International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 4, April 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

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      Waleed Nour Eldien, Elham H . M. Ali, Ahmed. Sohily, Mortada Hamad E.A

Abstract: The purification process is very important stage in sugar industries. The juice extracted from cane sugar is normally treated by addition of milk of lime and heating. This treatment helps settling of the coagulate, fulgent, salt, gums, and fiber impurities. This impurity affects to quality of juice and there chemical properties. After purification process the clear juice concentrated in evaporators then to the crystallizers to produce sugar crystals. Then sugar crystals were separated from molasses and to color improvement unit. .In this study the samples of lime juice were taken and heated to different temperature (75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100) oC were analyzed and determined the chemical properties which affected to quality of sugar production like: pH, polarization sugar , reducing sugar, color, phosphate contains, turbidity and purity. Then the sedimentation rat at this different temperature by measuring the volumes of settling material and the clear juice were calculated.

      Waleed Nour Eldien, Elham H . M. Ali, Ahmed. Sohily, Mortada Hamad E.A

Abstract: The purification process is very important stage in sugar industries. The juice extracted from cane sugar is normally treated by addition of milk of lime and heating. This treatment helps settling of the coagulate, fulgent, salt, gums, and fiber impurities. This impurity affects to quality of juice and there chemical properties. After purification process the clear juice concentrated in evaporators then to the crystallizers to produce sugar crystals. Then sugar crystals were separated from molasses and to color improvement unit. .In this study the samples of lime juice were taken and heated to different temperature (75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100) oC were analyzed and determined the chemical properties which affected to quality of sugar production like: pH, polarization sugar , reducing sugar, color, phosphate contains, turbidity and purity. Then the sedimentation rat at this different temperature by measuring the volumes of settling material and the clear juice were calculated.

      Mulyadi, Musa Hubeis, Setiadi Djohar

Abstract: PT Cogindo Daya Bersama (CDB) was established with the aim of holding a commercial business in power supply generation and other related fields. The company has a market share up to 24.5%, making it the second largest company in operation and maintenance (O&M) services of power plants in Indonesia. The electricity market is currently growing, yet the revenues of PT CDB tend to decrease in the last 4 years. The purpose of this research is to determine the development future strategies of portfolio of business lines at PT CDB.


Abstract: In this paper, the length of an edge sequence is said to be the number of edges contained in the edge sequence. The length of a fuzzy chain is the number of edges that makes up the fuzzy chain. The distance between vertex i and vertex j is sij, which is defined as the length of the smallest fuzzy chain between vi and vj. The concept of radius and diameter are associated with connected fuzzy graph. The radius of a fuzzy graph is defined as the set of maximum values selected from each row of the distance matrix is in a sense a measure of the closeness of a fuzzy graph. The diameter of a graph is the greatest distance that can be found in the fuzzy graph. To determine the diameter, select the maximum value from each row in the distance matrix. The largest of these numbers is the diameter.

      Sasni Amarasekara

Abstract: Sri Lanka's indigenous people, the Veddas (forest-dwellers), have inhabited Sri Lanka's monsoon dry forest for at least 16,000 years and probably much longer. Hunting and gathering was their main means of living. Accordingly their foods were meat, birds, eggs, honey, fish, fruit, and vegetables.

      NagungCamder Tok, Kamal Kant Jain, Narottam Prasad Sahu,Tincy Varghese, and Daniel N

Abstract: The present study evaluated the antioxidative and biological activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extract from leaf and root of aromatic herb, Houttuyniacordata (HC). The yield were found to be 7.67±0.33 to 9.33±0.58 %, 9.00±0.58 to 10.67±0.33 % and 11.33±0.33 to 13.67±0.58 % of root to leaf in different solvent of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic solvent extraction. The parameters such as 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, total phenol contents (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (NTZ), haemolytic assay (HA) and genoprotective assay were analysed.

      Dr. V. Ramadevi

Abstract: Human Resource Management plays very important role in any organization which facilitates the most effective use of employees to achieve the objectives of any organization. In this study, an attempt has been made to find out the issues relating to Human resource management in the academic libraries, professional engagement and views and comments to improve the library services in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methodology followed for this study is survey method. For this, both primary and secondary data related to the study has been collected. Samples of 100 librarians and library staffs were selected from the academic libraries by using simple random sampling. The results pointed out that, the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the respondents with their work, working culture, working condition and their salary and etc. This study assesses human resource function at the university level and then evaluates the specific structures of the academic library within the institution. The purpose of the study is to help both library and its parent organization in understanding each other’s views on HR issues and to evaluate the importance of an internal HR expert to deal the situations in the day to- day administration of the library.

      Birhanu Melesse, Dr.Kavitha Nachimuthu

Abstract: The study specifically aims to review cause and consequences of rural- urban migration in Ethiopia. Environmental degradation, lower agricultural productivity, inadequate social services, demographic pressure, land shortages in rural areas were identified as the major push factors of migration. Although “push” factors predominate, there are some significant “pull” factors that attract rural people to urban areas such as education, health services, security, better job, advancement opportunities and other urban amenities. Depending on reviewed document, the most significant consequences of migration in the urban areas are overcrowding and congestion, strain on urban social services rising food costs, worsening air and water quality and increasing violence, prostitution and diseases are important.

