a major factor affecting the stability of the bridge. In this paper we are proposing a new method of controlling the orientation of cables of a suspension bridge with the help of gyro and actuators by using an appropriate control system with negative feedback.

      S.H.T.Sudeshika, G.J. Panagoda, I.U.K.Tennakoon

Abstract: This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of paediatric oral liquid drug formulations during consumption. Paracetamol, Salbutamol, Cephalexin, Amoxicillin and Lactulose are few oral liquid medicines prescribed in Sri Lanka. These oral liquid medicines are at a greater risk of microbial contamination during consumption. This can lead to co-infection in paediatric patients. Therefore, it is important to evaluate microbial quality of oral liquid medicines during consumption. In methodology, organoleptic examination, pH determination and assessment of microbiological quality of two bottles from each five commercially available samples were done. Selective media were employed for quantification and isolation of the microbial contaminants.

      Dr. Elizabeth JeyaVardhini Samuel

Abstract: Back ground: Era of contraception, abortions, [20th, 21st centuries] implemented as family welfare schemes, witnessed increased global prevalence of obesity. Objectives: Altruistic association of contraception [if any], with increasing obesity, was sought after.

      Saw Kyw Wai Hin Ko, Dr.Kyaw Soe Lwin

Abstract: In the world of photography, surveillance of larger areas and military operations, the immediate machines that accommodate the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) category are the autonomous aeroplane and helicopter. Helicopters have clear advantages over the aeroplanes. They can be able to hover and land/take off in limited spaces. The quad rotor is a helicopter that has four rotors which are fixed to a certain spin axis. The different spinning directions of the motors balance the torques on their associated axes, therefore eliminating the need for a tail rotor that a normal helicopter requires. As long as all four rotors rotate at the same speed, the quad rotor helicopter essentially hovers, this proving to be a less complex in mechanical structure. Researches are being done to improve the reliability and decrease the size of such vehicles. So, they can be used in Search and Rescue operations, surveillance, inspection, aerial photography and aerial mapping.

      Dr Girish V. Patil, Dr Shishirkumar, Dr Apoorva D, Dr Thejeswari, Mr Sushanth N.K.

Abstract: The superior margin of the scapula is thin and sharp and is the shortest of the three. It is interrupted by the scapular notch, which lies very close to the root of the coracoid process. This notch is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament, thus converting it into a foramen. The shape of the suprascapular notch is one of the important predisposing factor for the suprascapular nerve entrapment. The present study was done by observing 112 human dried scapulae. Type IV was the most common type with 40 (35.71 %) scapulae, whereas type V was the least observed type with just two (1.79 %) scapulae. The reason for the different shape of suprascapular notch can be probably explained from the point of ossification of corocoid process and other bony parts in and around the suprascapular notch. Knowledge of suprascapular notch variations may be essential for surgeons performing SN decompression, especially by means of endoscopic techniques.

      Ramya. R, Shree. M. P

Abstract: The efficiency of Parthenium hysterophorus L., as potential feed stock was investigated by using different pretreatment methods. P.hysterophorus L., being declared invasive weed, is an obnoxious flowering plant which is a big challenge to all attempts of control. Although several eradication measures have been undertaken in this regard for many years, not a single method is yet an option for the total eradication of Parthenium.Thus, the status of Parthenium management is visualized with respect to large-scale utilization. Therefore, in the present work, Parthenium is chosen to comparatively analyze its efficiency as a potential feed stock. Crop biomass mainly consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, which act as limiting factor for being used as a potential feed stock. Thus, conversion of hemicelluloses present in the lignocellulosic biomass into xylose is one of the major steps in preparing the Parthenium as a potential feed stock.

      Sachin Kumbhar, Mrs. Yogini Borole

Abstract: In this paper a new scheme is proposed for progressive image transmission over coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system with Low Density Parity Check Coding (LDPC). Trigonometric transforms are used in this scheme for improving the performance of the OFDM systems and reducing the PeakTo- Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of OFDM signal. It improves the error resilience ability and transmission efficiency for progressive image transmission over Additive White Gaussian Noise (A WGN) channel. The Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) algorithm is used for source coding of the images to be transmitted. In the proposed scheme the transmit data sequence of the OFDM signal after Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (lFFT) is grouped into in-phase and in-quadrature components, then each component is transformed using either the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) or the Discrete Sine Transform (DST). The simulation results show that adding the DST to the system improves the visual quality of reconstructed images and reduces the PAPR of OFDM signal more than the DCT.

      Ishaq.Y. Habib, J. Na'aliya, Murtala Muhammad, Fahad I Danladi

Abstract: Heavy metals such as nickel, copper, zinc and lead, generally are toxic substances that pose a great risk to living organisms in our environment due to their inevitable existence. The aim of this investigation is to investigate and assay the presence of such metals in muscle tissues of tilapia zilli of Gwale Pond in Gwale Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Muscle tissues of some fresh tilapia zilli were dissected, prepared and assayed by Alpha A4 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of working standard concentrations were 0.001 ppm to 1 ppm .Study findings showed that the mean concentrations of nickel, copper, zinc and lead were 0.0120+0.002 ppm, 0.0637+ 0.0035 ppm, 0.0097+0.0006 ppm and 0.0075+0.0005 ppm Respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for nickel, copper, zinc and lead were calculated to be 0.0120 + 0.005, 0.0035 +0.009, 0.0006 +0.001 and 0.0005 +0.001 respectively. The method was validated using triplicate analysis, recovery experiment and statistical analysis

      Ishaq Y. Habib, Isyaka M. Sani, Fahad I. Danladi, Ja’o M. Aliyu, Murtala Muhammad

Abstract: An auspicious method for the quantitative determination of vitamin A (retinol) was augmented in seven different Jordanian local fresh milk samples using liquid chromatography tandem -mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The compound was separated with C18 Thermo fisher gold (4.50 x100 mm x 5 Å) column through a flow rate of 1 mL/min with isocratic mobile phase. Vitamin A acetate was used as an internal standard .The method was validated using triplicate analyses, relative recovery experiment and statistical analysis. Liquid- liquid extraction was employed as a pre-concentration step with n-hexane -dichloromethane mixture (90%:10%) as an extraction solvent.

