International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2019 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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      Shailaja Udtewar, Delroy Dsouza, Anugrah Aghamkar

Abstract: Visible Light Communication (VLC) system employ visible light for wireless communication that occupy the spectrum ranging from 380 nanometer to 750 nanometer. The paper describes an application of the Visible Light Communication (VLC) in museums. VLC technology is used for giving information about different monuments in the museum. This approach to convey information aims to replace current methods of delivering information using a MP3 player and other wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or RF. The optical source, LEDs perform two functions, illumination and transmission, simultaneously and is connected over the monuments. An audio information signal is used as a modulation signal to vary the intensity of light emitted by the optical sources. This audio signal contains the factual information related to the monuments. The receiver modules are connected to headphones. The modulated optical signal is sensed at photosensitive target and is demodulated at the receiver end. In this way, the factual information related to the monument is conveyed to the visitors.

      Pradeep Kumar Gupta, A.Narang, Rableen Kaur, Ekta Jaiswal

Abstract: Background: Despite the advances in perinatal and neonatal care and use of newer potent antibiotics, the incidence of neonatal sepsis remains high and the outcome is still severe.

      Idris Mu’azu, Samaila Mohammed Tomsu

Abstract: Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are people who have been forced to flee their homes due to violence or conflict but still remain within the border of their country (UNHCR 2014). A serious source of concern however lies with internally displacement of persons arising from human induced violent clashes and conflict in recent times. IDPs arising from violent and clashes are victims of various kind of injustices or violent confrontations, perpetrated against them by their own government or agent of communal clashes, natural disasters, religious conflict among others.

      Nurul Ilmiyah, WaspodoTjipto Subroto, Nasution

Abstract: The rapid of ICT devices development has impacted in excessive information dissemination. Unfortunately, the response of education world especially school still relies on the information access and the ability of the student using ICT tools. This research aims to find the impact of the application inquiry learning method on student’s critical thinking skill. This research was conducted on Elementary School students of Simokerto VI / 139 Surabaya. The method used is the experimental method using treatment design by level 2 x 2

      Risa Puji Lestari, Waspodo Tjipto Subroto, Nasution

Abstract: Social studies education aims to understand and develop knowledge, cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspect and to prepare the student as good citizens. But in fact, social studies education is still conventional and centered on teacher. The purpose of the research is to find the impact of using digital literacy for inquiry based learning on student critical thinking skill. This research sample was quasi experimental. the research design was a pretest-posttest control group design and the sample was the VB and VC classes that have been selected through random sampling techniques. The result of analysis claims that critical thinking skill was obtained thitung = 13,539 with significance of 0,05 and df 38. Thefore, digital literacy for inquiry based learning has significant toward improving critical thinking skill.

      Mohamed Thoyyib

Abstract: A theoretical framework including categories of factors and their associated indicators is derived from previous studies and used to examine e-Policing systems from the perspective of police and citizens in a developed nation (Singapore) compared to a developing nation (Maldives). Data collected by questionnaire from a sample of citizens and police from both nations is used to test hypotheses related to the indicators in the framework. The findings provide insights into e-Policing practices and services provided via social network services (SNS) and location-based services in a developed and a developing nation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

      Philip Onyango , Regina Nyunja, George Opande, Stephen Fedha Sikolia

Abstract: The study was conducted in Eastern Mau is one of the East Mau forest is an important watershed within the Mau Forest Complex, feeding major rivers and streams that make up the hydrological systems of Lake Victoria and inland Lakes of Nakuru, Baringo and Natron to document the bee flora and their respecetive reward value to compliment the participatory forest conservation approaches incorporating the Ogieks who are predominant forest dwellers, and known for bee keeping skills, to aid in bee keeping extension services and by extension forest conservation.

      Premaa Supramaniam, Aisyah binti Ali, Chong Li Yun, Chua Pei Yi, Azalilah binti Shaari, Nur Hidayah binti Kamaruzaman, Siaw Jia Yi, Tey Keat Ming, Woon Yuan Liang, Yong Pei Wen

Abstract: Objective: In this study, the Believe about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) questionnaire was translated into Malay and validated among Malaysian diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

      Ayinde Akeem Shola, Jimoh Morufat Motolani, Aibinu Abdulmumin Taiye

Abstract: Present work aims to determine the relationship between Kelvin radii and Bulk hygroscopicity factor, the effects of these factors on Kelvin effect and Water activity of atmospheric aerosol and investigate how both Kelvin effect and Water activities affect atmospheric processes based on (MVN mix ratios). In the present study, microphysical properties of aerosols were extracted from the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) at seven relative humidity (50%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98% and 99%) for ten aerosol models (Arctic, Antarctic, Continental clean, continental polluted, continental average, Desert, Maritime clean, maritime polluted, maritime tropical and Urban,).

      Nsikan E. John, Ekeins-Wilson T. Margaret, Tarela O. Anyandike, Maria M. Ortencia

Abstract: Understanding the internal drivers of petroleum supply chain disruptions could provide a clue to finding lasting solution to the perennial incidence of petroleum product shortages in Nigeria. This study takes another look at petroleum supply chain disruption in Nigeria oil and gas industry by identifying the drivers of disruption and determining mitigation strategies. The study adopted survey method to randomly draw 284 supply chain executives from oil and gas marketing and logistics firms in Nigeria downstream petroleum industry.

      Dr. Kalpana Sharma, Ms. Harsha Sharma

Abstract: Biological control is a natural ecological phenomenon. Which can be successfully used in the management of pesticides, and it can be a balanced, sustainable and economical pest control tool. The use of micro-organisms for pesticides is called microbial control. This is a new aspect of biological control, in which the use of pesticides microbes is used for their control.

      Okolo Margaret Amina

Abstract: The vast and rapid developments in computer communications have significantly affected contemporary educational system. This study was a comparative analysis of assessment of the availability and utilization of ICT resources in public and private secondary schools in FCT Abuja. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling technique was employed. The target population was 2,472 and 331 subjects was randomly selected.