      Mrs.Tigist Petros, Dr. Kavitha Nachimuthu, Mr. Haimanot Atinikut, Mr. Mohammed Gedefaw

Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the countries on the African continent with highest agricultural potential. Its natural resources base is the foundation of any economic development, food security and other basic necessities of its people. Predominantly smallholder agriculture is the dominant sector of the national economy. The objective of the study is to examine constraints in addressing women farmers and rural youth and to assess constraints of extension system in promoting agricultural technologies to farmers in the study area. Primary and Secondary data was collected for the study purpose. In addition to respondents’ interview, focus group discussion, key informants interview and case studies were used for qualitative data analysis. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard devotions and percent was applied. For statistical tests, chi-square, T-test, Pearson and spearman’s correlation coefficient were employed. As a conclusion, the challenges of existing public agricultural extension service provision institutional, technological and technical and in terms of addressing cross-cutting issues such as environment and gender as theses have wider contexts to look into existing endogenous and exogenous constraints.

      Beyene Derso, Kibrom Adino, Haimanot Atinkut, and Mohamed Gedefaw

Abstract: There is a need for an integration of stakeholders that are dealing with agricultural development in problem identification, planning, implementation and evaluation. This integration and regular share of knowledge and information among them could bring sustainable agricultural development. However, these holistic approach performances were not assessed and documented for future improvement in Amhara Region, North Gondar. In light of this, the study look into the stakeholders’ integration existed in agricultural extension practices in north Gondar zone, located at North of Amhara region. The objective of the study is to assess the existing stakeholders’ integration in Agricultural extension practice in the study area.

      Norhafizah Ab Manan, Nor Azwany Yaacob, Al-Safi Ismail

Abstract: The number of metabolic syndrome is increasing, necessity an assessment of knowledge to avoid this population growing. The aims of this study were to develop and validate Malay questionnaire on knowledge of prevention and risk on metabolic syndrome. Methodology: Cross sectional study was done among 200 samples from three villages in Bachok, Kelantan by face-to-face interview. Twenty-eight items were developed by a group of public health experts. To assess test retest reliability, 62 from all respondents were re-interviewed for the second time after two weeks interval. Result: Respondents were aged between 18 to 84 years old. Majority of the subjects were Malay (98%) and female (89%). Two items from the original questionnaire were deleted due to low correlations and after being judge unduly influence item. The factor loading using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was ranged from 0.41 to 0.84. Internal consistency of the components using cronbach’s alpha was ranged from 0.403 to 0.809. Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test was performed for test-retest reliability with the coefficient at 0.95. Conclusion:An acceptable questionnaire was developed for measuringthe knowledge on prevention and risk of metabolic syndrome. The feasibility was present and the internal consistency and ICC were excellent. It can be used to explore the baseline of knowledge of metabolic syndrome before tailoring anyhealth educationor promotion for preventing metabolic syndrome in Malaysia.

      Cafer KÖSE, Özkan KAYA

Abstract: This experiment was carried out to determine the tolerance level of winter buds according to positions in Karaerik cv. grape cultivar grown in Erzincan province during the winter colds that occurred in 2013/14 and 2014/15 years. For this purpose, frost tolerance levels of the first 4 buds of one-year old shoot and their damaged varability rates by exposure to low winter temperatures have been detected with binocular microscope and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analysis. The winter buds at the 2nd and 3rd shoot were found to be most sensitive to low temperatures with average damage rates of 26.5% and 33.5%, respectively during the years of the research. Additionally, the winter buds at the 1st and 4th nodes according to positions were found to be the most tolerant buds with average damage rates of 18.5% and 19.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the winter buds found on the 2nd and 3rd nodes according to positions were found to be the most sensitive buds with average MDA content of 3.72 and 3.74 nmol/ml respectively. For all that the winter buds in the 1st and 4th nodes according to positions were identified as the least injured buds with average MDA content of 2.92 and 3.12 nmol/ml respectively. Therefore, in pruning this is recommended to reduce yield losses by making it from node position 4th after the severe winter cold. In this way, with standardization of pruning levels for Karaerik grape cultivar can be improved yield and quality.

      Md.Ashadujjaman, Asma Akter

Abstract: Recently, quality of education is an important issue in all over the world. Private sector universities established in Bangladesh on 1992 to enhance higher education. At present there are 38 public and 90 above private universities are running their academic activities in Bangladesh. A large number of students are studying at the undergraduate and graduate levels in private universities of Bangladesh. These students are getting education in the fields of business, science and engineering, arts and social sciences respectively. Nowadays this is a burning issue that most of the private university of Bangladesh does not provide quality of education and produce quality graduates.

      Farah Shahid, Maruf Pasha

Abstract: The similarity measurement of mapping between ontologies has been evaluated through prior terms like instance, properties and association. Concept similarity measurement (CSM) technique is most applicable for mapping among ontologies which calculates similarity matching of data given by user (i.e. data mention in search query, mostly various keywords are typed). The basic purpose of this research is to suggest a SM technique which uses similar super concepts for mapping and increase the matching similarity with some additional datasets. We have analyzed the various limitations in previous techniques and have effort to modify the limitations of these techniques in our proposed architecture. The paper presents a layered approach for similarity matching using super concepts and measures the synonym of concepts by using domain vocabulary. It also uses the (ESR) explicit semantic relation to measure the responsibility of concepts which create conflict in mapping process. A sample case study has employed to test the SM technique of proposed architecture .Two matrices for evaluation which is efficiency and definitiveness parameters has used to improve performance of mapping by adding concept explicit semantic relation. The proposed architecture provides the enhancement of mapping results by classify super concepts which are based on the semantic responsibility of concepts. This improvement plays a vital role in the domain of ontologies for mapping, alignment and merging and will also give a clear, obvious outcome of search.


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the school leavers’ entrepreneurial characteristics and the relationship between those characteristics and entrepreneurial intension to solve existing problems of unemployment. And find out to what extent the respondents have become an entrepreneur.Both primary and secondary data were used to conduct the study. To collect the primary data self-administered questionnaire was applied.Multi-stage stratified random sampling technique usedto select the study respondents. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics tools. Findings revealed that the education system has highly facilitated to develop the entrepreneurial skills through TVET to the school leavers. But considerable amount of school leavers have no high level of idea to become an entrepreneur.