      Rohini Chandrica Widyalankara

Abstract: The spread of World Englishes has generated a need for maximizing intelligibility in speech discourse. Yet in current pedagogy teaching pronunciation is a much neglected area. In the Sri Lankan context deviations from Standard Sri Lankan English pronunciation, especially in segmental phonology, results in impairing intelligibility even amongst the local interlocutors. Utilizing the limited technology available this study constructs a short term Action Plan based on the tenets of cooperative and collaborative learning to address two selected pronunciation deviations: the nondifferentiation between /ʃ/ and /s/ and confusion of /p/ and /f/ in 20 undergraduates users of learner English. The Action Plan informs practitioners of Teaching English as a Second Language on implementing short courses which benefit learners who deviate from inner circle pronunciation.

      Bitu Subba

Abstract: The study analyses how over the years the status of women are changing where state as well as non state actors are playing significant role in empowering the role of women. Recent changes like The Sikkim Panchayat (Amendment) Bill, 2011 giving 50% reservation for women in Panchayat (grass root level) and initiating schemes like Chief Minister Rural Housing Mission (CMRHM) where house had been named after the women of the family. Success stories of non state actors in the form of Self Help Group like Nayuma Women Cooperative Society gives a positive trend in women empowerment. It critically examines the changes and challenges experienced by women community. An attempt has been made for suggestion and recommendation in empowering women of rural and urban areas giving them a platform of political and economical self reliance and their major say in decision making process bringing change in traditional ideas and strengthening the social capital (building trust and cooperation).

      Seyed Mohammadali Nabizadeh, Seyed Ali Omrani

Abstract: Managers need relevant and reliable information just in time in order to make appropriate decisions to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Financial information is one of the most important types of information. Thus sound Accounting Information System (AIS) is crucial to the firms. This study tries to find out factors affecting AIS effectiveness which is a prerequisite to improvements on organizational performance. The paper examines relationship between AIS effectiveness and Managerial Knowledge, Use of External and Internal Consultant as well as Firm's Size.

      Ranganadh Narayanam

Abstract: This paper presents the design of different filtering techniques for the Neuro-Biomedical signals in single electrode EEG collected Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials data of Audiology for the Signal-to-Noise Ratio performance evaluations. We have designed Yule-Walk multiband filter, Cascaded Yule-Walk-Comb-Peak filter; conventional Wavelet transform filters of Daubechies, Symlet, Coiflet Wavelets for these Auditory Brainstem Responses. In addition we have designed a Translation-Invariant (TI) Wavelet estimation filtering technique which is highly useful. In our research the idea of Cascaded Yule-Walk-Comb-Peak filter is giving us a considerable improvement in SNR over Yule-Walk filter; and the conventional wavelets are performing far better that too specifically Daubechies wavelets are performing better than all. The TI wavelets technique is performing exceptionally well and better than conventional wavelets.

      Kulkarni Rashmi Ravindranath

Abstract: Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) is a tool which helps doctors to make better and uniform decisions. There are many existing systems present which are used for diagnosing the diseases. For different types of diseases the existing CDSS systems changes with different algorithmic approaches. Every approach has its pros and cons. Selecting the positive aspect and overcoming the problems is the main motive.

      Mayilsamy.T, Pawan Kumar.E

Abstract: Inventory management is used to make decisions regarding the appropriate level of inventory. In practice, all inventories cannot be controlled with equal attention. In this paper the inventory level is decided based on part demand, cost, and supplier location, Share of business and status of receipt. Using ABC analysis the various parts are classified into A, B and C based on its cost. A suitable bin with its rack has to be selected based on the size of the part. Stores layout is designed based on the ABC classification, Bin selection and rack design with the available space constraint. The existing kanban system has to be modified into supplier e-kanban system by which the speed of information sharing between suppliers will be improved.

      Dr. S.Srileka

Abstract: Landslides are among the major natural disasters or calamities in the world. In hilly terrains of India, including Himalayan mountains landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disasters that strike life and property almost perennially and occupy a position of major concern. The present study Micro level Landslide Hazard Zonation in Sirumalai Area of Dindigul District, Tamilnadu involves in generating complete spatial and non-spatial data collected from different sources .How ever the taluk level maps will act as a basic spatial data contributing many micro level features .The other sources are remote sensing data which will undergo digital image processing to build a themes on land use ,slope, geology ,lineament ,drainage etc. and these items will be vectorized to send it to GIS environment .GPS also act as a data source to some aspects which are not available.

      Dr. Mohammed Humed Mohammed Bulghaith, Dr. S.N.Prasad

Abstract: The present paper attempts at presenting the individual's contest that is futile because ignorance misleads him from the path. The research paper aims at highlighting the element of crisis mankind undergoes in Mahfouz's short story, "Zaabalawi". In this paper, I will examine whether there are any related points of similarities and dissimilarities between Mahfouz's short story "Zaabalawi" and Samuel Beckett's Waiting For Godot. What attracts our attention to discuss this issue is the word "existential" that is the key word in the title of this paper. A few studies have been carried on Mahfouz's affinity with other writers as Kafka, Conrad and George Eliot. A striking kind of such studies is Al-Sarayrah's study of the affinity between William Faulkner, Albert Camus and Naguib Mahfouz.

      Rajiya Shahani

Abstract: Reproductive health and behaviour of adolescents is an increasingly important component for the healthy nation. Adolescence, the second decade of life is a period when young people acquire new capacities for progress with physical growth, physiological and psychological change, the development of secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive maturation. Young people worldwide, however, face social, economic and health challenges that were unimaginable. Adolescence is, therefore, considered as a phase rather than a fixed age group; with physical, psychological, social and cultural dimensions. Programmes that can provide information, ensure access to services, and develop life skills are crucial to the future of this population. This paper will explore the existing practices or information on sexual and reproductive behaviour among adolescent girls’ of Meitei-Pangals in Imphal East, Manipur; in relation with the knowledge and attitudes, socio-economic and cultural factors operating within, as well as their perception and awareness level pertaining to the health care services.

      Prem Kumar, Syscom Corporation Ltd.

Abstract: During the invent of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mobile phones, no one could ever imagine a day would arise,when more than a billion mobile phones would be manufactured and used worldwide over a short span of time. Each mobilephone is required to have a unique serial number burned into its chips in order to prevent fraud. Without a unique number, the phone can't be sold. So initially in order to identify phones on a network, engineers developed a 32-bit code called the Electronic Serial Number (ESN). This code was used for billing and to make sure the right call went to the right phone. But 32 bits only allowed 4 billion unique numbers; engineers probably didn't forecasted ESN to be a long-term solution.

