International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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Abstract: Nitrate and phosphates are the main contaminants in groundwater due to application of fertilizer in agricultural sector. Therefore, present study was conducted to identify the general trend of fertilizer usage in the paddy sector and how much N and P affect to underground water. A total of 142 groundwater samples were collected from drinking water wells, covering two different climatic zones. The physico-chemical parameters were determined using standard procedures (APHA1992). pH and EC, fluoride, nitrate, phosphates and sulfates were measured. The average NO3–N concentrations in groundwater before fertilization in wet and dry zones are 1.47 and 0.98 mg/L.

      Karar Abdulzahra Mahdi

Abstract: Background: The etiology of TMJ disorder is often multifactorial and may be due to , stress , jaw malocclusion , habitual activities including bruxism, postural dysfunction, trauma and inflammatory conditions

      Brian S. Thompson

Abstract: Background: There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs and so this topic is of significant public and professional interest. MRPs are a significant but avoidable (at least to a certain extent) source of patient morbidity and mortality. Identifying these problems, their causes and the impact and influence of professional interventions, will be of significant benefit to the patient and the health care delivery system and the optimization of pharmaceutical care and therapeutic outcomes.

      V.S. Shanthala, S.N. Shobha Devi, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract: Polypyrrole/CuZnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization with Ammonium persulphate as an oxidising agent. Optical band gap of chemically synthesized polypyrrole and Polypyrrole-CuZnFe2O4 (10% - 50%) nanocomposites have been studied at room temperature and normal pressure. Energy band gap of these materials are determined by UV-VIS absorption spectra in the wavelength range 264nm–1936nm by spectrophotometer. In this work the experimental results obtained from the UV-VIS spectra are reported for nanocomposites of different wt percentages (10% -50%.). Characteristic peak around 800 nm was observed in all the nanocomposites confirming the formation of polypyrrole. The work highlights the optical properties of these polymer nanocomposites for making them a suitable candidate for optoelectronic devices


Abstract: Phytoplankton fluctuation analyzed at two sampling regions namely Buffalo Island (Hospital area) (A) and Koddamunai New Bridge area (B) according to seasonal variation in the year 2014. Sampling region B is a shallow area. The following Physiochemical parameters have to be taken for estimation; Water temperature, Conductivity, Salinity, pH, Nitrate and Phosphate were taken into the account. Samples were collected in dry (June) and rainy (November) seasons. During dry season (June) comparatively species diversity was higher than the rainy (November) season and the physiochemical parameters also highly reduced during rainy season. Moreover no algal bloom was recorded during the study period.


Abstract: Phytoplankton fluctuation analyzed at two sampling regions namely Kalladi Bridge area (A) and Thannamunai area (B) according to seasonal variation in the year 2015. The main study focused on season rather that physio-chemical analysis. Samples were collected in dry (June) and rainy (November) seasons. The sampling region B is comparatively has low salinity due to the construction of two bridges (Koddaimunai Bridge & New Bridge) because the water flow is highly restricted. The sampling region A is brackish water. During study period sea water mixing doesn’t take place in dry season. During dry season species diversity was high rather than rainy season and during dry season high density of Diatoms were estimated at the sampling region B and high density of Cyanobacteria were estimated at the sampling region A. During rainy season high density of Cyanobacteria and Chlorophycean members were estimated both in the sampling regions A and B.

      Suraj Sharma1Parthankar Choudhury and Narayan Chetry

Abstract: A natural ecosystem provides a wide range of goods and services to human society and plays a vital role in sustaining livelihood of the indigenous community. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) is a good source of income especially for the tribal communities. The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Raid-Marwet Region, Ri-bhoi district of Meghalaya, India. Data was collected and analyzed from 36 trees, 46 herbs/shrubs/climbers and 10 grass species, using a systematic sampling method through laying quadrat along the transect of 100 m2 for trees, 25 m2 nested (sub) quadrat for counting herbaceous plants, and 1m2 nested (sub) quadrat for counting grasses in three differentiated study sites i.e. North Raid-Marwet (S1), South Raid-Marwet (S2), and NongthomaiGaro community forest (S3-control).

      Stanley Kirika

Abstract: The first of the four fundamental assumptions in economics and standard finance is that humans are rational actors, which does not hold good all the time. This anomaly begot behavioural finance that recognizes instances of irrational decision making in human beings. Rationality bounds in financial decision making as espoused in bounded rationality theory need to be determined to reflect how humans actually behave rather than how they should behave; to pave way for modification of classical economics and standard finance theories. This analytical proof of bounded rationality utilizes LOT-R parameterized cumulative prospect theory decision weights function to transform subjective to objective probabilities.

      Mingyaophi Tuikhar, Dr. Rimai Joy, Sulila Anar

Abstract: No society or community can escape the threat of HIV/AIDS. Manipur is one of the highest leading states of HIV/AIDS prevalence in India. The Tangkhul Naga society living in the hilly terrain of Ukhrul district Manipur, has the record of being the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among the districts in the state. Many factors attribute to the increasing rate of HIV among this tribal society. The paper seeks to throw light on the current scenario of HIV prevalence in the district and draw relevance from the estimated data presented by the concern agencies with the prevailing scenario among the TangkhulNagas. The present study suggest mass screening as vital necessity along with intervention in a large scale among the general mass in order to bring out accurate data about HIV/AIDS prevalence in the district .=

      GaJ Ram Damai and Prof. Dr. Prakash Muni Bajracharya

Abstract: The basic ideas of URED norm is given.We discuss questions of renorming spaces so as to be URED. We examine the relationship of this concept with other rotundities and normal structure and it is applied to xed point property of a non expansive mapping.

      Burmen B, Mutai K

Abstract: The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among the Kenyan population was approximated to be 2%in 2012 and with the maturing of the epidemic, there is a need to focus resources on ensuring those who are HIV positive are on ART, andto identify the undiagnosed HIV infected persons. With an average cost per test estimated to be between USD 2-8, the present cost-benefit ratio ofuniversal HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC) programs are close to intolerable limits. However, HIV infected persons who are unaware of their status continue to unknowingly transmit HIV to their sexual partners who may also in-turn infect other partners and propagate the spread of the infection.

      Burmen Barbara, Sigo Timons, Mutai Kennedy

Abstract: Cryptococcal meningitis, one of the leading opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons with advanced disease, has a mortality rate of 67%. Cryptococcal Antigen (CrAg) test detects Cryptococcus neoformans antigen threeweeks before onset of symptoms when institution of therapy is likely to improve patient outcomes. Previously, CD4counts were used for ART monitoring and patients were only flagged for a targeted viral load test (VL) to confirm suspected treatment failure if there was a 30% CD4 decline from peak or failure to increase CD4 counts to 100 cells/µl after 12 months of therapy.

      Neipechaii Mepfhuo

Abstract: In this new era of digital revolution, the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are transforming many aspects of modern society. The power of ICTs as a means of passing information to heterogeneous audiences makes it a veritable tool in mass mobilization. Owing due to these ICTs a new form of activism has emerged known as cyber- activism. The Egyptian Revolution can be perhaps regarded as the best example of this new interaction between civil society movements and the new media. Through social media the Egyptian activists were able to carve out a virtual public sphere where they could create political awareness without the interference of the state security.

      Dr.Avinash, DR.Navin Puttum

Abstract: Cowdung poison is commonly known as sani powder poison in local tamil language in south india, it is a lethal poisonous synthetic chemical . Cow dung was traditionally used as a germicide & insect repellent to clean homes, courtyards & temples in the state of Tamil Nadu, since the unavailability of cow dung synthetic chemicals are used to prepare this sani powder. sani powder poison is available in two colours that is yellow and green .

      Lingui Xue, Erhunmwunsee Famous, Jinrong Jiang, Hai Shang, Ping Ma

Abstract: Wastewater from food industries is increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of pollutants like organic matters, fats, oil and grease (FOGS) in food wastewater have been observed to increase in wastewater bodies with increasing adverse effects on the environment. These adverse effects on the environment result from the increasing use of wastewater effluents in food restaurants and industries and indiscriminate discharge of wastewater into the water drains by industries and household.

      Ponco Budi Sulistyo

Abstract: Teenagers are the majorty of online media users. The existence of online media in the middle of the community was considered to bring very significant impact, or in other words, the internet has brought asignificant effect to the users or to the audience, not the exception among teenagers. This study aimed to 1) identify individual and social motives of teenagers in using the online media and 2) know the teenagers’ opinion related to the individual and social impact of online media usage. The survey found that to get the information is the main motive among the entertainment motive and to do a friendships. In term of the opinion regarding the impat of online media, most of the teenagers believed that online media can have an impact that is very worrying for the social life, especially to the local culture. In addition, most of them believed that it is necessary to know and understand the use of online media wisely and intelligently and the method that is considered as the easiest and most appropriate to know and understand the use of online media wisely and intelligently is the combination of classroom learning, discussion, and also by using audio-visual media.