      Nusrat Jahan Ety, Dr. Md. Shahedur Rashid

Abstract: Bangladesh is a land of rivers. Flood and bank erosion since pre historic period had become one of the major aspects of discussion for its direct interaction with physical and socio-cultural environment. As we know regular variation is exposed by this river from upstream to downstream at different reaches in the Ganges River. Ganges River is considered as a frequent bankline migrant and unstable river of the country. This research intends to identify the shifting pattern of the Ganges River courses accordingly using Rennell map in 1760s and Landsat Imageries (MSS-1975; TM-1995, and ETM+ 2015). As Landsat TM band 4 (0.76 - 0.90 µm) is suitable for land-water interfaces separation the Ganges river basin and have been delineated the land and water classification using this band. The size, shape and direction of Ganges River gradually changed over more than 250 years.

      DRRHB Dissanayake, HKMMB Kavisekara, KSCK Dissanayake, WKS Kularatne

Abstract: Majority of deaths occur in hospital in modern era and most of them are due to chronic non-communicable diseases. End-of-life care has significant impact on overall image of care and the impression of health care services among family members. The study looked at theFamily perspectives on end-of-life care in a tertiary care medical facility of Sri Lanka. Questionnaire used was adapted from previously published and validated instrument called Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) is used. Five aspects of end-of-life care was assessed. Results of the family survey showed that significant shortcomings on the care at the end of life with regards to all 5 aspects of care assessed.It was recommended to introduce training on end of life care for everyone in the health care team.

      Baldau Prasad Dadsena, Dr.M.L.Jaiswal

Abstract: The grazed grasslands of the India are an important resource as it contributes environmentally, economically but also in social development of the country. In the current growing industrialization the effective use land and continuous degradation in the grassland productivity has become one of the prime concerns for the country. In this study the primary productivity of a Grazed grassland commune located at Kota of Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh lies between 〖21〗^047’ to 〖23〗^08’ North latitude and 〖81〗^014’ to 〖83〗^015’ East longitude have been considered. A quadrate of 0.25 gm-2 is used for sampling the above ground plant parts and size of quadrate is determined by Species Area Curve Method. The grassland community comprised of 13 species (7 were grasses and 6 were non-grasses). Bothriochloa Pertusa, Cynodon dactylon, dactyloctenium aegyptium, and eragrastris mutan among the grasses and Alternanthera sessilis, Alycicarpus Monilifer, Desmodium Trifloriun, and Sida cordifolia among the non-grasses were found dominant during the study period. Results show that, the annual grass production was found to be 1305.95 gm-2/year. The non-grass production showed maximum in the month of October (53.49 gm-2) and minimum in the month of June (2.80 gm-2). The annual non-grass production was found to be 430.84 gm-2 /year. This study informed about the natural ecosystem and the primary productivity helps to the earlier balanced state. Our study provides a interesting future direction that how, human and climate changes affect the net productivity and biodiversity of grazed grassland community.

      Baldau Prasad Dadsena, Dr.M.L.Jaiswal

Abstract: The grazed grasslands of the India are an important resource as it contributes environmentally, economically but also in social development of the country. In the current growing industrialization the effective use land and continuous degradation in the grassland productivity has become one of the prime concerns for the country. In this study the primary productivity of a Grazed grassland commune located at Kota of Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh lies between 〖21〗^047’ to 〖23〗^08’ North latitude and 〖81〗^014’ to 〖83〗^015’ East longitude have been considered. A quadrate of 0.25 gm-2 is used for sampling the above ground plant parts and size of quadrate is determined by Species Area Curve Method. The grassland community comprised of 13 species (7 were grasses and 6 were non-grasses). Bothriochloa Pertusa, Cynodon dactylon, dactyloctenium aegyptium, and eragrastris mutan among the grasses and Alternanthera sessilis, Alycicarpus Monilifer, Desmodium Trifloriun, and Sida cordifolia among the non-grasses were found dominant during the study period. Results show that, the annual grass production was found to be 1305.95 gm-2/year. The non-grass production showed maximum in the month of October (53.49 gm-2) and minimum in the month of June (2.80 gm-2). The annual non-grass production was found to be 430.84 gm-2 /year. This study informed about the natural ecosystem and the primary productivity helps to the earlier balanced state. Our study provides a interesting future direction that how, human and climate changes affect the net productivity and biodiversity of grazed grassland community.

      W.M.J.B. Wijesinghe, P.G.J.C. De Silva, S.P. Gunaratne

Abstract: Biosecurity is the practice designed to prevent the spread of diseases onto farm, with in farm and out from the farm. It has three major components, isolation, traffic control and sanitation. Good biosecurity should be practiced at all the time and it is the cheapest and the most effective means of disease control. Therefore, objectives of this study were to evaluate and grade the commercial broiler farms according to the present biosecurity status and to correlate the performances with biosecurity status of those farms. A questionnaire covering all basic conceptual, structural and operational aspects of biosecurity was used to collect data from 80 commercial broiler farms in Central Province of Sri Lanka. Minitab software was used to analyze the data. There is a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between average catching age with overall biosecurity status. The average body weight has shown positive correlation while average mortality% and FCR having negative correlation though not statistically significant (p< 0.05). The biosecurity status of most farms falls to category of “Average” representing about 56%, while “Good” and “Poor” had about 15% and 27% of farms, respectively. There were very few broiler farms found in categories of “Excellent” and “Very poor” in terms of overall biosecurity status.

