International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2020 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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      Emmanuel NZEYIMANA, Prof. Maurice M. SAKWA, PhD, Prof. Gregory NAMUSONGE.

Abstract: In 2015, poorer households owning fewer assets and with more unstable sources of income were more likely to have experienced food shortages and shocks (NISR, 2015) and Bashir et al. (2012) state that households with ownership to land and livestock to be associated with less food insecurity levels.

      Dr. Janhvi Srivastava, Priyanka Srivastava

Abstract: Artificial Psychology is a discipline that uses information science to achieve a more comprehensive coverage of human psychological activity with artificial machine like: computer and algorithmic models. In the field of information science, researchers have regarded the imitation of human brain, human intelligence, and human behavior as important research directions and contents. A review of automation science and technology shows that more people use brain science, psychology, neuroscience or cybernetics and theory of controlled source in studying algorithms

      Neha Nilesh Jadhav Sarnaik

Abstract: Activity recognition systems are a large field of research and development, currently with a focus on advanced machine learning algorithms, innovations in the field of hardware architecture, and on decreasing the costs of monitoring while increasing safety. Human action recognition (HAR) research is hot in computer vision, but high precision recognition of human action in the complex background is still an open question. Most current methods build classifiers based on complex handcrafted features computed from the raw inputs, which are driven by tasks and uncertain. In this paper, type of deep model convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed for HAR that can act directly on the raw inputs.

      Chaitali Bhattacharyya, Trisha Paul, Susmita Das, Soutrik Karmakar, Shyam Sundar Banerjee

Abstract: Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from human brain have ground-breaking impact in the field of health care industry. EEG is one of the most actively used bio signal as measurement tool in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) to implement “thoughts or intention” based human and machine interaction. In the medical field, EEG based interaction is also used for computer aided diagnosis for the patients and also to help in detecting emotions and body movements.

      Hashem Ahmed

Abstract: In extensive pastoral systems, domestic animals are reared under extremely unfavorable agro-ecological conditions in Libya, from the early Neolithic to the Bronze Age, more than 8,000 years ago. As a result of free grazing, which in many cases exceeded the biomass production capacity as well as the dynamics of plant cover renewal, grassland vegetation has undergone major changes. Excessive grazing in the largest area has caused great damage not only to grasslands, but to other ecosystems in Libyan territory. The emergence of desertification in Libya is one consequence of this grassland resource management. Recent research over the last few decades, however, also points to the useful dimension of livestock farming for the environment, if managed properly.

      Jeannette Evelyn Mery Rares, Dr. Fitri. H. Mamonto and Dr. Goinpeace Tumbel

Abstract: Protocols are the driving force in all City Government activities so that activities can well done and true. In carrying out its duties a Protocol is required control all forms of respect to the State Official or Government Official accordingly with the applicable protocol law. This study aims to describe how implementation of Protocol rules in the Tomohon City Government. The focus of the research is stipulated: Implementation of the scope of protocol, namely the Layout, Ceremony and Procedure respect and determinant factors in the implementation of protocols in the City of Tomohon.

      Nurnadirah binti Khairul Annuar Asyaari,Azlina Abdul Aziz

Abstract: Pupils of the rural area particularly the level one pupils are lacking in English vocabulary. The objectives of this action research are, to improve the vocabulary of the level one pupils by using the intervention of Action Song and to identify how pupils perceived the effectiveness of the action songs in improving their vocabulary. This action research focused on 16 level one pupils of the native tribe (Iban) of a school in rural area of Kapit. The data are collected in the manner of triangulation of data which are the pre and post-test,observation, and interview.This research follows the Kemmis and McTanggart (1988) cyclic process of research. The finding shows that Action Songs helped in improving the pupils vocabulary . The pupils retain the growth and improvement in their ability to identify and describe the vocabularies learned from the action songs by scoring higher in their post test compared to their pretest .

      Udhav Giri, Dr. Parul Raj Agrawal

Abstract: Background: Motion sickness occurs due to mismatch sensory inputs between the visual and vestibular system. Vestibular and visual systems coordinate eye movement in order to stabilize retinal images during head rotation. When someone is in stationary position they can still get the impression of self motion under certain conditions known as vection.

      Sahoo Sailabala, DaleiSweta Rani

Abstract: Back ground: Eating disorders are more common in women; especially adolescent girls are at risks because they are preoccupied with their body shape, weight and diet. This study aims at majoring the eating attitudes of adolescent girls (19->22yrs) of 1st yr B.Sc. Nursing, KINS, KIIT, Bhubaneswar. The positive and negative attitudes among adolescent girls on eating attitudes need special nutritional counselling. The objectives of the study were to assess the eating attitude among the adolescent girls and to find out associations between eating attitude with selected demographic variables.

      Dr.Sasikala MD,OG,DR.Murugalakshmi MD.,DGO.,Dr.E.Indhumathi.DGO.

Abstract: To assess the prognosis and outcome of heart disease in pregnancy in order to reduce the maternal mortality due to cardiac disease.

      Doris Rivero, Ying Liu

Abstract: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is a country rich in metallic and non-metallic minerals. After the strategic importance of minerals in the world to provide the fundamental raw materials required in everyday life, this paper provides a review and synthesis of the literature about the environmental implications of the establishment of The Orinoco Mining Arc (OMA) National Strategic Development Zone, or by its name in Spanish Arco Minero del Orinoco (AMO), created by decree No. 2.248 in February 24th, 2016 to take advantage of the potential of mining activity as an alternative to oil rent, to exploit minerals in a surface covering 111.843,70 square kilometers (12,2 % of national territory).

      Ebenezer Nanor, Victor K. Agbesi, Wei-Ping Wu, Brighter Agyemang

Abstract: In recent times, computational methods for Drug-Target Interaction (DTI) prediction have become pervasive due to the advances in computational resources and techniques. Computational methods, particularly Machine Learning (ML) based methods, are very efficient DTI predictors.


Abstract: Food intake undoubtedly has the greatest effect on human health. In many parts of the world, the problems of drug abuse and bad food consumption have deteriorated people’s health to the extent that, reports revealed that, many have been afflicted with no greater calamity than alcohol.