      Khaled Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract: The last decade has unexpected losses of large amounts in the banking industry. Firms that had been performingwellsuddenly announced large losses due to credit exposures that turned sour, interest rate positions taken,or derivative exposures that may or may not have been assumed to hedge balance sheet risk. In response tothis,commercial banks have almost universally embarked upon an upgrading of their risk management andcontrol systems.

      Khaled Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract: Audit is an evaluation of a person, organization, system, process, enterprise, project or product. Audits are performed to ensure the validity and reliability of information and also to provide an assessment of a systems in internal control. Demand for audit comes from relation between owner and manager as an exact measure of state in finances according to available information. Quality audits are essential to verify the existence of objective evidence shoving conformance to required processes, to assess how successfully processes have been implemented, for judging the effectiveness of achieving any defined target levels, providing evidence concerning reduction and elimination of problem areas and are a hands-on management tool for achieving continual improvement in an organization. New look on Audit, as a crucial process in finding, avoiding and preventing possible frauds, initiated evolving changes in process itself. Modern Audit carries responsibilities in adequate risk management in doing business and protection of business units from inside.

      Norberto J. Camarines, Jr &Alvin L. Ampong

Abstract: The study was determined the performance of maritime students in International Shipping Federation – Training Record Book (ISF-TRB)-Based Navigation in the College of Maritime Education, Naval State University, Naval, Biliran, school year 2013 to 2015. Specifically, it sought to answer the students’ final grades in the following subjects’ terrestrial and electronic navigation 1 & 2 and significant relationship between final grades and level of performance of the respondents based in ISF-TRB. Descriptive research design was used in this study.

      Benedict Anselmi, Justuce M Gration and Kennedy F Oriko

Abstract: Microfinance programmes have been considered as one of the main instrument in poverty reduction in recent development agenda. It’s a means to support the marginalized active poor of the society. The main objective of this study was to find out whether the provision of microfinance services of Promotion of Rural Initiatives and Development Enterprises (PRIDE) has brought changes on the livelihood of its clients. The study was carried out at PRIDE Tanzania Arusha branch where clients those who received credit for more than five years were studied.

      Mutai K MSc, Burmen

Abstract: Estimating causal inferences in observational studies with time varying covariates require methods that can address complexities such as non-random allocation of patients’ to treatment groups, possible censoring of, exposure variables e.g., time to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and outcome variables e.g., mortality. Marginal Structural Cox Proportional Hazard Model (MSCM) adopts inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights to correct for non-random allocation of treatment groups, patient attrition or administrative censoring and confounding.

      Nicholas Awuse, John Agyei and Patrick Tandoh-Offin

Abstract: Internal migration has been recognized to play crucial role in overall welfare, particularly poverty reduction. Among other things, the purpose of this paper is to find out which variables accounts for poverty reduction efforts in Ghana especially those that have implications for rural livelihood diversification. The study used data obtained from primary source in five key settlements of administrative and commercial importance in Ghana and household members of out-migrants from the Upper East Region. A structured questionnaire covering pertinent issues related to migration and household poverty was administered to them through interview. The sample size was 345 and snowball approach was adopted to reach the target group in the selected metropolises. The study also employed factor analysis to determine poverty reduction variables relating to internal migration and its implications for socio-economic development. It emerged that institutional, economic and socio-cultural factors are key in determining the ability of migration to contribute towards poverty reduction. It is concluded that internal migration for livelihood purposes is important as it enables households to improve their living conditions in a sustained manner.

      T,Mohanapriya and P.E.Kumar

Abstract: Activated carbon prepared from Typha Angustata.L was used as adsorbent for the removal of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of operating as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial adsorbent dosage and metal ion concentration and temperature also investigated, were the equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The kinetic study indicated that the pseudo second order rate equation better described the adsorption process. The values of the separation factors are in the range of 0-1 which indicates favourable biosorption. The results indicated that the prepared activated carbon is an efficient, alternative low- cost adsorbent for the removed of cd (II) from aqueous solutions.

      Rittik Kumar Ghosh,Turban Kar, Pijush Basak and Maitree Bhattachayya

Abstract: Surface hydrophobicity of leghemoglobin (Lb), myoglobin (Mb) ,cytochrome c (Cyt C) and hemoglobin (Hb) under heated (80 °C for 30 min.) and unheated conditions and at varying pH values (3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0) were measured using ANS, CPA, and PRODAN. Hydrophobicity was lower at pH 9.0, 5.0 and 7.0 for all proteins measured by PRODAN, for ANS and for CPA respectively. Lb shows maximum hydrophobic nature with ANS and CPA may and less with PRODAN compared to other heme proteins, indicating that Lb favor less ionic interaction. These results suggest that the presence of a permanent charge of fluorescent probes can affect protein hydrophobicity values measured under various pH conditions for Lb.

      Jawdat Mohammad Al-Tarawneh

Abstract: Mobile banking is part or result of the mobile technological boom in recent years. Even though automated teller machines (ATM), telephone, and Internet banking offer effective delivery channels for traditional banking products, mobile banking is likely to have significant effects on markets. The main objective of this pilot study is to design and test a questionnaire to measure the adoption of mobile banking services by Jordanian customers. The findings of online survey with 60 respondents describe Jordanians’’ adoption of mobile banking in Jordan by identifying factors that explain their intention to use Mobile banking services in Jordan. This online Pilot survey shared over the email and other social media channels. Results indicate that the factors significantly influencing the Behavioral Intention to adopt online banking include Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy and Social Influence.

      Nagaraja, O and M. Krishnappa

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with the main objective to determine detection on seed borne Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini and its Pathogenicity were conducted at Department of Applied Botany, PlantPathology laboratory, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga, Karnataka. Castor is one of the important non edible oilseed crops in India. Wilt of castor is caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. ricini. The objective of this work were to estimate the incidence of F. oxysporum f. sp. ricini in castor seed using different seed health test methods. A total 69 samples were collected from retail shops, APMC markets, fields and farmers of different agro-climatic regions of Karnataka during- 2011.

      John Colaco, Sangam Borkar

Abstract: India is a country of having multi spoken languages and there is a need in digitization of books and documents and conversion of this text of these books and documents into speech. This paper envisages on design and implementation of Text to Speech system for English and Konkani language using image recognition technology (Optical Character Recognition) and to develop a cost effective text image to speech conversion system using MATLAB. The main aim of this project is to recognize the text character of an image and convert this text into speech signal. To achieve this, text contained in the page is first pre-processed. The pre-processed unit prepares this text for recognition. Then this text is segmented to separate out the characters from each other. After Segmentation, letters are extracted and resized and stored them in the text file. This process is done with the help of MATLAB. This text is then converted into speech. This paper also uses Devanagri script.

      Elfrina Anggraeni, Hari Wijayanto, Agus Maulana

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine how much efficiency and feasibility from the design of collaborative procurement strategy on three subsidiaries from PT Induk that runs in gas sectors. The methodology used in this study is Cost-Benefit Analysis approach, with criteria of calculation Present Value (PV), Future Value (FV), and Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C Ratio). This study found that the procurement process at the three subsidiaries with the classification of materials/ parts is a redundant process and inefficient. A calculation in this study proves that the collaboration which has been done by three subsidiaries is more efficient if implemented with the collaboration procurement strategy on the classification of material/ parts by specifying the manufacturer and the right quantity so as to reduce the cost it does cost sharing. The result B/C ratio showed 8,19 indicating this collaboration strategy should be feasible.

      Zulkarnain, Idqan Fahmi, Agus Maulana

Abstract: Strategic management is a series of managerial decisions and actions that determine the performance of a company in the long term that consists of observations of the situations, strategy formulation, implementation strategies, and evaluation strategies. The purposes of this research are (1) to study the dynamics of a courier company in Indonesia related to the development of ICT and the rise of e-commerce business, (2) to analyze the conditions and the ability of PT XYZ, (3) to analyze industry foresight of PT XYZ, (4) to analyzethe gaps between the results of industry foresight and policy PT XYZ in the future, and (5) to create a strategic action plan and estimated implementation time to minimize the gaps that would occur. The research method used was descriptive method with acase study approach using VRIO analysis, trend analysis, future strategies forecast, scenario planning, gap analysis phase and preparation of the action plans. VRIO analysis shows that most resources have a parity or competitive advantage, while the business trend analysis suggests that future business development is driven mainly by the development of information and communication technology (ICT) which has an impact on changes in many business processes. The development and strengthening of human resources would enhance the ICT system as well as the construct of new services in the cities that are integrated with web based and online real time shipment tracking systems as the main pillars of the actionplanarranged for PT XYZ within the next five years.