      Hassan I. Osman, Doaa F. Elmardi

Abstract: With the scope of medical research expanding on a daily basis and with more and more diseases being much better understood than they were even only a few decades ago, we thought it would only be logical if we were to explore those diseases, syndromes and states which have yet to receive their fair share of this ever expanding research paradise we are all currently experiencing. With that being said, our infrequently studied syndrome for today is AIWS (Alice in Wonderland Syndrome). As far as we know, the true first description of the syndrome was in 1952 by Lippman[1]. First termed by Todd [2] over 6 decades ago, we have come a long way in understanding the disease since Todd’s efforts for which we will be forever thankful.

      Leslie Chandrakantha

Abstract: Dengue fever is a mosquito–borne disease caused by the dengue virus. Transmission of the virus depends on the presence of Aedes mosquito. Dengue has become a global problem and is common in more than a hundred countries. It is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been a major public health challenge in Sri Lanka in recent years. Mosquito generation and the spread of dengue are known to be influenced by the climate. Identifying the climate factors that affect dengue outbreaks would be helpful to take necessary actions to prevent the spread of dengue. In this paper, we study the climate factors affecting the spread of dengue in the city of Colombo, Sri Lanka from the period of 2010 to 2018.

      Abd Rahman Ismail, Tengku Shahrom Tengku Shahdan, Astri Yulia

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to look at the literature review on Blended Learning. In accordance with the development of learning technology, pedagogy is also growing. Many countries through higher education and schools have implemented this Blended Learning pedagogy. Blended Learning is a combination of two teaching pedagogies which are traditional face to face and E-Learning. This paper also provides the breakdown of both modes of study to determine whether the learning is under Blended Learning or not. This study also states the Blended Learning characteristics to be observed by researchers. The main characteristics are listed as a guideline to practitioners in order to implement Blended Learning in educational practices.

      Dr. Surjya Chutia

Abstract: The impact of globalization on poverty eradication has increasingly become the focus of attention of all states governments and organizations of north east India. During the last twenty five years of the globalization period we have seen both the positive and negative impacts on different aspects of the Indian economy. As well serious repercussions can be seen in the north east region of India which is dominated by the people of different tribes and ethnic groups having own cultural heritages. It is seen that there is a steady incremental tendency in the list of the millionaires and billionaires in the society on one hand and there has been a steady increase in the proportion of persons living bellow poverty line during the period. It reflects that the resources available are grabbed by the rich section of our society and making the poor either remain poor or to become poorer. In this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the impacts of globalization on poverty in the North East Region of India.

      Félix Mateus, Feng Liu

Abstract: In this paper, an electronic (Transistor MOSFET) genetic toggle switch is discretized by the Euler method. The proposed model is discussed by using ordinary differential equations that describe the system behaviour. The stability has been analysed using Jacobian matrix, theorems, and lemmas that illustrate its stability. Two units of MOSFET transistors compose the proposed circuit model, which acts as two genes repressing each other. Different behavior has been analysed such as bifurcation and chaos, based on the numerical simulations that illustrate the theoretical results.

      Asst. Prof. Zabihullah Adabpal

Abstract: This study is conducted to discover the literary value of the word nature in literature. The word nature is used in English language denoting different meanings in different contexts viz. character, property, creation and so on. This paper tries to focus on nature in literature especially nature (alternate spelling Nature) in the philosophy of Romanticism. The Romantic Movement is from nature to the imagination’s freedom . . . and the imagination’s freedom is frequently purgatorial, redemptive in direction but destructive of the social self. The main objective of this study is to encourage readers to particularly refer to the beauty of Nature and enjoy the creation of this physical universe. It is also an objective of this study to gently differentiate the different meanings of nature in different contexts

      Yüksel GÜRSOY, Ramazan GÖRAL

Abstract: In recent years, many destinations have entered to international tourism market. This situation has made tourism competitiveness a strategic issue for countries, regions and businesses. One of the important factors determining competitive power in tourism is efficiency. Different approaches have been developed for measuring, modeling and managing the efficiency in tourism field. The aim of this study is to calculate the efficiency of tourism sector of 129 countries worldwide by taking advantage of the present literature and to create an efficiency index.

      Rudi Chandra, Irma Damayanti Roesyanto-Mahadi, Ariyati Yosi

Abstract: Introduction: Chronic liver disease (CLD), caused by occurrence of abnormalities that occur continuously without healing in at least six-months. Among all extrahepatic manifestations of liver disease, skin manifestations are the most common.

      MS. K.Tasrrufoon,.Dr. T.Vasundhara Tulasi

Abstract: A single group pre-test and post-test design was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of Planned Health Education on Weaning among mothers in the selected urban slums, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted by Ms. K. Tasrufoon, at Apollo College of Nursing, Hyderabad in partial fulfillment of the requirement to obtain degree of M.Sc.(N), Dr.N.T.R.University of Health Sciences, Gunadala, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh.

      Obasi, Kenneth K.

Abstract: The study examined instructional space planning for secondary education in Delta State. It adopted the descriptive survey design. The population was all the public and private secondary schools. The sample for the study was 225 schools (public-115, private-110), which is 25% of the population. Stratified random sampling technique was used. A checklist was used to obtain data from the study. Data generated were analysed using percentage. The study revealed that the level of instructional space planning was higher in public schools than in private schools. The study recommended that stringent measures should be put in place to ensure strict compliance to policy provisions in this regard especially among privately owned schools. Public private partnership (PPP) should be pursued in funding education in order to ensure the provision of standardized learning facilities in view of the heavy financial implications.

      Obasi, Kenneth K, Oke, Ifeoma

Abstract: The study investigated the administrative provisions for teacher mentoring in Public secondary schools in Imo State. The descriptive survey design was adopted by the study. One research question guided the study and one hypothesis was tested. The population of the study consisted of all the Public Secondary Schools in Imo State. The respondents were all the 283 principals and 10,378 teachers, giving a total of 10,661 respondents.

      Niruba Sarath Jayasundara

Abstract: As a major part of sociolinguistics, language planning has become a major research topic for many scholars. As a branch of Applied Linguistics, language planning is not a theoretical field of academic research, but mainly based on solving language problems in society. This paper explains the language diversity in Sri Lanka and the issues related with implementing the proper language planning policy in a socio-linguistic perspective.it further elaborates the planning language in educational settings .i.e. language-in-education planning or acquisition planning.

