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IJSRP, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
April 2013 final Edition has been released.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th April.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th April 2013.

   Advanced Search [OARD]   

      S.P.Loga priya, P.Hemalatha

Abstract: Practically, clocking system like flip-flop (FF) consumes large portion of total chip power. In this paper, a novel low-power pulse-triggered flip-flop (FF) design is presented. Pulse- triggered FF (P-FF) has been considered as a popular alternative to the conventional master –slave based FF in the applications of high speed. First, a simple two-transistor AND gate design is used to reduce the circuit complexity. Second, a conditional pulse-enhancement technique is devised to speed up the discharge along the critical path only when needed. As a result, transistor sizes in delay inverter and pulse-generation circuit can be reduced for power saving. The maximum power saving against rival designs is up to 39.4%.Compared with the conventional transmission gate-based FF design; the average leakage power consumption is also reduced by a factor of 3.52



      Dr. Debesh Bhowmik

Abstract: International climate finance is the transfer of funds from the North to the South to help enable developing countries adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change (i.e. adaptation), reduce greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. mitigation) , and embark on clean energy development paths. If we are to avoid the dangerous impact of climate change we must limit global mean temperature increase to 20C above pre industrial levels. This means stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentration below 450ppm carbon dioxide equivalent. Emission reductions required for a 450ppm pathway adapted from Mckinsey global GHG abatement cost curve. Failure to cut emissions on this kind of scale would result in serious risks of temperature increases of 3,4,5 deg. C and higher. Scientists tell us that to have a 50-50 chance of holding temperature below 20C global emissions would need to be below 35Gt CO2e by 2030. The 2009 Copenha¬gen Accord pledged funds of $10 billion a year from 2010 to 2012, increasing to $100 billion per year by 2020 to combat climate change in developing countries through mitigation and adaptation. Even assuming ambitious GHG reductions by developed countries, large additional reductions in developing country emissions will be required in order to limit global warming to 2°C. This pathway requires global emissions to peak no later than 2015, and to fall 50% from 1990 levels by 2050, split so that developed nations shoulder the majority of the burden. For mitigation in developing countries, approximately €55–80bn in financ¬ing from developed countries would likely be required annually in additional funds during the period 2010–2020 (an additional €10–20bn is required annually for adaptation). On the basis of the principle of compensation for incremental costs by developed countries, a total of €65 – 100 billion annually over the 2010 – 2020 period is needed to finance these reductions and meet developing countries adaptation needs. . McKinsey estimates th



      Montgomery M.M. Howwar, Muzayyan M.I. Abu Dan

Abstract: No doubt that motivation; on one hand, is personal and it is different from one student to another; it comes from within an individual, but it can be influenced by external factors. On the other hand, teachers as they are part and parcel of the learning process always have to bear in their minds that they can play a crucial role in positively motivating their students. Students of English sometimes reach a plateau of achievement where they feel frustrated and see no need for further improvements. Accordingly, the teachers need to do what can be done, at least by finding out what is important for their students as a means of encouraging them to step forward towards success in language learning. This research; therefore, attempts to explore how English teachers perceive motivation, to find out what factors that can increase or decrease the students motivation according to the teachers’ points of view, and find out if there is a significant relationship between motivation and the students achievements. To find out these aims, a total number of 19 ELT teachers working in the college and Prep. School of the Near East University took part in this research by answering a questionnaire that consisted of three questions with 41 sub-questions. The questionnaire was distributed to teachers teaching in charge of English at the Near East College and Prep. School. All of the participants contributed to the research questions and none of them had any inquiry regarding the questionnaire questions. After obtaining questionnaires back within three days, the answers for each question were entered to SPSS program for analysis Main results produced by this study are as follows: According to the overall results, it could be concluded that motivation plays a fundamental role in language learning/teaching process. It was found that teachers had the same or similar points of view regarding the way they perceive motivation and the factors affecting students motivation.



      Ashutosh Bhargave, Niranjan Jadhav, Apurva Joshi, Prachi Oke, Prof. Mr. S. R Lahane

Abstract: Nowadays web services technology is widely used to integrate heterogeneous systems and develop new applications. Here an application of integration of hotel management systems by web services technology is presented. Digital Hotel Management integrates lots of systems of hotel industry such as Ordering System Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT), Billing System, Customer Relationship Management system (CRM) together. This integration solution can add or expand hotel software system in any size of hotel chains environment. This system increases quality and speed of service. This system also increases attraction of place for large range of customers. Implementing this system gives a cost-efficient opportunity to give your customers a personalized service experience where they are in control choosing what they want, when they want it – from dining to ordering to payment and feedback. We are implementing this system using android application for Tablet PCs. The front end will be developed using JAVA Android and the backend will work on MySQL database.



      Fatima Algunaid Hassan, Muna Ibrahium Abdalla

Abstract: Survival of seedlings in arid and semi arid zones plantation is strongly affected by water availability and soil type. Many tree species are able to adapt themselves in response to soil moisture content. Three soil types, sand, clay and mixture soil (according to the main classification of soil in Sudan) with different irrigation pattern (2, 4and 7 days intervals) were used for propagation of Jatropha Curcas for three months. The experiment was conducted at the nursery and was laid out in a randomized complete design with three replications and the growth characteristics were measured on monthly bases The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation pattern and soil types in seedlings growth characteristics of Jatropha Curcas. Seeds used in the experiment were collected from South Kordofan. The results obtained supported earlier findings by some workers. Shoot length showed no significant different over all treatment. The control (normal nursery practices) was the best for all seedling characteristics measurements. These. results may suggest that for successfully a forestation programs, low nursery cost in raising Jatropha seedling recommended to irrigation that practices in the nursery, Since there are no significant differences of juvenile growth performances between the three soil type recommended that caution shouldnt done when Jatrohpa plant



      Rogerson Anokye

Abstract: The study investigated the effects of packaging materials on moisture content and surface finish of furniture products. Unfinished, semi-finished, and finished furniture parts were packaged for two, four and six weeks using five different packaging materials. Four hundred and fifty (450) strips were prepared from Iroko (millicia excelsia). Five different packaging materials were selected for the three levels of furniture parts after which a change in moisture contents and colour were determined. The mean moisture content (%) changes determined on unfinished furniture parts with plastic, cardboard, metallic, plastic plus cardboard (PC) and plastic plus cardboard and metallic (PCM) showed a rise in MC with plastic and cardboard showing highest(2.26%) and lowest(0.37%) respectively while in semi-finished furniture parts, PC and metallic recorded the highest and least of 1.72% and 0.65% respectively. However, cardboard recorded 0.12% upon the initial moisture content whiles metallic and cardboard packaging recorded highest and the least rise in MC of 2.21% and 0.14% respectively for finished furniture parts. There was insignificant difference in the surface finish. It was concluded that cardboard is the superior packaging material with the lowest MC increase throughout the three time levels.



      Manjula Sharaff, Sharad K. Vajpai, Kiran Vajpai

Abstract: The huge amount of coal ash generated in our power plants can serve as important source for extraction of important ash constituents. Kusmunda area in Korba Coal field is an important source for power coals and therefore a bulk coal sample from the area has been studied in details as a test case for distribution of mineral matter in coal ash in different possible beneficiated and constituted dispatch material to power plants taking silica as a major and marker ash constituent. While, silica as percent of ash from samples under study remains within close limits, its retention in higher density is found much higher than in corresponding lower density.