      Gabriella Pátkai, TamásBereczkei

Abstract: The manipulative strategy of Machiavellianism is often considered to be successful despite the poor emotion recognition abilities of the person with high Mach scores. The better we recognize others’ emotions, the easier it gets to understand them – for a manipulator, it means the easier it would get to take advantage of them. However, with worse emotion recognition skills and lower level of emotional intelligence, Machiavellianists must develop other abilities to understand others, and with the lack of empathy, exploit them without hesitation or repentance. Previous findings suggest this ability is the Theory of mind, but evidences are unconvincing and vary with each research. In this paper we look into the relationship of Machiavellianism, emotion recognition, emotional intelligence and Theory of mind, using not only self-report questionnaires, but performance tasks for more legitimate results.

      Kay K. Kim

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the data warehouse in the development of customer experience strategies to improve marketing efforts. The internet, mobile devices, and social media have changed the landscape of not only how customers interact with a business but also how they interact with other potential or current customers of the business.

      M. Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, F. Falahati-Nezhad, H.Saleh

Abstract: In a paper in this journal by Nirmala and Vijaya [Fuzzy graphs on Composition, Tensor and Normal products, 2(2012)1-7], some operations on two fuzzy graphs were defined and the degree of a vertex in fuzzy graphs were obtained. They also proved some properties on fuzzy graphs and illustrated these properties through examples.

      Satish U.Wayal and Prof. Tushar katratwar

Abstract: Today’s world is competitive. The necessity of market demand for the advanced technology is in lower price. It reflects in making the technology cheaper. Hence, every organization striving for cost effective product at a lower price and within minimum period of time to market. That keeps pressure on engineers to consistently strive to design the most effective products at, the lower price. The work is focus on functioning of the tie rod, the methods of its performance evaluation its optimization. The tie rod end job is to ensure the wheels are well aligned. It provides the adjustment of wheel alignment that keeps the inner and outer edges of the tires from wearing out. Hence, the tie rod functioning is crucial for steering as well as suspension performance of vehicle. Hollow Tie rod with 11.0mm ID is select after analysis, and further material analysis is done using 11.0 mm as ID. It gives 13.80% less weight than solid tie rod, without failure. Aluminum is suggested as applicable material after analysis.

      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Male subfertility is a major problem that is encounted in today’s urological practice. Occupation plays an important role among the factors contributing to male subfertility. The present study evaluates the pattern of occupational distribution in a subfertile population attending to urology and andrologyclinics. The current study included 120 male patients with a history of subfertility. According to the results, the highest percentage of study subjects were from armed forces (16.7%) followed by skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers (15%) and craft and related trade workers (15%). According to current study there is an association between occupation and subfertility.

      Barrister Atoh Walter M. Tchemi

Abstract: The Research, titled, CRITIQUE ON SECTIONS OF THE CAMEROON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE is a profound critical evaluation and further interpretation on sections of the Cameroon Criminal Procedure Code (herein after referred to as the Code). The Research evaluates the shortcomings or lacunas of these sections and its effects on the principle of a fair trial- human rights. The said Code came into force on the 1st January, 2007, after nearly thirty-two (32) years of research and huge financial sacrifices, cited as Law No. 2005 /007 of 27th July 2005 as the principal Code to guide and facilitate the institution of criminal proceedings in Cameroon. Nevertheless, thirty-two years of research does not make the Code void of shortcomings.

      Dr. Dawud Oyedemi Ibrahim

Abstract: Women education is a distant factor that offers the possibility of reduction in maternal mortality while distance and transport issues in rural communities of Oyo State are highly significant factors affecting women’s access to health services, especially in emergency care. The descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select nine out of the 18 identified rural local government areas (LGAs). Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 63 communities across the nine LGAs, while the simple random sampling techniques was used to select 2,200 women of child bearing age from the communities.

      Anuja George, Sreethu Raj

Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for convolution of two finite length sequences using hardware description language(VHDL). Convolution is widely used in digital signal processing. The proposed design replaces conventional multiplier with reversible Vedic multiplier. The proposed design consumes only less area and have higher speed than existing method. Vedic mathematics is world renowned for its quicker mental calculation approach. Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Vedic multiplier is efficient in terms of both power and speed. The comparison of existing method with conventional is done using XILINX software.

      Jacob Chandy, L. Jacob

Abstract: A detailed survey was conducted at Kinakary Grama Panchayat covering various aspects of insecticide application, attitudes and awareness of people in the area. There were six hundred houses involved in agriculture and among them 306 families were cultivators and 295 families were agricultural labourers. A total of 200 people participated in the study in which 115 were males and 84 were females. Visited houses and collected details as per the requirements of the questionnaire.

      Tekalign Kejela Geleta

Abstract: Science laboratories have a paramount role in teaching and learning process of practical activities. Descriptive survey method was used to investigate the upshot of the availability and the extent of use of available biology, chemistry and physics laboratory inputs on students’ academic achievement in high schools of the Ilu Abba Bora Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.

      Germinus Tungu, George Kifaro, Angaza Gimbi

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to examine the performance of sheep livestock sub sector under pastoral and agro-pastoral schemes in the Tanzanian farming systems. Specifically the study was conducted at Mpwapwa and Longido districts in the Central and Northern farming systems of Tanzania respectively, to gather socio-economic factors affecting sheep production and productivity in Tanzania. PRA was employed to understand the socio-economic set up of the communities involved in the sheep sub sector.

      M.Nirmala, R.Subramaniam and G.Uma

Abstract: This paper deals with the determination of Optimum Single Sampling Plans (n,c) based on the Bayesian Prior Binomial Distribution for various values of the Lot sizes ‘N’ by minimizing the average acceptance cost K(N, n, c, p) subject to the condition, the cost associated with a defective item which is accepted (A2) is very small, Producer’s Risk and Consumer’s Risk are minimized (or) power 1-β is maximized. The ideal Operating Characterizing Curve for a Bayesian Single Sampling Plan is also constructed by considering AQL and LQL for the optimum acceptance number ‘c’.

      Mushtaq Najmaldain Ali, Prof. Dr. Ilham Amin Jaddoue

Abstract: Background: The Solid tumors is one of the problem facing early childhood and the common types of solid tumors are (Lymphomas, Nephroblastoma (Wilm’s Tumors), Neuroblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Bone Tumors, Ewing’s Sarcoma Family of Tumors and Soft Tissue Sarcom), and it is abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. Benign solid tumors may be (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). It is named different types of solid tumors to the type of cells that make up.

      Raid saad atshan, Dr. Leila Fakhir Aburghif

Abstract: Background: Meningitis is a kind of Central nervous system infections that can be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The complications of meningitis include brain abscess, deafness, blindness, respiratory failure, seizures, and brain stem herniation due to intracranial hypertension, cortical vein phlebitis, hydrocephalus, coma, and developmental delay. The study aims: Assess the level of nurse's knowledge toward children with meningitis, Find out effectiveness of an educational program on nurse’s knowledge toward children with meningitis, Find out the relationship between nurse’s knowledge toward children with meningitis and their demographic characteristic.

      Ashutosh Subhash Patil, Dr. Ravindra K. Lad

Abstract: Construction industries are still facing numbers of contingent problems. The chronic problems of construction are well known such as low productivity, poor safety, inferior working conditions, and insufficient quality. Particularly, waste is generally associated with waste of materials in the construction processes. The construction industry Responding to those challenges imposes an urgent demand to raise productivity, quality, reducing waste and to incorporate new technologies to the industry. According to the researchers in Fuzzy Construction, the new construction production philosophy is laid on the concepts of conversion and flow process. Therefore, performance improvement opportunities in construction can then be addressed by adopting waste reduction strategies. Fuzzy rules manufacturing or fuzzy production, often simply "fuzzy", is a systematic method for the elimination of waste within a manufacturing system. Zadeh (1965) first introduced the concept of fuzzy set theory through his paper. To Examine the general perceptions of the construction industry with the fuzzy rules and practices, Wastes are classified under fuzzy techniques, Study the potential project productivity improvements by reducing and eliminating the wastes as classified under fuzzy technique.

      Athraa Ehsan Ahmed, Prof. Dr. Ilham Amin Jaddoue

Abstract: Background: Treatment modalities of oncology means therapeutic methods which used in the unit of tumors may be through surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment or may meet more than one way to treat one type of tumors.

      Anwar Jabbar. Rasool, Mohammed F. Khalifa. PhD

Abstract: Study aims: To evaluate health promotion behaviors for elderly population at Geriatric Homes in Baghdad City, to compare between health promotion behaviors for elderly population at public and private Geriatric Homes in Baghdad City, and to determine the relationships between health promotion behaviors for elderly Population and their demographic characteristics of age, gender, education, occupation and socioeconomic status.