      Moch Amin Nurdin, S.Sos, DR Lenny Christina Nawangsari, ST, MM

Abstract: This research aims to examine and analyze the influence of followership, organizational commitment, job satisfaction on the level of LPPI organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study was conducted using a non-probability sampling method, where samples were not randomly selected, but using a convenience sampling technique where of the 233 LPPI permanent employee populations, 147 were determined to be respondents in this study.

      Várfi Nikolett, Lenny Christina Nawangsari

Abstract: Impact of human resource management practices on organizational citizenship behaviour has been widely researched for years. The study is aimed to explore the effect of human resource management (HRM) practices on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the leisure and entertainment sector in Indonesia, questionnaires were distributed to 146 respondents to the employee of Kelapa Gading Mall. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between four HRM practices (Employee Staffing, Training and Development, Compensation and Rewards and Performance Appraisal) and OCB, besides multiple linear regression analysis was used to find out the joint effect of various HRM practices against OCB.

      Marilou Jose del Rosario

Abstract: This study sought to identify and improve the level of foreign language speaking anxiety of Senior High School (SHS) students and develop their core speaking skills through a Model for Teaching Speaking, the teaching-speaking cycle.

      Sebsib Muanenda, Abebe Yabeker, Shemsu Ligani

Abstract: Superior grain yield across environment is the main goal of teff breeders. The genotype by environment (G x E) interaction influence on grain yield, plant height and shoot biomass were analyzed by application of ANOVA. The objective of this study was to compare the means of teff genotypes tested in an experiment and to identify the effect of genotypes and environment on teff production. Data for this study comprised of 18 teff genotypes grown in twelve locations (environment) obtained from Debre Zeit teff research program.

      Roshan Pokhrel, Prabhat Pokharel, Arun Kumar Timalsina, PhD

Abstract: Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a form of defense that aims to detect suspicious activities and attack against information systems in general. With new types of attacks appearing continuously, developing adaptive and flexible security oriented approaches is a severe challenge. In this scenario, this thesis presents an anomaly-based intrusion detection technique as a valuable technology to protect the target system against malicious activities. This technique uses a semi-supervised learning model to identify and learn from past events as manifested in system logs and build a user behavior profile. The observed behavior of the user is analyzed to infer whether or not the normal profile supports the observed one. This is carried out using two-class classifiers. A new hybrid approach using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) is proposed to provide better accuracy and to reduce the problem of high false positive. The comparison of the proposed approach is made with other SVM and NB techniques. Hybrid approach is found to outperform SVM and NB. For the validation of the result, cross-validation is employed, and the result is presented using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. The experimentation is implemented in datasets from two different organizations.

      Evans Geoffrey Mogeni

Abstract: Maize is the global leading cereal in terms of production, planted on over 184 million hectares globally with 1,016 million metric tonnes. Kenya has the potential to be self-reliant and can produce surplus to export to other countries. Specifically, the country has the comparative advantage of producing maize compared to other maize producing countries particularly her neighbours, but her maize production is not adequate to feed the population and the imports of maize to bridge the deficit is undermining the achievement of the national agenda under the Kenya Vision 2030.

      Success Eni Kalu, Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu, Reagan Bisong Agbor

Abstract: A large population of the world today depend on plant and plant resources food and as remedy for health challenges and wellbeing. Plants naturally contain in them phytochemicals which prevent and protect them against infections and diseases and these phytochemicals have been reported very useful for human’s health and wellbeing. They are extracted from plants and used as lifesaving drugs for several disorders.

      Hakim Ali Rhuma

Abstract: Risk exists as a consequence of uncertainty and is present in all activities whatever the size or complexity and whatever industry or business sector. It is important to understand that risk is a broader concept than the traditional view of merely a threat.

      Dr. Swati Sharma

Abstract: Kolkata has own tradition in Music field. Principally Thumri came from Benaras, Lucknow and the other part of the country, called as Purab ang, After then Punjab and Thumari has come. But Kolakata accepted both of the styles and they have been synchronized into one.

      Darrell Tan

Abstract: The purpose of the research is to identify key factors on how shoppers make decisions in purchasing at a retail store. Many retail companies practice on training all staff to explain everything about the product and offering a discount, which allows shoppers in making a purchase at their store. The hypothesis for retail staff is as long as the service provided by the retail staff is sufficient, the customer will start to make a purchase. A survey was done on shopper’s behavior in Asia. Results show that some customer requires attention from retail staff to make the decision while others solely depending on their judgment. 2 factors were taken into the study, clarity of product in mind and trust in making the decision. Training retail staff can be customized accordingly for more transaction to be closed.

      P. S. Kachare, Avinash K. Parkhe, A. A. Utpat

Abstract: The importance use of composite materials has been increasing consistently in different industries like civil, mechanical, aerospace engineering due to their advantageous properties. Rotating beams play an essential role in engineering structures such as turbine blades, airplane propellers, and robot manipulators, helicopter blades.

      Nikhil Sarta, Chander Mohan Parsheera

Abstract: The tourist destination, one of the most important subsystems of tourism is also influenced by the evolution of society. People want to visit unknown places, interact with new races and have experiences, which were hitherto out of their reach. Mass tourism is slowly but surely decimating the natural beauty of popular tourist destinations and turning their once idyllic towns into urban nightmares. Alternate tourist destinations are coming into limelight in this ever changing world. Rohru, one of the promising tourist destinations of the future. Rich in untouched scenic beauty popular for its quality apple; also has many high snow belts like Chanshil Top (Rohru), Surachali Top(Rohru-jubbal). Khara-pathar (jubbal) Sungri etc. and several beautiful valleys like Hatkoti makes it an ideal destination for trekkers and adventure loving tourists.

      Joko Suprianto, Wahyu Sukartiningsih, Titik Indarti, Waspodo Tjipto Subroto

Abstract: This research aims to develop and test the quality of learning media in the form of visual literacy-based learning media to improve students critical thinking skills. The model of the research used is the Thiagarajan, Semmel & Semmel research and development (R & D) model. Media feasibility is based on the results of validation. The practicality of the media is based on the results of observations on the implementation of learning, student activities, and media practicality questionnaires.

      Bijoy Sankar Saikia

Abstract: Terrorism in Northeast India has a long history, so does mass media. While local media was still very small in size and reach in the early phases of terrorism in the region, the last two decades of the last century saw tremendous expansion of media alongside rising terrorist activities. Media and conflict enjoy a kind of symbiotic relationship. Media growth has a strong correlation with uncertainty in society. There was a significant rise in newspaper publication and readership in the US during World War II, in France during the French Revolution and in Britain during the Industrial Revolution.