      Hasfiyah binti Assan, Hamidah binti Yamat

Abstract: Teaching English as a second language to primary school pupils is not easy. This study aims to investigate whether Year 1 pupils exposed to the use of English songs in the class would experience a change in vocabulary competence. To fulfil this purpose, 24 Year 1 samples were selected from a primary school located in Simunjan, Sarawak. The participants were examined through a pre-test, post-test and semi-structured interviews.

      Anita Pujiastutik & Ahmad Nur Fuad

Abstract: Muhammadiyah is committed to making the state of Pancasila as Darul ‘Ahdi wa al-Syahadah or a country of witness and proving itself in filling and building a meaningful national life towards progress in all fields of life. Universitas Muhammadiyah Sidoarjo students as educated people in Muhammadiyah institutions should understand the nationalism movement in the Muhammadiyah movement

      Candra Indi Kumala, Suyatno, Elok Sudibyo

Abstract: This study aims to describe the effectiveness of learning tools with guided discovery models to train students science process skills at SMAN 1 Kedungwaru, Tulungagung on the subject matter of simple harmonic vibrations. The learning tool was developed using the 4D model and the trial design used was One Group Pretest and Posttest Design. Data collection was carried out using validation techniques, science process skills tests and questionnaires.

      Mohammad Raheem Khaksar

Abstract: Afghanistan is a mountainous country which has six neighbors. Out of those six neighbors, Afghanistan share border with five of them through water. Afghanistan share border with Tajikistan through (Ammo) domain and then water of Ammo domain goes to Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The domain of Havirovd Marghab connects Afghanistan with Iran and Turkmenistan. Helmand River domain connects Afghanistan and Iran, and Kabul river domain connects Afghanistan with Pakistan. Helmand River is one of the abovementioned Rivers of Afghanistan, which flows (95%) inside Afghanistan and somehow it is being used. Helmand River is known as the biggest resource of water electricity in Afghanistan.

      Zefry Ardi Ferdiansah, Elok Sudibyo, Munasir

Abstract: This study aims to produce effective learning devices with the discovery-learning model to train the students’ science process skills on the Material of simple harmonic motion in X grade students at MAN Sidoarjo. The trial design used one group of pretest-posttest design. Data collected in the form of the effectiveness of learning devices through data analysis techniques done in qualitative and quantitative descriptive.

      Siti Nur’Azmina, Maslawati Mohamad

Abstract: Test is part of the journey of human life. There are questions, though, as to how people qualify with flying colours and otherwise. This research helps to describe the methods used by Melanau primary pupils to answer to the reading comprehension examination. Based on purposeful selection, 10 pupils were chosen from two different schools to discuss high and low Melanau primary pupils in choosing comprehension test strategies.


Abstract: The objective of the study is to identify the comparison on the service quality, the customer experience and the brand image of fast food between McDonald’s and Richeese Factory in Bintara, Bekasi. During the conduct of the study, the subjects that had been selected were the customers who used to visit and consume the fast food in both McDonald’s and Richeese Factory in Bintara, Jakarta. The study was conducted toward 155 respondents by using quantitative method.

      Efi, U. J., Tutuwa, Jummai A., Samuel A. G., Nuhu Iliya

Abstract: Soil samples from Donga, Bali and Mutum-Biyu Local Government Areas were evaluated chemically for the following metals ions, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni and Cr. Nitrogen was also evaluated. The physical parameters were also studied: pH, colour, density, specific density, conductivity and texture. K and Na were determined by flame photometry, the rest of the 9 metals were determined using atomic absorption photometry methods.

      Banani Bharali, Dr. Meerambika Mahapatro

Abstract: Depression is one of the major public health issues. Depression is considered as a major public health problem and it stand in the fourth position among the worldwide burden of diseases. And it is believed that it will rank 2ndposition by 2020. 340 million people over18 years of age go through depressive disorder that is responsible for high rate of suicide among youth. College going students are at risk for developing psychological illness, Most of the people develop depressive symptom during their college days, it is seen that most of the college students feel sadness, hopeless, irritability, lack of interest occasionally, this is a general concern but, if depression is untreated for long time it affect day to day activities of a person and affect both physical and mental health and sleep also.

      Dr.Tanu Mahajan, Dr.Rohit Kochhar, Dr.Manju Kumari

Abstract: It is always a challenge to conserve a non vital tooth with immature root due to open root apices. Apexification is a method which induces a calcific barrier at the apex of a nonvital tooth with open apices.1Mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] is an inert filling material and that is why it makes a perfect seal at the apex.Apexification treatment is supposed to create an environment that permits the deposition of cementum,periodontal ligament and even bone in a non vital pulp tooth.

      Muhammad Faraz Ali, Muhammad Jamil, Kamran Ahmad, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Mehwish, Samra Abbas, Mudassar Nadeem, Tehmina Batool

Abstract: The effects of different concentrations of copper sulphate on the growth of and the accumulation of Cu+2 by root, shoot, chlorophyll content and leaf growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) were examined in this study. The purpose of our experiments was to consider sensitivity of two sunflower hybrid cultivars (FH626 and FH674) to copper ions on the ground of physiological characteristics amount of assimilatory pigment, and shooth length to show possible resistance mechanisms of this plant to copper ions. The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Fashion with three replications per treatment and five plants per replication.

      Nkala, B.A, Mbongwa, H.P, Qwebani-Ogunleye, T

Abstract: Medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine throughout the world. In addition to this, certain communities consider medicinal plants to be safer than drugs and able to treat more than one ailment. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of Euclea crispa (leaf), Eulea natalensis (leaf), Schkuhria pinnata (leaf), Ziziphus mucronata (leaf), Ziziphus mucronata (fruits), Lippia javanica (leaf), Vernonia oligocephala (leaf), Clerodendrum myricoides (leaf), and Erythrina lysistemon (leaf) in C2C12, and RAW 264.7 cells. Plants were extracted with 90% methanol (1 g/10 ml) and diluted in distilled water to give a final concentration of 10 mg/ml. C2C12, and RAW 264.7 cells were treated for 24 h with various concentrations of plant extracts (10 - 1000 µg/ml).