      Diaa K. Abed-Ali, MohammedA. Mustafa

Abstract: Cardiac catheterization represents a significant medical diagnostic and treatment method that may refers as a risk for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI).

      Kafia Hashim Karim

Abstract: Background:Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues of a newborn. A bilirubin level with more than 85 mlmol /l (5 mg/dl) manifests neonatal jaundice. In newborn jaundice is detected by watching the skin, newborn has an apparent Scleral icterus, and yellowing of the face extending down to the chest.

      Kafia Hashim Karim, Shukir Saleem Hasan, Dara Abdulla Al-Banna, Muaf Abdulla Karim

Abstract: Background and Objectives: Oral hygiene is the and teeth clean to prevent dental and other oral problems, the very size of the population suggests that health care of the school children can contribute to the overall health status of the country. The health and well being of school age children have become a high profile practice of keeping the mouth issue. To assessing school age students’ knowledge and practiceing toward oral health, To constructing health education program for school age children, who attended from Sarsang primary school age, To evaluate the impact of health education program upon school age childrens’ knowledge and practices concerning oral health, To comparing between (pre-test study group and post-test control group) and To comparing between pre-test of both groups (study group, control group) and comparing moring with secound group.

      Akhilesh Kumar Tripathi, Dharmendra Dwivedi, C.S. Kanesh

Abstract: Effect of Chlor-alkali plant was studied on the seed germination and early performance of soyabean (Glycine Max) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and Methie (Irigonella Foinumgraecum) seeds. It was found the chlor-alkali plant effluent was highly dieterious for germination and early growth performance of seeds as campared to control germination. Co-efficient of co-relation was calculatd between the germination and increasing concentration of effluent. All the values showed negative co-relation. The relative toxicity of the effluent to all the seeds was as follows :-

      Eric Sullivan

Abstract: The midpoints determined in this paper were calculated by the use of the distance equation. The gravitation at these midpoints were determined by a modified gravitation equation. The values from both NASA and “Equations for Planetary Ellipses” were used for each midpoints. The NASA’s distances and values were considered as the accepted values and the values determined in “Equations for Planetary Ellipses” are the measured values.

      Algoni Umar Sheriff

Abstract: This study analyzed the impact of industrialization on economic growth in Nigeria. Because of the link between industrialization and economic growth, both theoretical and econometric analyses were used to examine the contribution of industrialization to economic growth in Nigeria, using GDP as the dependent variable and crude petroleum and natural gas , manufacturing and solid mineral as independent variables from 1981-2013. The study adopted ordinary least squares (OLS) in formulating the model. The results show that crude petroleum and natural gas, manufacturing and solid mineral, significantly contribute to economic growth. On the whole, the adjusted R2value shows that the explanatory power of the model is as high as 99%. The study recommends that creating the necessary environment to achieve strong performance of the industrial sector. Sustain the efforts at generating local materials for infant industries and support the campaign of local campaign initiative.

      Arati Kurde, Prof V. S. Kulkarni

Abstract: In India, plug load devices in building sectors are consuming close to 40 percent of the total electricity consumption. Though the share of plug load in building energy is increasing, very few studies exist on the plug level energy usage and consumption. In order to address the growing energy use of miscellaneous and electronic load (e.g. water heater), some measures need to be taken. Hence identifying needs, this project focuses on designing the devices that have built-in capability to measure and report the energy use or receive control input over the network. This study will help in creating energy awareness devices. Current sensor measures the current flowing through device then controller performs necessary calculations on the data and puts that data on the internet. By measuring current and voltage, we can analyze energy consumption, make the world smarter place and make better decisions using Internet of Things.

      Mohammed Hakim Shamran Al-Hchaim, RajhaAbdulHassanHamza

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to assess the nurses' knowledge toward management of heart failure and to determine the effect of nursing educational program by comparing the pre-test and post-test score on nurse's knowledge toward management of heart failure.

      Bashar R. Mohammed-Ali, RajhaA. Hamza

Abstract: Objective: this study aimed to assess of self-care activities among diabetic patients’ type II and to find out the relationship between self-care activities and their demographic and clinical data.

      Jameel Jerry Yousif

Abstract: The current study was conducted for the period from 1/9/2015 up to 1/3/2016 at the Department of Biology - College of Education for Girls- Kufa University.It aims to study the effectiveness of ethanolic and methanolic extracts for Iraqi honey beewax in the viability of protoscolices of Echinococcusgranulosus parasite In vitro.The results showed that the ethanolic and methanolic extracts for Iraqi honey beewax are very effective in the destruction of the protoscolices, and that the mortality percentage increases with concentration and duration of exposure to both extracts .

      Zainab Ali Hussein

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and to assess the possible risk factor associated with pregnant women living at Najaf Governorate -Iraq. This study was carried out from January 2016 until March2016. Through the serodiagnosis of (114) pregnant women,the result shown that the (54) pregnant womenwere parasitic for Toxoplasmosis giving an overall infection rate (47.4%).The highest rate of infection with toxoplasmosis observed in the age group≤ 25 years with the percentage of (59.3%),and in the residence the results showed that the percentage of infection with T.gondii was higher in urban areas (83.3%), while in level of education the result appear that the highest incidence of infection with T.gondii occurs in primary school graduated with the percentage (38.9%), The statistical analysis of the results shown the significant decrease(≤ 0.05) in T.gondii infection with sufficient monthly income compared to the insufficient monthly income .

      Afshan, Farooq Ali Khan Sherwani, Ghulam Kabbir, Mula Nazar Khan, Fahad Islam

Abstract: Researcher tries it best to discover the role of corporate governance on the evolvement/performance of firm as well as on other financial decisions. In this study corporate governance is measured by using five variables board size, board meetings, CEO duality, percentage of non-executive directors and percentage of independent directors.

      Peerzada Mohammad Iqbal, Dr. Abdul Majid Baba, Aasim Bashir

Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive research on time series analysis of four search engines viz., Google, Bing, Yahoo! and Baidu using simple keyword “Plagiarism” from the field of Library and Information Science. The time series analysis is used to forecast result fluctuation using series of data which was collected on daily basis for about 100 Days, to generate 50 days of projected data, and latter a trend line was used to compare the forecast of select search engines. The evaluation reveal that Bing shows a positive secular trend while Baidu, Yahoo! and Google show a downward or negative secular trend.

      Desty Prawatiningsih, Budi Purwanto, Tubagus Nur Ahmad Maulana

Abstract: This study discusses about the effectiveness of rebalancing on the return and risk of stock portfolio from nine industrial sectors in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. When investor invest their funds, invest them in stock forms, by expecting investor could reduce their investement risks. By selecting of Markowitz investment model, resulted optimum portfolio that investor could use for rebalancing portfolio strategy. The asset allocation decision is part of a dynamic investment process, not a one-time act that can be performed and then forgotten. The financial services industry always voice out that portfolio rebalancing as a value-adding strategy. This study used monthly stock data from nine industrial sectors in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The result showed that rebalancing cuts out investment risks, but do not give rise maximum of returns. This also shown by result of wilcoxon signed rank test that there is a significant different risk between rebalancing strategy and non rebalancing strategy. The next obvious point of rebalancing is that the terminal account values of the combinations are higher than non-rebalancing strategy when market crisis (year 2015).

      BADRI Mostapha, MOUGHIT Mohamed, LABANI Nacer

Abstract: MPLS is a network architecture that ensures data forwarding by using a system of « label » which allows to provide a system based on packet switched service and unifies data transport. The power of MPLS is to offer several applications, for example QOS, TE and VPN etc. The QOS involves ensuring the expected performances for a given traffic network. There are several kinds of performances such as throughput, transmission delay jitter, etc. As for Diffserv model, it consists in gathering the flows classes so as to associate them with predefined QOS. Through this research after defining the quality of service , presenting the specificities of MPLS technologies and their impact on the protocols, we will present a solution to MPLS problem with efficient quality of service based on current protocols and their extension ( LDP, CR- LDP, RSVP, RSVP-TE etc.) Finally, we will present different solutions corresponding to the following models : MPLS, MPLS- DiffServ, MPLS-TE and combination of( MPLS_DiffServ and MPLS-TE).

      MirawatiYanita M. Yazid; ,ZulkifliAlamsyah, Andy Mulyana

Abstract: Rubberis one of theplantationcommoditieswhich havea rolequite important ineconomic activitiesinIndonesia. Rubber provides the main livelihood for over one million families and more than two third of all production comes from smallholders. Rubberis alsoone of Indonesian export commodities asa foreign exchange earnerin thecountryoutsideoil and gas.Approximately86.95percentof Indonesia's naturalrubberproductionis exportedto foreigncountries andonly a small portionis consumeddomestically. This research aim to asses the determainant for rubber export in Indonesia. We use Stata software and estimate the variables by robust regression, Result showed a significant relation between production level, exchange rate and export quantity in the lag time. Indonesia earned substantial foreign exchange from crumb rubber exports. However, major fluctuations in the export earnings have raised concern about the country’s future growth potentials and self-sustainability.

