International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 11, November 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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      Mukiite Catherine Nabwala, Dr. Kepha Andrew Ombui

Abstract: The main aim of the study was to establish the influence of Youth Enterprise development fund (YEDF) in Trans-Nzoia County in Kenya .The study was guided by three specific objectives which included the role of YEDF in creation of employment, how disbursement and market linkage influence the success of YEDF in job creation and how YEDF training has influenced the successful implementation and creation of employment in Trans-Nzoia County in Kenya.

      T. Ramachandran, D.Udayakumar and R.Parimala

Abstract: In this paper, a set of Root mean square derivative - based closed Newton Cotes quadrature formula (RMSDCNC) is introduced in which the derivative value is included in addition to the existing closed Newton Cotes quadrature (CNC) formula for the calculation of a definite integral in the inetrval [a, b]. These derivative value is measured by using the root mean square value. The proposed formula yields improved precision than the existing formula. The error terms are likewise obtained by utilizing the method based on the precision of a Quadrature formula. Lastly, numerical examples are discussed to show the accuracy of the proposed rule.

      Warui Andrew Muturi, Dr. Kepha Andrew Ombui

Abstract: According to the 2009 Kenya National Census, the youth of this country forms the highest percentage of the population. This is the same population that has the largest number of unemployed youth. This same group also happens to have high academic and professional qualifications. However, even in state owned enterprises, this group is not given an opportunity to sit in the board, in spite of the qualifications. We continue seeing old people being recycled and put into positions of authority, especially in the public sector. This study contributes to the understanding of the characteristics of our youth and assists in the understanding of the relationship between the leadership styles in organizations and the performance of this age bracket (16 to 36 years). The study looks at the characteristics of the millennials and their relationship with work and authority.

      R. B. Singandhupe, R.R. Sethi

Abstract: Groundwater being one of the most valuable resources of earth needs to be utilized properly for the healthy and economic growth of any region. The present study was carried out in Eastern part of India, where it is blessed with plenty of water resources but its utilization is very poor as compared to another part of India, which has been reflected through net cropped area, cropping intensity etc. Orissa, being one of the resource-rich States in India still struggles with low crop production and cropping intensity status. The groundwater development of the state is only 18.31 % out of total replenish able groundwater resources of 2100928 hectare meter (ha-m). Groundwater recharge being one of the most important components in the hydrologic cycle, it has to be estimated for any particular area before planning for any interventions.

      Satish Hadap, Pooja Singh and Samruddhi Naik

Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), issues with VOIP and deals with the study of new information hiding protocol which addresses issue with VoIP service. The new protocol described in this paper isan alternative for the IETF’s (Internet Engineering Task Force) RTCP (Real Time Control Protocol) for real-time application’s traffic. Additionally, this solution offers authentication and integrity, which is capable of exchanging and verifying QoS and security parameters. It is based on digital watermarking and steganography that is why it does not consume additional bandwidth and the data transmitted is inseparably bound to the voice content.

      ChengetanaiS, Tadyanemhandu C, Chibhabha F, Kaseke F

Abstract: Background: Stroke can cause damage to the motor and sensory pathways or affect their central integration leading to disorders of balance, posture and control of movement. Stroke patients suffer from various balance impairments and tend to bear more weight in the non-paretic leg. The aim of the study was to determine if the weight bearing asymmetry of stroke patients in standing is related to their ability to maintain balance when performing functional activities in standing.

      Wogu, M. N. and Nduka, F. O

Abstract: A cross-sectional study to evaluate malaria parasitaemia among 1000 Outpatients (418 males and 582 females) in Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted. Blood samples were collected through venous procedure from the study subjects and the presence of malaria parasites was observed microscopically on thick and thin stained blood films prepared from each blood sample according to standard parasitological techniques. All data gotten were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a p-value less than 0.05 considered significant. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite identified in this study.

      Sundus Basharat, Shaheen Asmat, Dr.Marriam Zaka

Abstract: Drug related problems are frequent and may result in reduced quality of life and even morbidity and mortality. Many studies have shown that Clinical Pharmacist can effectively identify and prevent clinically significant drug-related problems and that Physician acknowledge and act on the clinical pharmacist’s suggestions for intervention to the drug related problems. A pro-active rather than the reactive approach on the part of that Pharmacist seems prudent for obtaining most benefit. This includes participation of Pharmacist’s in the multidisciplinary team discussion at the stage of ordering and prescribing where all types of drug related problem, including also potential problems, should be discussed.

      SuliadiSufahani, Marinah Muhammad, Zuhaim Ismail

Abstract: The objectives of this study to presents an analysis of the data, retrieved from the guest book at the Kelantan Tourist Information Centre Malaysia, using descriptive cross tabulationwith Chi Square test and Pareto analysis. The analysis outcome was discussed and further suggestions were proposed based on the chi-squared test and Pareto analysis results.

      K.A.D.K.N Peiris,S.A Asmina, A.A.T.K.K Amarasinghe, C.N Gunawardhane and Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: There have been various navigation and tracking systems being developed with the help of technologies like GPS, GSM, Bluetooth, IR, Wi-Fi and Radar. A shopping Mall is a vast place, & people often get confused with the direction of the nearest ATMs or even rest rooms. This paper presents the concept of an indoor assistance and navigation system for customers that leverages mobile devices. How to help customers to find the correct store location in a shopping mall, how to get to know about the promotions, discounts that are given by stores are issues that need to be solved urgently because time is the most value item in the present world plus in the future.

      Barrister Atoh Walter M. Tchemi

Abstract: Exasperatingto note, pertaining to the provisions of section 347 bis of the Cameroon Penal Code, is the unchallenged and uncontroverted fact that, the application of aforesaid section in any criminal proceedings touching the LGBT domain, contravenes not only Cameroon’s international treaty commitments as enshrined in its section 45 of Law NO: 96/06 of 18th January 1996 to amend the Constitution of 2nd June 1972 but equally the preamble to the said constitution and that of the International Human Rights Charter, hereinafter referred to as the United Nations Charter and specifically, its Article 55 (c) .

      Satish Kumar Nandeshariya, Gajanand Sharma

Abstract: A series of ethyl N-(cyclohexyl(methyl)amino)-2oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)(4-fluorophenyl)methylformimidate derivative (8a-8e) were prepared by the reaction of ethyl N-substituted 2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)methylformimidate 6 and N-methylcyclohexanamine 7 to passing HCl/H2S through solution of substituted 4- substituted isocyano methanamine 1 and absolute ethanol. Ethyl N-(4- substituted)(-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)methylformimidate 6 were synthesized from the reaction of synthesized compound ethyl N-amino(4-substituted)methylformimidate 4 and isatin(1-H, indole 2,3-dione) are added to each other and finally compound (6a-6e) were form. This reaction known as Schiff reaction. The spectral study of newly synthesized compounds was characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, H1 NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra.