      R. Das, K. Karmakar

Abstract: Using Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, solitons are investigated in a dusty plasma consisting of positive ion, negatively charged dust grain and Boltzmann distributed electron. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons are found to exist in the dusty plasma for fast and slow modes. Greater ( is the number of elementary charges residing on the dust grain) is found to yield higher amplitude solitons. Further, it is observed that higher temperature ratio gives higher amplitude in case of slow mode and gives smaller amplitude in case of fast mode.



      Richa Gaur, Deepak Gaur

Abstract: Escalating stratums of breeze vigor, which is variable, difficult to predict accurately, and escalating connected via power electronic converters, are changing how electricity grids are planned, designed, and operated. . Systems with high breeze penetration are also experiencing dramatic changes to the operating regimes of conventional resources to areas with large loads. Optimal diminutive-tenure (minutes to day ahead) vigor harmonizing for systems with high breeze penetration, which is the focus here, requires high-quality breeze forecasts and advanced scheduling methodologies. These advances from the traditional scheduling approach include: dynamic reserve targets, higher resolution scheduling periods, more frequent scheduling, and the use of stochastic optimization techniques. Here, some of the possible evolutions in optimal diminutive-tenure vigor harmonizing to better deal with breeze vigor uncertainty are investigated. The focus is mainly on managing reserves through changes in scheduling, in particular market structure (more regular and higher resolution scheduling), reserve procurement (dynamic as opposed to static), and improved operational planning (stochastic as opposed to detenureinistic). Infrastructure changes including flexible plant, increased demand side participation, more interconnection, transmission, larger harmonizing areas, and critically improved forecasting can also be significant and are dealt with in the discussion. The evolutions are tightly coupled, their impact is system-dependent and so no best set is identifiable but experience of system operators will be critical to future developments.



      Anupriya Sachar, Sheetu Raina, Krishma Gupta

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to identify the degree of damage to the histological architecture of haemopoietic tissues viz., liver, anterior kidney and spleen in A. morar exposed to various sublethal concentrations (10%, 20% and 30% of LC50 value) of lindane for a period of 60 days. The exposed liver had distention of sinusoids, necrosis, vacuolation and degenerative process in the cellular architecture. Anterior kidneys manifested necrosis, tubular vacuolation, followed by total damage of the tissue. Spleen on the other hand showed deposition of haemosiderin pigments, necrosis, vacuolation followed by proliferation of melanomacrphage centres. Total degeneration of the splenic tissue was observed by the end of the experiment. The results of this histological analysis of various fish tissues indicate a direct correlation between insecticide exposure and histopathological disorders observed.



      Anuradha Purohit, Narendra S. Choudhari, ArunaTiwari

Abstract: The concept of “bloat” in Genetic Programming is a well-established phenomenon characterized by variable-length genomes gradually increasing in size during evolution [1]. Bloat hampers the efficiency and ability of genetic programming for solving problems. A range of explanations have been proposed for the problem of bloat, including destructive crossover and mutation operators, selection pressure and individual representation. Different methods to avoid bloat and to control bloat have been proposed by researchers. This paper proposes a theoretical analysis of code bloating problem and the discussion on the work already done by various authors to handle bloat in genetic programming.



      Ms. Radhika Koti, Ms. Divya Meshram

Abstract: The Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architeture (AMBA) is a widely used interconnection standard for System on Chip (SoC) design. An AMBA-based microcontroller typically consists of a high-performance system backbone bus (AMBA AHB or AMBA ASB), able to sustain the external memory bandwidth, on which the CPU, on-chip memory and other Direct Memory Access (DMA) devices reside. This bus provides a high-bandwidth interface between the elements that are involved in the majority of transfers. This paper present three distinct buses and their comparison. By considering merits of APB , AMBA can be design by using HDL.



      Sharun Mendonca, John Paul Vas

Abstract: Efforts are being made throughout the World to reduce the consumption of liquid petroleum fuels wherever is possible. Biodiesel is recently gaining prominence as a substitute for petroleum based diesel mainly due to environmental considerations and depletion of vital resources like petroleum and coal. According to Indian scenario, the demand for petroleum diesel is increasing day by day hence there is a need to find out an appropriate solution. This study investigates influence of injection timing of 20% blend simarouba biodiesel on performance and emission characteristics. The effect of varying injection timing was evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. By retarding injection timing brake thermal efficiency can be improved of S20.



      Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya, Ms. Payal Bhattacherjee

Abstract: WLAN requires low-cost and compact antennas with sufficient bandwidth. Chip antennas are particularly attractive as they are not substrate dependent and are solderable with standard reflow processes. Therefore, low-cost substrates can be used for the circuit board with no major consequence on radiation. Among possible antenna solutions dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) offer an assembly that is surface mount technology (SMT) process compatible and their manufacturing can be based on standard processes. They also exhibit excellent properties regarding bandwidth and quasi omni directional radiation. When compactness is a main issue, conducting plates can be placed at the electric walls of the fundamental mode of the DRA to reduce its dimensions. However, this also decreases the bandwidth. Wider bandwidth structures have been proposed but they remain larger compared to a wavelength. In this paper, we propose a new DRA topology with both reduced size and large bandwidth. It has been designed for the low band of Hiperlan2 and IEEE802.11a standards [5.15–5.35] GHz. The proposed structure has been optimised using 3D EM simulations and is compared to a more conventional compact design. A novel technique for producing enhanced band width in micro and mm wave region of spectrum is presented. A new design of compact & broadband wave dielectric resonator antenna is proposed using co-axially probe feed technique. Two different WDRA are designed and their characteristic behaviors are compared. Finally, parametric study of Second Antenna has been done. With the proper design the resonant behavior of the antenna is found, over which the leaky wave DRA produces extended bandwidth. Numerous designs for the WRDRA are simulated and bandwidths exceeding 20% are achieved.



      Pushpendra Singh, Madhulika Singh, Sujeet Kumar Singh

Abstract: In the present investigation Jatropha and pea plant leafs was used, to germinated the plant by artificial condition through plant tissue culture method. We have taken three methods Method A, B & C to germinate callus, seed, bud and stem. 30 Sample were taken to analyze. In Method A 60% samples were contaminated (fungus and bacteria) and 20% was shown growth. In Method B 66% was contaminated by fungus and 19% were contaminated by bacteria and only 15% are shown growth. In Method C 85% samples were contaminated by fungus and bacteria, only 15 % samples was show growth. The study shows most of all contamination was due to Fungus, a very less contamination were due to bacteria. Among three method used with different Sterilization process. Method A was best suited for Callus Culture, Method B for Seed Culture & Method C for Stem & Bud Culture.