      Sabebaro Namo Das, T. C. Sarma and S. A. Tapadar

Abstract: Fruit rot of brinjal caused by Phomopsis vexans is an important disease of eggplant inflicting heavy losses. The present investigation was carried out to test the efficacy of fungicides and two species of Trichoderma inhibiting the pathogen in vitro. Fungicides viz. Carbendazim (Bavistin 50% wp), Captaf (Captan-50 wp), Copperoxychloride (Blitox -50wp), Mancozeb (Dithane-75) and Ridomil MZ -72 were tested by poisoned food technique against brinjal fruit pathogen (Phomopsis vexans) in PDA medium. All the fungicides were significantly proved effective. Among them, Carbendazim at 0.1% showed complete inhibition of the mycelial growth of the pathogen. Among the two species of Trichoderma tested, T. viride was found to be most effective with 84% inhibition followed by T.harzianum 78.22 % inhibition respectively over control after 7th days of incubation.

      Geetanjali Chauhan & Prof. U.K.Chauhan

Abstract: In India, farmers are blindly using untreated industrial waste water for crops and vegetable production especially in peri-urban areas. Nowadays, increasing attention has focused on heavy metal concentrations of vegetables all over the world. Heavy metals have positive and negative roles in human life. Intake of vegetables is an important path of heavy metal toxicity to human being. The use of industrial waste water for irrigation exposes humans at various health risks. This is because heavy metals are not easily biodegradable and consequently can be accumulated in human vital organs. This situation cause varying degree of illness based on acute and chronic exposures. The present study was conducted to assess the risk to human health by heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn and Cr) through the intake of locally grown vegetables in Rewa city (M.P.) India, where, soils contaminated with heavy metals were mainly due to waste water irrigation from Cement Plants (Bela and Naubasta) and may be possible atmospheric deposition.

      P.Salman Khurshid, S.Manohar, P.Ravi Kiran

Abstract: The Z-Source concept has many advantages and can be applied for any type of power conversion. Both boosting and modulation index can be controlled in inverter operation itself, by inserting proper shoot through states. This paper presents procedure for implementing, space vector modulated REC Z-source inverter in MATLAB SIMULINK by inserting shoot through states. It also explains a clear procedure of selection of shoot through states at required time and presents an overall tabular column of the sequence of switching states for three level space vector modulation. The proposed techniques are demonstrated in MATLAB and have achieved good performance results.

      MihirGarude, NirmalHaldikar

Abstract: Vehicle Sensor Networks (VSN) are emerging as a new tool for effectively monitoring the physical world, especially in urban areas where a high concentration of vehicles equipped with on board sensors is expected.A vehicle tracking system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles, with purpose-designed computer software at least at one operational base to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle’s location, collecting data in the process from the field and deliver it to the base of operation.

      Sadiqa Abbas, Gauhar Mahmood

Abstract: Ganga river originating from Gangotri in Himalayas has got very strategic location from water resource point of view. It receives water in three different seasons first from July to October called monsoon season, second from April to June called snow-melt season and third occurs occasionally in January, February, March where the scanty rainfall occurs due to western disturbances. It is occupied by number of watersheds which are generally active in monsoon season.

      Mohammed Arif Shaikh

Abstract: Traditionally banks are in the forefront in harnessing and using technology to improve their products and services. Over a period of time they have been using electronic and telecommunication networks extensively to provide products and services to the customers. This study attempts to understand and identify bankers perception of benefits and risks associated with electronic banking facilities in Ethiopia. Bank employees were the primary source of data and the data so collected was analyzed using mean score analysis. As per the findings of this study it is observed that bankers perceive ‘ a means to save time’ and ‘minimize inconveniences’ as the most and the least advantage of electronic banking whereas ‘Need for expertise and training’ and ‘ charge a high cost for services’ are considered as the most and the least risk associated with electronic banking

      M. Barma, G. M. Wajiga, A. Okolo, H. G. Mu’azu

Abstract: The research applied analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model to determine relative weights for ranking the disposal of solid wastes products in Abuja metropolitan. Three (3) settlement patterns, each having thirteen (13) wastes collection centres were identified. Presently, the disposal of solid wastes at these settlement patterns and their respective collection centres does not have proper schedules. It was found out that this lack of organised plan resulted in some centers, within a settlement pattern, having huge piles of solid wastes unattended to while others were disposed promptly. This unplanned schedule necessitated the application of AHP model to determine the relative weights that ranked the settlement patterns and the collection centres for proper schedule of disposal of the solid wastes.

      Sai Naing Min Htet

Abstract: This paper presents the generation of optical carrier suppressed signal for RoF system. RoF refers to an analog transmission over fiber technology where light is modulated by radio frequency (RF) signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to wireless access. Both optical carrier suppression and signal modulation are made by using a Dual-Drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM). Suppressed carrier modulation is achieved by biasing at the null point of DD-MZM. Optical carrier suppression improves the performance of RoF system such as link gain and noise figure (NF).In this research, a single RF at 2100 MHz having data rate of a 1 Gbps modulates the 1550.12 nm optical carrier in the DD-MZM. In this paper, the carrier suppression and performances of RoF system are investigated by theory and simulation. The various values of optical carrier suppression ratio can be obtained by adjusting the extinction ratio of the DD-MZM. The transmission performance of the proposed system is verified by the simulation results.

      Junge B. Guillena, MS and Francis Thaise A. Cimene, PhD

Abstract: This study investigated the causal analysis relating the human resource management (HR) practices, perceived organizational politics (POP), and perceived satisfaction level (PSL) with the mediating role of organizational identification (OI) to organizational commitment (OC) among the employees of Adventist Medical Center and Adventist Medical Center College, Iligan City, Lanao del Norte. The study used a descriptive-correlation and causal non-experimental design and the selection of sample were done through simple random sampling. Results revealed that only HR practices has direct and indirect effects to OC. It is concluded that if HR practices within organization are more favorable to the employees, they will more likely possess higher satisfaction in their works. They also tend to have strong identification with the organization, which leads them to better commitment.

      Uma .A.N, Dhananjay.S.K , Tirou Aroul, Lokeshmaran. A

Abstract: Tobacco related oral cancer occurs due to accumulation of genetic alterations induced by the genotoxins present in betel quid. The objective of the study was evaluate the cytogenetic damage in the peripheral blood of oral cancer patients and control subjects by anaysing the structural aberrations (STAs) .The frequency of STAs was analyzed in 60 histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. STAs showed a significant P value between the Controls, OPMDs & OSCC cases through ANOVA. Significant P value through t-test was also observed between the pairs of group namely Controls Vs OPMDs cases, Control Vs OSCC cases and OPMDs Vs OSCC cases. STAs showed a significant P value in the patients when compared with the controls and also showed an increased chromosomal alteration in OPMDs and further increased in OSCC thus correlating well with the clinical stages of the disease. CSAs were more than CTAs in the cases with dicentrics being more prevalent. The elevated STAs in the study group could be attributed to the fact they belong to high risk population for oral cancer. A predictor STAs identified in the present study may be used in future for early diagnosis and subsequent disease management of the tobacco related oral cancer patients.