      Garba Sahabi Adamu

Abstract: This paper presents results of a study that investigates the effects of English language comprehension on the achievement in engineering Mathematics. The population of the study was the entire year one and two (National Diploma I and II) students of Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria (n<700). A sample of two hundred and eighty seven (287) students was selected using simple random sampling. Pearson correlation, paired samples t-test and Independent sample t-test were used to analyze data using SPSS version 20.0.

      Boudahri. K, Al-HassanAbdul Wahab, Johannsen L.O,Njoroge L. W, Semlali. K.

Abstract: Integrated management approaches in an area of increasing water stress is mandatory for conflict prevention and a good optimization of the common use. A combination of equitable political cooperation with balanced management practices can surely maintain a sustainable economic growth. Among the main international water bodies, the Mekong River is the largest in Asia. Its management approaches face different challenges. This paper aims to define the objectives and principles implemented by the different countries surrounding the Mekong River and to highlight the achievements through effective management projects.

      Babalola Obasanjo James and Ogundele Ayodele Victor

Abstract: Road transport infrastructures are naturally exposed to several degradation factors. Traffic load (weight) and weather conditions represent two major causes of degradation which in turns result to demurrage an aftermath of delay. Asphalt rutting, bridge cracking, potholes, drainage system obstruction are all examples of weather induced degradation. Asphalt rutting for instance is induced by high temperature, but the effect is enhanced under high truck traffic axle load. Weather-related events such as (rainfall, blizzards, flood, sheet, snow and ice) are significant disruptors of travel time and other transport related operations.

      CitraAnnisa Nurfadila, Ngadino Surip D, Shinta Amalina Hazrati Havidz

Abstract: This research examines and analyzes the influence of training and development on work discipline and its implications for the performance of the heads of state primary and secondary schools in the East Bekasi sub-district. There were 82 respondents, all of whom were principals whose status was ASN. Data collection is done by interviews and questionnaires. The research methodology used is descriptive statistics, in data analysis techniques using SmartPLS 3.2.7 application.

      Naning Dwi Sulystyaningsih, Rajuddin Syamsuddin, Zainuddin

Abstract: Kappaphycus alvarezii is one type of algae that is widely cultivated by coastal communities. Seaweed growth can be hampered due to fluctuating waters and extreme conditions. Where one of the factors that influence the growth of seaweed is the level of depth. Other factors that affect the growth of seaweed and can reduce production include changes in salinity, water temperature, light intensity, this is the main factor triggering the outbreak of ice-ice disease. When seaweed is stressed, it can facilitate ice-ice disease and epiphytic infections attack under stressful conditions Sargassum aquifolium contains active compounds that function as antibacterial, antiviral and anti-fungal substances used as a barrier to the development of bacterial pathogens so that they can increase grass yields. Alvarezii.


Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. Haemodialysis patients frequently report pain during A.V. fistula puncture. Research evidence shows that cutaneous stimulation is an independent nursing intervention that is advocated to minimize pain in patients. Cryotherapy is the application of superficial cold & it is considered as the best cutaneous stimulation technique in terms of pain reduction. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of cutaneous stimulation technique on the A.V. fistula puncture pain among chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis.

      Farza Baber, Muhammad Rizwan

Abstract: Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is one of the biggest components of intelligent transportation system (ITS). VANET requires routing protocols but it’s a challenging task as we have to check city environment, vehicle speed and network partitioning. VANET have many routing protocols but the most promising protocol is Position based protocol as it avoids overhead, heavy storage, delays, disruption of nodes, wasting bandwidth. Position based routing protocol are on geographical position of vehicles to select best path to exchange data. This paper discus GPSR and A-STAR routing protocol. We deal with many GPSR improved versions to get the best path by lowering the delay and tackling low delivery rate. This paper aims to improve A-STAR so that it not only facilitate urban area by predicting the motions of vehicles to improve efficiency but also by getting distance to get accuracy for data to be routed. A-STAR uses Dijktra’s algorithm, but this paper uses curvemetric algorithm to find best path.

      M.T.C.N.S.De Silva

Abstract: Telecommunication has become extremely competitive in today’s world. Therefore service organization cannot survive successfully without delivering high quality service. In the context of relationship marketing, service quality and customer satisfaction is often viewed as a central determinant of customer retention. According to some studies, acquiring new customers is calculated as being five times more costly than the expenses of retaining an existing customer (Hurley, 2004; Reichheld & Kenny, 1990). In the long run building and maintaining a successful long term relationship as well as survival in today’s competitive marketplace demands the delivery of quality service to customers.

      Mehari Mariye, Melesse Maryo, Tigabu Dinke, Yang Changming, Brhane Weldegebrial

Abstract: The causes of land cover /land use (LCLU) change are various, and in Ethiopia resettlement undertakings are increasingly becoming a reason for ongoing changes in LCLU. This study of LCLU changes and of advances and performance of agroforestry practices was conducted at Pawe, a resettlement area in northwestern Ethiopia. Investigation of LCLU changes involved a comparison of classified satellite images from 1986 to 2001, coupled with the application of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) for the two years were also calculated and compared, to supplement the changes in the natural vegetation cover over the period. In addition, with the help of selected participatory methods, data for the assessment of agroforestry practices, perceptions of the locals about LCLU change and other socio-economic dimensions of the resettlement district, were collected. From the 1986 satellite image, four distinct LCLU classes were described: (i) Bare Land, (ii) Grassland, (iii) Bamboo and Thickets, (iv) Agriculture land/Settlement. The same procedure for the 2001 image resulted in five distinct LCLU classes: (i) Bare Land, (ii) Grassland, (iii) Irrigated land, (iv) Investment Agriculture and (v) Agriculture land/Settlement. Over the 15-year study period, changes in the bamboo and thickets LCLU class was striking; it was completely changed to other LCLU classes at an annual reduction rate of 3.26%, equivalent to an area reduction of 1224.4 hectares. The calculated NDVIs also revealed the indiscriminate vegetation clearance following the establishment of the resettlement district. Multiple factors, such as agricultural land expansion, construction wood harvesting, and fuelwood collection were mentioned as causes of the reduction in vegetation cover, and in particular for the complete de-vegetation of the bamboo and thickets. Home gardening, trees on farmlands (parkland agroforestry), woodlots, live fences, an

      Asriani, Muhammad Yusri Karim, Hasni Y. Azis

Abstract: Silvofishery is a cultivation activity in the mangrove area without removing the function of the mangrove natural ecosystem. This study aims to find the best mangrove vegetation in the maintenance of silvofishery system mangrove crabs. The study was conducted in the mangrove area of Mandalle Village, Mandalle District, Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. The research container used a bamboo cage measuring 1.0x1.0x1.0 m which were plugged into 3 types of mangrove vegetation, namely: Avicennia, Rhizophora, and Sonneratia. The test crabs used were weighing 150 ± 10 g which were maintained for 40 days.