      Mrs.Aruna A, Ms.Suganya N, Ms.KeerthanaAnandhi N , Ms.Priyanka A

Abstract: Distributed considerations are the major acquiring epitome. The domain abbreviates monetary value related on computation. The service provided on scattered location to its users on demand across the cyberspace. The data and other resources used by the user are stored in the open environment. The circumstance issues more on data security and user fear on missing bound on their data. To enrich security on data, the security mechanisms are implemented, though the data integrity is unnoticed to user. To overcome the problem and achieve data integrity the method of auditing is established through Third Party Auditing (TPA). In addition to auditing the sensitive data in uploading over the dispersed area are protected by DES encryption algorithm.



      Vijayalakshmi .P, Pavankumar.D, Sreelaxmi .A, Anuradha .G, Anuradha Ch

Abstract: Correlation and path coefficient analysis were completed with 84 Pigeon pea genotypes to find out association among characters and to measure the direct and indirect contribution of ten characters on grain yield. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The genotypic correlation studies indicated that grain yield per plant exhibited stable positive association with all traits except days of pod initiation ((-0.2191). While the phenotypic correlations revealed that days to pod initiation (-0.0125), pod length (-0.0177) and100 seed yield (-0.0475) were negatively correlated with grain yield per plant. The direct effects of phenotypic path correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the grain yield per plant had positive and significant correlation with number of seed per pod (0.0789) and it was followed by number of seeds per plant (0.7493) days to 50% of flowering (0.1812) plant physical maturity (0.0876), plant height (0.091) number of seed per pod (0.0789) & number of seeds per plant (0.7493) were positive and the rest effects of few characters were negative like days to pod initiation (-0.0406), primary (-0.0305), secondary braches (-0.0409 ), and number of pods per plant (-0.252 ). Path analysis revealed high positive and direct influence of number of seed per pod with seed yield per plant followed by number of seed per pod and number of pods per plant. Moreover, it was noticed that high indirect contribution was via grain yield per pod with most of the yield components. Hence, these two parameters (number of seed per pod and number seed per plant) should be given more consideration while deciding about selection criteria of genotypes for drought resistance.



      Anuja.P, T. Murugeswari

Abstract: The building automation systems (BAS) include the monitoring and control of building services and networks. Since different manufacturers usually deal with one aspect of building automation such as heating ventilation and air conditioning, lighting control, different kinds of alarms, etc, the Final building automation system has different subsystems which are finally taken to an integrated building management system. The development of a prototype to be used in a wireless sensor network (WSN) which also integrates Digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) protocol can provide a solution for centralization of building automation services. Since DALI is a well-established standard and it has been adopted by major electronic ballasts’ suppliers it is very easy to find DALI compliant devices. Despite it is designed for lighting control, DALI has also been adapted to other applications, such as motor or fan controllers, proximity alarms, etc. Adapting the standard to a WSN allows integrating DALI devices as a part of the WSN, expanding the traditional DALI bus and removing wires, which results in a reduction of installation costs. For more efficient energy utilization of wireless sensor network, the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is modified to a deployable energy efficient 802.15.4 MAC protocol (DEEP).



      Narayani Rajagopalan, A S Khanna

Abstract: Epoxy resins as binders are best known in protective coating field for their excellent corrosion resistance. However, the exterior durability of these resins is severely affected by their poor weathering resistance. The exposure of epoxies to outdoor environment causes chemical reactions within them, which leads to deterioration of their useful properties. A few hours of UV-exposure leads to chalking and discoloration of epoxies, caused as a result of photo-degradation. The present work aims to study the extent to which the color change and yellowing of epoxy caused due to weathering of an aliphatic amine namely, Diethylenetriamine (DETA) cured diglycidyl-ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) based epoxy system, when exposed to accelerated weathering conditions, could be lowered by means of a UV-blocking additive, namely nano Zinc oxide (ZnO). A titanium dioxide (TiO2) based white coating with DGEBA epoxy and DETA was formulated and applied on mild steel (MS) panels for the weathering study. The coated panels were exposed in an UVB-weatherometer. Nano zinc oxide particles were synthesized by chemical route and characterized for size, shape and structure. At 2% (by weight) of total coating formulation, nano-ZnO was found to be an effective UV-stabilizer and lowered the degradation in the epoxy-hardener cured system on UVB exposure. The enhanced resistance to color change and yellowing was indicated by lowered color change (dE) and yellowness index values (YI) for the coatings on UVB exposure.



      K.Krishnamurthy, J.Venkatesh

Abstract: In this experimental study, three TiB2/Al metal matrix composites (MMCs) with 40 μm in mean size were produced using a melt stirring squeeze casting route. Test was carried out to find the parameters influencing surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR) on machining the TiB2 reinforced Al-6063 composite materials. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of 5 and 10 wt. % TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al-6063) metal matrix composites. Taguchi method was used to find the optimal cutting factors for surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). The factors considered were weight percentage of TiB2, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The plan for the experiments and analysis was based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with three cutting factors and two carbide tools of K10 and K20 type. The optimal parametric combination for K10 and K20 carbide insert was found to be feed, speed, depth of cut and percentage of TiB2 reinforcement. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results show that feed the most significant process parameter on surface roughness followed by speed/TiB2 reinforcement for both K10 and K20 carbide insert tools. From MRR data also, it is clear that the speed and feed are the most significant parameters followed by the TiB2 filler loading/depth of cut for the two carbide tools. The confirmatory test for the optimal condition yields low Ra value and high MRR value for the K20 type carbide tool.



      Vinod KR Singh Patel, A.K.Pandey

Abstract: Brushless dc (BLDC) motor drives are continually gaining popularity in motion control applications. Therefore, it is necessary to have a low cost, but effective BLDC motor speed/torque regulator. They are used in Residential and commercial appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioning systems with conventional motor drive technology. A Brushless DC (BLDC) drives are known for higher efficiency and lower maintenance. This paper presents a “Modeling and performance analysis of PID controlled BLDC motor and different schemes of PWM controlled BLDC motor”. This paper presents PID model of brushless dc (BLDC) motor with the use of MATLAB/ SIMULINK. The operational parameters of specific BLDC motor were modeled using the tuning methods which are used to develop subsequent simulations.



      Dr. Roosy Aulakh, MD

Abstract: Although encephalitic presentation of cysticercosis is rare, it should be included in differential diagnosis of acute encephalitic cases especially in endemic countries like India. Cysticercotic encephalitis is commonly seen in young females who typically present with features of raised intracranial pressure along with compromise of visual function. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can result in better outcome in this rare but commonly fatal neurological disorder.



      Sathiyapriya.R, Yuvasrri sindhu.M, ImmanuelRairosario.P

Abstract: The Goal in this paper is proposal of new test data compression method for reducing test data volume and test application time. The existing system in this paper is group the scan chain in the ascending order and it must be in odd number for group and the number of element in the groups. The proposed method consists of two steps: scan chain compaction (even or odd) and dictionary-based compression scheme. The scan chain compaction provides a minimum scan chain depth by using compaction of the compatible scan cells in the scan chain. The focus is to compacted scan chain is partitioned to the multiple internal scan chains it may be odd or even for using the fixed-length index dictionary-based compression scheme that provides the high compression ratio and the fast testing time. The proposed compression methods scan chain which is not arranged in ascending order and not in odd number. Hence it produces the output with four groups and it is implemented in FPGA using VHDL coding, where the existing system produces five groups, system delivers compressed patterns from the ATE to the chip and drives a large number of multiple internal scan chains using only a single ATE input and output. Experimental results for the test benches show that the test data volume and testing time for the proposed method are less than previous compression schemes.