      Shalini Jain

Abstract: The study in this paper involves the steady two dimensional flows and heat transfer through a channel bounded by a stretching sheet and a highly porous layer with impermeable bottom. The expressions for thestream function, velocity, temperature distribution, coefficient of skin friction and the rates of heat transfer at the lower permeable surface and the upper sheet, have been obtained and discussed.

      Aayush Goel, Agam Goel

Abstract: The forecast of electricity demand in India is of considerable interest since the electricity sector has been the prime focus of past as well as present Governments. This study presents three models of prediction of electricity demand of New Delhi, namely Multiple Regression, Trend Seasonality Model and ARIMA modelling. The significance of climatic and seasonal factors on electricity demand as well as comparison of the relative accuracy of the models have also been discussed

      Dr. Anoop Kumar Singh, Saima Dilshad

Abstract: Regional Rural Banks are the banking financial intermediaries working especially for the development of rural sector of Indian economy. The main aim of establishing these institutions was to facilitate the rural people with core banking functions in general and loaning to those landless and marginal farmers, artisans, field workers etc.who could not access to other sources of organised financial system. RRBs not only work for providing finances but also cater additional responsibilities of developing rural areas through various development programmes like rural employment schemes, women entrepreneurship, rural infrastructural development, SHGs etc. This paper highlights the role of Aryavart Gramin Bank in lending to priority sector and their achievements so far. A special emphasis has been given to the study of solar homes lightening system(SHLS,) provided by Aryavart Gramin Bank through micro finance to the rural people of Uttar Pradesh for solar home lights, for which they were honoured with “ASHDEN INTERNATIONAL AWARD” in 2008 and “INDIA POWER AWARD” in 2009. The proposed study is exploratory and descriptive in nature and based upon the analysis of secondary data.

      Dr Vidya C S, Dr. N.M. Shamasundar

Abstract: The frontal sinuses are a part of paranasal sinuses and they are located in the frontal bone above each orbits. The structure of frontal sinus can be variable from person to person and its sizes might be different in different populations. 50 macerated skulls(Males=28, Females=22) of age group 40-60 yrs are cleaned and subjected to 3D axial multislider CT scan. Axial and coronal images of slice thickness of 4mm were obtained. Frontal sinus ( symmetry and lobulations) were observed and classified. Frontal sinus symmetry was observed in 34 (68%) individuals, asymmetry in 15 (30%) individuals and frontal sinus was absent in 1(2%). The features of frontal sinus morphology make it most convenient part of the skeleton for forensic identification. Variations seen in the anatomy of frontal sinus will help otolaryngologists during surgical procedures involving frontal sinus and skull base.

      Pratik Kumar Roy

Abstract: With the emergence of the Internet, software development has become an integral part of almost every aspect of business today. Companies are going for the web based application as it can be accessed 24 hours from anywhere. Companies are preferred to go for the web based application for their convenience and real time information.

      Joseph Tufuor Kwarteng

Abstract: If productivity before motivation proves elusive, then it is wasteful to ensure consistent preaching of same. The best rather than discretionary approach is to apply the complete reversal of this working guideline. Efforts need to be channelled to motivating teachers to measure up to the required standard of performance. But it would be untenable of the teachers concerned did not require any more motivation. This necessitated the need to explore the level to which teachers, notably accounting teachers, were motivated to stay committed to duty. The motivational elements used in the study were salary, administrative practices, and the study leave policy. In all, 120 accounting teachers from senior high schools in the Central Region participated in the vignette administration. The study revealed that the senior high school accounting teachers were not motivated by their level of salary.

      Ajisola, Kola T. & Awodun, Mojirade A

Abstract: This paper investigated the impact of Telecommunication System in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive research design of the survey type which was questionnaire based. The targeted population for the study was all the users of telecommunication systems in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) people (male and female) from Ado LGA of Ekiti State. A well structured questionnaire was used to elicit relevant information from the respondents to answer the five (5) generated research questions of the study. Data were analysed using frequency counts and Chie Square statistical analysis. The findings of this study showed that Telecommunication system play vital role in Ekiti State and Nigeria at large.

      Agbaje, Rashidat O, & Alake, Ese M

Abstract: The Students’ Variables as Predictor of Secondary School Students’ Performance in Science in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The study adopted a survey research design of the ex-post facto type. The sample comprised 125 senior secondary school II science students drawn from the five secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state. The instruments used for the study was questionnaire and past academic performance in three science subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Physics) of the students involved in the study. Two research hypotheses were generated and analysed in the study using Pearson’s Moment Correlation and Multiple regression statistical analysis. Among others, the study revealed that: students‘ variables (study habit, attitude to and interest of students in Science subjects ) are better predictors of students’ performance in science subjects, while student gender has no influence on students academic performance . The results also revealed the individual contribution of students’ variables to students performance in term of beta weight 0.231 (23.1%), 0.202 (20.26%), 0.181 (0.18.1%) and 0.101 10.1%) for students attitude to Science, study habit, students interest and gender of the students respectively. Conclusion and recommendations were also made in this paper.

      AGBAJE; Rashidat Olusola; Awodun, Adebisi Omotade

Abstract: The study examined the impact of school location `on academic achievement of Science Students in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination. The purpose was to determine whether the geographical location has any impact on the achievement of the students in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The design adopted for the study was an ex-post facto of survey type. The targeted population for the study was Senior Secondary III (SS III) Physics students of public secondary schools in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) science students were used as samples for the study. The sample consisted of twenty (20) science students that were randomly selected from six (6) public secondary schools selected for the study. Computerized result sheets sent to each school by WAEC were collected on the 2010-2013 May/June West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSSCE) from all the selected schools for the study.