      K. Ayaz

Abstract: The most used thing in today’s world is energy (power). We use energy in various forms in our daily life like electricity, LPG, solar energy, wind energy, chemical energies in form of batteries and many other forms. Energy performance and its usage have direct impact on consumer’s life. Electrical load forecasting has much importance in the field of smart electrical grids and it plays a vital role in proper planning of electrical load and power systems. It helps in optimization of generating units and dispatching in real time. Forecasting of electricity load demand is a key task for the effective operation and planning of power systems. It was concluded that a comparative study of different model types seems to be necessary. Several models were developed and tested on the real load data .Most of them use a MLP (Multilayer perceptron) network, regressive models, genetic algorithms etc. We carried out short term electrical load forecasting for California Energy Market data, using ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and Plant Identification technique, both techniques implemented in MATLAB software. Error is calculated between actual and forecasted load as MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error).

      Prof. Khalid Salem Shibib, Prof. Dr. Ihsan F.Rostum, Prof. Dr. Mohammed A.Munshid, Zainab Ayad Muosa

Abstract: In This work, the water content is determined in muscle, liver, heart, brain and lung. In addition, this work estimate the damage depth in different types of tissues subjected to continuous wave CO2 laser. In this paper, three types of tissues have been used (muscle, lung and brain) which are subjected to different power level of CO2 laser intensity for 20 s. Some conclusions are obtained; as laser power increased the damage depth decreased; In addition, it is found that as water content increased the damage depth decreased, because of the water content of brain tissue is more than lung and muscle tissue, so that brain has damage depth less than muscle and lung tissues. The results of this research are of great interest in the medical field when using CO2 laser as cutting tool in surgery, which helps surgeons to know the damage that occurs when tissue is cut using CO2 laser.

      Aathira Ajay Kumar

Abstract: This essay traces the functions language and narration play in expressing an individual’s or a society’s collective experience of the world, the real outside world and the inner world(s) of his/its own consciousness in Ken Saro-Wiwa’s Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English. On one level I look at the ‘rotten English’ as an attempt to conceive, make peace with and communicate an experience which Mene, the central narrator, or the people of Dukana cannot comprehend. On another level, the lawlessness and the ‘uninhibited’ nature of language are read as the reflection of the consciousness of the narrator, tormented by the chaos of the external world. The essay closely studies the problematic nature of language that creates a need to develop a model/mode of expression that can be built upon something that is already known, the native language. It also analyses the narrative’s personal aspect attached to the language which results in a psychological story-telling technique or a mode of narrating an individual’s attempt to deal with the strangeness of his environment and his imaginary audience.

      Kariyawasam, H.K.P.P., Amaratunga, K.S.P., Basnayake, B.F.A.

Abstract: A method of grain cooling by vaporizing temporarily deposited surface water on rough rice was tested in this study. The surface water was deposited by ventilating rough rice grains with saturated air (humidification) for predetermined time periods (3.5 and 7 minutes). After humidification, evaporative cooling was achieved by ventilating rough rice grains with ambient air. The data were collected using a bed of rough rice (height 0.15m) in a 0.11m diameter circular bin. Temperature and the relative humidity of the ambient air during the experiment time was 30±1°C and 65±1%. The grain temperature was monitored at 0.025, 0.075 and 0.125m heights from the bottom of the rough rice column using thermocouples. The temperature and relative humidity of air at the inlet, outlet and the ambient were recorded. The enthalpy values of air and grain and the temperature drop of grains were calculated for the two humidification times of 3.5 and 7 minutes using an iterative procedure. The 7 minutes humidification led to an average temperature drop of 3.3°C compared to 3.5 minutes humidification in which the drop was 2.1 °C. The 7 minutes humidification has an advantage in bringing down the grain temperature significantly (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval of the difference was 0.57 to 1.58°C; coefficient of variance was 4.58%).

      Abdessalam OUALLALI, Velibor SPALEVIC, Habiba AASSOUMI, Mohamed MOUKHCHANE, Farida BERRAD

Abstract: This study reflects the use of the Erosion Potential Method (EPM) embedded in the Intensity of Erosion and Outflow model (IntErO) in the River basin of ArbaaAyacha, as a first application in the Moroccan territory to show its reliability for the estimation of the soil losses in the grounds and the streaming. This model required for first a mapping of the factors of hydric erosion, such as the land use, the type of ground, the lithology, the topography and the climatic and meteorological distribution of the data. The integration of the restart of this steep in the IntErOmodel allows the evaluation and the calculation of the streaming and the contribution of sediment in the studied area. The obtained result shows that the value of the Coefficient of the river basin erosion Z is 0.694, this value indicates that the river basin belongs to an III destruction category. The strength of the erosion process is medium, and according to the erosion type, it is mixed erosion. The maximal outflow from the river basin Qmax was predicted in 113.72 m³s-1, (incidence of 100 years). Finally the Real soil losses per km2 are estimated to 228.94 m³ km-² year and this value indicates, according to Gavrilovic, that the river basin belongs to the V category. This study has shown that IntErO model can be a useful tool for researchers in the calculation of runoff and sediment yield at the river basins level in the Western Rif of Morocco.

      Nicholaus R. Mrindoko, Stanley L. Tito, Francis A. Ruambo

Abstract: The accuracy of indoor positioning based on wireless local area network (WLAN) fingerprints depends on the algorithms used. Choice of which algorithm to use in positioning is a challenge. This study aims to compare the Euclidian distance (deterministic algorithm) and probability density function (probabilistic algorithm) in their accuracy. The signal samples were collected from the modelled study area using android mobile phone. Then, the samples were analyzed to compare their performance in a specific environment. Comparisons were made with respect to the number of access points, number of reference points and number of samples. The experimental results show that, the probabilistic method has higher accuracy when adopting the signal relation than deterministic algorithm.

      Ms.B. T. Delma,Ms.B.Vijila, Dr. M. Jaya Rajan

Abstract: The green synthesis of Copper and Lead nanoparticles were synthesized using ZingiberOfficinale stem extract. The stem extract acts as both reducing and capping agent. The synthesized Copper and Lead nanoparticles were confirmed by the change of colour after addition of stem extract into the Copper Sulphate and Lead Sulphate solution. The biosynthesized Copper and Lead nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). From UV-Visible analysis, Copper and Lead nanoparticles shows the characteristic absorption peak at 208nm and 239nm. From the XRD, it was found that the average particle sizes of both nanoparticles were found to be 3nm.