      Dharshini, Dr.T.Thirunalasundari , Dr.S.Sumayaa

Abstract: In this study, flaxseed was subjected to identification of bioactive compounds by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum technique. Flaxseed was extracted with 99%ethanol. Extracted sample was injected, according to, the bioactive compounds are screened. The results revealed the presence of seventeen compounds of which squalene (45.27 %) and 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid (z,z,z) (24.67) were the phytocomponents with high peak areas.



      M.A.D.D. Munasinghe, K.F.S.T. Silva, D.M.D.Rasika, M.P.K. Jayarathne, K.H. Sarananda

Abstract: Three yoghurt-based weaning foods (WF1, WF2 and WF3) designed for 1-3 years old toddlers which prepared by blending of mung beans (Vigna radiata), soybean (Glycine max) and brown rice (Oryza sativa), were evaluated for their chemical, physical, microbial and organoleptic properties. Proximate compositions of the yoghurt-based weaning foods were varied significantly (P<0.05) and fulfilled the nutritional requirements given by the Protein Advisory Group Recommendations. Water binding capacity and water solubility index were varied significantly (P<0.05). Total plate counts obtained separately for yoghurt, extruded grain flour mixtures and freshly prepared yoghurt-based weaning foods were within the recommendations. According to the sensory evaluation data, WF1 scored higher on average by the panelists than WF2 and WF3 in terms of appearance, aroma, mouth feel and color. However, WF2 was scored highly on average by the panelists in terms of taste and overall acceptability. Therefore, results suggests that yoghurt-based weaning foods are a potential tool for eliminating the protein-energy malnutrition among the children in developing countries which provide sufficient energy with good quality proteins in adequate levels through an cost effective way than conventional liquid-based staple cereal flour mixtures.



      Nitin Garg, Raghav Kukreja, Pitambar Sharma

Abstract: Brute force and dictionary attacks on password protected remote login services are increasing rapidly. Letting legitimate user’s login conveniently while preventing such attacks is difficult. Automated Turing Tests (ATTs) are effective and easy to implement but cause reasonable amount of inconvenience to the user. We discuss the existing and proposed login protocols designed to prevent large scale online dictionary attacks. We propose Password Guessing Resistant Protocol (PGRP), which is derived upon revisiting prior proposals designed to restrict such attacks. PGRP reduces the total number of login attempts from unknown remote host while trusted or legitimate users can make several failed login attempts before being challenged by ATT.



      Mahendra Singh

Abstract: In this paper, the theories of vertical return stroke, in which Bruce and Golde [1] current is supposed to flow, have been extended to oblique orientations of the channel. The VLF electric field and power density have been calculated for a distance 100 km from the source as function of the channel parameters and of the channel orientation. It is shown that VLF electromagnetic energy radiated from the oblique channel is of Gaussian shape with the maximum appearing at certain frequency depends on orientation of channel.



      Dr.Parmdeep KaurTiwana

Abstract: In the present cross sectional study of anthropometric measurements, physique and body composition of all Interversity level Jumper girls, specialising in high jump, long jump and triple jump have been reported. The data were collected from Dec.1997to Jan2000.The mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance and post-hoc test were applied for evaluation. The result of the study shows that the high jumpers were found to be higher in mean of height and lower in mean value of weight as compare to long and triple jumpers but the test ANOVA shows non -significant differences in all anthropometric measurements except calf skin fold. In case of derived measurements the long jumper, high jumper and triple jumper are significantly different in height/weight ratio, Pondreal index and ectomorphy component.



      Deepak Mahajan, Ravindra Tajane

Abstract: Burnishing is a very simple and effective method for improvement in surface finish and can be carried out using existing machines, such as lathe. On account of its high productivity, it also saves more on production costs than other conventional processes such as super finishing, honing and grinding. Moreover, the burnished surface has a high wear resistance and better fatigue life. A literature survey being specifically focused on Ball burnishing process is done .It gives a thorough idea about various workpiece materials, various cutting tools and machine tools, process parameters ,lubricants, variable measured and methodology used as well as the prominent levels of each, being observed in the researches till today.



      P. Bertin Mary, Devraja Achar

Abstract: For the first time, genetic variability and differentiation among Ten Synconium white butterfly populations originating from originating from tissue cultured plants maintained in pro-trays under the poly house & green house conditions in Indo American hybrid Seed Company, Bangalore were examined. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker data were obtained and analysed with respect to genetic diversity. The ornamental crops Syngonium generate substantial revenue worldwide in the trade of ornamentals. The understanding in the pattern of genetic diversity of these plants has important implications in breeding programs and in the improvement of plant species. Initially RAPD analysis was used to assess the level of polymorphism, similarities and relationships among Syngonium populations collected from IAHS. RAPD analysis was done by screening 10 varieties of Syngonium using four primers. Totally 10,12, 23 and 25 polymorphic bands were observed in following four primers such as E20, C02, C05 and D18. Totally maximum and minimum bands were amplified in E20 (80 bands) CO2 (40) primers. While, the number of faded bands also increased in both primers. Based upon the E20 and D18 primer contains similar as well as maximum polymorphic bans also been observed the above said similar primer. Cluster analysis was done based on the UPGMA method using NTSYS software. Dendrogram analysis clearly noticed the Similarity Co-efficient for cultivars in the cluster I, II and II varied from 0.10-0.33, 0.78-1.0, 0.20-0.80 and 0.20-0.90 for E20, CO2, CO5 and E18 respectively.



      Sharun Mendonca, John Paul Vas

Abstract: Stringent emission norms and environment degradation due to pollutants from the automotive vehicles lead us to find the suitable alternative for the petro-diesel. The oxygenated fuel used is dibutyl ether(DBE). While injection pressure is 200 bar and injection timing is 20.50BTDC we get higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake specific fuel consumption for DBE10 compare to diesel.



      Swati , R. C. Meena

Abstract: Study on the photocatalytic decolorization of aqueous solution of Direct Red 23, a commercial azo-reactive textile dye, in the presence of UV light radiation. The effect of different reaction parameters on the photo catalyst of DR 23 was assessed best operational parameters were observed as photons: catalyst loading 1gm-3.0gm/50ml, pH 3.5-11.5, temperature 303k,dye concentration10mg/50ml-70mg/50ml and 2.30hrs light irradiation on photo decolorization. FTIR is employed successfully to study the behavior of dowex-11 Resin and after the immobilized by Methylene blue dye. FTIR spectrum is recorded in the range 400-4000cm-1.Activity of photo catalyst MBIR-11 remains impervious on continuous use.