      K P Naveen Reddy, Undavalli Harichandana, T Alekhya, Rajesh S M

Abstract: Robotic process automation (or RPA) is associate rising type of business process automation technology supported the notion of software system robots or artificial intelligence (AI) workers. In traditional workflow automation tools, a software developer produces inventory actions to automatism a task and interface to the back-end system exploitation internal application programming interfaces (APIs) or dedicated scripting language. In distinction, RPA systems develop the action list by looking at the user perform that task within the applications graphical user interface (GUI), and then perform the automation by repetition those tasks directly with in the GUI. This may lower the barrier to use of automation in products that may not otherwise feature arthropod genus for this purpose.

      Chernet Zerga Wejira

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine EFL students and teachers perception and practice of learner autonomy at Wolyta Sodo University, Ethiopia. To achieve this purpose, descriptive survey method was employed. Simple random sampling was used to select 112 subjects out of 398 student population. The obtained data were analyzed by employing statistical tools such as frequency, percentage, mean, Chi-square and independent sample t-test using SPSS window 15 software. Participants’ responses show that students did not seem to exert effort in involving autonomous learning activities. Similarly, the teachers were not able to encourage learners to do these activities and tasks by themselves.

      Faiza Tanweer

Abstract: In ELT, the lexical competence is deemed to be at the heart of communicative competence. Research demonstrates that Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) make learning easier and long lasting, but the learners are required to be trained in the use of VLS. The lexical needs are unique to the learners, and hence the strategies too. Teaching English vocabulary to EFL students is a difficult and challenging process. Most of the foreign language teachers and learners ask which method is more effective but there is no fixed answer for this question, as in this era of multimedia and internet numerous methods are available at the fingertips of the learners as well as the teachers. But there are certainly many suggestions regarding this issue , like traditional method of making a note book, regularly reviewing and using them in proper context, or using multimedia technology which also includes many devices or techniques like audio sounds, movies, videos, graphics, pictures, animation, charts, colors, etc.

      Bulus Tikon, Adebiyi Oyekunle Olusegun, Dr. Nahshon Hannaniah, Likki, Prof. Stephen Sana’ah, Hamafyelto

Abstract: This study determined cohesion (Personal and Team) factors as determinant of team performance satisfaction of El-Kanemi Warriors Football Club in Nigeria Premier League in 2017/2018 season. To achieve this, the study was guided by two hypotheses. A correlational research design was used for this study and the population for the study was made up of all the registered players of El-Kanemi Warriors football club in Nigeria premier league in 2017/2018 season. Comprehensive sampling technique was used for the study.

      Olden Lahamendu, Benny B. Binilang, Orbanus Naharia, J.A.M Rawis

Abstract: This study aims to analyze in a descriptive and inferential manner the influence of headmasters leadership, teacher pedagogic competencies, teacher performance, on the school climate in senior high schools in the Sangihe archipelago, North Sulawesi Province, with the objects being teachers, headmasters and the deputy headmaster, a sample of 130 people consisting of 100 teachers, 30 headmaster’s and deputy headmaster’s in 15 high schools in the sangihe island district.

      Guinevere Bennett, Cathleen St. Dennis

Abstract: This study identifies use of standing desks and potential outcomes, and aims to increase the body of knowledge of classroom learning strategies using ergonomic modifications. This study seeks to determine the feasibility of whether standing desks “Can Work.” Data was gathered from eighteen students in a masters level occupational therapy program to evaluate if use of standing desks was distracting to learning, led to changes in comfort in various body parts and improved attention, participation, and/or retention of material.

      G.V.P. Samranayake, K.P.P. Peiris, A.A.J. Pushpakumara

Abstract: Acne is a multifactorial disease exhibiting distinct clinical presentations. Among them, the cat menial type is a matter of concern for young women. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of overnight applications of paste made of traditional herbal formulation which contains Nutmeg (Miristica fragrans) and Curd. The herbal extract used here were of the plants described in Ola leave manuscript. The efficacy of the treatment using the external application has been assessed through conduct of trial in 30 patients for 3 months in a randomized. Thirty patients participated to clinical trial and completed successfully. All the patients were available to obtain measurements at all the measuring sessions.

      Gosa Bekele, Ayalew Bekele

Abstract: A tractor drawn wheat row planter was fabricated in Asella Agricultural Engineering Research Center workshop and evaluated at Munesa woreda of Oromia region at farmer’s field level. The project was undertaken due to the fact that most of the imported planters usually have maintenance problems in addition to high costs of procurement that are not affordable to an average farmer. Calibration of planter for wheat seeds and granular fertilizer (DAP) was carried out. The average seed rate under laboratory testing of evaluated row planter for wheat (Shorima variety) and fertilizer (DAP) were found to be 116.18 and 99.58 kg/ha respectively.

      Masroor Khan

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to enhance the cloud security and improve the data efficiency in cloud outsourcing. As the secu-rity of the cloud data is an important issue in cloud outsourc-ing, proper algorithm is necessary. Here in this paper a mech-anism for the cloud security has been proposed. The mecha-nism propose two algorithm, one is based on machine learning and another is based on neural network. The machine learn-ing base algorithm is based on the KNN algorithm and the neural network technique is based on data fragmentation and hashing technology. Both of these algorithms are efficient to enhance the cloud security through encryption for cloud data in the cloud server.