      Sumaiya Afrin Jhuma, Dr. Tahmina Mostarin, Dr. Khaleda khatun, Israt Jahan, Prince Biswas, Mohammad Abu Bakar Siddik

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Horticultural Farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, during the period from November 2013 to April 2014 to find out the response of different micronutrients and spacing on the growth and yield of garlic. The experiment consists of two factors. Factor A: four levels of plant nutrients T0: S0B0Zn0 (control), T1: S15B2Zn5, T2: S20B4Zn10 and T3: S25B6Zn15 (kg/ha) respectively. Factor B: three levels of spacing S1 = 10 cm × 10 cm, S2 = 15 cm × 10 cm and S3 = 15 cm × 15 cm were used for the present study. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. Results showed that T3S1 treatment combination was found highest yield (6.57 t) and lowest yield (3.36 t) was found fromT0S3 treatment combination. Calculating the benefit cost ratio T3S1 gave the highest economic return (2.52) compared with rest of the treatment combinations. So S25B6Zn15 with 10 cm × 10 cm spacing gave highest yield of garlic.

      L.S. Perera, W.D. Ratnasooriya, R.N. Pathirana

Abstract: This study was directed to evaluate the in vitro sunscreen potential of Sri Lankan medicinal plant - Flueggealeucopyrus (In Sinhala – Katupila, In Tamil – Mulluppulatti) (Family: Phyllanthaceae)using in vitro UV spectroscopic techniques and Mansur equation with 0.2 and 0.4 mg mL-1 methanolic extracts of the plant leaves. A methanol soluble fraction of Dermatone® (0.2 and 0.4 mg mL-1) was used as the reference agent. The results revealed high absorbance levels of methanolic extract of the plant leaves at 290-320 nm (UVB) range and SPF (Sun Protection Factor) was determined as 14.63/ 27.04 respectively for the 0.2mg mL-1 and 0.4 mg mL-1 concentrations, which is a novel finding, while Dermatone® exhibited a SPF value of 14.03/ 25.32. It can be concluded that F.leucopyrus leaves have a high sun protection activity which is possibly mediated via antioxidant activity of existing phytochemicals; phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins which was revealed by the phytochemical screening.

      Khalid Mohamed Durar

Abstract: The necessity of the cooperation of all Libyan institutions with the different educational and training institutions by holding training courses for the financial jobs workers focusing on making financial decisions and financial planning and analyzing .

      Jyoti Khare

Abstract: Although teaching is most preferable area for women to be empowered, but women are grossly under-represented in higher education till yet. Women are not able to give over their time equally as men for improving their skill and knowledge according to latest development in higher education due to dual responsibilities. Through a study it is proved that participation of female teachers is lesser (39%) than male teachers (61%). This study highlights those factors that make the women immobilize to complete their education of higher level and making the advancement in career. By using primary and secondary data by the researcher, the range of factors is divided into three categories as barriers: Social, Psychological and Institutional which mould the behavior of women and which make irrelevant workplace values So, further, it has been tried to examine how women can be empowered in higher education? What are the special initiatives that should be taken by the organization and the government? Govt. policies and plans of different authorities & commission regarding higher education can be implemented in such a way that women can contribute their immense participation in the development of Indian economy.

      Ahmed Trimbakwala

Abstract: India has a road network of over 5,472,144 kilo-metres (3,400,233 mi) as on 31 March 2015, the second largest road network in the world. The plastic wastes can be used in road construction and the field tests withstood the stress and proved that plastic wastes used after proper processing as an additive would enhance the life of the roads and also solve environmental problems. Plastic use in road construction is not new. It is already in use as PVC or HDPE pipe mat crossings built by cabling together PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or HDPE (high-density poly-ethylene) pipes to form plastic mats. Waste plastic is ground and made into powder; 3 to 4 % plastic is mixed with the bitumen. The durability of the roads laid out with shredded plastic waste is much more compared with roads with asphalt with the ordinary mix. The use of the innovative technology not only strengthened the road construction but also increased the road life as well as will help to improve the environment and also creating a source of income.

      Kathy Khaing, SaiMaungMaungZaw, Nyein Aye

Abstract: Due to the progress in digital imaging technology, image retrieval (IR) has become a very active research area in computer science. Although many researches are increased in Sketch Based Image Retrieval (SBIR) field, it is still difficult to bridge the gap between image and sketch matching problem. Therefore, this paper presents a scalable SBIR system and contributes to get more efficient retrieval result. The features of both the query sketch and database images are extracted by Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Then the cropped keypoint images are processed by Canny edge detection. After blocking the edge image, the matched feature values are get by pixel count ratio. The retrieved images similar with query sketch are displayed by rank. Mean Average Precision (MAP) and Recall rates is measured as evaluation criteria. To evaluate the performance of this system, the benchmark sketch dataset of Eitz et al. is used.

      D.P.Jayathunga, J.M.D.R. Jayawardana, S.T.C.I. Wimaladharma, H.M.U.M. Herath

Abstract: With the advent of the Internet, most of the academic institutions in the world are providing up-to-date information over their official websites. Nowadays it has been more concerned that the importance of the presence of information through websites to the public. Since web-based information sharing has become more popular and effective, it is required to focus on the usability of a website from the user’s viewpoint. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the usability of the official website of Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka under four main dimensions which are website content and organization , website navigation and links, user interface design and website performance. The questionnaire was designed and developed based on twenty usability criteria that are belong to the above four categories.

      Juanda Nawawi

Abstract: This research purpose was to describe and analyze the relationship between Regional Representative Council and Local Government in the making of local legislation of the alleviation of poverty. The result of this research showed that the relationship between, Regional Representative Council and Local Government in the making of local legislation is the diametric relationship. The relationship can be seen from the aspiration of society, public policy delivery budgets priorities and basis of the temporary budget by the local government to the parliament to be discussed and agreed upon. Then the local government to submit a draft regulation on the budget along with an explanation of the supporting documents to Regional Representative Council to be discussed and approved regulations.