      Basant Rai

Abstract: According to a World Bank Sponsored Study (State of Environment Report- U.P.) (In: Mallikarjun, 2003), pollution levels in the Ganga are contributing 9-12% of total disease burden in Uttar Pradesh (U.P.). The coliform bacteria levels are in excess of 2 lakh MPN as against the national water quality standard of 5000 (Mallikarjun, 2003). The report estimated total health damage on account of water pollution in up to is around 6.4 million daily (Disability Adjusted Life Year). According to the CPCB survey report, the total municipal sewage generated in the identified 25 towns in 1985 was of the order of1340 million litres per day (mld). Apart from this sewage, 260 mld of industrial wastewater, runoff from 6 million tons of fertilizers and 9,000 tonnes of pesticides used in agriculture within the basin, large quantities of solid waste, including thousands of animal carcasses and human corpses were being released into the river every day. Out of this, works corresponding to 873 mld only (65%) were taken up under the first phase of GAP. The remaining sewage was to be taken up under the 2nd phase of GAP which is already in progress. The Action Plan primarily addressed itself to the interception and diversion for treatment of the targeted municipal sewage of 873 mld. According to report of Water Resources Planning Commission (May, 2009), the programme GAP and NRCP has been positive. Water quality monitoring done by reputed independent institutions indicates some improvement in the water quality over pre-GAP period. The water quality analysis of samples collected at 16 stations on River Ganga during 1986 and 2008 shows improvement in Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels at 4 locations namely up and down streams of Allahabad and Varanasi. All the 16 stations except Patna downstream and Rajmahal show reduction in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) values. The BOD level show marked reduction in Allahabad and Varanasi indicating improvement in the water quality ov



      Archana U. Bhosale, Prof. Vharkate M.N., Aparna U.Bhosale

Abstract: In the virtual and widely distributed network, the process of handover sensitive data from the distributor to the trusted third parties always occurs regularly in this modern world. It needs to safeguard the security and durability of service based on the demand of usersA data distributor has given sensitive data to a set of supposedly trusted agents (third parties). Some of the data are leaked and found in an unauthorized place (e.g., on the web or somebody’s laptop). The distributor must assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents, as opposed to having been independently gathered by other means. We propose data allocation strategies (across the agents) that improve the probability of identifying leakages. These methods do not rely on alterations of the released data (e.g., watermarks). In some cases, we can also inject “realistic but fake” data records to further improve our chances of detecting leakage and identifying the guilty party. This paper presents a data leakage detection system using various allocation strategies and which assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents. For secure transactions, allowing only authorized users to access sensitive data through access control policies shall prevent data leakage by sharing information only with trusted parties and also the data should be detected from leaking by means of adding fake records in the data set and which improves probability of identifying leakages in the system. Then, finally it is decided to implement this mechanism on a cloud server.



      Arghya Ray, Santhoshi Bhat

Abstract: The Merkle-Hellman invented in 1978 is based on the superincreasing subset problem. Ralph Merkle and Martin Hellman used the subset problem to create a cryptosystem to encrypt data. A super-increasing knapsack vector s is created and the super-increasing property is hidden by creating a second vector M by modular multiplication and permutation. The vector M is the public key of the cryptosystem and s is used to decrypt the message. This paper demonstrates how to strengthen the encrypted message being sent by use of discrete logarithmics so that only the intended recipient of the message is able to decipher the message.



      M.M. SALAMA, M.M. ELGAZAR, S.M. ABDELMAKSOUD, H.A. HENRY

Abstract: In this paper, the particle swarm optimization technique with constriction factor is proposed to solve short term multi chain hydrothermal scheduling problem with non smooth fuel cost objective functions. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of three thermal units and four hydro power plants. A wide range of thermal and hydraulic constraints such as power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of hydro and thermal units, water discharge rate limits, reservoir volume limits, initial and end reservoir storage volume constraint and water dynamic balance constraint are taken into consideration. The simulation results of the proposed technique are compared with those obtained from other methods such as, simulated annealing (SA) and evolutionary programming (EP) to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed method. The test results show that the proposed algorithm achieves qualitative solution with less computational time when compared to the other methods.



      M.Ramakrishnan, R.Ravanan

Abstract: Survival analysis is widely applied in many fields such as biology, medicine, and public health. A typical analysis of survival data involves the modeling of time-to-event data, such as the time until death. To find Survival probabilities of the given observations censored or not, use Kaplan-Meier methods of estimation. But this method gives survival probabilities at any specific time. So this method does not compare total survival experience of two survival group. The non-parametric test, log rank test takes the complete follow up period and testing the significance difference between two survival distributions. In this paper, R software is used for finding survival (remission) probabilities and testing survival (remission) distributions using log rank test for 30 Resected Melanoma Patients.



      ANIL KUMAR YADAV, HARIOM RATHAUR, AMBREESH KR. SINGH

Abstract: The prime motto of present paper is to find out the enhancement of damping the power system oscillation through co-ordinated model of Static Synchronous Compensator STATCOM) situated in shunt with transmission line. This paper also stabilizer the linearized Phillips-Heffron model of a power system installed with a STATCOM and demonstrates the application of the model in anylizing the damping effect of the STATCOM and designing a STATCOM stabilizer to improve power system oscillation stability of single machine infinite-bus system by using MATLAB The effectiveness of proposed controller in damping the low frequency oscillations and hence improving power system dynamic stability have been identified via eigenvalues analysis and simulation result with different system conditions and under different line loading.



      RanjiniKudva, AnnappaKudva

Abstract: Lymphangiomasare malformations that occur most often in the head and neck or axilla of young children but are detected occasionally in adults at other sites such as mesentery , omentum and mesocolon . We present a case of cystic lymphangioma occurring in the splenic mesentery in a 28 year old male.



      Dr. K. Saraladevi

Abstract: Individuals with more anxiety reveal more right frontal activity and they respond towards negative emotions and the individuals with left frontal activity exhibit more positive emotions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of CBT on frontal asymmetry on the students having more levels of test anxiety and EEG activity was measured in 16 higher secondary students with higher levels of test anxiety before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).After CBT students shifted towards greater relative left frontal brain activity. Students with greater left frontal activity were having lower levels of test anxiety and the results indicated that CBT reduced test anxiety and brought out the changes in frontal asymmetry. It is concluded that CBT has an impact on frontal asymmetry and test anxiety levels of students.



      Devi Kittu, Rotti S. B

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In India, National Family Health Survey: (NFHS - 2) data has given an estimate that there are more than 33 million widows comprising of 8% of the total female population.1 The widows are surrounded by cultural and social practices that seldom she can come out from them. OBJECTIVES: To determine the social, cultural deprivation faced by them after widowhood and to describe their attitudes towards widows remarriage. RESULTS: Widows opined that younger widows without children can remarry. Widows said their relatives treated them badly and were blamed for the death of the husbands. The widows felt shocked and angered towards the last rites. Majority of widows did not have bank account. Majority of the older widows opined that getting rice for food itself was difficult, but for the younger widows educating their children was difficult to be met. Widows who had attained widowhood after 50 years opined that they expected the government to supply rice. Younger widows emphasized the government should give some loan for their survival. CONCLUSION: Majority of the widows were socially and culturally deprived.



      U. Sangeetha, M. Subbiah, M.R. Srinivasan

Abstract: Multinomial distribution, widely used in applications with discrete data, witnessed varieties of competing intervals from frequentist to Bayesian methods, still prove to be interesting in the case of zero counts or sparse contingency tables. The methods commonly recommended in both approaches are considered based on its influence of zero counts, polarizing cell counts, and aberrations. The inference based on comparative study shows that Bayesian approach, with an appropriate prior could be a good choice in dealing with a sparse data set without any imputation for zero values.