      Babita Agrawal

Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the minerals and organic constituents of the bones of fish Channa striatus at three different stages. All minerals are present in increasing order with the growing age. Ash contents are very high at all the stages. The values of Calcium and Phosphorus are very high. Magnesium is present in low amount at all the stages while Sodium and Fluorine are present in traces. Crude fat, total Nitrogen and crude Protein show continuous decrease with increasing age. Likewise, amino acids also decrease in their content with increasing age.

      Liqaa Shallal Farhan

Abstract: Dental implant is now become a successful and wide spread used to replace missing teeth. Although studies is continue to enhance the success rate of this treatment and to overcome the considerable failure and limitation in its used.Several manufacturer companies recently advocate a new design like taper connection designs systems which make a considerable enhancement in overall success rate of dental implant .

      Dian Puisi, Dewi Rochsantiningsih, Sumardi

Abstract: This study was aimed at finding out find out the design and implementation of Competency-Based Assessment in English for Frontliner classroom of training center. This research belonged to descriptive qualitative. It was conducted in English for Frontliner classroom at Balai Latihan Kerja Surakarta. Three English instructors were selected as the participants through purposive sampling. The sources of data are informants, events, and documents.

      Akonye Enyioma Joseph

Abstract: The paper examined International Court of Justice verdict of October 10, 2002 on Bakassi Peninsula and the Green Tree Agreement of 2006 between Nigeria and Cameroon. It equally evaluated the arbitrary boundary demarcations/treaties on Bakassi Peninsula in relation to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) verdict of 2002 in favour of Cameroon. It further investigated if non-determination of citizenship question in the ICJ verdict over Bakassi Peninsula accounts for the identity crisis in the Peninsula. By extension, the paper examined the Green Tree Agreement and its efforts to resolve the Bakassi issue as it affect the Bakassi inhabitants within the period under study.

      Chaandan Phutane, Neel Rana, Snehal Vhatkar, Rajkumar Devkar

Abstract: Looking at the exponential growth of Pollution we can predict the future of the Earth. Diseases like asthma, lung cancer, skin cancer, etc., will be common. Observing at the current scenario of the petroleum and its rising price, ordinary person cannot afford to spend such a huge amount, unless it’s a need and not leisure. This project gives an opportunity to crush all the problems. The cure to these problems is to use an alternate fuel which can be environment friendly, using green gas in essence, Gobar Gas. As Gobar gas emits very less pollutants so we can save the environment from air pollution.

      Ngeny K. Chris, Ngeranwa J. Joseph, Gichuki W. Charity and Mbuuko N

Abstract: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to dramatic improvements in prolonging survival of HIV-infected patients on treatment in resource-limited settings. However, the main drawback of HAART is its potential long-term hepatotoxicity and renal derangements which may be life-threatening and have emerged as important complications that warrant ART switch and/or discontinuation. Information on the prevalence of the above complications in Kenyan affected population is scanty.

      Manasha A.

Abstract: The study examines the influence of the disciplining experience on the solution focused thinking among adolescents. The discipling experience mainly focuses on parental warmth and punishments. Hundred late adolescents will be chosen for the study using the purposeful sampling method. Solution Focused Inventory (SFI) will be used to measure the solution focused thinking, and the Discipling Experience Measure (DEM) will be used to assess the disciplining experience by the participants. Correlation analysis will be used to find the relationship between solution focused thinking and disciplining experience.

      Siddharth, Vijayraj, Subham Dash, Varun Chadha, Varun D. Nankani

Abstract: There have been turbulent changes in the banking sector of the world which lead to capitalisation of various untapped opportunities. One such opportunity was interbank transfers using ATM cards. VISA and MasterCard were the ones that decided to capitalise on this opportunity and became the biggest payment networks of the world.

      Stephen Olaide Aremu, Charles Chidozie Iheukwumere, Ebele U. Umeh, Emmanuel Onifade Olumuyiwa, Babatunde Fatoke

Abstract: The search for more effective antimicrobial agents among materials of plant origin with the aim of discovering potentially useful active ingredients that can serve as source and template for the synthesis of new antimicrobial drugs is the goal of this research. Extracts from the stem barks of Borerria verticillata were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Solvents used included hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous solvents. The BVR plant parts were air dried and powdered before being soaked in solvents for 3 days.

      Enyi, Patrick Enyi

Abstract: Horizontal and vertical analysis are among the numerous financial statements fraud (FSF) detection methods which have been severely criticized for their apparent imprecision. This paper intends to reverse this through a new technique which combines the two to produce a joint relational trend analysis (RTA). The study adopted the desk research method using a rehashed five-year financial statement data and employed tables and simple MS Excel commands to perform periodic relational analysis by comparing the probabilities of the occurrence of a percentage of an item in a group for the current period with similar probabilities of the same item and group for the base period.

      Shaista Arshad

Abstract: As the usage practices of Social Media have been witnessed as growing continuously from the past years, it always looks as if there is a conclusive necessity to execute the ways that how social media marketers can gain from loads of opportunities they are having from this climbing popularity.

      Soe Myat, Than Htay, Yi May, San Nyein Khine, Khin Kyawt Nwe

Abstract: Transparent and conducting oxide (TCO) glass electrode is the essential part of solar cell system. Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) (FTO) and indium-doped tin oxide (SnO2:In) (ITO) are TCO layers of glass electrode. In this work, type of semiconductor has been determined by hot point probe method and optical properties of FTO and ITO have been studied to improve the performance of solar cell efficiency by UV-VIS spectroscopy. The comparison of optical properties of FTO and ITO shows that ITO has low absorbance, high transmittance and low reflectance. The band-gap energy of FTO is 3.65 eV and that of ITO is 3.75 eV.

      Denny Ferly Makisanti , J.A.M. Rawis, F.J.A. Oentoe, Jeffrey S.J. Lengkong

Abstract: Background: Work ethic is an attitude that arises from ones own will and awareness which is based on a system of cultural values orientation towards work. Ethos was formed by a variety of habits, cultural influences, and value systems that were believed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of education and training and leadership effectiveness factors on employee’s work ethos in Manado city Small Tax Office.

      Antonius Ardiyanto, Rudyanto Soesilo, Valentinus Suroto, Hudi Prawoto

Abstract: Semarang City as a city that has grown since the Dutch colonial period as a city of trade and services, has until now inherited various types of colonial buildings with various typologies, such as office buildings, markets, schools, hospitals, churches and residential houses.