      Burmen, Mutai K, Kamire V, Frodwa N

Abstract: A longitudinal survey was conducted at 35 field laboratories within the former Nyanza and Western Provinces of Kenya that were served by the Kenya Medical Research Institute HIV Reference regional laboratory. This was done to evaluate the effect of participation in the KEMRI CD4 QA program on accuracy of CD4 results produced byField Laboratories within health facilities that had consistently participated External Quality Assurance program, EQA, (>than 75% of the times) in the KEMRI Regional CD4 split-sample proficiency testing 2014-2015 .

      Joneshia Bryan-Thomas

Abstract: The research aimed at unearthing the total levels of selected phytochemicals and the antioxidant (DPPH) in Annona muricata, Ribes nigrum and manilkara zapota plant extracts, which are widely known for their medicinal properties and locally grown in Manchester Jamaica West Indies. The leaves, bark and stem were collected and identified by an agronomist. They were aseptically treated then dried at room temperature for 4 days after which they were milled by the use of dry blend commercial heavy duty blender. The pulverise samples were stored at room temperature in sealed plastic screw top sterile cups until processed. The plants were tested for the presence of Phytochemicals (total flavonoids, total poly-phenols, and total tannins).

      R. S. Ranwala

Abstract: The paper discuss about the impact of family background and entrepreneurship specific education on the entrepreneurial knowledge in venture creation as well as the mediation effect of entrepreneurship specific education on the relationship between family background and entrepreneurial knowledge in venture creation. This study conducted as a cross sectional survey and used entrepreneurship graduates of University of Kelaniya as the sample. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire from 65 graduates. The assessment of the impact of family background and entrepreneurship specific education on entrepreneurial knowledge in venture creation and the mediating effect of entrepreneurship specific education was subjected to regression analysis. Findings of the study revealed that, there is an impact from family background and entrepreneurship specific education on entrepreneurial knowledge in venture creation and entrepreneurship specific education mediates the relationship between family background and entrepreneurial knowledge in venture creation. Remarks of the study help to understand that entrepreneurship can be stimulated through family background and the entrepreneurship education and trim down the belief that entrepreneurs are born but not made.

      Diana RistuFajaryatun, Arif Imam Suroso and Gendut Suprayitno

Abstract: The research aims to analyze the performance management system of Legal Entity State Universities (PTN BH) based on the Baldrige Excellence Framework (BEF).This type of research is descriptive qualitative. Data were collected from documentation and questionnaires. The variables examined in this study include: (1) Leadership, (2) Strategy, (3) Customers, (4) Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management, (5) Labour, (6) Operations, and (7) Results. The variables were analyzed descriptively using mean to determine the condition of the mean of each variabel. These questionnaireswere given to resource persons based on their expertise level. The resource persons areleaders fromworking unitsdealing with the quality of university performance which are Quality Assurance Office, Internal Audit Office, Research and Community Service, Directorate of Academic Development and the Academic Senate at 4 Legal Entity State Universities. These 4 universities are Bogor Agricultural University, Bandung Institute of Technology,GadjahMada University and the University of Indonesia as the pioneersof state owned legal entity universitywhich is now called PTNBH. The results showed that the four universities had high quality performance. It can be seen from the average values obtained from each category, subcategory and dimensionthat have high average values, most of whichareat the level of always. This can be one of evidences that Indonesian universities have a potency to compete with other universities in Asia level or even in the world level.

      Dr.Ahmed A. Altufaili, Ibrahim A.K.AL-Ashour, Mansour Abdullah Falah

Abstract: A complete of (32) stool samples of infants, complaining from diarrhoea had been protected in this take a look at. all of them recognized as fungal infections via making a habitual and confirmative diagnostic techniques, after primary isolation of Candida species, the outcomes monitor that : 12 (37.5%) of isolates had been Candida albicans, 11 (34.4%) of isolates have been Candida tropicalis and 3 (nine.4%) of each isolate of Candida cruzei, Candida globrata and Candida parapsilosis. five isolates from every considered one of C. albicans and C. tropicalis have been selected randomly for reading of sensitivity of these isolates to four plant’s aqueous extracts, the extracts which were (Thymus vulgaris leaves, Punica grantum end result peels and Glyceriza glabra roots), their minimal Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal Fungicidal attention (MFC) had been studied by way of the use of the dilution method through Sabouraud Dextrose Broth .

      Mohammad Mahdi S. Sahib, Suad J. Mohammad

Abstract: Objectives: this study aimed to assess cardiac catheterization patients satisfaction towards health care services and to find out the relationship between patients satisfaction and their demographic and clinical data. Methodology:Descriptive analyticdesign was adopted in the current study in order to assess cardiac catheterization patients satisfaction towards health care services. A non-probability (Purposive sample) of (150) patients who were completed cardiac catheterization procedure.Data collected through using of a well-designed questionnaire consist of two main parts, part I consists of demographic and clinical data, part II consists of 60 items about health care services.

      Haider Mohammed Haloob AL-Abedi, RajhaA. Hamza

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to assess of self-care activities among stroke patients’ and to find out the relationship between self-care activities and their demographic and clinicaldatasuch as age, gender, level of education and socioeconomic status.

      Srikanta Bhaya, Dr. Abhisek Chakrabarty

Abstract: A number of districts of different states (Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh) in India are affected by extremist movement in which Purulia district of West Bengal is important one where they claim to be fighting for the rights of the tribes in the forest belt. The group has tried to draw attention through committing several grisly murders, blowing up schools and railway tracks by triggering some explosions. They are engaged seditious activities in the remote and relatively inaccessible places of the district. In the remote areas, they are able to convince the poor, illiterate or less educated people for supporting them and blaming the administration for their under development. A careful geospatial investigation reveals that those blocks which are located very close to the Ayodhya Hill are more affected by the extremist activities (e.g. Balarampur-I, Arsha, Baghmundi Bundwan and Jhalda-I). It is very clear that the activities occurred near the hilly areas and in inaccessible terrain.


Abstract: The paper investigate the impact of maternal factors on child ill health in India using the data from National Family Household Survey 2005-06. The empirical analysis exploits a cross-section structure of the dataset by regression (logit transformation) estimation of a static model taking into account the observed maternal factors and possible dimensions of child ill health. Our results explain the significant impact of maternal factors on child ill health. As a policy option, this paper argues for the improvement of maternal factors to improve the well-being of the children.

      Miss Bhagyashri Dattatray Nikam, Prof. Mrs. S. B. Gaikwade

Abstract: The massive growth of the world wide web along with the increasing availability of multimedia resources has increased a number of copyright issues. One of the areas that this growth has fueled is that of digital watermarking. Digital watermarking is the general technique of embedding a digital signal in the original file which may be used to verify its authenticity or the identity of its ownership. The approaches to watermarking are diverse and can be broadly classified based on their visibility, robustness and fragility. Their uses are also versatile, as they can be applied to text, images, audio, or video. In this paper, I did study on some of the watermarking algorithms for digital images.

      Upender S. Sisodia,Seema Khothari

Abstract: A highly effective and neat reaction protocol for the removal of mercury ions from the industrial effluents and organic compounds using a selective combination of ionic liquid such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [BMIM] [HSO4] and activated charcoal. This combination has been proved to be more successful as compared to conventional methods for the removal of such heavy metals.

      K J Yogesh

Abstract: As a result of widely increasing air pollution throughout the world & vehicle emissions having a major contribution towards the same, it makes its very essential to engineer or design an alternative to the present traditional gasoline vehicles. Liquid nitrogen fueled vehicles can act as an excellent alternative for the same. Liquefied N2 at cryogenic temperatures can replace conventional fuels in cryogenic heat engines used as a propellant. The ambient temperature of the surrounding vaporizes the liquid form of N2 under pressure & leads to the formation of compressed N2 gas. This gas actuates a pneumatic motor. A combination of multiple reheat open Rankine cycle & closed Brayton cycle are involved in the process to make use of liquid N2 as a non-polluting fuel. A system of such a kind will also be able to refuel itself in a matter of time comparable to that of traditional engines, unlike the electrically charged ones.