      P.L.L.C.P Alwis

Abstract: Performance appraisal systems (PAS) are required to be effective in order to improve and sustain the employee performance of an organization. Academic staff is considered as the most important stakeholders of a university. Their general objective is to generate knowledge and skills and disseminate them. They hold a very important place in modern society as they directly influence the personal development of the present and successive generations. Evaluation of performance and performance evaluation system for academic staff is a must because success of a university depends on its academia.

      Eri Septyawardani, Syamsul Maarif, Joko Affandi

Abstract: Evaluation of operationaltrial from manual planning stevedoring to system atPTXYZ can provide recommendations for company's strategy related to its terminal operations in the future. A major factor leads to the success of the new system is training for the company members. As age, education and working experience are not the major factorscontributing to the success of operational system, training becomes a factor affecting company success since operator can be more expert in controlling the operational system.

      Mrs. Nice Joseph, Anita M. Alex, Asha Gauns, Deepthi M.P, Jincy S. Varghese, Nagashree Bargi, Praveen Dias

Abstract: The bio-medical waste is any solid, fluid or liquid waste including the container and any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals. The indiscriminate management of bio-medical waste could cause serious hazards to health and environment such as water and food pollution and cause alimentary infections like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, infective hepatitis, polio, ascariasis and hook worm diseases, etc. Wastes breed vermin and pests, for example mosquitoes which transmit diseases like malaria and filarial, common house flies which transmits infections mechanically, and also other insects and worms that cause nuisance (eg. Cockroaches, ants.). Dust may harbor tubercle bacilli and other germs, which cause diseases if inhaled. Soil polluted by night soil may be rich in tetanus spores. Nosocomial infections, AIDS, hepatitis-B and C, etc. are at a greater incidence rate to occur. Aesthetic-sullage water refuse and night soil, all create intolerable nuisance of sight and smell.

      Amina AhmedMuhammed

Abstract: The objective of this study is to assess the role of internal auditors in both private and public organizations found in limma zone purposively selected weredas. Both primary and secondary data have been used. Totally 128 self administered questionnaires were distributed to members of the audit committee or equivalent found in both the public and private enterprises in the study area. From this 100 (78 % response rate) questionnaires were completely filled and returned (77questionnaires from public organizations and 23 from the private companies).

      Hina Bashir, Iqra Afzal, Dr.Marriam Zaka

Abstract: Schizophrenia is a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation. The long-term treatment of schizophrenia usually involves continuous specialty mental health care, including maintenance therapy with antipsychotic agents. A comparison study was conducted between a government sector hospital and private sector hospital. A questionnaire was utilized to collect the data.

      Sora Wario Bulle, Dr. Kepha Andrew Ombui

Abstract: This research sought to identify the impact of governance and leadership in Marsabit County as well as harnessing the challenges and prospects of devolution since its inception in the year 2013.The study area encompassed Marsabit County at large. The County is divided into four constituencies and twenty electoral wards. Two wards were identified in each sub-county for the research study. Data was collected through questionnaires, observation and interviews. The wards in the Sub-county include: Maikona, North-Horr, Laisamis, Loiyangalani, Karare, Marsabit Central, Moyale and Sololo.

      M.K.de Pasqual

Abstract: Pornographic Publications carry a longstanding history in the publication world. It is considered as causing adverse effects to the society. In most of the countries in the world, Pornographic publications are censored by enacting laws. In our country, this adversity has unfortunately developed up to infelicitous extents through printed media, CDs, DVDs, Blog sites, social networks and websites. Pornographic publications are restrained to a certain extent by enacting laws in Sri Lanka at present. With the advent of modern media, these laws, rules and regulations are subjected to a serious challenge. Modern media could especially be identified as forms of media features operating over the internet.

      Joan Jelimo Ayabei

Abstract: This paper is a summary of findings of a research established to assess the level of fire disaster preparedness in buildings within the Nairobi Central Business Area. The data examination was focused on the level of fire disaster preparedness of Tenants, Landlord and Building occupants.

      Abdul Aziz Bagis

Abstract: University students in Indonesia who are aspired to be entrepreneurs should understand the importance of human capability concept. Delivery of entrepreneurship teaching is usually conducted through transferring business knowledge and skills, which comes from outside of the students (outside-in) for their competency. To build business entrepreneur spirit, efforts to materialize students' human potentials that reflect entrepreneurship aspiration and enthusiasm are required (inside-out) and should be integrated with all competencies of the students. This entrepreneurship development is an endeavour to synergize these two patterns simultaneously to become human capability.

      A.Balakrishnan, Dr.A.Sankar

Abstract: In this study, we report the synthesis of a novel Mannich base derived from maleichydrazide and its transition metal complexes . We tried this with maleichydrazide compound as a precursor and treated with formaldehyde and dicyclohexylamine. The so formed base was complexed with transition metals.The Mannich base ligand as well as the metal complexes were characterized by various physical methods.The structure of the synthesized compounds are confirmed by UV, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The antibacterial activity of the ligands and the complexes were examined using different bacterias.

      A.Balakrishnan, Dr.A.Sankar

Abstract: In this study, we report the synthesis of a novel Mannich base derived from maleichydrazide and its transition metal complexes . We tried this with maleichydrazide compound as a precursor and treated with formaldehyde and dicyclohexylamine. The so formed base was complexed with transition metals.The Mannich base ligand as well as the metal complexes were characterized by various physical methods.The structure of the synthesized compounds are confirmed by UV, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The antibacterial activity of the ligands and the complexes were examined using different bacterias.

      Dr. Ajay Kumar Tiwari and Dr. (Mrs.) Usha Awasthi

Abstract: All life on earth depends on water. Fresh water is a critical, finite, vulnerable, renewable natural resource on the earth and plays as important role in our living environment without it life is impossible. In this study we are analyzed to seasonal variation in physical parameters like Temperature, Transparency, Current speed and pH in Bichhiya River and Govindgarh Lake of Rewa (M. P.) in all months of year 2009 and 2010.