      Gabriela Kiryakova

Abstract: Education in the Information Society is always connected and follows the development of information and communication technologies. The deployment of modern information technologies in educational institutions requires appropriate infrastructure and its effective management. Many schools and universities cannot afford the large investment costs of new technologies, which complicates their application in education. Cloud computing is a contemporary effective solution that allows educational institutions to respond quickly and adequately to new challenges and implement innovative approaches in training.

      Gabriella PÁTKAI, Tamás BERECZKEI

Abstract: This paper investigates the differences between personality traits of an individual and its character in a particular virtual environment (World of Warcraft, a massively multiplayer online role-playing game).Furthermore, we suggest differences between real and character personality traits emerge to gain more social success. Our findings confirm divergences between personality traits of players and their characters, especially in Neuroticism. Results also show that the individuals' real Extraversion and their characters' Openness are the variables that predict social success.

      Prakhar Dixit, Pratik Suhasaria,Atul Singh, Prof. Atul Patil

Abstract: “VLSI stands for “Very Large Scale Integration, which is the capability of semiconductor to fabricate many MOS family transistor into single silicon chip. CMOS is referred as “Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor” which is the technology of fabricating the n-type and p-type MOSFETs side by side on the same silicon substrate to construct a VLSI circuit. It has capability of developing both digital as well as analogue based applications. There are three types of materials used to design CMOS VLSI circuits. They are insulator, conductors and semiconductors. The paper also enlightens the fabrication process sequence which involves following steps silicon manufacture, wafer processing, lithography, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation,deposition, metallization, testing and packing. The main advantages of this technology are CMOS possess very high input impedance and the outputs are significantly high. The VLSI Technology is currently a booming technology which has changed the electronic world.”

      Muhammad Rifqi Syauqi, Dedi Budiman Hakim, Hendro Sasongko

Abstract: Competition of brokerageindustry in Indonesia is getting harderwith advancesin information technology, such as online trading. It is goodfor investors because the stock transactions can be done anywhere and anytime with a low cost. On the other hand, securities company (broker) requires a large capital to provide an online trading systemand offer a competitivetransaction fee. This study estimates the amount of working capital that must be met by a broker in Indonesia in order to compete with the other. The result is the low working capital led to low competitiveness. Broker with a large-scale company has a higher competitiveness compared to a small one. Therefore, the minimum requirements Net Adjusted Working Capital (NAWC) should be increased from Rp 25 billion to Rp 100 billion. Increasing in working capital is expected to encourage brokers more competitive and able to outperform the regional capital market players.

      Emil Zhalmukhamedov

Abstract: As US Department of Health (DOH) continues to evaluate the ranking of hospitals throughout the country, it’s becoming imperative for the hospitals to keep their brand image on a positive side, as well as keep improving their services of patient outcome. This paper focuses on the important aspects of modern methods of healthcare marketing, as well as emergency marketing, such as how to deal with bad PR. The methods introduced in this research paper, can dramatically improve the business side of the hospital and increase the patient loyalty.

      Aliyu Abubakar, M.H Ali

Abstract: This work presents the quantitative advantage of using a plane mirror as reflector for photovoltaic application. Shade, intermittent nature of solar radiation and dust reduce the total amount of the incident radiation on PV panel and thus reduce its efficiency. Plane mirror is used to increase the incident radiation and thus minimized the effect of the above problems. Experimental measurements are conducted on the performance of a 15 W silicon polycrystalline PV module with mirror reflector and compared with its performance without the mirror. The results obtained show that the plane mirror increased the output power of the PV panel to 20.4W.Thus the use of plane mirror as reflector is recommended to overcome the problem of poor performance due to these problems.

      Edwin Andama Ombasa

Abstract: Universities especially in Africa are today faced with the challenge of producing competent and highly skilled manpower necessary to serve the needs of humanity in the 21st century. The quality of assessment in these institutions could play a major role in the realization of this role. The United Kingdom is home to not only the oldest but also the best universities in the world. The East African Community on the other hand being a region in Africa may not be famed for this characteristic. In fact, studies have shown that a number of universities in the region ─ Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda and South Sudan are faced with a number of challenges related to the quality of education that takes place in these institutions.


Abstract: Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania) is an American developmental psychologist. Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences utilizes aspects of cognitive and developmental psychology, anthropology, and sociology to explain the human intellect. The theory was introduced in 1983, with Gardner's book, Frames of Mind.

      Deepa & Dr. Nipin Gupta

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of multiple nodes, usually tens to thousands, that are deployed to gather useful information from the environment/field. These nodes share information and carry out cooperative processing by communicating through wireless channels. These Wireless Sensor Nodes are generally grouped in clusters to increase the efficiency of the network and enhance the scalability of the network system. However, since the nodes have limited power capabilities, limited computation power and finite battery life, it becomes critical to conserve the limited resources in order to increase the up-time of the network.


Abstract: This article talks about the research work of Dr. William Marston. He believed that behaviour of individuals are greatly influenced by their upbringing and environment. He developed the “four quadrant behavioural model of inner motivation”

      Shalu Garg

Abstract: Minimum entropy probability distribution is necessary for complete information of probability distribution. But it has not been calculated so much whenever Maximum entropy probability distribution has been obtained by using different measures. Due to concave nature of entropy, minimization is complicated than maximization. In the present paper, We use Unorthodox measure of entropy to obtain minimum entropy for given Arithmetic mean and Second order moment.