      Ashutosh Kumar Pandey, Kamlesh Tiwari, Abhay Kumar Dubey

Abstract: Micro Electric Discharge Machining is a non-traditional machining process which can be used for drilling micro holes in high strength to weight ratio materials. This present research study deals with the single optimization of micro EDM process using Genetic Algorithm. Mathematical models using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to correlate the response and the parameters. The desired responses are minimum tool wear rate. The control parameters considered are pulse on time, peak current and flushing pressure on micro EDM of AISI stainless steel 304. The process control parameters of the machine have to be set at an optimal setting in order to achieve the desired responses.

      S Baruah, MK Sarma, D Baishya, AA Sharma, R Borah, J Bhuyan

Abstract: Forty four genotypes of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill] including indigenous germplasm of North East India were studied to evaluate genetic variation for seed yield and Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) resistance. All traits under study viz, Plant height (PH), Internodal length(IL), No. of trifoliate leaves plant-1 (TL), Pods plant-1 (PP), Seeds plant-1 (SP), 100-seed weight (SW), Pod weight (PW), Seed yield plant-1 (SY), Days to 50% flowering (DF) and Days to maturity (DM) exhibited wide variation among the genotypes. 100-seed weight exhibited highest coefficient of variance at both genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic level (PCV) followed by seed yield plant-1 and seeds plant-1 indicating wide variation among the genotypes under study. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed in 100-seed weight, seeds plant-1, seed yield plant-1, plant height and pod weight plant-1 indicating their potential to be selected for the effectiveness of further improvement. Character association studies revealed significant and positive genetic correlation of seed yield plant-1 with pod weight plant-1 and 100-Seed weight. Screening for Yellow Mosaic Virus resistance revealed one highly susceptible variety viz. JS 335 and two highly resistant varieties viz.DS 9712 and DS9814.

      Elizabeth JeyaVardhini Samuel, Ramesh, Gouthaman Thiruvenkadam, Susan Philip, Jobin John

Abstract: Back ground: Era of contraception, abortions, [20th, 21st centuries] implemented as family welfare schemes, witnessed increased global prevalence of obesity. Objectives: Altruistic association of contraception [if any], with increasing obesity, was sought after.

      Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Hamzat Ibiyeye Tijani, Ahmed Ibrahim Galadima, Bashir Sajo Mienda, Fatima Aliyu Deba, Laila M Zargoun

Abstract: The growing concerns for environmental sustainability, economic and energy security had made it obligatory to source energy alternatives that harmonize environmental friendliness with biodegradability, renewability, and less reliance on petroleum products dependence. One of such energy sources is called biodiesel. Wide range of substrate; vegetable oils e.g. palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil, micro algal oils, animal fats, waste products of vegetable oil refinery, used frying/cooking oils was used in its production. To produce biodiesel with these substrates conventionally is complex, as the method is faced with limitations in the downstream processing costs, byproducts recovery and environmental issues. Enzymatic method, involving enzymes particularly lipases in a process of alcoholysis with waste cooking oil emerged to be efficient in curtailing the problems.

      Sukriti Joshi, Mahtab Singh, Sandhya Sharma

Abstract: The mobile nodes in a network which can communicate with each other through a radio wave without any specific infrastructure is widely known as Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET). MANET has a number of routing protocols. The popular routing protocols so far are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Temporally-ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) routing protocol. Among them the AODV routing protocol meets efficiently with the ad-hoc network specification. For last few years routing protocols of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) were simulated as a function of mobility, number of nodes, and size of the network but not as a function of route maintenance parameters such as Active Route Timeout (ART) and Delete Period Constant (DPC=n) with moving source-destination (node) pairs in network as well.

      Mundewadikar D.M, Deshmukh P.R

Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max) is an important vegetable oilseed crop. It is considered to be a cash crop. It is a major source of edible vegetable oils and proteins which contains about 40% protein and 20% oil. The genetic diversity was estimated among 7 varieties of Soybean using 22 RAPD primers. The RAPD marker is useful tool for assessing genetic variation and resolving cultivars identities. Among the 22 primers, 11 primers showed polymorphism.

      Dr.R.Mala, M.Lakshmi, R.Rajakumar

Abstract: Cloud computing provides massive computation power and storage capacity which enable users to deploy computation and data-intensive applications without infrastructure investment. Along the processing of such applications, a large volume of intermediate data sets will be generated, and often stored to save the cost of re computing them. However, preserving the privacy of intermediate data sets becomes a challenging problem because adversaries may recover privacy-sensitive information by analyzing multiple intermediate data sets. Encrypting ALL data sets in cloud is widely adopted in existing approaches to address this challenge. But we argue that encrypting all intermediate data sets are neither efficient nor cost-effective because it is very time consuming and costly for data-intensive applications to en/decrypt data sets frequently while performing any operation on them.

      J. Thiruppathy, M. Ragu, M. Ganesan, V.K. Sivasubramanian, P.Karuppasamy, T. Rajendran

Abstract: The functioning of calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) as the potential inhibitor in the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 medium has been studied. The various parameters in connection with the corrosion behaviour of the metal and the inhibitive action of CLS were obtained by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) methods. The effect of temperature on the mild steel surface has been reported. The results of the present investigation show that CLS acts as a good inhibitor and it is of mixed type. The mode of action is by the process of adsorption at anodic and cathodic sites. The scanning electron microscopic studies gives the picture of surface morphology of mild steel in the presence and absence of inhibitor.

      Safia Hina

Abstract: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have gained considerable interest in expanding IEEE 802.11 networks to large-scale enterprise and community scenarios, primarily because of its capability of providing wide-band network access to a significant number of users. However, the mesh nodes are typically limited in resources such as bandwidth, computation power and memory. Capacity limitation is one of the fundamental issues in wireless networks. Excess capacity(EC) is the unused capacity. Here in this paper EC Management techniques are used to improve network performance. In this approach a proactive provisioning algorithm is used which is checking in advance whether network capacity is full or not, whether new more connections can be established or not and is freeing up the excess capacity in advance. This approach reduces the End-to-End delay, packet lost ratio and improves the other network performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, throughput and capacity utilization. These process is performed by reserving capacity and freeing up the excess capacity respectively in advance.

      Nivea Unnikrishnan, Dr. Jaysree V K, Abhishek Jose

Abstract: Optical imaging in medical field is crucial for early detection of oral diseases, to carry out more effective minimally-invasive targeted-therapies and to restore diseased tissues functionally and aesthetically. Optical methods can be based on the properties of light scattering, absorption and fluorescence. In doing so, LEDs and classical light sources can be used. All of these methods have one basic principle in common; the optical spectrum of a tissue contains information about the biochemical composition and/or the structure of the tissue, which provide diagnostic information for tissue characterization. Among them, the most promising techniques to detect and classify different stages of caries are those based on the quantitative measurements of tooth auto fluorescence and diffuse reflectance.