      T. Aruna & S. Devindra

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional and anti nutritional factors of the two local varieties of red gram seeds. The results obtained are presented as mean percentage for moisture contents as 8.92, ash, 3.21, dietary fiber, 6.60, protein, 23.23, Fat, 1.45 and total carbohydrate as 53.23 respectively. The study also elicited the mean manganese content to be 1.76, copper 1.80, iron 5.95 and zinc 3.52 mg/100g of dried sample respectively. The mean content of galactosyl oligosaccharides for the two varieties was found to be 1.42%, for raffinose, 1.75% for stachyose and 4.95% for verbascose respectively. Raffinose family sugars in split dhal and immature seeds were found to be 0.85 and 1.00%, for raffinose, 1.54% and 1.11%, for stachyose and 4.20 and 1.38% for verbascose respectively. The mean content of trypsin inhibitor was 199.40 (TIA)/g sample and chymotrypsin inhibitor was 270 (CIU)/g sample.

      Chigunwe Taurai, Kudenga Mugove, Chigunwe Giliet

Abstract: This study sought to find out the participation of residents of local authorities in local government issues between 2008 and 2013. This paper looks at the attitudes of local government counselors towards residents’ contributions in local governance processes. The study was carried out against a background of a perception that during the last decade service delivery by local authorities in Zimbabwe has declined drastically. Although many factors could be attributed to this decline, it can be argued that residents’ participation in the local governance processes has also reduced drastically resulting in misplaced priorities and corruption by the local authorities.

      Chigunwe Taurai, Kudenga Mugove, Chigunwe Giliet

Abstract: This is part of a broad research that sought to find out the participation of residents of local authorities in local government issues. This paper looks at the opinions of residents on local government practices and service priorities vis-à-vis actual delivery by the local authority. The study was carried out against a background of a perception that during the last decade service delivery by local authorities in Zimbabwe has declined drastically. Although many factors could be attributed to this decline, it can be argued that people’s participation in the local governance processes has also reduced drastically resulting in misplaced priorities by the local authorities.

      Hassan Saud Abdul Hussein, Dr. Afifa Radha Aziz

Abstract: A descriptive study was conducted in Pediatric Teaching Hospital in holy Karbala city, from the 1st of December 2015 to the mid of August 2016. Aims at: To assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs toward care of neonatal jaundice, to identify the relationship between mothers' knowledge and beliefs with their demographic variables such as mothers' age, level of education, occupations, socioeconomic status and to identify the relationship between mothers' knowledge with their beliefs toward care of neonatal jaundice.

      Haider Shayae Handi, Dr. Sabah Abbas Ahmed

Abstract: Background: Lung Cancer, like all other cancers, results from an acquired abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of control mechanisms for cell growth, so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this control system results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as a tumor.

      Nicholas Awuse, and Patrick Tandoh-Offin

Abstract: In this study, we attempted to investigate the main factors responsible for high rent in the Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana, assess the income levels of internal migrants, and the consequences of high rent on the migrants. The main questions the study proposes to address include what factors influence high rent in the Municipality, what is the relationship between income of the internal migrants and the rent in the municipality and lastly, what effect does the high rent has on the migrants? Using purposive sampling, and secondary data, a total of three hundred and forty-five (345) migrants and house owners from the Municipality and its environs were surveyed.

      Akrm Khaeri Zremag

Abstract: Credit decisions are considered the cornerstone in the strategic planning of bank system with regard to the devision of granting credit because it involves the basics, standards, conditions, scope, powers and types of bank credit, whether internal or external. It may also constitute an abutment (or pivot) in drawing the backing and alternative policies and in taking the corrective steps at the level of economic, financial and monetary policies and this originates from the facts that the new credit policy should be presented on an objective and appropriate basis for the financing (or funding), organizational and technical conditions and potentialities of the bank system which it serves.

      Peter SindaniWafula, Prof. Gregory S. Namusonge, Dr. Elizabeth Nambuswa

Abstract: Lease financing is of late increasingly becoming a viable option to many organisation and county governments when it comes to funding projects and delivering crucial services. However, it is important for county governments to understand how cost effective the option is as compared to the traditional methods of procuring funds services. The economic benefits of leasing can be derived from the firm's choice of leasing relative to borrowing and acquiring the asset.

      ThanasFureraj, DorinaYlli, ErsidaGolemi, GerondHusi, Mentor Petrela, VioletaHoxha, MarjetaKermaj, AgronYlli

Abstract: We present the case of a 32 years old females with both GH and TSH secreting pituitary adenoma. The case had particular difficulty in management since few years after the first surgery the tumor had an important suprasellar extension and medical treatment had to be preferred to surgery. Ocreotide treatment was choces having a very good follow up

      FissehaMikre W/Meskel & Dreyer Johann Michael

Abstract: This study describes how the use of quality formative assessment in a university course contributes to learning improvement. There is an increased interest among educational researchers to determine improvement of student learning that result from assessment practices. Quality formative assessment includes formative feedback, self-assessment and peer assessment. The study followed a partially mixed sequential research design and applied a quasi-experimental intervention that lasted for six weeks where six educators applied quality formative assessment on lessons of a general psychology course for intervention group students (N= 191) in which the quantitative data were collected by formative assessment questionnaire and achievement test before and after the use of quality formative assessment. The qualitative data were collected by focus group discussions with the students.

      Arjun Jiva Odedra

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to analyze determinants of methods of payments on financial performance of small and medium enterprises in Kitale. The study was guided by the use of three theories, namely Theory of planned behavior (TPB), the Technology acceptance theory (TAM) and Diffusion of innovation theory (DOI). The study is a descriptive survey of small and medium enterprises in Kitale, with the sample population comprising all the 1510 registered small and Medium enterprises in the area that have been operating for a period of three or more years, the selection was using stratified random sampling.

      ImanQasimKteo Al-hussein, Dergham M. Hameed

Abstract: Objective: this study aimed to assess physical problems related to chemotherapy among patients with cancerand to find out the relationship between Sociodemographic data of patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy and their physical problems. Methodology:A descriptive study was carried out in the Middle Euphrates Cancer Center / at Al-Najaf City.

      Raad Hassan Kshaish, Dr. Afifa Radha Aziz

Abstract: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder that it is prevalent most commonly in Mediterranean regions . Thalassemia occurs due to the deficiency or absence one of the globin chains that form of the human hemoglobin ( may be affects alpha or beta globin chain ).It had a chronic negative impacts on many aspects in the life of thalassemic child including the activities of daily living and becomes unable to do it independently.

      Afsanehsadat Omidiani, SeyedMohsen HashemiHezaveh

Abstract: Hotel industry, in recent years, has been a major consistent force behind the tremendous growth in Indian GDP. It has also fueled the increase in number of hotels around the country. Hotels are the major consumers of resources and contribute heavily toward the waste generation, as compared to others.

      S.Nirmala, A.Pasupathy

Abstract: Activated carbon prepared from Andrographis paniculata leaves was employed as an adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye, Malachite green from an aqueous solution. Effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the removal of the dye was investigated. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Frendlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies were also made. The maximum removal was obtained for the adsorbent dose of 100mg at 10mg/l dye concentration at pH 5 and agitation speed of 120rpm. The result shows that Andrographis paniculata leaf could be employed as an effective low cost adsorbent for the removal of MG.

      Kirti Singh Dahiya, Dr. D.K Batra

Abstract: The travel industry in India is operating through two different modes, online and offline respectively. The present study is the investigation into the future prospects of online retail in travel industry in India. It involves the identification of the competitive strategies adopted by the tour operators. The research further investigates the tour operator's perception towards 'Incredible India campaign'. It was found that e-retail travel is a platform that is bringing two market forces the demand and supply (tour operators and the customers) together, and both the parties are more inclined towards online mode in near future. Tour operators are gaining by operating at low cost and increasing their business reach while customers get what they desire as per their convenience. Tour operators know the importance of 'Incredible India campaign' for the Indian tourism Industry and they want to create the tourism brand as 'Incredible' through their services. The study is limited within the geographical boundary of Delhi and NCR.

      Arindam Roy

Abstract: Transportation system plays a very crucial role in urban development. The efficiency of a city usually relies on the effectiveness of its transport facilities. Besides mass public transportation system, now paratransit system also plays a vital role in people and goods movement in the urban centers throughout the world. The paratransit system gains more and more importance with the massive growth of the Indian cities. Barddhaman town, a growing urban center of West Bengal, witnessed a rapid development of E-rickshaw (locally known as Toto) service within a very short period of time. There are more than 4000 e-rickshaw operates in the streets of Barddhaman, which plays an important role in short-distance mass movement. Due to unplanned urbanization, uncontrolled population growth, lack of road space, such rapid growth of e-rickshaw became a burden on the existing transport realm. Though it is an eco-friendly, noiseless, sustainable mode of transport, but it creates burgeoning traffic congestion problem in the town. The study attempts to perceive the importance of e-rickshaw service in the urban transport sphere of Barddhaman. It also focuses on the emerging urban environmental problems and the future prospect of e-rickshaw services in the town.