      Champeswar Mishra and Bulu Maharana

Abstract: In an intensify competitive and changing environment, innovation can be considered as a survival strategy to survive and thrive in the 21st century. Organizational dimensions, one of the aspects upon which organizations are based. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of organization structure on innovation among academic management libraries in India.

      Jahnvi Tandel, Dr. Dhaval Maheta

Abstract: The empirical research, based on primary and secondary data, examines the overall marketing functions of shrimp supply chain with particular emphasis to the extent of value addition during the process of distribution. The researchers demonstrate the distribution channel and the linkages between the relative benefits obtained as well as the outcome from the chain. The four districts of Gujarat namely Valsad, Navsari, Surat, and Bharuch are the major contributors for shrimp production having 95% of state shrimp farmer’s population with the potential area of 69,583.91ha (Vibrant Gujarat Report, 2017). The findings of the study revealed that the marketing functions of shrimp supply chain worked well and some recommendations were provided for the improvement of shrimp marketing in the country.

      Dr. Anand Kalia, Dr. Anita Sharan, Dr. Prakash Roplekar

Abstract: Elephantiasis is the enlargement of the affected part of body. Filariasis is caused by worms Wuchereria bancrofti and less often by Brugia malayi which leads to syndrome of elephantiasis. The lymphatic system is affected leading to lymphedema. Elephantiasis of the vulva is very rarely seen with only few cases been reported in literature. We present a case of vulval elephantiasis in a young female of 18 years who had swelling from six months and had undergone vulvectomy with vulvoplasty.

      Nashirah Abu Bakar, Sofian Rosbi

Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop robust statistical method in evaluating long term performance of companies that issued initial public offerings. Data of monthly return are derived from Thomson Reuters Datastream. The companies selected in this study are 16 companies that listed on Malaysia Stock Exchange issuing initial public offerings in year of 2014 and 2015. These 16 companies are categorized as sharia-compliant companies.

      Yaroson, A. Y., Henry, U. I., Adeniyi, T. O., *Ibrahim, Iro, I., and Rabiu, S.

Abstract: The field experiment was conducted in the Federal College of Forestry, Jos Plateau state demonstration farm to determine the effect of single super phosphate (SSP) fertilizer on the growth and yield of Bambara groundnut. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used involving 5 treatments; T1 (60kg/ha SSP as control), T2 (100kg/ha SSP), T3 (80kg/ha SSP), T4 (40kg/ha SSP) and T5 (20kg/ha SSP). Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in analyzing the result and where significance was decalred, Fisher LSD method was used to separate the means.

      Yaroson, A. Y., Henry, U. I., Adeniyi, T. O., Ibrahim, Iro, I., and Adam, D.

Abstract: This research work was carried out at the experimental plot of Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Plateau, State, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) comprising of four treatments; T0 as the Control (Ridges tillage), T1 (Zero-Tillage), T2 (Mound tillage) and T3 (Flat tillage) replicated three times. Data was recorded on leaf area, plant height, leaf cover area, number of stems, number of leaves and yield.

      D.L.S.M. Liyanage, P.D.V.C. Wickramarathne

Abstract: Theme parks are an important component of the recreation industry. In current competitive environment, any industry need to provide high-quality services in terms of consumers’ tastes and preferences. So, this concept becomes a big part of the total success and a relevant issue even for theme parks. This study endeavors to discover Visitors’ satisfaction in theme park: Special Reference in Saniro Dream paradise Naiwala, Sri Lanka. Repeat visitation and Seven dimensions in service quality (themequal) such as Tangibility, Reliability, Responsiveness and access, Assurance, Empathy, Ambience and repeat visitation are considered as the base for this study.

      Omi Kalsoom, Ali Waqas, Rubina Jabeen, Kalim Ullah

Abstract: The frequency of gaining spiritual care intervention and its connection with nurse’s personal well-being will exposed in this study. A cross-sectional descriptive and co relational design will used to judge the knowledge about Spiritual Care Intervention and Spiritual Well-Being. Adopted version questionnaire was used from the article “Spiritual Care Intervention and Spiritual Well-Being” in Jordanian Muslim Nurses’ Perspectives “written by(Musa, 2017)will be used to collect data from the participants.

      Ayesha Maqsood and Dr. Muhammad Rizwan

Abstract: Cyber security is a dimension in the world of Internet revolution, where rapid increase in cyber-crimes and cyber-warfare is occurring to a level where national and international economy and security is at stake and destabilizing. Cyber-security, in short, is the protection from unauthorized access of data over the Internet and the prevention of exploitation of hardware and software vulnerabilities. Various strategies, techniques, models and frameworks have been established to address the issue of cyber security This paper gives an overview of various cyber threats, its related concepts and principles, effects of cyber-attacks on individual, national and global level, the models, frameworks and steps taken to cater cyber security, with there limitations and recommendations for improvements in cyber security measures.

      Mrs. N. Manjula Rani. Dr. N. Kalavathi

Abstract: A study to determine “The effectiveness of the Informational booklet on Menopausal Problems and coping strategies among Menopausal women in selected areas in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh was conducted by Smt. N. Manjula Rani, in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of a degree of Master of science in Nursing at “Apollo college of Nursing, Hyderabad under Dr. N.T.R University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada during the year 2008-2010.

      Sadiq, A. A. Abdullahi M and Ardo. A. U.

Abstract: Over the years farming activities are carried out by the small scale farmers along river Benue flood plains of Yola North local government area of Adamawa state. However, the farmers were faced with seasonal effects of flooding which damage their farmlands leading to economic lost. The Flood scenario and damaged on farmlands experienced in 2018 in the area was unprecedented for almost a decade. Therefore, this study aim at assessment of post floods impact on farmlands along river Benue floodplains of Yola and Environs.

      Sadiq, A. A. Abdullahi M and Ardo. A. U.

Abstract: Over the years farming activities are carried out by the small scale farmers along river Benue flood plains of Yola North local government area of Adamawa state. However, the farmers were faced with seasonal effects of flooding which damage their farmlands leading to economic lost. The Flood scenario and damaged on farmlands experienced in 2018 in the area was unprecedented for almost a decade. Therefore, this study aim at assessment of post floods impact on farmlands along river Benue floodplains of Yola and Environs.