Abstract: The secondary power distribution is the final stage of power distribution.In this paper,a GSM(Global system for mobile communication) based alert and switching control system is proposed to monitor and control secondary distribution. Automatic alert and switching control of secondary distribution system(AASCSDS) can be installed in a distribution substation. Fault due to tripping of circuit breakers and blowing of fuses are alerted to authorities as GSM messages .The system is authorised with a unique phone number ,assumed to be that of the authorised person. The incorporated GSM module acts as a mean for monitoring and controlling through a real time two way interaction between the system and authorised person via SMS (Short Message Service) .In this paper a GSM based alert and switching control system is proposed to automate secondary power distribution .

      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common presenting complaints in urology practice and is a main cause affecting the quality of life. LUTS are characterized by storage symptoms and voiding symptoms, including urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, intermittency, hesitancy, incomplete voiding, poor stream and terminal dribbling. In males LUTS typically occurs due to bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. In women LUTS usually occur due to overactive bladder due to detrusor over activity. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ethnic distribution of patients presenting with LUTS.

      Dr. Muhammad RafiqueAnjum

Abstract: Peace has been a long cherished dream of humanity since times immemorial; but its relevance and scope in the modern world has increased many-fold.The word Peace having no agreed upon single definition has been explained by some, as tranquility or quiet, freedom from disturbance or conflict, absence or cessation of war, a state of security or order, and a reconciliation after strife etc. It could however be best understood and appreciated by absence of the antonyms like war, conflict, unrest, violence, terrorism, destruction etc.Religion is central to the existence of almost every society and has been defined as “a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature and purpose of life and the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a supernatural agency

      Margaret Wawira Ndwiga, Dr. Florence Ondieki-Mwaura, Dr. Winifred Karugu

Abstract: Researchers have argued that if programmes are appropriately designed, microfinance could make an important contribution to women’s empowerment. Empowerment is about changing power relations to favour those who previously had limited power over their own lives. Participation of women in microfinance programmes provides them with resources that enhance their individual ability to make choices and consequently gain control over their own lives. An example of programmes providing microfinance services targeting women clients is the Women Enterprise Fund (WEF), an initiative of the government of Kenya. This paper employs a descriptive approach to examine effect of duration of participation in the WEF micro finance programme on women empowerment in Nairobi County. The paper is based on the findings of a wider study on the impact of WEF Microfinance intervention programme on women empowerment, carried out between October 2015 and January 2016 in Nairobi County. A sample of 385 women was drawn randomly from 167 active self help groups that were beneficiaries of microcredit and other financial services from WEF. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, as well as through focus group discussions. According to the findings, participating in the WEF programme had a positive influence on various dimensions of empowerment, but the duration of women’s participation (the number of years women had received credit in form of loans, and other services from WEF) had very limited impact on empowerment outcomes.

      AndhinaDyahSulityowati, NoerAzamAchsani, Tanti Novianti

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence the profitability in one of commercial bank in Indonesia, both internal and external. Assessment of the financial performance of banks is important for stakeholders and may also increase of the level of customers’ trust. Profitability of banks can be seen from the Return on Asset (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Return On Investment (ROI) ratio. This research used secondary data taken from the banks’ annual reports and website of Bank Indonesia. The method used in this study was the Vector Error Correction Model. The results showed that nearly all of the company’s internal variables such as LDR, ROA, NIM and CAR had significant effect in the short term, while all external variables did not have significant effect towards profitability in both the short and long term. Impulse Response Function (IRF) analysis results indicate that the shock of one standard deviation on all internal variables except NPL gives corresponding response while external variables fluctuated in coherence with ROA, ROE and ROI. Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) analysis results, as well as BI and ROA were dominantlyinfluencing the value of ROA, NIM and GDP were dominantlyinfluencing the value of ROE, meanwhile the CAR and inflation rate were dominant in influencing the value of ROI.

      Srinath T, Shyam Kumar E

Abstract: Glass Fiber – reinforced polymer (GFPR) has been used as an alternative to steel due to high strength –to-weight ratio, high stiffness- to – weight ratio and corrosion and fatigue resistance. GFRP have been found to be more attractive in asian region due to their cost competitiveness. Hence effort is required to find the bonding and buckling behaviors of fiber reinforced composite(FRC) column made using epoxy resin and glass fiber sheet with Triethylenetetramine (TETA) as hardener for curing of resin. To achieve the objective, an experimental setup was prepared with, specimen of hollow circular section is casted and compressive loading was applied to specimen. This will help in finding the buckling nature of the section.

      Moneme, Chigozie Patrick, Nzewi, Hope Ngozi , Mgbemena, Ijeamaka Charity

Abstract: In today’s dynamic business environment, pharmaceutical firms are focusing their strategies on product development. For a product to secure market acceptance it must meet customers’ needs. Competitive intelligence (CI) equips organisations with the necessary information and knowledge needed for product development. With new and unique insights gained from CI, organisations are able to develop new or improve existing products that add value to customers.This study therefore, examined the influence of Competitive intelligence on Product Development of Selected Pharmaceutical Firms in Anambra State. To achieve this objective, a model was specified and competitive intelligence diffused into sub variables of Competitive risks, Core assumptions, Competitor threats, Marketplace opportunities, and Key Vulnerabilities.

      S. Uma, P. Manikandan

Abstract: The concept of this paper studies with the customers arriving in bulk or group, in a single server queueing system, in Poisson distribution which provides three types of general services in bulk of fixed size M (≥1) in first come first served basis. After first two stage service, the server must provide the third stage service. After the completion of third stage service, the server takes compulsory vacation under exponential distribution. If the required bulk of customers are not available on the return of the server, the server again goes for vacation or remains in the system till bulk is reached. The arriving batch balks during the period when the server is busy or when the server is on vacation or other constraints. This may result in the impatient behavior of the customers. From the above concept, we compute the time dependent probability generating functions and from it the corresponding steady state results are obtained. The average queue size and the system size are derived.