      Okky Hudaya, Yutu Solihat, Bastian Lubis, Akhyar H. Nasution

Abstract: Deep vein thrombosis is formation of thrombus which often attacks deep veins, especially lower extremities. VTE itself has an incidence rate 1 per 1000 people and mortality rate around 60,000-100,000 per year.1,2 Patients with critical illness also have risk factors, in context of ICU care. Some studies write incidence of patients experiencing DVT in general ICU care around 8% to 40% .

      Yar Mohamad Bahrami

Abstract: This study investigated how instructors and students in the English Department at Kabul University perceive assessment and how it is practiced or used by the instructors. It was found out that assessment is an important factor in the teaching and learning of a language and it is perceived so by both instructors and students in the mentioned department.

      Addisu Bekele Demie

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the Factors Affecting Tourism Marketing Demand in the case of Bale Mountain National Park. The main objective of the study is investigating factors affecting tourism marketing demand: the case of Bale mountain national park. The sample respondents were selected using Convenience sampling technique from non-probability sampling.

      Dr. Mah Sheena K M, Dr. Lilly Rajeevan, Dr. Shalini Kuruvila, Dr. Kavitha K P

Abstract: Eumycetomas of craniocerebral are rare An extraordinary lesion in an extraordinary location in a 56-year-old male! We report here a case of eumycetoma involving brain and skull bone in a middle-aged male who presented with seizures and right sided weakness. Imaging showed a dural-based lesion enhancing moderately on contrast. It was mistaken for meningioma clinically and radiologically. Craniocerebral eumycetoma usually presents with lump on scalp and sinuses.

      Mousumi kundu

Abstract: Water is very indispensable for human life. we all know that 30% of world’s land and 70% of the water . But still there is a crisis for water. Water scarcity means water problem and water crisis. It may be happen due to naturally or by human beings. According to hydro geologists the water is soon going to become a rare commodity. The UNDP’s Human development report 2006 also mention that the most important problem of the current civilization is the water problem. The concept water scarcity also involves water stress and water crisis. Water crisis means lack of adequate clean water and water problem created when there is insufficient fresh water in a region as compared to the population. So we can say water scarcity means the presence of adequate fresh water in a region.

      Joyclare Khakasa Wabuge, Dr. Anthony Osoro

Abstract: This study explored on the factors affecting organization’s logistics-outsourcing in the supply chain management in Kenya Seed Company Limited. The specific areas were; to evaluate the effect of information systems, supplier relationships, order processing and inventory management in systems in the supply chain in Kenya Seed Company Limited.

      ALO, Ebenezer Adebisi, DADA, Durotimi Amos

Abstract: Employees’ retention has become a veritable weapon of competition among organisations globally. Thus, organisations that have an effective employees’ retention policy would, no doubt, be able to minimise employees’ turnover. It is not in doubt that private universities sub-sector of the educational sector, especially those in Ondo State, Nigeria, are no exemption. This study examined employees’ turnover, causes, effects and remedies among academic staff of selected private universities in Ondo State, Nigeria.

      Brhan Teka Teklu

Abstract: The north western and central region of Tigray Ethiopia (including Shire and Aksum area) was one of the major areas of Ethiopia where ancient civilizations occurred. The study area, being situated in this environment is full of archaeological remains attesting past human achievements and stage of technological developments. Ruins of ancient settlements, center of rituals and religion, cemeteries (mostly rock cut tombs), megaliths and so on are some of the archaeological records found widely distributed in the vicinity of the research areas.

      Hagai Joseph Mwakisisya Sebastian Cyprian and Rogers Rugeiyamu

Abstract: Local Government Authorities (LGAs) are an integral part of any successful implementation of people-centered development program, albeit, replete of studies and policies’ inability to appreciate this fact. Since Tanzania had embarked into the journey to industrialization, the missing in action of the LGAs is not considered a major factor for the sector’s failure. Financial and infrastructure problems are the most commonly reported setbacks. While appreciating the precious LGAs’ position, the study, using Participatory Communication for Development approach, seeks to gauge the performance of LGAs in drawing the grassroots into taking a leading role in micro-manufacturing development.

      Nderitu B. Wanjiru, Prof. Dorothy Ndunge Kyalo, Dr. Angeline Sabina Mulwa, Dr. John Mbugua

Abstract: Environmental projects in this study is embedded on environmental philosophical underpinnings pertaining conservation of biodiversity, atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and solid waste management; which are all supported by the ecosystems upon which humans depend on. Environmental health challenges globally include solid waste management which endures to devastate prevailing local authorities and national governments as surging urban populations continue to escalate and consumption patterns change in the dynamic world.

      Marmaras Athanasios, Christos V. Gogos

Abstract: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) involve inflammatory and degenerative diseases that lead to pain and functional damage in all age groups. The agricultural profession is painful with many natural hazards/risks and stressful factors that either predispose or cause injuries to the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this current study is to determine the prevalence of the musculoskeletal burden on farmers who sought physical therapies, in a public, general hospital of Northern Greece.

      Bolaji A.O

Abstract: Molecular studies using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA profiling was carried out on some moss species from Ile-Ife, Nigeria in order to determine their genetic variation and species relationships. The result obtained revealed that the chloroplast DNA isolated using the SDS method produced higher yields though lesser quality, while those isolated using the Kit method produced lesser yield but higher quality. All the seven primers employed in this study showed RAPD fragments with varying bands ranging from 200 Bp to 3000 Bp. Out of a total of 55 individual fragments obtained from the seven primers used, 27 bands were polymorphic while 28 were species specific (unique).

      Naila Benarab, Fangnon Firmin Fangninou

Abstract: Nowadays, controlling and monitoring the quality of water are very important issues, they impact potentially human and environmental health. Therefore, researches and policies are focusing on the target of the emerging environment contaminants such as antibiotics.

      M.C.B. Guruge

Abstract: Gastronomy tourism is one of the emerging concepts in the tourism arena and it is an area which has been rarely researched. Gastronomy tourism has been evolved through local food and beverages and major component of the tourist’s budget is allocated for food and beverages when travelling. Since there are many unaddressed opportunities which are associated with gastronomy which can be utilized to enhance the country’s or region’s economic development, it is necessary to identify the sub components which are associated with gastronomy tourism, how it is associated with destination branding and the challenges associated with gastronomy.