      Deepti Sagar, Maitreyee Dutta

Abstract: Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system is highly accuracy-demanded application for car identification. This paper presents a new method of block-based ANPR system for recognition of Indian car license number plates. Since number plate guidelines are not strictly practiced in India and wide variations found on these plates in terms of font type, character size, screws/dots etc., it often becomes difficult to correctly identify the non-standard number plate characters. This proposed method works well with both standard and non-standard Indian number plate images taken under various illumination conditions. By using the block-based feature extraction process this method of recognition provides a high recognition rate of 98.2% and speed up the processing time of each character to 3.3ms when using a database of 3399 character images.

      BappithaaKuppusamy, KokilaSelvarajan, KandaswamyMuthuswamy

Abstract: TrinuclearCu(II) complex was designed and synthesized. The binuclear Cu(II) complex was prepared and then condensed with a mononuclear Cu(II) complex to form trinuclear complex as shown below. All the complexes were characterized by using FT-IR and UV-Visible spectral studies. ESR spectra and magnetic moments of the trinuclearCu(II) complex show the presence of antiferromagnetic coupling.The electrochemical properties of these complexes were studied in the range of 0 V to -1.4 V. The mononuclear Cu(II) complex shows single electron reduction potential at (Epc= - 1.22V), the binuclear Cu(II) complex shows two quasireversible single electron reduction potentials at (E1pc= - 0.76 V and E2pc = -1.23 V) whereas, the trinuclear Cu(II) complex shows three quasireversible single electron reduction potentials at (E1pc = -0.67 V , E2pc= -0.935 V and E3pc= -1.17 V). The binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus-DNA was studied using absorption and fluorescence spectral techniques.

      Dr. Naveed Shibli psa

Abstract: Today’s social scientists study caste religion, race, education, industrialization and trauma as different areas to improve the existing scientific knowledge whereas such ‘divisions’ in the past affected humanity differently and because of certain human mental features the need to minimize the probability of reoccurrence is a challenging situation.

      D. B. Sifuna, T. K. Kinyanjui, F. G. Ndiritu, R. G. Ngubu

Abstract: This paper presents the concept of using a polyethene film to address the shortcomings of the conventional solar pond which are low efficiency, short operation time among others. The thermal behavior of a solar pond with a polyethene has been analyzed and compared with that without a polyethene film. The experiments show that: the heat storage layer (LCZ) temperature rising rate was significantly higher than that of single layer porous media solar pond. The polyethene film of thickness 100µm was used. The polyethene film brings about the greenhouse effect where the solar energy that penetrates the film is trapped and improves the efficiency of the storage zone. Results show that the efficiency of a polyethene stabilized pond rises to about 69 % compared to the conventional solar pond with about 52 %.

      Sanam Pudasaini, Anuj Pathak, Sukirti Dhakal, Milan Paudel

Abstract: Having the hydropower potential of 42000 MW and other immense source of electrical energy, Nepal still faces the problem of load shedding. And this problem has catastrophic consequences as electricity rules the routine of our busy lives from micro to macro level; say to charge a cell phone (essence of today’s lives) or to fill tank by water for numerous purposes. However, the situation, when the daily busy schedule and the problem of load shedding intersect, can be addressed.

      Amar Deep Gorai, Dr. Birendra Goswami

Abstract: This paper is highlighting the trend of use of cloud computing. Cloud Computing gives range of computing resources like servers and storage of emails, documents, voice, etc. over the internet. It provides hosting environment which is instant, secure, scalable, flexible, and helps to save money, time and resources. Because of metaphor for the internet it’s called cloud computing where internet is cloud. In simplest words, cloud computing means keeping and retrieving data and programs over the Internet instead of our secondary memory of computer.This paper describing about the use of Cloud Computing in Organization, Advantage of Cloud Computing, Problems with Cloud Computing, Stack of Cloud Computing, Leaders of Cloud Computing and Future Forecast.

      A.PerumalRaja, B.Venkadesan, R.Rajakumar

Abstract: A segmentation and graph-based video sequence matching method specifically, due to the good stability and discriminative ability of local features, we use SIFT descriptor for video content description. However, matching based on SIFT descriptor is computationally expensive for large number of points and the high dimension. Thus, to reduce the computational complexity, we first use the dual-threshold method to segment the videos into segments with homogeneous content and extract Keyframes from each segment. SIFT features are extracted from the Keyframes of the segments. Then, we propose an SVD-based method to match two video frames with SIFT point set descriptors. To obtain the video sequence matching result, we propose a graph-based method. It can convert the video sequence matching into finding the longest path in the frame matching-result graph with time constraint.

      Kinyanjui Monica, Ishmail Mwasa, Mbutu Phyllis

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the challenges facing implementation of free primary education in Kenya today using Githunguri district in Kiambu County as a case study. The study sought to identify the factors that have lead to poor implementation of the free primary education. The target population is the 30 public primary schools in the district. A census method of data collection was used. The study revealed that public primary schools in Githunguri district are facing numerous challenges in terms of performance, administrative, and financial. This have in turn impacted negatively on the smooth implantation of the program.

      Jean Maoge, Leonard Simon Tinkeu Ngamo, Bruno Michel André Prost

Abstract: Antlions (Insecta: Neuroptera) are xerophilous insects adapt to arid conditions that perform some resilent behaviours to overcome some noxious effects of the global warming. This paper focuses on the determination of the diversity of the antlion in the Soudano-guinean and Soudano-sahelian area of Cameroon analyzes the distribution of antlion larvae in these regions. After 3 years of survey, 3 antlions species dominate in the North of Cameroon especially in the dry season. Pits distribution under four tropical trees species is irregular, there is higher density of pits close to the trunck at the shade. This decreases from the shade to open space. At the regional level, the antlion’s pit site is influenced by the chemical composition of the soil: higher acidity, salinity, calcium and magnesium content are suppressive to larval development in one hand. In the other hand, potassium, sulfates and chloride amount are favorable to their development. Myrmeleon quinquemaculatus (Hagen,1853), is endemic to Guinean higher savannah of the Adamaoua region; Myrmeleon obscurus (Rambur, 1842) is a species widely spread in the 3 sampled regions, and Hagenomya tristicis (Walker, 1853) is restricted to the Soudano-sahelian zone.