      Nguyen Van Chao, Ho Trung Thong, Ho Le QuynhChau, Vu ThiThanh Tam, Zhou Rui

Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is now a big problem in livestock industry worldwide. Environmental pollution caused by the livestock industry has been becoming increasingly serious. Therefore, finding solutions to solve these problems simultaneously has become more necessary. Charcoal and wood vinegar has been used as fertilizer supplements and water filtration and treatment for humans and animals. This study aims toassess the applicability of charcoal and wood vinegar in prevention of diarrhea and reduction of environmental pollution in pig production. The experiments were conducted on pigs from weaned to finisher. The diets for pig were added different dosage of charcoal and wood vinegar (0.10; 0.20; 0.30% wood vinegar; 0.60; 0.80; 1.00% charcoal and 0.20 wood vinegar + 0.80 charcoal). The concentration of H2S was measured by KITAGAWA-AP.20 kit. Results showed that charcoal and wood vinegar is effective in diarrhea prevention in pigs, reducing the percentage of pig's diarrhea. Moreover, the concentrate of H2S in pig houses decreased in the experiment groups of adding charcoal and wood vinegar (0.30% wood vinegar, 0.60% and 0.80% charcoal, and 0.20% wood vinegar+0.80% charcoal) to diets Therefore, the study results confirm the important roles of both charcoal and wood vinegar used as additives to diet for pigs.

      ElhamHussain. M. Ali, B. K.

Abstract: This study focuses on to determine the optimization of bio ethanol plant in Kenana to produce product at high quality and maximum income. The different samples of (Beer, mash ,molasses ,and ethanol at different concentration (75% , 92% ,99.8%) for different unit was taken and analyzed and studies their result to determined the properties which effect in the quality of ethanol and production rat like -Total reducing sugar (TRS), polarization(pol), Brix, conductivity, Acidity, appearance, ethanol concentration, (pH) , yeast concentration , density .

      Tejas G. Mahale, Sanath S. Shetty, Salman B. Bandri, Gyanchandra Gupta, Prof. Gitanjali Korgaonkar

Abstract: An automated system for measuring plant leaf color, as an indicator of plant health status, has been developed for plantlets growing in a modified micro propagation system. Using a custom builthand device, sensors located on a pan and tilt system at the end of the device monitor plant growth and the ambient growing environment. Sensors include a compact color zoom camera, RGB (red, green and blue) color sensors. Leaf color sensors provide information, in a non-destructive manner, on the health status of tissue by comparing the sensor outputs to pre-determined optimum values. These low cost color sensors can be incorporated into a continuous automated system for monitoring leaf color of growing plants. Subtle color changes can be an early indication of stress from less than optimum nutrient concentrations. When combined with automated image sensing for growth analysis, and environmental sensing (RH, CO2 and temperature) in a controlled environment, optimized rapid growth with minimal human input can be achieved using a modified micro propagation system. In this project we detail the calibration technique for a RGB sensor and compare it with a high end

      Onyeogu T, Uzoegbu, M.U and Ideozu, R.U.

Abstract: The Maastrichtian Mamu and Nsukka Formations in the Anambra Basin (SE Nigeria) consists of a cyclic succession of coals, carbonaceous shales, silty shales and siltstones interpreted as deltaic deposits. The Anambra Basin was formed at the NW of the anticlinorium and the Afikpo syncline at the SE part of the anticlinorium, making both basins a depocenter during the Campanian to Maastrichian. Clay fractions of shale samples obtained from the Cretaceous Mamu and Nsukka Formations in the Afikpo Basin, south eastern Nigeria through the process of sedimentation technique were air – dried and analyzed using the empyrean diffractometer manufactured by Panalytical to determine the paleoclimate and depositional environments of the shales. The result shows that the bulk mineral composition of the shales comprises of quartz, clay minerals, carbonates and iron rich minerals, while the dominant clay mineral is kaolinite (70 – 80%) with minor amounts of illite (4 – 7 %) and smectite (10 – 20). This shows that both Formations were deposited under warm and humid conditions (typical of tropical to sub – tropical climate), while the depositional environment with evidence from biostratigraphy is suggested to be a near shore estuarine environment.

      Uzoegbu, M.U. and Ikwuagwu, C.S.

Abstract: The Cretaceous sediments in the Anambra Basin (SE Nigeria) consist of a cyclic succession of coals, carbonaceous shales, silty shales and siltstones interpreted as deltaic deposits. The HI versus Tmax and HI versus OI diagrams were used in classifying the organic matter in the shale indicating the presence of Type III kerogen. Tmax values between 426 and 439ºC indicate that the shales are thermally immature to marginally mature with respect to petroleum generation. Hydrogen Index (HI) values range from 14.00 to 31.00mgHC/gTOC while S1 + S2 yields values ranging from 0.22 to 1.00mgHC/g rock, suggesting that the shale have gas generating potential. The TOC of shale samples of the studied Uturu locality ranges from 1.51 to 2.95%, an indication of a good to excellent source rock of terrestrially derived organic matter. The average oxygen index (OI) (8.00 mgCO2g-1TOC) suggest deposition in a shallow marine environment. Based on the kerogen type, shales from Uturu, Nkporo Formation have the capability of generating oil and gas if sufficient maturity attained since the studied area is part of active Cretaceous petroleum system in the Anambra Basin.

      Dr. Edem E. Peters

Abstract: The practice of pottery in Nigeria is commonly found among the women folk. The business of trading with products of pottery is also formulated by the women despite the burden of carrying the fragile wares from one market to another after production. It is in the light of women involvement in pottery business that Ladi Kwali was discovered by the English Potter Michael Cardew when he came to Nigeria in 1950. It has been observed that traditional pottery practice in Nigeria is almost dominated by the women and most of the pottery products are domestic wares which are mostly used by the women. This study is focusing on the involvement of women folk in traditional pottery practice particularly in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The common shapes of oval and round features are identified among the products of traditional pottery easily produced by the women potters.


Abstract: Kenana Sugar Company is an integrated factory that produces both raw sugar and ethanol. This study is to determine a means for optimizing the cane sugar- bio ethanol production. Looking for the optimum operating conditions and, targeting the most feasible and the best solution consistent with the constraints imposed on the study case. Linear programming optimization method is used to maximize a linear objective function, subject to a set of constraints the linear program model was solved using MathCAD 14.Three areas were explored to see their effect on the objective function these were: changing the production rate of ethanol, effects of raw sugar price changes, effects of molasses price changes and possible production rates that can be obtained.

      S.P.Premaratne and Gamini Kudaliyanage

Abstract: The paper aims to find out: i) what problems/ challenges are facing micro - scale women entrepreneurs in the Maldives; ii) in what industries are these small-scale women entrepreneurs engaged in; iii) what measures have been put in place by the Maldivian government and other institutions to assist such micro-scale women entrepreneurs; and iv) what can be recommended in future for micro-scale women entrepreneurs in the Maldives. The study employs 24 case studies , Key Informant Interviews and Focus group Discussions. The main challenge that women and youth MSMEs face is adequate and timely financing on competitive terms particularly longer terms and limited human resource availability for scaling up their businesses. The policy and regulatory issues, institutional weaknesses in the absence of credit appraisal and risk management / monitoring tools affect the aspiring and existing entrepreneur to enter the MSME arena. Most MSMEs have limited access to larger markets in terms of market linkages, transport, telecommunications information exchange which seriously undermine the demand for their products.

      Adesh Kumar, Ramji Singh, BikeshYadav,Vipul Kumar, Vinit P Singh andAjay Tomar

Abstract: Some naturally occurring antagonistic microorganisms has performed great potential to antagonize plant pathogens, hence, biocontrol involving the use of such beneficial microorganisms for plant protection is being considered as a viable substitute to reduce the use of chemical pesticides [1,2]. These microorganisms need to be multiplied and kept viable often for long period under storage. To ensure this purpose some biodegradable wastes i.e., Neem cake, Jatropha cake, Mahua cake and Karanja cake were evaluated under current study. Neemcake remains best substrate in supporting population of Trichoderma harzianum under laboratory. The conidial form of T. harzianum could be stored about 4 months when cakes were added with one of the carbon source; Lactose. An increase in number of viable propagules (CFUs/g) was measured from all the substrates when at 15 DAI, CFUs increasesto 42 from 30.67(plane Neem cake) and at 30 DAI, 64.67 from 42 (plane Neem cake) in lactose mixed Neem cake.

      Dr. Rajeev Prasad Bijalwan, Ms. B Maithili

Abstract: As per NFHS-4, the current fertility levels, a woman in Uttarakhand have an average of 2.1 children in her lifetime. The report suggested that condoms are the most commonly used spacing method (used by 22.7 percent of currently married women). The ninety-four percent of sterilized women had the operation in a government facility and almost equal proportion of IUD users had their IUD insertion in the public (46%) and private (45%) hospitals. More than half of pill users got their most recent supply from the private medical sector, which is also the most common source for condoms.