      Singgih Hartanto, Soegiono Soetomo, Broto Sunaryo, Wisnu Pradoto

Abstract: Urban pattern describes the "pattern" and representing the spatial characteristic of the urban area. Whereas efficiency energy was one of the hottest topics related to spatial pattern. This paper presents a study about the correlation between urban pattern and distribution of electrical energy. The aim of this research is to find out the patterns of urban space that can provide efficiency in electrical energy distribution. The research method used quantitative positivist approach, while the data collection used Geographic Information System (GIS). As object of study is commercial area around Semarang city square. There are four steps analysis i.e. electric transient and analysis program to calculate losses value, nearest neighbor analysis to determine the spatial patterns, ordinary least square to determine the relationship among variables and hot spot analysis to determine the optimum distance of spatial pattern. Based on the analysis, the most suitable spatial pattern to create the most efficient in electrical distribution in commercial area was cluster. The maximum distance for each activity was 146 m for shopping complex, 165 m for trade and service area and 358 m for hotel and supermarket. In addition, to create efficiency in electrical distribution in commercial area, the proportion of business area must be higher than other areas. Then followed by shopping complex and for the last was hotel and supermarket.

      M.Kowsalya, H.OormilaDevi, N.ShivaKumar

Abstract: Software effort estimation is the methodology predicting the amount of effort required to develop or maintain the particular software. The Software effort estimation is task which is done in the requirement engineering phase where a requirement is taken and the effort needed for that particular requirement is found. The accuracy value of the effort must be very high because it may lead to the financial loss or the loss of reputation of the company. K-Means clustering algorithm is one of the machine learning oriented techniques. The clustering of the dataset is done using the K-Means clustering algorithm to estimate the effort accurately and efficiently. After clustering, the analogy based estimation technique is used. The non-algorithmic model like the analogy based effort estimation performs better than the algorithmic model like COCOMO. The effort estimated using the analogy based effort estimation coincides mostly with the actual effort obtained from the software effort estimation dataset. The results of the effort estimation were analyzed using the Magnitude of Relative Error (MRE) and Mean Magnitude Relative Error (MMRE) to prove its accuracy.

      Dr. Mustainah, M.Si

Abstract: A high quality service is a must for any educational institutions. The reason is simply because by providing a high quality service, the educational institutions will not merely have economic benefits, but more importantly it could make the institutions becoming as the second home of the students and other stakeholders of the schools. However, studies examining the quality of the service management and the human resources of educational institution in Indonesia have been limited. For this reason, this study using secondary data, observations and experiences aims at examining these issues. The study found that the educational institutions in Jakarta still needed many improvements not only in terms of the service management, but also in terms of human resource management.

      Joyce Ayuba Ramadan

Abstract: The quality of the water resource within the area was imperative owing to the fact that the most decent source utilized by the residents for domestic and other uses is the groundwater from wells and boreholes. This aroused the need for the chemical and bacteriological analysis of both ground and surface water within the study area with the sole aim of verifying the water sources in order to determine the suitability for consumption which would aid in controlling outbreaks of water borne diseases within the area of investigation. The Garmin Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to locate the sample points with a total of 36 (thirty six) water samples represented by 15 (fifteen) groundwater from wells and 3 (three) stream channels all taken in pairs inside sterilized polythene containers and subsequently transported to the laboratory.

      Dr. Neeta Pandey

Abstract: Bill Gates-- the founder of Microsoft, the world’s largest Software Company and the wealthiest man on the planet, strongly feels that “ I’m a great believer that any tool that enhances communication has profound effects in terms of how people can learn from each other, and how they can achieve the kind of freedoms that they’re interested in.” Billionaire Warren Buffet highly places the value of Communication Skills by saying that “If you can’t communicate, it’s like winking at a girl in the dark. One can improve one’s value 50 percent if one has better Communication Skills.” Cline (2005) conducted a survey while he was undertaking his research in a Corporate sector. He based it on 330 employers. The result wasn’t astonishing as 96 % of the executives considered Communication Skills to be the most important feature of an employee trait. It can be said that “Poor communication can negatively affect employee recruitment and retention (CCH, 2000), as well as the “bottom line” (Washatka, 2004).

      Dr. Garima Mathur, Abhijeet Singh Chauhan

Abstract: The current research was conducted to identify the Mediating effect of Employee Engagement on Employee Participation & Employee voice. The data was collected using non probability purposive sampling technique. Data was collected from 200 respondents who were the employees of manufacturing industries. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient and principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation was applied to check the internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to confirm factors appeared through exploratory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the relationship between Employee Participation Employee Engagement and Employee voice as dependent variable and also to develop a model. The results indicated significant impact of Employee Participation on Employee Engagement and further Employee Engagement on Employee voice.

      Ira Wahyuni, Amruzi Minha, Andy Mulyana, Zulkifli Alamsyah

Abstract: Demand for agricultural products has been will continue to change, grow and develop at high speed, it is time offender production (farmer households) rice with multi commodity and multi product aims to meet the needs of the consumer. The aim of research to determine the performance level of commercialization of farming and household enterprises rice farmers in Tanjung Jabung Timur District.