      L. H. Liyanage, W. A. D. V. Weerathilake, M. R. D. M. Senanayake, G.J. Panagoda

Abstract: Nowadays typical starter cultures are very expensive and because of this reason people tend to use a small amount of curd from a previous batch as the starter culture. But doing this continuously causes quality reduction of curds. When consecutive curds are used as starter cultures, wild cultures can be prominent because of dilution of Lactic Acid Bacterialconcentration. Therefore, major objective of this study was to prepare a freeze dried starter culture using dried Malabar tamarind (Garcinia gummi-gutta) fruits to avoid such situations. In addition, there was a necessity to check whether there is a difference between curds prepared with commercial culture and newly developed culture regarding consumer preference for sensory attributes. And also it was important to know the microbial composition of the end product. From the first sensory evaluation, the best inoculation rate of Malabar tamarind pulp was chosen and the curd made from it was compared with curd made from commercial starter culture in the second sensory evaluation.

      M. D. Sarkar, K. Kabir, M. Shah Jahan and S. M. A. Arefin

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the Horticulture farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period from May 2012 to August 2012. Summer tomato seedlings were sprayed with four levels of maleic hydrazide viz. 0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Plant growth retardant- maleic hydrazide @ 60 ppm decrease plant height, increases number of leaves, branch, flowers (33%) and fruits (35%) plant-1. It also increases individual fruit weight and yield of tomato ha-1 about 32% and 57%, respectively but it did not affect the fruit length and diameter.

      Msaakpa, T. S. and Obasi, M. O.

Abstract: A study was conducted at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, to determine water uptake at 6 and 12 hour intervals, and germination characteristics of scarified and non scarified seeds of castor bean accessions in 2008 and 2009. Two hundred seeds were selected from each accession: one hundred seeds were scarified mechanically by caruncle removal using knife (seed lot 1), one hundred seeds were not scarified (seed lot 2). Each seed lot was immersed in 10ml of distilled water contained in 9cm-diameter petridish. Thereafter, seed lots were weighed at every 6 h starting from 0 to 24 h, and at every 12 h up to 108 h. Water uptake in scarified and non scarified seeds was determined by seed mass increase, and expressed as percentage increase in mass of seeds. Germination test of two hundred seeds of each accession was done by planting seeds 2cm deep in moist sandy loam soil contained in plastic containers to determine germination characteristics .Results showed that the weight and percentage weight increase of seeds at 6 and 12 hour intervals were significantly higher in scarified seeds than in non scarified seeds.

      Kapil Uraiya

Abstract: In wireless sensor network nodes position estimation in space is known as localization. Node localization in wireless sensor network is important for many applications and to find the position with Received Signal Strength Indicator requires a number of anchor nodes. However the estimation of distance from signal strength decay in not very accurate especially in time varying environmental conditions and the estimation of exact direction required highly directive antenna but, may still affected by multipath fading. A Genetic Algorithm for wireless sensor network localization is proposed in this paper to solve the issue that the positioning accuracy is low with minimum anchor nodes. Hence in this paper we are presenting a combine distance and angle based optimization approach which tries to find the optimal location by satisfying both the criteria with minimal error. The simulation results also validates that the proposed algorithm effectively outperform both the techniques.

      Pallav Parikh, Asha Shah, Dinesh Joshi, Rushit Shah

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance of varying degree of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

      N. S. Joshi, M. K. Bariya, B. B. Kunjadia

Abstract: Front Line Demonstration is one of the most powerful tools for transfer of technology. The present study was undertaken to find out the yield gap through FLDs on wheat crop. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, JAU, Amreli(Gujarat) conducted 100 demonstration on wheat since 2006-07 to 2009-10 in different seven adopted villages. Prevailing farmers’ practices were treated as control for comparison with recommended practices. The average four year data observed that an average yield of demonstrated plot was obtained 43.26 q/ha over control (36.59q/ha) with an additional yield of 6.67 q/ha and the increase average wheat productivity by 18.22 per cent. The average technology gap and index were found to be 6.74 and 13.48 per cent.

      P. R. Sharma, Manisha Sharma and R. S. Yadav

Abstract: The objective of the paper is to analyze the unsteady free convective flow and mass transfer through a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid along a porous vertical isothermal non-conducting uniformly moving plate in the presence of exponentially decaying heat generation and transverse magnetic field with variable suction and viscous dissipation. The governing equations of motion, energy and concentration are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity parameter method. The ordinary differential equations are then solved numerically using Runge – Kutta method along with shooting technique. Numerical results for velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained for various values of physical parameter and presented graphically. Also the numerical values of skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are obtained for various values of physical parameters discussed and presented through tables.

      Roshan David, Jenson Joseph E

Abstract: Significant research has been carried out so far in the field of performance measurement and management. Various authors have presented their findings based on their respective perspective of the topic. A wide variety of literature available makes the study of performance measures and metrics more difficult. The present study has made an attempt to dig into the literature to identify the importance of performance management, terminologies and various models in performance measurement system. Knowledge about types of measures, their purpose and tests on measures provides sufficient inputs while designing a performance measurement system.

      Ofoegbu E. O., Fayemiwo M. A., Omisore M. O., Olanrewaju P. O.

Abstract: A web portal architecture for implementation in private universities in Nigeria was proposed and described in this paper. The waterfall model was adopted as the methodology of choice where it prescribes a systematic approach to software development which helps to clearly define both the user and system requirements, The portal proposed was developed using several development tools such as WAMP packages where the Windows platform is the operating system on which the portal runs, Apache is the server, while MySQL was used for the database and PHP as the scripting language. A model of the portal was designed using modeling tools such as Data Flow Diagram (which included student level data flow diagram, lecturer level data flow diagram, administrator level data flow diagram) and the Use Case Diagram. This was preceded by the implementation of the portal to achieve specific objectives such as controlling educational processes, providing access to educational resources, storing user details and information, ensuring security and data integrity, providing a user friendly environment for users and confidentiality.

      Erich D. Cruz, Ed. D.

Abstract: This Study aimed to develop and validate Worktext in Drawing 2 for Technology students of College of Industrial Technology. It was conducted at University of Rizal System during the school year 2010-2011 with 50 first year BT students and 8 drafting professors as respondents. The study used the descriptive-experimental method to describe and evaluate the developed Worktext in Drawing 2 using the questionnaire-checklist and test results in gathering data. A pretest and posttest was administered to the student users to determine the performance in Drawing 2 of the two groups of respondents. They were asked to evaluate the worktext through the following: subject matter, organization and presentation, language and style and style and usefulness. Responses were tallied, tabulated and interpreted with the use of appropriate statistical treatment.

      Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba, George Munene Macharia

Abstract: Multinational corporations do not come into being from thin air; there must be a form, an organization, and a goal for them to be brought into existence. Many studies that have been carried out in Europe and the rest of developing nations have concentrated on the benefits of Multinational corporations but literature still remains very little when Africa and the rest of the developing nations are touched. This study sought to bridge the gap of MNC by adding more literature on factual findings from a developing country context such as Kenya. It was centered on principles of employment creation, poverty and dependency reduction and foreign direct investment.

      Mohammad Tareq, Zeenat Afroze, Razin Ahmed

Abstract: In this paper a microstrip-fed planar monopole antenna has been proposed for wideband applications. Three monopole antenna have been designed and analyzed for improving antenna performance parameters. Antenna performance parameter such as return loss, bandwidth, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), gain, directivity and radiation efficiency of proposed antenna have been analyzed and compared with each other. As a simulation tool CST Microwave Studio 2012 has been used. Proposed antenna showed the resonance at 6.46 GHz and 10.49 GHz. At these points return loss founded as -19.77 dB and -13.45 dB respectively. Obtained bandwidth of these points at -10dB are 20.14% and 5.79%. Later comparison of performance parameters have been done.

      Vijesh.K.R., Hrudya.B.Kurup, P.Mohanan, V.P.N.Nampoori, Bindu.G.

Abstract: Planar inverted-F antennas are miniature designs that offer considerable versatility for both mobile and other wireless applications. The design is particularly suited for mobile devices. In this paper the design and of a compact quad band planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is proposed for mobile handset applications. The proposed antenna is a PIFA with slots inserted in top radiating patch as well as ground plane to get multi-band operation. The antenna covers GSM900, GPS, GSM1900 and UMTS bands. The antenna consists of a rectangular planar element suspended above the FR4 dielectric substrate. The ground plane is on the bottom side of the substrate. The antenna is having a simple structure, small size, wide bandwidth and good gain. The antenna geometry, simulations of return loss, hardware implementation and measured results are also discussed.

      Mahesh Tripathi & Godishala Sridevi

Abstract: Dhat syndrome is a condition in which the male patients suffer from premature ejaculation or impotence, and believe that they are passing semen in their urine. The prevalence rate is varying between 40-66% among Indian population. The patients with Dhat syndrome are experiencing the overlapping symptoms of other disorders such as depression, anxiety, and mood, and it can be hypothesized that they would respond to CBT and symptoms would be diminished. The effectiveness of CBT in the intervention of psychosexual dysfunction has been proved.

      S. Leishangthem and L. Dinendra Sharma

Abstract: The present study revealed that a total of 50 medicinal plants, belongs to 26 families are recorded for the treatment of different diseases viz. asthma, arthritis, cough, fever, diabetes, dysentery, gastric and indigestion, jaundice, toothache, skin diseases, etc. Some important medicinal plants widely used are Acorus calamus Linn., Cassia alata Linn., Andrographis paniculata Nees., kaempferia galanga Linn., Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC., Eryngium foetidum Linn., Eupatorium birmanicum DC., Adhatoda vasica Nees., etc. Some of the species reported in the present paper are in critical conditions due to deforestation, over exploitation, various activities of human population for their survival and other developmental activities such as agriculture, urbanization etc. as a result of which the rich habitats are gradually depleting day by day. Therefore, it is suggested that the high diversity of bio-resources needs to be conserved for livelihood sustenance of the future generation.

      Rajeev Ranjan

Abstract: The Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process is an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metal by heating them with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering. Pressure is not used. Filler metal is obtained from the electrode. The prediction of the optimal weld deposit area is an important aspect in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process as it is related to the strength of the weld. The goal of this research work is to optimize various parameters for Shielded Metal Arc Welding process, including welding voltage, welding current and welding speed by developing a mathematical model for sound weld deposit area of a mild steel specimen. Factorial design approach has been applied for finding the relationship between the various process parameters and weld deposit area. The study revealed that the weld deposit area varies directly with welding voltage and welding current and inverse relationship is found between welding speeds with weld deposit area.

      Elizabeth JeyaVardhini Samuel, Gouthaman Thiruvenkadam, Sanjoy Joseph George, Kevin T John Keeppallil, Pradhosh Mammen Vairamon, KB Latha, Tony Jawahar, Dinesh Peter, Jobin John, D.Binoj

Abstract: New age practice of contraception, [20th, 21st centuries] abortion, witnessed new age global environmental threats namely Global hypoxia, global warming, global recession, disappearance of birds, fish, islands, tsunamis, tornadoes, cyclones, earth quakes. ‘Estrogen like particles are in the rise in the air, waters, identified as pollutant`, was published in 1998, 1994 respectively; global abortion summary informed of 863,000,000 surgical reported abortions, from 1923 to 2010; environmental pollution with estrogen has to come from spilt blood. Estrogen level was measured in seven river water, sea water samples. Estimation of fetal hemoglobin in sea water was attempted using routine hemoglobin electrophoresis.

      M.A.Gopalan, K.Geetha, Manju Somanath

Abstract: This paper concerns with the study of constructing strong rational Diophantine triples and quadruples with suitable property.

      D.Hari Priya, Lalith Babu

Abstract: The heart of this paper here is a LPG gas leakage sensor circuit that detects the outflow of LPG gas and the circuit is a gas sensor module SEN 1327. QM 6 gas sensor is used in the SEN 1327 module. The output signal from SEN 1327 gas sensor module is used to drive a 555 timer based astable multivibrator circuit. Here 555 timer works as a tone generator, the frequency of tone can be altered by varying the preset VR1. The system alerts the user via audio and visual indications.

      Tadessse Amsalu, Solomon Addisu

Abstract: In Ethiopia, wetlands cover nearly 2% of the total land area of the country. They are one of the most productive ecosystems and perform many functions that maintain ecological integrity. They provide lots of goods and services that encompass agricultural production, tourism, and biodiversity conservation, social, economic as well as cultural activities. More specifically, wetlands are crucial resources of income generation and livelihood for local communities.

      Anita Jangra

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the consumption & investment and the market size of the cement industries in India. They play an important role in the growth of India. In India, there are 69 industries producing cement. In this, the studies of top 5 companies are done, their market size, their investment is studied. The major part of the cement is consumed by the housing sector i.e. 64%, 17% consumed by infrastructure, 13% by commercial and only 6% is consumed by industrial sector.

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