Abstract: The concept of social entrepreneurship has been differently identified by diverse researchers leading to contradicting definitions. Therefore, whether visionary social entrepreneurship results in increasing profits is a questionable in the research world. As an answer to these contradicting findings and ideas of social entrepreneurship in literature, the current study focused in explaining the characteristics and the behavior of social entrepreneurial ventures in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the focus of the study is to explain how visionary social entrepreneurship leads to create profits and to gain increasing profits in a sustainable way.

      Untung Muhdiarta,Sangkala, H. M Tahir Haning, Badu Ahmad

Abstract: This study aims to clarify the relationship model of bureaucratic and political officials Which dominant force in the study site in the placement of structural position echelon II. This study uses a qualitative case study. Data collected by documentation, interviews, and participant observation conducted obstrusif. Data were analyzed using the "explanation building", and interpreted by using the "verstehen". The results showed that the model of bureaucratic and political relations Executive Acendency more dominant force in the placement of officials from echelon II. That is, the dominant political factor. The indication is the political dominance can be seen from the strong political intervention KDH bureaucratic officials.

      Ferdinand Dimara, Suratman, H. M Tahir Haning, Akmal Muhammad Ibrahim

Abstract: M Marine Protected Areas Management based regional authority indigenous peoples and Local Government Raja Ampat, is now faced with a potential structural conflict based on the authority of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) with the issuance of the Decree of the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries No. 65 of 2009. One year after enactment Raja Ampat Regency No. 27 of 2008. the issuance of Decree No. 65 year 2009 CTF, has given birth and are the source of their vertical conflicts related to the regulatory authority of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries with the Raja Ampat Regency Government as the recipient of the mandate of indigenous peoples Raja Ampat in the context of the Regional Marine Conservation Area Management in Raja Ampat.

      Inanda Karina Astari Fatma, Syamsurijal Abdul Kadir,Tatang Sariman, Saadah Yuliana

Abstract: One of the factors that affect labor productivity, especially in the hospitality industry, namely Quality of worklife (QWL). QWL is considered as the main driving force for the company's performance and the importance of free time indicated by the relationship with the various domains of life other that ultimately leads to QWL. QWL reveals the importance of respect for the human being in the work environment, the important role of QWL ie changing work climate that is technically and humane organization that brings to the quality of work life better, productive, efficient and profitable. But theory and previous studies have recently seen QWL as a dimension of its own and yet see how they affect the productivity of labor from an economic standpoint.

      Pardeep Kumar

Abstract: In present scenario, high speed steel tools are more popular because of their good toughness at high hardness, high wear resistance, and relatively high abrasion resistance properties. High speed steel is widely used to manufacture various cutting tools like tool bits, taps, milling cutters, drilling tools, planer tools and saw blades etc. So that, High Speed Steel, is selected as a workpiece material. In this paper, the behavior of an, high speed steel has been studied using electrical discharge machining (EDM). The response parameters selected are the material removal rate (MRR) and the surface roughness (SR). All of them have been studied in terms of current intensity supplied by the generator (I), voltage (V) and pulse time (Ton). To carry out the experiments, design of experiment (DOE) techniques have been used in order to obtain mathematical models to predict the most influential factors by using a small number of experiments. The experimental results confirm that positive polarity leads to higher MRR.


Abstract: The Union of India has been experiencing different movements or separatist tendencies since independence. This was seen to be developed for the first time among the Naga people during 1960s which resulted in the creation of Nagaland as a separate state in 1963. In the same way, the state of Meghalaya (1972), Mizoram (1986)and Arunachal Pradesh in 1987 had been created out of Assam.Telengana is the latest state created in India in 2009. The Bodos who are one of the major Plains Tribal communities predominantly inhabiting in the north western part along the foothills of the Himalayas had been struggling for a separate state. The Bodos have been contributing significantly towards the growth and development of the composite Assamese culture and society. But with the passage of time it was being felt by these people that they are being neglected, deprived, and exploited both by the government and the upper caste people. Besides, they have realized their identity with distinct socio-cultural attributes is being threatened and if not protected, their identity would be extinct from the soil of Assam. Considering their identity crisis they had started movement for a separate state adopting both democratic and violent means since 1986.

      Mohanad S.S. Abumandil, Shahizan Bin Hassan

Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of information quality on decision making effectiveness in Palestinian banking sector. Previously it shows that there are limited studies that explored the link between these variables in Palestine. In this study, decision effectiveness was measured in terms of decision quality. The data in this study was collected from bank managers in Palestine using survey instrument. The collected data wereanalyzed using PLS software and the findings indicated that information quality plays an important role in decision making effectiveness. Particularly, this study found that accuracy of information has significant effect on decision effectiveness. Moreover, relevance of information has significant positive effect on decision effectiveness. Centralization of the organizational structure has positive moderation effect on the relationship between information quality dimensions and decision making effectiveness.

      Navina Shrestha , Mr. K. Vadivelan, Prof.V.P.R.Sivakumar

Abstract: Background: Stroke is one of the major causes of human morbidity and mortality; it was the sixth leading cause of disability-adjusted years in 1990 and is projected to rank fourth by the year 2020.1It is also a leading cause of functional impairments, with 20% of survivors requiring institutional care after 3 months and 15% - 30% being permanently disabled. Aim &Objectives: To determine the beneficial effect of task specific training with trunk restrain versus constraint induced movement therapy in improving the function of hemiplegic upper limb in the sub-acute period after stroke.

      Astuti, Siti Umniyati, Anna Rahmawati

Abstract: This research was carried out to determine the ability of lactate acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from fish digestion tract to the some range of temperatures 12, 25 , 40 dan 45. Moreover, it is to determine the AST 6 LAB growth isolated from fish digestion. Further, this research is beneficial as information for the livestock industries to the use of LAB isolates and is expected to be useful in LAB growth study for stuents, food processing industries, and animal husbandry.

      Bernice Quampah, Asubonteng Samuel, Paalee Ngmenlanaa Livingston Fidelis and Boakye yeboah Samuel

Abstract: Context specific knowledge development is required to foster a development process in Africa that meets existential challenges. In highlighting this requirement, this paper attempts, with an emphasis on communality, a theoretical discussion of social constructionism philosophy of knowledge development and its implications for conceptualising phenomena, doing research, and contributing to scientific knowledge on Africa. The problem identified for this work is that Western philosophies and perspectives have dominated African knowledge development and use of knowledge by Africans. Thus, Africans are alienated from their own experiences of life. To this end, this work aims to constructs a fundament of self-knowledge or self-consciousness as a pivotal constituent of societal building in Africa.

      Gamachis Garamu

Abstract: Ethiopia has no capital market, thus, the majority of investment and saving are through the banking system, hence, it is more important for the public as a whole to find out Relative Technical Efficiency of banks. This study aims to evaluate the relative technical efficiency and productivity change of Ethiopian commercial banks during the period 2007 to 2011. Using Intermediation approach two input variables - fixed asset and labor, and two output variables- total deposits and net loans & advances, - were selected. The study adopts DEA to measure effici3ency of banks and MPI to measure the productivity gains of banks over time. A panel data of ten commercial banks operating in Ethiopia from 2007 – 2011 were collected. The results show that, on average, Ethiopian commercial banks were relatively technically inefficient. Scale inefficiency takes the leading contribution for source of inefficiency. The study also reveals that the average TFP change is 0.965 during the study period. In this case, technical efficiency regress takes the most contributions to the loss of TFP.

      Kajendran A, Gunathunga L G K M, Marzook M I, Tarmeekgah N, Fonseka P.D.K.P, Mr. Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to propose a call management system suitable for businesses using Asterisk PABX (Private Automatic Branch Exchange). Asterisk is an open source framework for building communications applications. Asterisk turns an ordinary computer into a communications server. It supports IP (Internet Protocol) PBX systems, VoIP (Voice Over IP) gateways. The features that could be incorporated with asterisk specific for businesses are IVR (Interactive voice response) with voice recognition, efficient call queuing system, Dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) click to call, CRM (customer relationship management system), dialer and SMS gateway. Asterisk is free and open source there for it is highly customizable. Therefore, it can be easily integrated into the solution that the business wants. This research paper explains about how a call center system can be created using Asterisk PBX to provide communications solution for businesses and how the above mentioned features could be incorporated into Asterisk PBX.

      Sanjana Shashi Kadapa

Abstract: One of the problems in software development is to estimate the efforts in person hours required to develop the software application. Software developers quote their rates in dollars/ hour. However, the customer must have an idea of the cost of development. If the rate quoted is high, then the customer may turn to another developer. If the rate quoted is too low, then the software developer incurs losses. This paper examines the challenges of software estimation and suggests metrics used to size the software.

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