      Emmanuel Tayo Adu, Anjiba D. Lamptey-puddicombe and Benedict Amade

Abstract: This study evaluates the proportion of the components of production cost of building construction projects with a view to improving estimation accuracy for project planning and control in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Secondary data of selected building elements of public storey building projects completed within a 10 year period of 2009 and 2018 are obtained for this study.

      Barasha Rani Baishya

Abstract: The present study is an attempt to examine the health-culture of Kaibarta Community: The Kaibartas, one of the major scheduled caste communities of Assam are found throughout the plains district of Assam. Each culture has its notion of health and has various methods to cope with the diseases which often referred to as ‘health-culture’. The pristine societies the people believe that evil spirits, black magic, taboos, witchcraft, sorcery, etc might lead a person to illness.

      Mayshita, Nur Elfiansi, Mustaji, Miftakhul Jannah

Abstract: The purpose of this research to (1) Analyze the Influence of traditional "bakiak beregu" games on the socio-emotional ability of children aged 5-6 years at Kindergarden and (2) Analyze the Influence of traditional "bakiak beregu" " games on the gross motor abilitys of children aged 5 -6 years at kindergarden.

      J.N. Mwero, V.N. Onchaga

Abstract: Developing countries especially those in Africa, such as Kenya, are facing the challenge of a growing middle class resulting in greater demand for housing facilities. Alternative and affordable building materials are being sought after. The usage of partial replacement of coarse aggregate using expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in concrete to produce lightweight concrete gives prospective solution to the construction industry.Therefore, there is need to understand how the concrete replaced with EPS beads behaves and whether it meets the stipulated standards.

      K.V.S.Gayathri, M.Chandraiah

Abstract: Bank plays a crucial role in the development of Indian economy. A sound and an efficient banking system in developing countries provide the necessary financial inputs to the economy. Banking industry is one of the integral parts of the financial system. Commercial banks form a eminent part of the country’s Financial System. Commercial Banks are profit making financial institutions which accept deposits from general public and provides loan to individuals like household, entrepreneurs, businessmen etc.

      Sradhanjali Biswal , Sakuntala Giri, Truptimayee Das

Abstract: Old age is the last and the most difficult developmental stage in life. The daunting tasks of this stage along with the physical and cognitive decline make these senior citizens prone to sadness. According to the 2001 census, 6.1% of Indian populations belong to this age group and it is estimated that by 2025 this number will increase to 12%.

      Liani Rizky Hikmayanty, Qadri Fauzi Tanjung, Cut Meliza Zainumi

Abstract: Introduction: The incidence of preoperative anxiety had a high incidence rate, which is largely due to lack of knowledge or information obtained, related to the operation to be performed.

      Christian Sawato Saro Gulo, Achsanuddin Hanafie, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract: Background: Cesarean section is highly conducted in the world and Indonesia with many indications. The problem that still a scourge is the persistent pain in operations that are difficult to handle. Many attempts have been made ranging from the selection of anesthesia to pain medication.

      Indah Sukmawardhani, Ratna Akbari Ganie, Achsanuddin Hanafie

Abstract: Introduction: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that result in organ dysfunction and diagnosed with SOFA score. It is often accompanied by kidney disorders that inhibit uric acid excretion causing hyperuricemia.

      Hendri Meirialdi Saputra, Asan Petrus, Gafar Parinduri

Abstract: The victims of drowning can be found in almost all places every time since there are moats, wells, rivers, ocean or seas surrounding us and even the water in pail in bathroom. Checking up on the victims of the drowning can be considered as the murder. The important point to consider is related to the determination of whether the victim died in the river or has been died outside and drowned. Diatome is as the diagnostics means to know the location of the drowning before died, by the way of comparing the diatome found in the body of the victim with the diatome water considered as the place for the drowning.

      Joko Arianto, Nasib M. Situmorang

Abstract: Drowning is almost always found from time to time. This is not surprising because around us there are gutters, wells, ponds, rivers, lakes or the sea, even buckets filled with water or bath tubs. Examination of victims removed from water outside the flood season or disaster, is a death suspected of being a murder event. It is very important to determine whether the victim is still alive when entering the water or if he has just died then drowned.

      Nonye-Enyidah E, Lebara D, Eli S.

Abstract: Background: Ovarian torsion is rare in the third trimester of pregnancy. It is likely to present with non-specific symptoms and can often be misdiagnosed as appendicitis or preterm labour. It is one of the most common gynaecologic surgical emergencies. Although the exact cause is unknown, a few risk factors predispose to ovarian torsion.

      Alum, E. A and Umeh, S.O

Abstract: Postharvest fungal spoilage is one of the major constraints to sweet potato production in Ebonyi State. The study investigated the in vitro control of the postharvest spoilage fungi affecting sweet potato in Ebonyi State with single and combined extracts of Garcinia kola, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale and Moringa oleifera via Food Poison/Radial Growth technique.

      Astria Yuli Satyarini Sukendar, Amanda Raissa, Tomy Michael

Abstract: In this globalization era, more and more technological sophistication and the speed of information that can be received by everyone causes the world to be more open. Many new things that are easy to enter the country of Indonesia with technological and information sophistication, are also accompanied by increasing human resources in using and utilizing various technological sophistication features.

      Mutwii Mbithi; Abuya Isaac; Rambo Charles

Abstract: Health outreach interventions play a critical role in improving and extending the reach of health care for adolescents through activities such as health education, case management, basic health screening, and facilitating access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. These activities can directly and indirectly improve health outcomes of adolescents. Project based health organizations providing sexual and reproductive health information and services, are investing heavily on health outreaches targeted at at-risk and sexually active adolescents. Notwithstanding the heavily investments on health outreach interventions, few studies have examined the relationship between health outreach interventions and delivery of sexual and reproductive health information and services for urban adolescents.

      Abdul Wali Yawari

Abstract: “For far too long, Afghan women have been faceless and voiceless. Until now, with The Patience Stone, Atiq Rahimi, an Afghan author gives face and voice to one unforgettable woman.”(Khalid Husaini) The long lasting devastation, pain and sorrows that changed Afghanistan into a mountain of ashes, made Afghan women suffer this extreme pain and hardships without speaking a word in an absolutely male dominated society. In this novel, the woman who has absorbed the plights of a country explodes and gives all her pain to a man to suffer like her.