      C.L.S.C Fonseka,Prof.J.A.K.S Jayasinghe

Abstract: This paper presents and discuss the robustness and suitability of major color models that are extensively used in image processing applications, for the segmentation of solder joints on different printed circuit board (PCB) surfaces with the use of efficient color image segmentation techniques. A detailed analysis has been carried out with respect to the parameters of color vectors that lie on the foreground (solder pad area) and background (PCB surface area) over major PCB surface variations and solder pad appearances. Eventhough many automatic optical inspection (AOI) systems are available for the inspection of surface mount devices (SMD) with the use of prior teaching of individual component, no visual inspection system exists that performs the automatic identification and quality analysis of through hole technology (THT) joints. This paper completes the first stage of an AOI system for THT solder joint inspection with providing a suitable color model for solder joint segmentation over a given PCB type.

      Kartika Rathee, Dr Ashish Saini

Abstract: Purpose—Risk factors for occurrence of breast cancer can be broadly divided into two categories non-modifiable and modifiable factors. Non-modifiable factorsinclude age, gender, geographical conditions and modifiable factors include but are not limited to age at menarche, teenage adiposity, physical activity, mammography screening, dietary exposures to nutrients, number of pregnancies etc. Contrary to popular belief, cancer is in reality a result of accumulated factors over a lifetime and not just a few years. Understanding the factors observed from an early age in a young adult is therefore essential for the risk assessment of breast cancer occurrence. In this article we aim at understanding the risk factors observed from an early age and present a comprehensive study of research work and case studies concluded so far on various modifiable factors identifiable in young adults.

      Hery Dwiputranto,Hermanto Siregar, Hendro Sasongko

Abstract: Indonesian government issued a mining law no.4 of 2009 on the prohibition of the ore export. PT Antam (Persero)Tbk as a mining company is affected by the implementation of this regulation. PT Antam (Persero)Tbk has abundant and high quality resources of ore especially nickel and bauxite ore that can’t be utilized. Ore resources have to be processed or refined to get more added value and benefit.The objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility PAC plant project. The basic idea of this study is to utilize alumina tryhidratfrom bauxite ore made by Antam’s subsidiary to have more added value.In carrying out this feasibility study four aspects were discussed; marketing, technical especially location, and financial aspect. Study on marketing aspect consists of study on product, price, distribution, promotion, and end users in Indonesia. Study on technical aspect consists of study on production process, production equipment, and lay out. Study on location aspect is to find best location for its project. In the financial aspect, some calculations were done. To calculate the financial feasibility study, author uses Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period(PBP) and Profitability Index (PI). The total project cost required for this PAC Plant with capacity of 15,000 tons per year wasIDR57,056,494,423.

      Shahnawaz Ahmad

Abstract: On 27 January 2016, Umar Draz a Pakistani fan of Indian cricketer Virat Kohli was arrested by the Pakistani Police on allegation of raising the tricolour on his roof in Punjab Province. Police raided the house of Umar Draz and seized the Indian Flag from his rooftop, when asked why he had hoisted the Indian Flag, Draz said: "I am a big fan of Virat Kohli. I support the Indian team because of Kohli. Hoisting the Indian Flag on the rooftop of house only shows my love for the Indian Cricketer."

      Mochamad Bagus Syahrial, Arif Imam Suroso, and Iyung Pahan

Abstract: The purpose of this study were to investigate status of ERP implementation, investigate ERP formulation, and investigate factors that can be cause successful or unsuccessful ERP implementation on agribusiness palm oil company of Teladan Prima Group (TPG). The research was conducted at TPG in January-March 2016. The questionnaire were distributed to 118 respondents. The number of questionnaires returned and valid to be analyzed was 60. Questionnaire response rate was 50.85%.

      Tooba Haq, Razia Begum,Tasneem Adam Ali, Seema Iqbal & Farooq Ahmad Khan

Abstract: Herbal solid waste being generated by pharmaceutical industry has been mixed with cow manure and thereafter composted by windrow method. Physico-chemical parameters were monitored before and after 60 days of composting process. pH and EC values of 7.49 and 2.97 respectively were found within the acceptable limit in the finished compost whereas C: N ratio decreased from 26.10 to 10.42 and approximately 42.39 % of the total C was lost during the whole period of composting. Moreover, considerable amount of macro and micro nutrients were found and heavy metals were detected within the permissible limit. Hygienization was determined by disappearance of faecal coliforms and Salmonella after composting process. Total number of faecal coliforms significantly decreased from 2.1x109 to 1.5x102 while Salmonella was eliminated and not found in the finished product. Marked increase in the seed germination (%G) and germination index (GI) values at the final stage has been found while phytotoxicity was observed only in the initial stage of composting.

      P. Satya lakshmi, V. Hari Shankar

Abstract: Fuel efficiency is the biggest design parameter of all heavy transport vehicles.Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The weight of the vehicle is going on increasing due to additional luxurious and safety features. The most effective method is to reduce the weight of the vehicle, but this cannot be done at the expense of safety. Safety here is for both the occupants of the vehicle and the pedestrians.

      Attar Asmawan, Syamsul Ma’arif, Joko Affandi

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of “Langaskara” training in performance, motivation training, and motivation in the performance of Barantan office. The methodology that is done in this research is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), PSAK, and SWOT. This research conclude that human resource is taken as an important part for the operational of the institution, particularly in the government institution. Thus, training is aimed as a tool to develop the potential ability of the employee as well as to courage their motivation. The calculation in this research showed that training is significantly give a positive impact to the performance as it is indicated with the score of 3.01, motivation that significantly influencing to the performance is indicated with the score of 2,70, and training that significantly influencing to the motivation is indicated with the score of 4,49.

      Omima A. Mirghani, Abdelateif H. Ibrahim, Abdelaziz A. Hashim and Awad Elkarim S. O. Khalifa

Abstract: In spite of the vast efforts that have been made by government and NGOs to sustain food security in Sudan, still 4.5 million people of Sudanese are food insecure. Many factors are accountable for this, including: limited access to food, due to low productivity of crops and severely increase of food prices. This tough situation forced farm households to adopt different strategies to cope with their food gaps which is reported between (51-91%) of the total requirements.

      K.M. Panditharathna

Abstract: This study inspects the relationshipsbetween corporate governance attributor firm performance and firm value of listed financial sector companies inSri Lanka. Empirical analysis focused on 56 companies registered in Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) covering industries of bank, finance and insurance for the years 2014 and 2015.Study used hierarchical regression method to analyze the data. Controlling the corporate governance variables through firm size, firm growth and leverage study finds that Return on asset and Tobin Q do not relate with the board structure. Return on equity positively associate with the proportion of independent directors on the board.This study enable to companies to evaluate and restructuring of their board to enhance the performance and value of the company while contributing to the economic development of the country.Findings of prior study are more focused to the developed country context. This study fill the research gap and contribute to the present literature on corporate governance in industries of bank finance and insurance.