      Sadiq, A. A. Abdullahi M. and Ardo, A. U

Abstract: In Mubi area, farming activities by the peasant farmers are becoming less productive compared with the past, due to degradation of the inherent fertility status of the soils. This might be attributed to so many human induced, agronomic and climatic factors coupled with less effective or poor soil conservation techniques by the farmers. Therefore, this study aims at highlighting soil fertility degradation in Mubi area, North-eastern part of Nigeria. It was revealed from this study that soil erosion, overgrazing, deforestation, crop removal, indiscriminate bush burning were the common substantive factors responsible for soil degradation in the area.

      Mas Muanam

Abstract: Problems with outsourcing employment agreements are indeed quite varied. Because its use in the business world in Indonesia is now increasingly prevalent and is a necessity that cannot be delayed by business people, while existing regulations are not yet sufficient. For workers this system is a source of social anxiety, does not provide assurance of work certainty and the absence of wage protection and welfare guarantees. Outsourcing is considered as a business strategy that has very significant advantages, especially in terms of decreasing production costs or operating costs of the company. For the government, this system is one solution to overcome the unemployment rate and as a lure for investors to invest in Indonesia. Outsourcing is a system that is dilemmatic.

      Husin Wattimena, S.E.M. Nirahua

Abstract: The research on the application of equality before the law for handling the problem of domestic violence aims to describe and analyze more deeply the principles of legal balance, the nature of legal equality in handling cases of domestic violence, implementation of equality before the law, and models fair legal protection for perpetrators and victims of violence. In addition, this study also aims to find out and examine the proper legal service procedures as well as legal protection for victims and perpetrators of criminal acts of domestic violence.

      Atanu O, Odoh, D P, Laniyan, B E and Adanu, J.

Abstract: The paper investigated the gender performances in geography among NCE students of KSCOE, Ankpa with curricular implications. A total of 220 final year students’ results comprising 120 males and 80 females between 2015-2018 were studied. The research design adopted was ex-post-facto.

      Babita Agrawal, Ruchi Agrawal

Abstract: This paper deals with the management and decomposition of organic wastes by using vermicomposting technology to produce nutrient rich worm cast. Two types of livestock manure in combinations with agro/kitchen wastes were used for culturing the earthworm Eisenia foetida. The growth and development of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetide was studied under identical laboratory conditions. The concentration of total C and total K were higher in cow manure than those of chick manure. Number of earthworms weight and length of Eisenia foetida were higher in combination of gram bran with cow dung.

      Manjula P. Kanavi

Abstract: Autobiography is record of individual’s struggle to reach the goal in life. Poverty is major obstacle to reach that aim, because hunger distracts the attention. When we read Dalit Autobiography the most common factor among all the autobiographies is poverty. Dalit autobiographies give us account of life story with along with the suffering from the hunger, scarcity food and utter poverty to full fill basic needs. Usually we see detailed description about food in these autobiographies. The intention behind this may be to introduce their food and food habit to other people or to show other people Dalit have never eaten food of other people

      Miressa Amenu, Balina Fufa

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to scrutinize factors that hold back female students’ of Oromoo folklore and literature of Mettu University from speaking English in the classroom. To this end, the study employed descriptive survey design, which involves both quantitative and qualitative methods. Accordingly, Oromoo folklore and literature department was selected through purposive sampling. And the data were collected from 30 purposefully selected female students from Oromoo folklore and literature department for questionnaire and from two English teachers who were purposefully selected for interview. Thus, descriptive statistics using frequencies and percentages were employed in analyzing the quantitative data and the qualitative data were analyzed qualitatively. The result of the study revealed that almost all female students of Oromoo Folklore and Literature department at Mettu university were dominantly hold back from speaking English due to psychological, contextual, and linguistically factors. Finally, based on the findings, the researchers agreed to some recommendations that the most important one is to create conducive environment to support and encourage female students to speak and practice English frequently in the class.

      Getu Teferi

Abstract: Introduction: Regular physical activity can achieve parallel or greater effects on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than those achieved with drugs. (Fiuza-Luces et al 2013). The healthcare setting has been recognized as an appropriate and promising venue for prescribing physical activity (Jacobson et al; 2005). Aim of the study: To assess physical activity prescription behavior (PAPB) of Ethiopian healthcare professionals and determine if the theory of planned behavior explain this behavior

      Ogidi A. Ogidi, Danja B.A., Sanusi K.A., Nathaniel Sunday Samuel, Abdurrahman Abubakar, Hammashi H. Lodma,

Abstract: The concentrations of heavy metals in agricultural soils at Pindiga, Ako LGA, Gombe, were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples are as follows, Fe (76.80 mg/Kg), Zn (0.28 mg/Kg), Cd(4.92 mg/Kg),and Cr(4.42mg/Kg). The concentration of heavy metals in samples increased in the following order, Fe > Cr > Cd > Zn. The mean values for some physiochemical parameters of the soil samples are; pH (6.3), Moisture (26.4), the concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were less than the permissible limits for heavy metals in soils set by USEPA / WHO.

      Muhammad Shoaib, Kokab Furqan, Sajjad ur Rahman, Ahsan Naveed, Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Muhammad Salman Younas

Abstract: Rotavirus is mainly associated with gastroenteritis in adults and major cause of diarrhea in child’s under 5 years of age. The present study was designed to standardize the latex agglutination test with respect to agar gel precipitation test and then detection of rotavirus in sewage and drinking water by latex agglutination test. Latex agglutination test is an easy, rapid, highly sensitive and specific test for diagnosis as compared to other methods. However, for the current study n= 240 samples were collected by convenient sampling technique from different sources including half (n= 120) from sewage sources and half (n= 120) from drinking water sources. The collected samples were transferred under optimum conditions 4oC temperature in sterile falcon tubes to laboratory of Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Then samples were processed for rotavirus detection by latex agglutination test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA technique using SPSS version 20.0 of computer program. The present study showed 60% (72/120) and 26.6% (32/120) rotavirus in sewage and drinking water respectively. The present study concluded that rotavirus percentage was detected higher in sewage water then drinking water and needs precautions to avoid contamination of sewage water containing higher amount of rotavirus.

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