      Rovindra Lakenarine, Diana Seecharran, Mark Ram

Abstract: Climate change is impacting people and their environment at an ever-growing rate. Underdeveloped countries like Guyana, which are heavily dependent on agriculture for sustenance are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change compared to developed countries.

      Ibrahim Elhamali Elbakuri

Abstract: Today application of modern systems of information and communication technologies directly affects the development of all business systems and the improvement of business processes to work economic development of society and economy in general. Marketing campaigns alone are not enough to succeed businesses in the market, they already have to own a product or service great quality. Influenced by digital technologies most tourist agencies are going through a digital transformation process, from the use of digital technology in customer relationships to its use across the organization, while changing the demands and expectations of everyone key participants: from customers, employees to the organization.

      Hussin Alarefi Ali Zorgani

Abstract: The strong development of the Internet and technology has had an impact on all aspects of life and on all aspects of business. Rapidly developing computers and telecommunications technology has led to a significant increase in the use of the Internet and computer technology in modern business. The internet and social networks have completely changed the way tourists choose destinations. Tourists nowadays use the Internet in all stages of travel: from finding a destination idea, to choosing a hotel and booking, during a trip, and finally when completing a trip. The internet today is something that is understood in tourism, just as it is understood that the apartment has water or electricity. For good reviews and guest reviews, internet access has become necessary.

      Roshidul H, Dipika R P, Mostakim G M, Suriaya Yasmin, Tapas R. Chakraborty

Abstract: The rural poor in Bangladesh typically lack access to information vital to their lives and livelihoods. The information could be disseminated via web, mobile app, Internet of Things, and ubiquitous networks, etc. The mobile is widely used in many countries for the fish farming. Though frozen food is one of the most important export products in Bangladesh which contains more than 80% of shrimp. The most shrimp cultivation area is the southern part in Bangladesh. Shrimp farming is pressurized by lack of proper information on diseases identification and its management.

      Duong Thi Hong An

Abstract: The 4th edition of Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar by M. A. K Halliday and revised by Christian M. I. M Matthiessen (2014) is considered to be an invaluable textbook for students and researchers of linguistics, especially of functional linguistics, discourse analysis and literary studies and also for those with broader educational concerns.

      Nicholas Barasa, Wilberforce Cholo, Sherry Oluchina

Abstract: Availability of medicines is an important aspect in health care provision. Many countries however, are still battling with the problem of stock outs of essential medicines to an extent that patients go without appropriate treatment. This research sought to determine the influence of health care financing on availability of medicines. Descriptive cross sectional research design was used. All the nine sub county hospitals in Bungoma County were sampled. Census sampling was done to sample sub county pharmacists, medical superintendents, procurement officers and health administrative officers. Four officers were sampled in each sub county, making a total of 36 respondents for the study.

      Sanjay V. Satpute

Abstract: Documentation of herbal practices reveals the number of species used in disease treatment locally. However, without exception, every area and forest region of the country faces danger of over-exploitation. Therefore, for biodiversity threat assessment of ethnomedicinal plants in Warud tahsil of Amravati district in Maharashtra, field observations were made pertaining to the medicinal plants; regarding over-exploitation, destructive methods of harvest, exploitation for purposes other than medicinal and indiscriminate destruction/cutting, etc. The species under these threats are separately

      Muhammad Iqbal Ibrahim, Artha Prabawa

Abstract: Background Based on the results of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) in 2013 the coverage of giving full immunization in Indonesia was 59.2%, incomplete immunization was 32.1%, had never been immunized 8.7%. Immunization coverage in East Kolaka Regency has not reached the strategic plan target (IDL 86.27%; measles 83.03%; UCI 90.98%).

      Mrs. W.M.S.P Wijekoon, Prof. Imali Fernando

Abstract: Retail brands pay significant attention to establish a powerful brand to distinguish in the fierce industry of today. To establish a dominant brand, current marketers are focused on providing unique and memorable brand experiences which will attach the customer to an emotional relationship that leads to brand love. Experience marketing and brand love are novel concepts in marketing and this study explores these concepts by developing a research model shaped by the brand resonance model and customer brand relationship theory to investigate how brand love serves as a mediator in the brand experience and brand loyalty

      Dana Riksa Buana, Regina Navira Pratiwi

Abstract: Well-known song in the Soviet Union with the following lyrics: "For ten girls there are just nine boys" was reflecting the situation of gender imbalance, which was observed in the country. Although current Russian statistics do not confirm the misbalanced sex ratio at the marriageable market, there is some evidence that this belief exists among Russians. According to Lafortune (2013) when the men are in short supply, women are investing more than men premaritally even when the returns are lower or the costs are higher for them. So we hypothesize that the more women believe that there are few appropriate partners, the more they engage in pre-marital investments.

      Isiani Mathias Chukwudi, Uche Augustine, Igwe

Abstract: The 1946 constitution of Nigeria was the first to regionalize political power in Nigeria, followed by the 1951and 1954 constitutions; the later deepened the forms and shape of regional government in Nigeria. It was also the constitution that systematized the revenue system thus making derivative principle the cardinal revenue allocation format for the three regions. This economic principle spurred the colonial government to modify her agricultural policies as well as the regional governments of Nigeria at independence for a sustainable and reliable economy.

      P. V. M. V. D. Udovita

Abstract: Digital disruption has become something of a cliché during the past few years and it is defined as the impact and effect of new digital technologies and new business models on the value propositions of existing goods and services and business models. With the increased impact of digital disruption industries are moving towards the core of Digital vortex

      Suraweera, S.M.B.L, Kuruppu, K.A.D.T.D

Abstract: Academic performance becomes a crucial success factor within the modern education setting due the higher degree of completion exists within the local and foreign academic sector. Even though male and female students privilege equal amenities in the university system, there is a significant performance lag between male and female students’ academic accomplishments. In most cases, female students continue to outride the male student with a superior level of performance, which demarcates major gender-specific performance disparities. Academic self-perception, attitude towards teachers, attitude towards school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation have been described as the most important factors affecting the level of academic success.