      V. Thiagarasu, P. Umasankar

Abstract: In recent years vague set theory has received more and more attention, because many of the real life problems are information in the form of vague values. In this paper an attempt is made to study on triangular vague sets from various perspectives of algebraic properties, graphical representations and practical applications. Operators, namely triangular vague ordered weighted averaging (TVOWA) operator and the triangular vague hybrid aggregation (TVHA) operator are defined for multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems. Based on the triangular vague weighted arithmetic averaging (TVWAA) operator, the TVHA operator and the Hamming distance function for triangular vague sets, a model is developed to solve the Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making (MAGDM) problems. This proposed model is explained with an illustration.

      Pilla. Anitha, V. Hari Shankar

Abstract: Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The weight of the vehicle is going on increasing due to additional luxurious and safety features. Steering Knuckle is one of the critical components of vehicle which links suspension, steering system, wheel hub and brake to the chassis. It undergoes varying loads subjected to different conditions, while not affecting vehicle steering performance and other desired vehicle characteristics.

      Hoong Keong Hui, Surekha Pimple, Navneet Sonawane, Ganesh Shresta

Abstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is generally characterized by inadequate blood flow and usually affects lower limbs. It results in considerable discomfort with symptoms such as aching, itchiness, tiredness and swelling in the legs. In chronic state, pharmacological treatments (surgery, sclerotherapy and mechanical compression) are generally advised because they are easy to administer and well tolerated compared to less compliant compressive treatments (eg. elastic stockings). However, in the early state, conventional treatments such as lifestyle changes and use of topically applied natural or herbal phlebotonics are preferred by patients for the symptomatic relief and Patch-It® (Nutriworks Ltd, Hong Kong) is one such treatment, wherein a herbo-mineral adhesive patch consisting of mandarin wood vinegar, green tea powder and black tourmaline is applied to soles of the feet.


Abstract: The aim of this Study is to design and implement Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis and hotspot detection of Kidney disease of Wilgamuwa Division, MataleDistrict. The Development of this model is motivated to provide opportunity for healthcare practitioner to gain access to information that can aid him/her to locate the areas of patients and to take necessary measures and to implement awareness programs to reduce the number of kidney disease patients. Although considerable research has been for health GIS applications, two challenges still need to be addressed, this relate to health mapping methods and lack of accessibility to an organized data model. To handle this problem we design a Database GIS for hospital staff to support data sharing and representation. The developed model makes it possible for healthcare practitioner to locate the patients. The study explores the use of open source software, ARCGIS 10.1. The analyzed data and the hotspot analysis will pave the way to the medical practitioners to locate the high risk and low risk areas and to identify the relationship of the distribution of patients with the geographical conditions.

      Koushik Mandal, Soumendu Chatterjee, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee

Abstract: In Urban geography, the study of the pattern and morphology of building in urban centres concerted with land use categories, has a cherished legacy which started with formulating mode of the plan that underlies the expression of spatial heterogeneity in housing, commercial activities and industrial activities carried out in an urban system. The present treatise is a humble attempt to analyze the morphological components of Tamluk urban centre, Eastern India. It seeks to explain this urban landscape of historical importance as a post-modern space where built heritage and innovation design of space have become the competitive facets of the urban centre in terms of metamorphosis of urban structure under the influence of processes like urban redevelopment, gentrification, sprawling and intra-urban competition in economic and social context etc. In arriving at the above object, intensive survey has been conducted taking homogeneous building block as the basic unit of study. Building blocks separated by arterial roads were identified from the high resolution satellite images downloaded from open source. Information for each of such building blocks was collected and recorded using pre-designed field manual and questionnaires. Thus a model of urban morphology has been formulated.

      La Panga, Usman Rianse, Marzuki Iswandi, Weka Gusmiarty Abdullah, Meisanti

Abstract: This research aims to: (1) identify the pattern of diversification of farming farmers developed integrated cashew nuts on Muna Regency, (2) know the integrated farming income based on patterns of diversification developed cashew nuts farmers. The research was carried out on the territory of the Center for the development of the mainland people's cashew plantation Island Muna Regency Muna concentrated. The study lasted for five months that the focus on the period of the flowering period to post harvest cashew nuts starting from April to August 2016. The data type of this research is quantitative data and qualitative data, and data sources include primary data and secondary data.

      Marangu Festus Mutegi, Dr. Ombui, K

Abstract: The performance of State Corporations has been a matter of on-going concern in an environment of resource scarcity and mounting needs. A number of policy issues and challenges afflict State Corporations in Kenya including lack of clarity on the role that State Corporations should play in the economy. This is compounded by the apparent differences in opinion in respect of the exact role of the state in the national development effort.

      Lewis Muchuri Maina, Dr. Jane Omwenga

Abstract: This research sought to investigate cultural factors influencing project management in ICT multinational corporations in Nairobi County. The research adopted a quantitative research approach with a focus on descriptive research design and the sampling framework was determined by Slovin’s formula. Stratified sampling technique was applied for sampling the target population with questionnaires being used as principal data collection instruments.

      Violet Nyaboke Matoke, Dr. Jane Omwenga

Abstract: This study sought to establish the relationship between audit quality and financial performance of listed companies in Nairobi Securities Exchange. The specific objectives were: to examine the influence of size of the audit firm on the financial performance of listed companies in NSE, to determine the effect of auditors independence on the financial performance of listed companies in NSE, to establish the effect of attributes of the audit team on the financial performance of listed companies in NSE and to establish how the auditor’s experience influences financial performance of listed companies in NSE.

      Nelson S. Wasilwa, Dr. Jane Omwenga

Abstract: This research studied ICT strategies in the area of automated teller machines, internet banking and mobile banking. These strategies were studied in relation to their effect on commercial banks’ performance indicators namely: profit before tax, customer deposits and effectiveness The target population of this study was 300 employees in its headquarters in Kenya, the sampling frame of this study was derived from the database of CBK which regulates and licenses financial institutions in Kenya, stratified sampling was used in selecting the respondents from their respective levels of management. Data was collected using Likert's scale questionnaireswhich were self-administered.

      A.K. Khatua, P.C. Rout, B.N.Naik

Abstract: Among the heavy metals lead plays no known role in the human body with no deficiency syndromes and a trace of it impairs body physiology. According to WHO health criteria (1995) mining smelting and refining as well as the manufacturing of lead obtaining compounds and goods, can give rise to lead exposure. Health hazards of the human environment include undue exposure to lead remains serious public health concerns (WHO, 1995). Mining and smelting activities of lead are well known to create health problems in local area. Lead poisoning was studied in a mining area of odisha. The study area taken is in between the radius of 5km. from the mining site.