      Dr. Joseph Pushpa Innocent.D, Dr. Suseela, M.R, Dr. G.Prathba

Abstract: A total number of 402 infertile males aged between 25 and 50 were studied for the presence of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in their blood. They were grouped together basing on their occupation and the nature of their work, which included drivers, business men, gold smith Industrial workers and teachers. Prevalence of ASA among these groups was studied and the results were analyzed. It was observed that the formation of ASA was associated with the temperament of the individual and the environment of occupation. Stress, tension pollution reduced physical activity and occupational temperature ware directly proportional. Stress associated personal habits like smoking and alcoholism were found to be related factors. Further 85% of the infertile men with obesity showed ASA positivity.



      M.Arul Mani

Abstract: What is the shape of universe?... What was the first life originated?... What is the Chromosome number of first organism?... The first organism evolved from matter or antimatter?... oh… still there is a mystery even in 21st Century about the exact shape of Universe, the Origin of first life. There are so many super stars on the earth now. If so who was the FIRST SUPER STAR? It is hypothesized by the author that the prehistoric human who was spontaneously evolved by electro magnetic radiation from the dark flame (Cosmo) shall be called the first super star having THREE CHROMOSOME and he was much senior to AMOEBA and lived in MARS. It is speculated that the prehistoric superstar formulated the relative position of Sun, Earth, Moon in the Universe in prehistoric code with THREE TINY DOTS. It is hypothesized by the author that the three tiny dots shall not be a fiction and in fact author considers as a DISCOVERY about the real relative position of Sun, Earth, Moon in the Cosmo universe. It is focused that the Sun, Earth, Moon shall not be considered as independent space object but shall be considered as an integral part of THREE-IN-ONE Star of the whole cosmo universe.



      Shinde Pratibha, Mrs.Suvarna

Abstract: Flash is a type of electronically erasable programmable read- only memory (EEPROM). Flash memory is important as nonvolatile storage for mobile consumer electronics due to its low power consumption and shock resistance. NAND flash memory has many advantageous features as a storage medium, such as superior performance, shock resistance, and low power consumption. However, the erase-before-write nature and the limited number of write/erase cycles are obstacles to the promising future of NAND flash memory. An intermediate software layer called Flash Translation Layer (FTL) is used to overcome these obstacles. Many efforts for optimizing the working of address mapping schemes have been done by different research workers. Though various schemes are designed and proposed but there is no literature available providing mathematical computations comparing the performance of the various mapping schemes in the form of time complexity. In this paper we have tried to find out the comparative cost of block merge operation required during garbage collection for some representative mapping schemes like BAST and FAST .



      Mr. Pramod Chavate

Abstract: Global demand for energy shows no signs of slowing, carbon dioxide emissions keep surging to new records. More than ever, the need for a fundamental shift to a cleaner and more reliable energy system is clear. The technologies with the greatest potential for energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, however, are making the slowest progress. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is not seeing the necessary rates of investment into full-scale demonstration projects and nearly one-half of new coal-fired power plants are still being built with inefficient technology. The power generation sector is expected to contribute more than one-third of potential CO2 emissions reductions worldwide by 2020 under the 2DS, and almost 40% of 2050 emission reduction. Enhanced power generation efficiency, a switch to lower-carbon fossil fuels, increased use of renewable and nuclear power, and the introduction of CCS are all required to achieve cleaner power generation.



      Sudipa Nag, Anirban Paul , Rituparna Dutta

Abstract: The present investigation deals with the phytochemical studies of leaves of different medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall ex Nees of the family Acanthaceae, Bauhinia acuminata Linn. of the family Caesalpiniaceae, Clerodendrum indicum (Linn.) O. Kuntze syn. C. siphonanthus R. Br. of the family Verbenaceae, Nerium odorum Soland. of the family Apocynaceae and Sida humilis Cav. Syn. S. veronicaefolia Lam., syn. S. cordata (Burm. f.) Borss. of the family Malvaceae. Methanolic (90%) extracts of leaf powders have been screened for qualitative determination of different secondary metabolites like starch, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, amino acids and lignins by specific chemical color reaction tests.



      Dr. M.R. Alloney, Rahul Dravid

Abstract: In this paper we generalize the notion of projective, injective and flat modules and dimension. Hence, we introduce and study the notion of Quasi –w projective modules and dimension.



      Tripathi M, Zaidi B

Abstract: The present study was conducted in 10 neonates (birth to 3 months of age) indigenous goat. With orcein the elastic fibers stained dark brown in the reticular layer of dermis. These were sparsely distributed in the papillary layer. They are rare and finely branched sparsely distributed in the papillary layer and arranged perpendicular to skin surface, abundantly present in between and around hair follicles but sparse around sweat glands. The fibers are found intermingled in arrector pili muscles. Mostly present superficial to the level of the sweat glands. Regional difference reported is common in all samples that elastic assimilation was intensely found in neck and ventral region of the skin. The fibers were found moderate to weak in other body regions such as dorsal, thigh and flank.



      Deepak Rai, A.K.Singh, S.N Sushil, R.K.Singh, S.K. Jha, M.P. Tyagi

Abstract: The field incidence of the serpentine leaf miner, L. trifolii(Burgess) was severe during the fruiting stage of the crop and infestation was higher on lower surface of leaf in comparisons of upper surface. On the basis of cumulative susceptibility index test varieties viz. HS-102, SEL-14, Pant T-4, PS-8, PT-28, NDT-44, BT-117-5-3-1, Pusa Ruby (Check), KS-118, Pant Bahar, CO-3, Pant Hybrid-1, BBs-109, NTH-337, BRH-01, ARTH-04, BS-2530, NDT-9, Meenakshi-H1, Punjab Chhuhara, NDT-96 were found to be resistant/less susceptible. Only nine test cultivars viz. BT-20-1-4, KS-2, PT-3, Sweet-72, Pant Hybid-2, TH-2312, Ratna, Avinash, Sohali were found to be moderately susceptible/moderately resistant. No cultivar was found highly susceptible against leaf miner. No significant correlation could be established between the number of leaf mines and yield of tomato crop. Although yields differ significantly between different varieties, probably compensation for leaf injury played a major role in yield recovery.