      Kalpana A, Raj Kumar V, Rajashekhar N H

Abstract: Microservice based Autonomous surveillance system connects data sources with data sinks using interfaces and message queues for more reliable and scalable performance. In autonomous surveillance systems, data acquisition, message queue, data persist, data analysis and visualize models are running as a microservices in container. Communication between Microservices is very efficient and robust since it is handled by docker-compose file.

      Himanshu Kumar Nishad and Balwant Kumar

Abstract: Fifteen early maturing sugarcane clones including two checks were planted in Randomized Block Design with three replications during spring season 2017 at research farm of RPCAU Pusa to evaluate the variability and clustering pattern for cane yield and yield attributing traits. Observations were recorded for the eighteen traits viz., germination % at 45 days after planting, number of shoots at 120 days, plant height at 150, 240 days and at harvest, cane diameter at harvest, millable canes at harvest, single cane weight at harvest, brix, pol, purity and ccs at 8 and 10th month stage, sugar yield and cane yield at harvest and after its statistical analysis, all the characters were found differed significantly for all the genotypes.

      Iboroma, Daopuye S; Cookey, Grace A; Obunwo, Charles C; Amadi, Kelechi G

Abstract: Sedimentation studies have the possibility of providing profile curves and other vital parameters useful for modeling two-phase flow operations and dimensioning of clarification tanks in water purification plants. In continuation of the study on sedimentation of alkaline-earth metal phosphates, the effects of temperature and ion concentration variables on sedimentation rate profiles, order and rate constant of trimagnesium phosphate (TMP) and tribarium phosphate (TBP) precipitates were evaluated at different temperatures using the Modified Isolation (Initial Rate) method.


Abstract: Changing of living place will change experience, including for religious practice especially in communism country which religious practice is not as free as non-communism countries. Therefore, this study investigated muslim international students in Northeast Normal University on experiencing Islamic worship practice and what meaning they attribute to their experience of Islamic worship practice. Qualitative study was conducted with study case method to answer these questions. Seven international students from different countries were interviewed and researcher joined their isha prayer to observe

      Arinze JP. Chukwu and Ikechukwu O. Agbagwa

Abstract: Sorghum bicolor Race Bicolor, Guinea, Caudatum, Durra and Kafir are typical Sorghum types produced and consumed in Nigeria. The quality of food is dependent on its nutritional content hence a quest to determine the nutrition content of Sorghum in Southern Nigeria. Ten plants per Race were analysed for its nutrition content (Ash, Fibre, Carbohydrate, Moisture Content and Lipid) using proximate analysis. Maximum ash content was recorded in Race Durra (10.20-13.30 %) while least was recorded in Race Guinea (4.00-4.70%); least moisture content ranged between 30.30-32.00% (Race Guinea); Carbohydrate content levels are as follows Guinea>Caudatum>Bicolor>Kafir>Durra; Lipid content was highest in Race Guinea and least in Race Kafir. The nutritive content of the Sorghum investigated compared well with proximate matter content of cultivated and improved Sorghum varieties. This implies that Sorghum cultivation in Southern Nigeria is possible and yields will be as nutritious as those grown in the North.

      Edward Nii Amar Amarteifio

Abstract: Small and Medium Enterprises are considered an important part in the development of most business societies. They play a significant role in the growth and developmental process of most countries. The study explored the use of quality financial information by owner/managers in Ghana and how this impact on SMEs performance. A mixed method approach, employing both quantitative and qualitative research methodology were utilised. Face-to-face interviews, using questionnaires were employed to collect data from 500 owner/managers of SMEs in the metropolis.

      Grace T. Flores, LPT

Abstract: The present research determines the best practices among grade 1 teachers in teaching social studies in the K- 12 Curriculum. This is to showcase instructional excellence and develop instructional materials that will enrich teaching and learning process. The study employs complete enumeration of 90 grade I teachers as research participants from South East Districts of Butuan City, Caraga, Philippines.

      Komal M. Panchal

Abstract: Internal Quality Audit is the process of systematically inspection of the quality system carried out by an internal or external quality auditor or an audit team. It plays a significant role in an organizations quality management system and proves to be a salient element in standardization of organization under quality control systems certified as ISO 9001. Internal Quality audits can play a vital part of compliance or regulatory requirements. The process of internal quality audit in the education system focused essentially on procedural issues instead on the results or the effectiveness of a quality system implementation. Audits can also be utilized for safety purposes


Abstract: Unless these basic facilities are improved in all primary schools we cannot expect teachers to succeed in accomplishing even the more modest aims of primary education. In a highly completive world all schools must have good infrastructure facilities. Otherwise they cannot attract more students and the objective of universal of elementary education cannot be achieved.

      Lasarus Trimario, Parwoto

Abstract: This study aims to analyze the influence of teacher leadership and competence on teacher performance. The population in this study was 62 teachers at PENABUR Harapan Indah Christian High School. The sampling method uses a saturated sample that is using the entire teacher population of 62 people. Data collection methods using survey methods, the research instrument is a questionnaire. In this research independent (X1) is Leadership and (X2) is Teacher Competence, the dependent variable (Y) is Teacher Performance. Research results obtained after testing the Hypothesis Test Model show that leadership has a positive and not significant effect on teacher performance. Whereas teacher competence has a positive and significant effect on teacher performance at PENABUR Harapan Indah Christian Senior High School.

      Zainab Neamat Jumaah, Mohammed Baqer Hassan, Thikra Abdulkadhim Abdulhussein

Abstract: Objectives: To identify the nurse-midwives’ socio demographic characteristics and to assess the nurse-midwives’ knowledge and practice in the delivery

      Abrar Bashar, Dr. Zenon Chaczko

Abstract: Fifth Generation (5G) network is a sort of the network that is being discoursed about, in recent times. This is something that has being embraced by China in recent times. However, while there is major demand in this, the network needed to maintain this is quite complicated. In order for this network to be under control, cognitive radio (CR) technology requires basic level of intelligence otherwise it won’t happen. This article emphasizes about the distribution of cognitive cellular network in order to have a smooth real-time process. Such method connects artificial intelligence as well as this technology into an innovating multi-agent system (MAS). It’s a holistic pattern for 5G communication networks. It is of utmost importance to allocate all the resource efficiently, to primary and secondary users and the base stations to ensure optimum utilization, of implementing this resource in cellular network. For that to happen we proposed four-layered framework for layer distribution and creating a benchmark MAS model. In addition, we proffer the ideal methods, technologies and process and come to a conclusion regarding the effectiveness via numerical simulations. Lastly this report discusses about the challenges and open issues.