      U.M.G.B. Alahakoon, S.C Tharaka, K.A.L.K Dhananjaya Arachchi, A.Y. Samarakoon and N. Vithana

Abstract: Sri Lanka is mostly famous for agriculture and 39% of Sri Lankan people are farmers in the current era. There are different level of cultivations and different types of cultivations. And there are daily new comers in the agricultural field in present. They do not have proper experience in cultivation. Therefore, those different kinds of cultivations face small to large scale of problems because new farmers have insufficient knowledge about agriculture. Because of those problems, famers can be in an uncertain state about their cultivation. Insufficient knowledge about lands and crops can be a main reason. Since they have less idea about their lands, soil conditions, non-fertile, crops, natural disease, sales problems, etc. This article explains an android and a web based system the supports decisions making in agriculture field. So, with this system farmers can get a good profit as they expected. The system uses data mining and gives most accurate solution to agricultural problems. This is created for spices cultivation in Sri Lanka (Ginger, Pepper, Cinnamon andclove).

      Humma Habib, Syed Naseer

Abstract: Objective: N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a mucolytic drug with insulin sensitizing properties, has been proved useful as an adjuvant therapy in subjects with infertility due to anovulation associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome The objective of the present study is to determine the possible beneficial effect of NAC and to develop a rationale to its use in such cases as an adjunct to clomiphene citrate (CC) which remains the gold standard for ovulation induction.

      Charles Otieno Joabs, Dr. Kepha Andrew Ombui

Abstract: The study sought to establish the effects of devolution on forest conservation and management in Kenya forest service within Nairobi County in Kenya. The study sought to achieve the following specific objectives: to establish whether management style affects the devolution of forest conservation and management in Kenya, to assess whether socio-economic factors affect the devolution of forest conservation and management in Kenya, and to determine whether organizational culture affects on devolution of forest conservation and management in Kenya.

      Isaac Gitangu Kamau, Dr. Kepha Andrew Ombui

Abstract: The main aim of the study was to establish the effects of women involvement in decision making on the performance of county: a case of Kiambu county. The study was guided by three specific objectives which included to identify vocational training opportunities for women that will enable them to attain leadership positions, to identify knowledge gaps in women to enable them participate in running the affairs of Kiambu county and to enact relevant policies that would accelerate implementation of agreed global and regional committees of Gender Equality and Women Empowerment (GEWE) in Kiambu county. The study sought to bridge the existing knowledge gap on the effects of women involvement in decision making on the performance of county. Simple random sampling technique was used whereby subjects were selected from the population. Out of a total population of 50,000, a sample size of 400 respondents was selected for the purpose of the study. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data while the secondary data was collected through review of published documents and text books. The presentation of data was through pie charts. The findings from the study indicate that level of education, position in management, advocacy for women leaders, current leadership and marginalization of women leaders affects the participation of women in leadership affairs of their county.

      W. I. S. J. de Alwis, S. P. P. G. Fernando, D. K. S. Dematagoda andN. Vithana

Abstract: People with disabilities have common needs and requirements as ordinary people, apart from their disability. Disabled individuals who're in wheelchairs and are willing to travel often. Most of them have to fulfill some special requirements and needs before or when they travel. Some of them need special tools or equipment. Many of them carry an umbrella when they go outdoor, whereas normal people does. Currently, most of them have to rely on using a traditional umbrella as others do, or an umbrella which can fix to the wheelchair. After all, they sometimes find hard to use this equipment when they are in wheelchairs. They do need an assistance of another person. Furthermore, they need to hold the umbrella properly to cover from sun and rain. To overcome the issues, we were able to come up with i-Umb, a new device which helps especially to the disabled people in wheelchairs. This research paper briefly describes the research problem, the observations, and researchers which have done for these issues, the new i-umb device and its functionalities, and how our device would help them to solve those problems.

      Vithanage N.S, Ahamed M.I.I, K.D.K.C Jayathilake, K.H.H Thenuka, D.Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Learning is an act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing, values, skills, behaviors, existing knowledge or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Home is the place where early learning of the child starts, parents teach good habits, good manners, good behaviors and respect others. When starting the child to give the traditional education system the child get bored and he/she does not concentrate on the learning. There are certain applications and sites available in the internet but they cannot help the children of 3-5 years and also they cannot identify weak areas of the child, the children of this age have no experience in using a keyboard or a mouse. The research group has come with an idea to teach the children in a fun way so that the children can learn in high concentration. Using motion gestures in the leap motion controller the user/child will be able to interact with the system. The desktop application will be installed on the computer, child will be given series of exercise regarding numbers, letters, words, shapes and colors. Each category will have higher levels, the weak areas of the child can be identified by the parent or teacher and this helps the child to improve in weaker areas. Through this research we provide the children to learn with fun and high concentration towards the game, the evaluation helps the parent or the teacher to identify the weaker areas of the children.

      R. Gnanasekar and R. Vijayalakshmi

Abstract: The study was conducted in twelve clinical cases of horses undergoing diagnostic and surgical procedures warranting general anaesthesia. The cases were randomly divided into two groups: group I and group II, each consisting of six horses. Pre-anaesthetic medication done with Xylazine hydrochloride @ 0.5mg/kg and Acepromazine maleate @0.03 mg/kg body weight in both the groups. Ketamine @ 2.20 mg/ kg body weight and 0.05mg/kg/min was used as induction and maintenance agent in group I and Propofol @ 2.0 mg/kg body weight and 0.15mg/kg/min was used as induction and maintenance agent in group II. The total serum protein showed no significant reduction after sedation, after induction, during maintenance and after recovery in both the groups. There was no significant difference in the neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and monocyte counts in both the groups. The magnitude of blood glucose level was lower in group II compared to that of group I. Group I exhibited an increase in plasma cortisol level, when compared to that of group II.

      Shravan.S.Pargaonkar,Vinaya.V.Patil, Prachi.A.Deshpande

Abstract: As now a days, the demand for fossil fuels is increasing there is a need for finding an alternative source for generating energy. This paper aims to present the solar and wind hybrid systems for generation of energy. The simulation results are taken into consideration for the system to be cost effective. Moreover these systems are reliable and as energy can be generated as per requirement which takes an advantage over other conventional energy generating sources.