      M. Venkateswarlu, Y. Ramana Reddy, D.N.Lakshmi, M. Mahender, A. Rajasekhara Reddy, Jagadeeshwar, M. Pawani

Abstract: An on-farm experiment was conducted with Nellore ram lambs by feeding intensively for five months period with sole maize silage (R-I), silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II), silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III), silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV), silage + lucerne hay (R-V) and silage + GN haulms (R-VI) to develop a feeding system based on maize (Zea mays) silage with supplementation of concentrate mixture and or legume hay/straw at appropriate level to study the nutrient utilization and nitrogen metabolism and compared with the performance of ram lambs fed sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII). The DMI (g/d) was significantly (P<0.01) higher by 25.19, 29.74, 34.82, 31.04, 27.6 and 26.56 per cent respectively with R-II, R-III, R-IV, R-V, R-VI and R-VII rations in comparison to R-I ration (sole silage). The DMI (g/d) was almost similar in lambs fed rations R-III, R-V and R-VI. The lowest DMI (g/d) was observed in ram lambs fed R-I ration. The DMI (g/kg w0.75) in ram lambs was also significantly (P<0.01) different among the seven rations and was highest in ration R-III and lowest in ration R-I in comparison to the other rations. Almost similar DMI/kg w0.75 was observed in ram lambs fed rations R-II, R-IV, R-V and R-VI. Mean digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE in ram lambs fed R-I, R-II, R-III, R-IV, R-V, R-VI and R-VII rations were non significantly different among the seven rations. Average NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose digestibilities were comparable and insignificantly increased as the level of concentrate increased in the ration. The N intake (g/d) was significantly (P<0.01) higher by 41.14, 52.82, 61.87, 51.93, 37.72 and 64.94 per cent, respectively with R-II, R-III, R-IV, R-V, R-VI and R-VII rations in comparison to R-I ration. The N out go through faeces and urine in ram lambs was significantly (P<0.01) different among the seven rations. The N balance (g/d) in



      Binulal.K.R

Abstract: The major goal of science education today is fostering students intellectual competencies, such as independent learning, problem-solving, decision-making and critical thinking. In order to achieve this, science teaching must be shifted from traditional schooling to more constructivist-oriented instruction. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of various instructional practices such as problem based learning, 5 E model instruction and portfolio writing practices on enhancing the achievement of low achievers. Pre test- post test parallel group design was adopted for the present study. The sample consisted of 120 low achievers, where 90 students were categorised in three experimental groups and 30 students in control group. Instructional materials were prepared based on the topic from 8th standard science text book according to the nature of instructional strategies selected. The major finding of the study is that the select instructional strategies are more effective than the traditional method of teaching science. Among the instructional practices, the problem based learning practice is more effective in enhancing the achievement of low achievers.



      Audu, Rufai, Abdulkadir, M, Abdul Bello Kagara

Abstract: The quality of TVE graduates from technological institutions has been a subject of major concern for most industries in Nigeria. Most industries in Nigeria complaint on TVE graduates as possessing low level skills required for employment in industries and lack of confidence in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. This paper discussed extensively on TVE institutions and industries partnership as a necessity for graduates’ skills acquisition. It outlined the concept of TVE and also discussed on the present status of TVE in Nigeria. The causes of skill gap between the industries and TVE institutions were further explained. The paper also highlights on how to bridge the gap between the industries and TVE institutions. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations made in order to establish linkage between the industries and TVE institutions amongst which are: that TVE institutions and local industries should collaborate to organize seminars and workshops where they will share information on the changing trends in industrial practices and how these changes can be incorporated into the curriculum of the school and also TVE institutions should be charged with oversight responsibilities by putting up structures and policies that will facilitate industrial- institutional links. This will go a long way in ensuring that TVE graduates acquire the right skills that make them be employable in the industries or other related organizations.



      Gayatri Kushwah

Abstract: This study represents the analysis of smoke of biodiesel by using smoke tester. In this article biodiesel is taken as a fuel instead of diesel and quantity of emitted pollutants HC and CO is evaluated by taking different quantity of biodiesel at different load. This work shows how use of biodiesel will affect the emission of pollutants. Diesel Engine is compression ignition engine and use diesel as fuel, in this engine alternative fuel can be used. One alternate fuel is biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in pure form or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engines and also can be used in Vehicle, Railway, and Aircraft as heating oil.



      Y.P. Raiwani

Abstract: Like other milestones in technology, the Internet of Things enables us to measure what could not be measured before. Until today it remains difficult to come up with a clear definition of the Internet of Things. For companies this means additional information for high resolution management of industry and business processes. For citizens the possible implications are manifold, ranging from consumer empowerment to rethinking society. Different infrastructures and networks will compete and interact in the future Internet of Things. The Internet of Things is not synonymous with ubiquitous / pervasive computing, the Internet Protocol (IP), communication technology, embedded devices, the Internet of People or the Intranet / Extranet of Things, yet it combines aspects and technologies of all of these approaches. This paper elaborates the phrase Internet of things, discusses and analyses various definitions of IoT in use and try to distinguish it from other related technologies/concepts.



      Gururaj P, Badarinath K

Abstract: Cloud computing is rapid growing revolution in the way of information technology. As it grows rapidly providing high availability is a major task. This paper examines the cloud computing in the context of how it provides high availability by utilizing USB devices in the servers and explores the revolutionary transformations and challenges it brings to IT management.



      Goldy Katal, Nelofar Tyagi, Ashish Joshi

Abstract: Electronic projection display technology had its origin in the Oil film projector system. Developed in the early 1940s oil film projectors have been the workhorse for applications that require projection displays of the highest brightness. But due to various limitations a number of solid state technologies have challenged the oil firm projector, including CRT-LCD light valves and active-matrix- LCD panels. In response to various limitations of the LCD technologies and to provide superior image quality, high brightness projection display systems have been developed based on Digital Light Processing technology. DLP is based on the Digital Micro Mirror Device (DMD), a Micro Electro Mechanical System, invented in 1987 by Larry Hornbeck at Texas Instruments. DMD is a fast, reflective digital light switch that precisely controls a light source using a binary pulsewidth modulation technique. It can be combined with image processing, memory, a light source, and optics to form a DLP system capable of projecting large, bright, high contrast colour images with better colour fidelity and consistency than current displays. This paper describes the structure, working, operation, advantages and future use of the DLP system. It also compares the DLP system with other display technologies and presents the DLP technology based products in the market.



      Dr. P.M. Mathew

Abstract: The study focuses on training and empowerment of rural women in Kerala. The aim of the study is to analyse the level of awareness created among rural women about women’s rights and women’s issues. The level of awareness is measured in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice. A training package for the empowerment of rural women known as ‘Training for Women’s Groups in Rural Areas’ was selected for the study. The training was implemented for the members of Mahila Samajams (women’s organisations) and imparted through ten voluntary organisations working in ten districts of Kerala. The long term objective of the training was the empowerment and self reliance of women. A descriptive study was conducted selecting 175 respondents by simple random sampling method from the universe of 350 women who had attended the women’s training programme. Similarly, another 175 respondents who had not attended the training programme were selected randomly for comparative purpose. Thus a total number of 350 respondents were included in the study. Personal interview with the help of interview schedule was the main tool used for collecting information from both the categories of respondents. Result of the study highlights that trained women have a higher level of awareness, more positive attitude and greater will be their responding capacity on women’s rights and issues.



      Navdeep Kaur

Abstract: Next generation networks will certainly face requesting access from different parts of the network. The heterogeneity of communication and application softwares changing situations in the environment, from the users, the operators, the business requirements as well as the technologies. Users will be more and more mobile, protocols, etc. will increase and render the network more complex to manage. Autonomic networking aims to design networks that are capable to self-manage, while optimizing their configurations and interactions to the changing needs of the users and the environment. The present paper deals with overview of autonomic communication and its role in digital global world.