      Edwin Kipkirui, Kiwanuka David Kageche

Abstract: The urban flooding disaster is as a result combines with the action of heavy rainfall, degree of urbanization and capacity of drainage systems. Sustainable urban water management is a better alternative to the traditional approaches to managing water systems in urbanizing areas.

      Balaga Rathnamala, Amaravadhi Krishna Sree Bhargava, Maloth Chamanthi

Abstract: Background: Hypertension represents the major health problem primarily because of its role in contributing to the initiation and progression of major cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the existing practice of prescribing pattern of Anti Hypertensive medication in tertiary care hospital in prospective of standard treatment of guidelines.

      Janet Nassali, Zhang Yongji, Fangnon Firmin Fangninou

Abstract: For the countries within the Lake Victoria basin, sustainably managing it is critical to the harmonious survival of a vast array of biodiversity. The abundance of resources in and around the lake provides various vital ecosystem services (like food, transport, nutrient cycling, tourism, climate regulation as well as disease and flood control) for humans and countless other species. However, decades of unsustainable development practices combined with unchecked population growth are diminishing the lakes’ productivity and threatening its very existence.

      Dr. Shadma Iffat

Abstract: The effectiveness of teaching the English language using the subject matter in a classroom where English is taught as a foreign language is supported by a practical way of teaching in order to achieve quality education. The use of content-based instruction approach provides an innovative and efficient method for teaching English language skills to EFL learners in opposition to the traditional learning environment.

      Frederick Mensah Bonsu, David Doe Ayornoo, Delta Hammond

Abstract: This study was concerned with the factors that influence effective teaching and learning at Agogo Presbyterian Teacher Training College. Because the study was limited to one college, all the students and the tutors formed the population which stood at 534 students and 35 tutors. Through the simple random sampling, 30 tutors and 130 students were selected to constitute the sample for the study. Descriptive survey research design was used and questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection

      Eddison Foster Mawusi

Abstract: The purpose for the integration of ICT in education in Ghana is to enhance teaching and learning, and educational services delivery. In line with this, the government of Ghana envisaged integration of ICTs necessary for the education sector into its administrative and service delivery activities and work towards an electronically SMART ministry that is Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent.

      Shiv Kumar Dube

Abstract: The present paper aims for the preparation of the fast lane assessment plan for exploring the possibility of ash disposal in abandoned mines filled with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The quantum of coal ash generation in India has been reviewed vis-à-vis India’s total power generation installed capacity and coal based installed capacity as on today.

      Sadaf Munir, Waseem Abbas, Attia Munir, Dr Akhter Ali, Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar, Dr. Tanveer Hussain, Dr Shamas Munir, Faiza javed

Abstract: Assess antioxidant plus antibacterial activity of cooked vegetable dishes (common Pakistani recipes). Effects of Pakistani style cooking were investigated on antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity of P.sativum, B.campestris, S.tuberosum, D.carota, Trigonella foenum-graecum, B.rapa, S. oleracea, C.annuum, B.oleracea var. botrytis, S.melongena and B.oleracea var. capitata, of raw, raw mixture and cooked form. Different concentrations of vegetables’ samples were checked with DPPH.

      Dr. T. C. Okeke , AMOBI, LINDA IFY

Abstract: The study examined the influence of packaging on consumer buying decision of cosmetics. (A study of consumers of beauty care cosmetics in Awka). Many organizations are constantly caught in the web of their inability to identify elements of packaging that make significant influence on consumer buying behavior (Louw & Kimber, 2006). This is because packaging has the power to make, but also to break brand relationships. Therefore, the major objective of this study is to determine the influence of packaging on consumer buying decision

      Otoo Henry, Appiah Sampson Takyi, Asiedu Larbi Ebenezer

Abstract: The study presented a deterministic mathematical model for investigating the dynamics of Chikungunya virus transmission into a human population. A system of nonlinear differential equations was used to formulate the mathematical model. The threshold value for the disease was determined using the next generation matrix approach.

      Chukwueloka, Christian C, Adoromike, Ebere Florence

Abstract: All the genres of literature, from poetry to drama, and the novel, generally reflect the happenings in a society and this is why literature is seen as a mirror of the society as well as regarded as is being alive. .This paper entitled ”Greed and Selfishness as the Nucleus of Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta

      Fiza Bano, Hafsa Kango , Harshika Prasad

Abstract: The research is based on the evidence of plant extracts ;neem and guava against bacteria. Neem and guava leaves have enormous medicinal wealth having anti inflammatory ,antimicrobial ,antioxidant ,antidiarrheal ,antimutagenic properties as has been reported in various studies.

      Abera Ayalew, Yeshmebet Demissie

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of occupational health and safety program on organizational productivity in Bahir Dar tannery factory. To achieve the objectives of this study, data were collected through questionnaire from a sample of 112 employees of the factory.

      Jude Chukwunonso Abugu, Professor Ifeoma Vivian Dunu

Abstract: There is proliferation of cholesterol build-up wellness information online due to the controversies and debates about it causes and effects which have also captured journalistic attention. This study investigates the extent sedentary workers in South East Nigeria are aware and exposed to cholesterol build-up information, their knowledge and sources of awareness and exposure.

      Jimmy T. Masagca, Meda B. Mercado, Melinda V. Abichuela & Glenn Paul R. Lopez

Abstract: Social representations (SR) of Moscovici’s theory of social-psychology provides a framework for understanding the gender and equity issues in marine protected areas (MPA) which is currently under-researched in the Philippines.

      Peter E. Ayunku, Tonye Richard Apiri

Abstract: The Nigerian banking sector has its shortfalls traceable majorly on capital inadequacy, huge non-performing loans, lack of transparency, and disheveled internal control strategies. This study is hinged on providing empirically findings on internal control strategies influence on listed commercial banks financial performance in Nigeria within 2000-2018 respectively. Secondary data sourced were analyzed through the error correction mechanism (ECM) for identified long-run co-integrating relationship that exists among variables, and t-statistics output were employed to test formulated hypotheses in the study.