      Asaad Kamel Resham, Arkan B. N. PhD

Abstract: A Study aims: A experimental design had been conducted through study in order to determine effectiveness of health education program about health beliefs related to cardiovascular disease on readiness of engagement in healthy behaviors of older adults at geriatric home in Baghdad city.

      Ayat Ibrahim Marhab, Dr. Wissam Jabbar Kassim

Abstract: Study aims: To assess secondary schools female students ' knowledge about personal hygiene before and after the implementation of the Health education program, and determine the effectiveness of Health education program on Secondary Schools Female Knowledge about personal hygiene, and to find out the relationship between their Knowledge and some variables such as, age and educational level of the parents and the economic status.

      Samar Hussein, Afifa Rada

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of educational program on nurses’ knowledge toward preoperative care of children undergoing intestinal obstruction surgery.

      Samuel Nyakundi Mogeni, DR. Jane Omwenga

Abstract: The general objective of the study was to determine the challenges facing the growth of SMEs in the furniture manufacture subsector in Nakuru County town. The target population under study was the licensed furniture manufacturer SMEs by Nakuru town administration in 2015.In order to realize this purpose, this study adopted descriptive survey employing the use of questionnaires and interviews to collect data from a sample size of 100 entrepreneurs in furniture manufacture in Nakuru town who were selected using stratified random sampling. .

      Martin Kariuki Kamau, Dr. Jane Omwenga

Abstract: This research project has analyzed the challenges influencing sustainable monitoring and evaluation of solid waste management projects in the County based on four independent variables namely; technical capacity, performance indicators, budget to support M & E of solid waste management projects and coordination in terms of solid waste depository points and consistency in enforcement of the policies. Random sampling methodology was adopted. At a confidence level of 95% and a significanc level of 5%, a sample of 73 respondents was used for data collection by use of semi-structured questionnaires. Secondary data was collected using published sources such as journals and published articles. Data collected was analyzed using measures of central tendencies, percentages, SPSS, ANOVA and multiple regression and presented using frequency distribution tables and charts. The four independent variables studied were found to collectively influence the dependent variable which is sustainable monitoring and evaluation at 62.1% with 37.9% influence due to other variables not captured in this study. Performance indicators recorded the greatest influence on sustainable monitoring and evaluation at 58%, technical capacity at 19%, coordination at 16% and budget at 7%.

      J. Sriranganesan, H. M. Nasir

Abstract: We consider the scattering problem given by the Exterior Helmholtz equation in two dimension by the finite element method. We use a finite element approximation method for the matrix element which correspond to the exact non-local radiation boundary condition on the artificial boundary. We propose a mixed type approximation method to implement the exact Dirichlet to Neumann (DtN) boundary condition that directly gives an approximation matrix for the Helmholtz problem. We use non- uniform partitioning of the artificial boundary by considering some example for which analytical solution was computed. We prove the convergence of the solution of our method to the exact solution when the exact DtN boundary condition is applied on a circular boundary.


Abstract: In the present study, the adsorbent prepared from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata was used for the removal of nickel(II) ions from wastewater. The adsorption process was influenced by various parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature, pH and dye concentration. The equilibrium data fitted well to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results revealed that the adsorbent obtained from Andrographis paniculata leaf could be employed as an effective low cost adsorbent for the removal of nickel (II) ions from waste water.

      Lakmal G.K.U,Godamanna G.M.N.H,Elapatha E.M.P.Y.S,UdariniW.A.N and D. Dhammearatchi

Abstract: During past few years Indoor navigation systems have been developed in many places such as Airports, Hospitals, Shopping malls, Companies and Museums. Museum 360 is a navigation system design specially for Museums. The system is developed based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Beacons technology instead of using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) technologies. Rather than traditional museum navigation systems, the implemented solution has a new narrating system for navigation, provide descriptions about the items verbally, providing suggestions to visitors what to visit by analyzing past history and also visitors can collect a soft copy of the tour. Museum 360 has two main components, Android application and the server. The system was developed according to the prototype life cycle methodology. When the system is completed it will benefits both of the visitors and museum staff. Visitors can be able to explore the museum as they wish with an efficient narrating navigation system, less time consuming and very descriptive portable tour guide.

      Mesterjon, S.Kom

Abstract: Manual street light monitoring process affects on tardiness of fixing of broken light. This can cause traffic accidents and other crimes. This study is aimed to make street light monitoring application that can be used by people by using SMS Gateway service to the Regional Office of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Kepahyang district. This study uses system development methodology by doing data-need analysis. This study uses structured modeling design started by file design to input output design. The design is implemented into Visual Basic Net Gammu and using MySQL data base. The result of this study is a street light monitoring application based on SMS Gateway that can be used by the Regional Office of Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Kepahyang district.

      Jusuf Wahyudi, Hesti Nur’aini, Lina Widawati

Abstract: Agricultural extension instructor of plant pests and diseases and tackling has been done by the trainers during the many difficulties and obstacles because of the location and the diversity of the problems faced. The limitations of distance and knowledge of the extension in their duties greatly affect the productivity results. To assist the government in resolving the issue, the need for a computer program information system that can be accessed in the location extension. The program should be able to address various issues of plant pests and diseases as well as mitigation. Program in accordance with the specific needs of course to be built specifically.

      Dr. Ala'a Shallal Farhan, Dr.Fatin Shallal Farhan

Abstract: Back ground and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common disorder with endocrine and reproductive abnormality which lead to high risk for development of premature atherosclerotic heart disease in reproductive age group. There are many risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome that associated with risk of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the level of homocysteine as a novel cardiovascular risk marker in polycystic ovarian syndrome women compared to healthy controls.

      Virginia J. Magbanua

Abstract: This study was conductedto determine the English proficiency of the college students covering 305 respondents inCapiz State University, MambusaoUnit. A teacher-made test were used in the collection of data. Frequency, percentage and meanswere used to analyzethe data. Results revealed that in terms of English proficiency, the college students are very satisfactory in terms of grammar, satisfactory in terms of spelling but are not proficient in terms of vocabulary.

      Jelly L. Paredes

Abstract: This study was conductedto evaluate the software quality characteristics of academic information system mobile application for Capiz State University Mambusao Campus using ISO 9126 criteria in terms of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability.

      Mohmad Ashraf Khaja

Abstract: By the middle of the 19th century the state of Jammu and Kashmir was formed (sold to Dogra ruler, Gulab Singh, by British East India Company under the Treaty of Amritsar, 1846) under the protection of the British Government. Under the autocratic rule of Gulab Singh, the basic rights of the Kashmiri Muslims were trampled, they were denied opportunities of socio-economic development and their religious sentiments were intentionally hurt.