      Bizualem Wakuma, Tolesa Fita

Abstract: Due to various natural and anthropogenic activities, quality of water was deteriorated in most towns of the country. These changes make the community to depend on unsafe and poor water consumption. Under the present investigation some physicochemical parameters of water from Mettu town for drinking purpose was characterized. The analyzed laboratory result of some heavy/trace metals from the town were Zn (from source point, tap and distribution was 0.06429 ± 0.00242, 0.00759 ± 0.00235 and 0.03594 ± 0.00238 respectively), Pb (from source point, tap and distribution was respectively 0.04348 ± 0.04376, 0.11141 ± 0.04450 and 0.07744 ± 0.04413). Among the three heavy metals the concentration of Lead (Pb) recorded was above the maximum permissible limit of lead in drinking water (0.01 mg/L) according to WHO standard. Some selected laboratory result of physicochemical parameters was pH [Ms (6.44), Mt (6.61) & Md (6.32)]. Electrical Conductivity (µS/cm-1) [Ms (274), Mt (259) & Md (267). Turbidity (NTU) [Ms (8.21), Mt (5.63) & Md (5.87). Comparatively the maximum value for almost all physicochemical parameters were recorded at Mettu town which indicates further treatment process needs for this town.

      Muhammad ZeeshanMazher, Asif Iqbal, Wajid Saeed, Naveed Arsalan, Muhammad Usman Asghar, Qaiser, Babar Usman, Nadia Manzoor

Abstract: A field trial was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during August 2015, to evaluate the effect of priming and foliar applications of different growth promoting substances on sorghum. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Net plot size was 3 m × 1.8 m. The research trial was comprised of eight treatments i.e. control (no seed treatment), hydropriming, priming with CaCl2, hardening with CaCl2, priming with moringa leaves extract, priming + foliar application of CaCl2, priming + foliar application of moringa leaves extract and hardening+ foliar application of CaCl2. All the priming treatments significantly affected E50, MET, plant height, stem diameter, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight of leaves, protein contents, fiber contents, total ash percentage fresh forage yield and dry matter yield of the sorghum crop. It may be concluded that seed priming along with foliar applications of growth promoting substances may serve as an appropriate treatment for accelerating the emergence as well as final yield of the crop and priming, along with foliar applications of MLE is the best choice in this regard.

      Adeel Feroz, Zulfiqar Ali, Babar Usman,Wajid Saeed, Mohsin Niaz, Mudassir Abbas, Umair Khalid, Nadia Manzoor and Waseem Hassan

Abstract: Wheat is the major staple food crop worldwide and frequently cultivated on saline soil. Salinity is the serious factor hampering wheat productivity with adverse effect on germination, growth and final economic yield. This study was carried out to evaluate six F2 segregating populations at PindiBhattiyan, Pakistan under normal and saline conditions during 2013-14. Individual plants of each population were selected and evaluated on the basis of plant height, number of tillers, spike length, spikelets per spike, grain per spike, grains weight per spike, 100 grain weight and average grain yield per plant under saline and normal environments using biplot analysis. Biplot analysis appeared valuable screening tool to identify the slat tolerant wheat genotypes due to its graphical nature. Based on biplot plants of each F2 population are classified into four groups. First group A contained the F2plant with high saline tolerance suitable for saline environment. Second group B having the F2 plant with good performance under normal condition. 3rd group C and 4th group D having the poor performing F2 plant in both normal and saline environmental condition.

      Khalid S.Shibib, Haneen D. Jabbar, Mohammed S. Hamza

Abstract: In this work, a hemispherical lens was used as asolar concentrator to concentrate solar light components (direct normal and diffused direct normal radiation) on thesolar cell to increase the electrical output power from thesolarcell.Optical properties of thehemispherical lens, electrical parameters of thepolycrystallineSi-Solar cell, solar radiation components (direct normal and diffused direct normal radiation) with and without alens, and output power from used asolar cell with and without lens were measured. Some conclusions are obtained; the hemispherical lens was used practically to concentrate sunlight components on solar cell where the concentration was found to be about 2x solar light components, the used hemispherical lens was found to increase the electrical output power from the solar cell about 25 % for direct normal plus diffused solar light intensitywhich relates to the action of used hemispherical lens and properties of the used solar cell.

      Rima Subhi Taher

Abstract: That period was characterized by economic prosperity and tremendous social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. The Twenties witnessed the large usage of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, accessible electricity, as well as accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and brought about significant changes in lifestyle and culture. Social and cultural innovations began in leading metropolitan centers such as Chicago, New York, New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia, then spread more widely. Popular culture in the 1920s was characterized by innovation in film, visual art and architecture, radio, music, dance, fashion, literature, and intellectual movements.

      Silas Harun Murithi

Abstract: Kenya is a developing country still at the stage of providing infrastructures in health, education, agriculture and administrative as well as living facilities for its rapidly growing population. Towards this end there are a good number of construction projects at different stages of implementation in Trans-Nzoia County. There are however conflicting views on the schedule performance of most of the projects with some stakeholders especially the intended users arguing that they are delayed while the implementers believe that they are on course. Although schedule delays are common features in all construction projects the identification of the main causes of schedule delays and the implementation of actions that prevent these delays are fundamental steps for resolving delay related issues. There is therefore a need to identify the causes of project delay and propose effective methods to improve time performance and avoid or minimize losses.

      A.K.P.C. Swain , S. S. Mishra

Abstract: In this paper certain ratio estimators in two-stage sampling set up with unequal first stage units, using information on two auxiliary variables (x and z) are considered and their efficiencies are compared with estimator without using second auxiliary variables z.

      MesfinZewdu, Elias Kadir, MelkamuBerhane

Abstract: In the present day scenario, ionizing radiation is widely used to diagnose many diseases both in developed and developing world. Excessive use of ionizing radiation has an increased risk of fatal cancer. It is believed that the awareness of medical doctors about hazards of ionizing radiation and radiation dose values is one of the first step in protecting patients from radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to assess medical doctors’ knowledge about patients’ ionizing radiation exposure dose and its associated risks at Jimma University Specialized Hospital.Descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted among 110 physicians working in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.A structured, self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from sampled population.

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