      Philip Mogire, John Mwero,Silvester Abwodha and Geoffrey Manguriu

Abstract: As the world economies endeavor to support the United Nations sustainable development goals, new technologies are evolving for efficient design and manufacture of civil engineering products. Researchers have up scaled their effort to develop techniques to monitor the performance of civil engineering structures within their service life for optimum return from investment. The aim of this research was to develop a service life model to for prediction of the service life of reinforced concrete water conveyancing structures.

      Anindita Barman

Abstract: The secondary education has a notable role in the whole field of education. In fact it is the stage of education which assist children to become full members of a complex society. The teacher of a secondary schools plays an important role in the field of education. The teachers of secondary schools faced lots of problems throughout the school hour. This paper highlights some of the problems faced by the teachers of secondary school teachers in Ganeshguri area of Kamrup Metropolitan.

      Kiwanuka David kageche, Edwin kipkirui

Abstract: The earliest civilizations were made possible due to settlement along major rivers that allowed for irrigation. In modern times, most of the world’s major cities are built along major rivers. They provide water for drinking, sanitation, fishing and for recreation activities. Irrigation consumes well above 70% of the earths fresh surface waters which comprise of less than 1% of the global fresh water capacity. The millennium development goals had set targets which were not met and the contemporary sustainable development goals were set to realize the goals. Water is addressed on most of the SDGs goals: life under water, zero hunger etc

      Adu, Folashade, Ikerionwu Charles, Nnonyelu Henry

Abstract: Phishing is one of the most popular forms of social engineering attack that involves use of emails or text message from known associate or friend that has links or attachments, which automatically downloads a spyware unnoticed when clicked. This epidemic has been in existence for ages and pose a big threat to IT security, individual and organizations reputation. Thus, this study aims at developing an email application embedded with algorithm to categorize incoming emails into high, medium and low threats.

      Akanbi Sunday Olugbenga

Abstract: The paper examines newspaper headlines captions of Boko Haram attack on the Nigerian Army Base in Metele, North East Nigeria of 18th November, 2018. Thirty newspaper headlines from twelve daily Nigerian newspapers published between November 21st and December 15th were selected. The headlines were subjected to three levels of linguistics analyses: lexical, syntactic and semantic. Findings from the study reveal that journalistic writings are either presented to portray objective views, or to whip up psychological sentiments in the choice of words and expressions

      Dr.Shalini M. Guldeokar, Dr. B.B. Sonule

Abstract: Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. It deals with human being at every stage because he is important agent of this activity. He has started for himself to develop his society. It plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio-economic and political development in different areas, for instance, offering new employment opportunities, similarly it may contribute to understand diversity of cultures and way of life.

      Md. Sirajul Islam

Abstract: A scientist draws to discover computer, an architect draws to build 160 levels high-rise tower, a scientist draws to victory the Space. All drawings of dreams successfully implemented. According to the present world problems I have designed my dream APG 20 to Establish Global Peace in 2040. This research aims to show Achieving Peace Goals 20 in 2040 (APG 20 in 2040) to Achieve an Educated, an Ethical, a Healthy and a Happy Generation in 2040 (AEEHHG in 2040) in order to Establish Global Peace in 2040 (EGP in 2040) (Diagram 1).

      Md. Sirajul Islam

Abstract: The study focuses on the concept of false accusation of adultery (qadhf) and its punishment. Islam is a complete religion, it encompasses all dimension of human life, their faith, Ibadah (obedience, submission, and devotion to God), culture, law, politics, economics, ethics, sociology, sciences and so on. Islam suggests people to be honest, righteousness and justice. Criminal behavior is not tolerated in the Islamic sociology. Islam strongly emphasized on social justice in order to establish holistic social environment where everybody will get his/her deserved legal rights. The foundation of Islamic criminal law is the Holy Qur’ān and Prophetic Traditions.

      Mr. Mohammed Abdulselam, Mr. Bekana Dembel

Abstract: In today’s competitive world of business, having accurate information is the key factor in distinguishing between the loser and the winner. Cost and management accounting embrace a range of techniques essential to all phases of product life cycle from providing reliable information for strategic decision making to managing construction and maintenance of costs. This study attempts to investigate the degree of Adoption of cost and management accounting techniques in Selected Manufacturing companies in and around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

      Firmansyah Putra, Dhirajaya Dharma Kadar, Syah Mirsya Warli

Abstract: Background: Fournier Gangrene (FG) is a case of emergency urology with high mortality. Early and aggressive intervention can be done with a simple assessment system. Simplified Fournier Gangrene Severity Index (SFGSI) simplifies the Fournier Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) while remaining sensitive and specific. This study aims to compare the performance of FGSI and SFGSI as predictors of FG patient mortality in H. Adam Malik General Hospital Medan.

      Efi, U. J.

Abstract: The proximate and phytochemical composition of Vernonia amygdalina samples X and Y taken from Donga metropolis and Donga non residential areas of Taraba State were investigated using standard methods The proximate analysis gave the following results: moisture content 8.25% and 9.22%, crude protein 22.60% and 26.84%, fat 3.30% and 3.45%, crude fibre 12.93% and 12.41%, ash 12.11% and 7.50%, and carbohydrate 40.81% and 38.55%. Phytochemical concentrations are in the order: saponin ˃ flavonoids ˃ polyphenols. This study established that Vernonia amygdalina has nutrition and phytochemical properties; these bioactive compounds can be useful for therapeutic health benefits, sources of carbohydrate and fibre.

      Dr. Manu Mahajan, Dr. Zubair Khalid, Dr. Tanher Zaheer, Dr. Soma Kar

Abstract: Postural hypotension is a common presentation in elderly coming in with falls. There are inconsistencies in the measurement and documentation of Lying/Standing B.P. during acute admission in elderly patients presenting with a fall as an inpatient.1Common causes are sepsis, dehydration, delirium, loss of autonomic tone in the elderly, medications-ACE inhibitor/ARB, diuretics, alpha blockers, beta blockers, autonomic neuropathy secondary to diabetes.2

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