      Rahul Ravneel Prasad

Abstract: Chilli is an important vegetable and spice crop worldwide and one of the most important vegetables in Fiji. The major constituent that makes this crop popular, is because it is antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-cancerous. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp is a major problem in Fiji and one of most significant constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study a survey was conducted to assess the percent disease incidence of anthracnose of chilli in five locations in Bulileka area. The percentage incidence of anthracnose affected fruits under field conditions was more in green fruits which ranges from 65.5% to 78.5%. Therefore the percent disease index (PDI) reveals that the predominance presence of anthracnose is a major constraints to profitable of chilli in Bulileka area.

      Umarfarooq Adavudi Abdulwahab, Sanusi Susi Sumaila, Williams Michael Manja, Bright Opoku, Josiah Ibrahim

Abstract: The high cost of treating drinking water makes most poor people in the rural communities resort to readily available sources which are mostly polluted, thus, exposing them to water borne diseases. It is in the light of this that this research was carried out to find out the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringaoleiferaseeds; a cheap and readily available natural coagulant. The physiochemical treatment of water treated with Moringa seed powder and alum were compared and analyzed. 2g, 3g, 4g and 5g concentrations for both alum and Moringaseed powder were used and their result compared. A control was also included. The settlement time of suspended particles, pH and conductivity measurements were noted prior and after treatments. Even though alum was a better coagulant judging from the settling time, Moringa concentrations did not influence the pH to acidic level. There is a slight increase in conductivity for Moringa treatment while there was a high increase in conductivity with increase in concentration of alum. Findings from this study indicates that Moringaoleifera seed powder can be a potentially viable substitute to alum in the treatment of water.

      Deepu Pandita, Anu Pandita, Shanu Pandita

Abstract: God has marked everything on this cosmos with a sign or “signature” for their appliance by human beings, the concept of which is known as Doctrine of Signatures. The substances of plant origin like Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), Walnut (Juglans regia), Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus), Celery (Apium graveolens), Avocados (Persea americana), Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Pears (Pyrus spp.), Figs (Ficus carica), Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Grapes (Vitis vinifera), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), Olives (Olea europaea), Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Onions (Allium cepa L.), Grapefruits (Citrus × paradisi), Oranges (Citrus × sinensis), Bananas (Musa spp.), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Brinjal (Solanum melongena), Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), Adiantum capillus-veneris ,Orchis sp, Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), Hedge woundwort (Stachys sylvatica), Liverwort, Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis), Spleenwort or Miltwort (Asplenium spp.), Toothwort (Lathraea spp.), Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) , Ginseng (Panax spp.), Melissa officinalis, Antirrhinum majus, Doronicum scorpiodes, Rheum spp., Anastatica hierochuntica, and substances of animal origin like from Sepia species, Tubipora musica (Coral), Lampyris species, Buglossoides arvensis and substances of mineral origin like from Cidaris spp. exhibit doctrine of signatures.

      M.M.Emara, Farouk AbdElaziz, Youssef Hassan Elbarbary

Abstract: The importance of water treatment before using it in boilers is extremely necessary to guarantee the quality of industrial product and its validity for human consumption. This study deals with this very subject on one of the textile industrial company in Al- Buhayrah governorate, Egypt, namely TETCO Company. Water was characterized before feeding it in to boiler and was found to be turbidity, hardness, T.D.S, alkalinity, organic matters, silica and pH are 0.72, 164, 396,146, 3.2, 2.5, 7.5 respectfully. The results indicated the inconsistency of the water with the needed standard ones. This was reflected on the quality of cotton Lycra collected after dying process specially its color homogenity (leveling and direction) when the treatment of water to be used in boiler was modified using carbon filter, sand filter, softener and R.O units, the results was greatly improved. The treated water was found to have Appearance, hardness, T.D.S, alkalinity, organic matters, silica and pH are, clear, zero, 20, 22, zero, 1.5 and 9 respectfully, these results were in accordance with both BS and ES standards and were reflected on the quality of the product very positively.

      V. S. S. Kaushalya, K. D. D. P. Premarathne, H. M. Shadir, P. Krithika, S. G. S. Fernando

Abstract: There is an immense population of the visually impaired around the globe. Several research has been carried out to provide a technical aid to such people. The motivation of the system is to help blind people where they can move along without a dependent. Since there were existing on blind stick navigation, Akshi compose some unique features. Overall this research providing a solution for a blind person to move independently and securely with the use of as Raspberry Pi 2, HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Distance Measuring Transducer Sensor, 5V 2V Rechargeable Battery, GSM module, RFID Reader, RFID Tags. Some of the sub-problems that we faced during the course of our research were deciding on cost- effective and interoperable solutions, integrating the obstacle detection mechanism with location detection and implementing open source code and efficient coding techniques. An economically viable product which used open source was the key element to developing our prototype.

      Dr. Rajha A. Hamza Al.Kassar

Abstract: Aims: to assess nurse' perception of drug errors in the hospitals, and to identify the association between demographical characteristics and Nurses' perception of the causes of medication errors, also to find out the association between demographical characteristics and Nurses' reporting medication errors.

      Dr.SahibYahya AL-Murshedi

Abstract: Aim: The current study was aimed to assess the effect of the addition of vitamin E to sperm freezing medium on cryosurvival rate of sperm motility. Study Design: A case control study .

      Sophia Otoki

Abstract: There is lack of lean practices and the future of the printing industry is full of close down threats by the digital and paperless media which poses a challenge worth serious attention and the big question lies on whether now, it is a choice or a decision printing firms need to take consideration of lean operation practices in order to survive this catastrophe. It is not clear whether the effects of the lean operation practices in the print industry affect performance of this industry. This study sought to investigate the empirical effects of entrepreneurial lean operation practices of Just-in-Time (JIT), Total Quality Management (TQM), Total Productive Management (TPM) and Human Resource Management (HRM) practices on organizational performance in the printing industry. A desktop research of 103 papers out of the total 318 previously identified was done, this purely involved secondary data sources’ review and by aid of descriptive research design. The empirical findings reveal that lean operation printing practices can help to reduce cost by eliminating waste and having continuous improvement of the processes.

      ZainabNeamatJumaah Al-Taee, Kafi Mohammed Nasir Al-Asadi

Abstract: Objective:this study aimedtoevaluating the nurse’s knowledge regarding partographand to determine the effectiveness of nursing educational program by comparing the pre-test and post-test score on nurse's knowledge regarding partograph

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