      M.Vyshnava Datta, Ankit Kumar Jain

Abstract: This project deals with a cyclic convolution of high speed parallel architecture based on Fermat number transform (FNT). Cyclic convolution architectures are implemented for operands in diminished-1 representation. The code conversion (CC) method is mandatory to convert normal binary numbers into their diminished-1 representation. In this paper we discuss about the FNT (Fermat Number Transform) and IFNT (Inverse Fermat Number Transform) operations which are performed by CCWA (Code Conversion without Addition) & BOWA (Butterfly Operation without Addition). The convolution which is the point wise multiplication is implemented by modulo 2n+1 partial product multipliers (MPPM) and these output partial products are the inputs to the IFNT and modulo 2n+1 carry propagation additions are avoided in the FNT and the IFNT except in their final stages The reduction of modulo 2n+1 carry propagation addition reduces the execution delay of the parallel architecture. The proposed one has better throughput performance and involves less hardware complexity than the existing cyclic convolution architecture.



      Archana K

Abstract: The growing research and development activities in the field of biotechnology are a new addition to intellectual property regime. Serious efforts are being made to increase the number of inventions and filling of applications for patents. The inventions, which involve more of living organisms, became controversial issues. The standard tests of patent law are obstacles for grant of patents to the biotech inventions. Non-grant of patents encourages uncontrolled piracy of new inventions and the original owners suffer economic losses because of low returns on their huge investments in the research. TRIP, agreement seeks to enforce patent laws around the world including biotechnological inventions. In India, the existing patent laws were amended to comply with TRIPs agreement. But do we really need patent protection to the genetically modified animals is the question of the day.



      Deepak M.Sajnekar, Dr. S.B.Deshpande, Dr. R.M.Mohril

Abstract: Modern Digital Excitation control system now started utilizing the power flexibility and cost advantage of Microprocessors for control. Many rotary excitation control system are still using analog type of Automatic voltage regulator which now started to replace with the digital Automatic voltage regulator. Modern Digital automatic voltage regulator is provided with PID controller in the forward path and tuning of PID controller is a challenging task. This paper discusses two methods of tuning PID controller i.e. Pole placement method and pole zero cancellation method. GUI (Graphical user interface) prepared for both the methods on the platform of MATLAB. Using this GUI performance results and time required for tuning for both the methods are compared.



      Jan. U, Parveen.S, Hussain.Q

Abstract: The highly purified oligosaccharide chains obtained from glycoprotein invertase were coupled with bovine hemoglobin with the help of cross linking agent .The neoglycoprotein hemoglobin was highly purified to homogeneity by column chromatography and characterized on SDS- PAGE . Rabbits were immunized to produce glycosylspecific antihemoglobin polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies were purified by (NH4)SO2 precipitation followed by DEAE cellulose chromatography. The IgG-Sepharose was prepared by covalently coupling the purified polyclonal antibodies to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The large amount of hemoglobin was immobilized on IgG-Sepharose by alternate incubation of hemoglobin and glycosylspecific antihemoglobin polyclonal IgG. The immunoaffinity based layered assembled preparation were highly active .The amount of hemoglobin immobilized could be raised 55 fold after four binding cycles. A layer by layer immobilization of hemoglobin significantly increases its life span and improved in stability against high temperature and other several denaturants (pH and salicylate). The results show the excellent platform for protein immobilization with high affinity. The polyclonal antibodies as supporting material has been found challenging for immobilizing the proteins. Further antiglycosylated hemoglobin can be used as a nanoparticle for immobilizing high amount of hemoglobin with no cytotoxicity to cell and this technique enhances the incorporation of hemoglobin properties (recognition, transport and catalytic properties). The applications of the immobilized glycosylated hemoglobin are found in the field of medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology and biosensors.



      Abhishek Kumar, Subham Kumar Gupta, Animesh Kumar Rai, Sapna Sinha

Abstract: Social networking sites offer a straightforward way for people to have a simple social presence through web. They provide a virtual environment for people to share each and every activity, their interests, and their circle of acquaintance with their family, friends, or even the unknown. With so much sharing, hackers and thieves have found very easy ways to steal personal information through these networking sites. This calls for advances in security protocols to safeguard against hackers which form the basis of this research. In this paper, we will discuss some of the privacy and security concerns, attacks and their respective prevention techniques. In this paper we propose an architecture for secure request response exchange of data between users. This architecture improves the customization of profiles. Our research suggests that only a proper knowledge of the hacking strategies will prove the best defence in the war against cyber-attacks.



      Yow Peter Raiphea

Abstract: The India-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership signed on October 04, 2011 was the first agreement that Afghanistan has formally entered into with any country to reconstruct Afghanistan, help guarantee its security and is linked with the drawdown of US forces from Afghanistan. Afghanistan views the strong ties with India as a means to assuage the sense of insecurity and capable of assisting the war-torn nation to stabilize the helpless nation on account of the debilitating power struggle anticipated in the power vacuum following the withdrawal in 2014 of the US and NATO forces. Pakistan is concern about the agreement and is quite suspicious of encirclement by India. Perspectives of three countries i.e., India, Afghanistan and Pakistan on India-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership 2011 are attempted to analyze in the present article.



      Ezhilmathy.M.T

Abstract: Mitigation of transient hardware faults in FPGA requires measures, either in pure software that results in runtime and memory overhead or specific hardware design approach like full or partial duplication of functionalities resulting in an area overhead. In this paper, duplication of CPU using standard soft-core processor and implementation in FPGA for fault-tolerant applications in nuclear power plant is proposed. The combination of FPGA technology and soft processor cores has the potential to allow the integration of system design into a single FPGA device. They can be also combined in one chip, leading to less power consumption, simpler board layout and fewer problems with signal integrity and EMI (electromagnetic interference).This combination can provide previously unavailable design options. Paper work aims towards the realization of a dual core processor on FPGA



      Jasdeep Singh Bhalla, Preeti Nagrath

Abstract: Digital watermarking is referred to a method used for copyright protection and authentication. In this paper, we present a method of nested digital watermark embedding and extraction in which a nested watermark (a watermark inside another watermark) is embedded into the main image. This concept of nested watermarking is used to increase the watermark embedding capacity. In this method, a watermark is embedded into another watermark which is considered as the main watermark and then this main watermark is embedded into the cover image (main image). These watermarks are encrypted before embedding in order to have increased safety, thus to perform encryption and decryption process we used the Blowfish algorithm. Therefore, our research work is focused on increasing the embedding capacity and improving security of the watermarks.



      Vishnu Bhoopathi, S. Niranjan Kumar, R.S.N. Sastry, B. Sinivas, M. Ramana Kumar

Abstract: Pedogeochemical sampling over an area of 45 Sq.Km was initially taken up in the Chitrial outlier, which is actually detached from the main Srisailam sub basin as a result of topographic low formed through weathering and erosional processes. Pedogeochemical sampling is carried out on a grid of 1Km x 1Km and various geochemically associated trace and ore elements viz., U,Th,V,Cr,Co,Ni,Cu,Pb,Zn and As are analyzed and studied for their dispersion patterns. The pedogeochemical dispersion pattern of trace elements studied in conjunction with geology and structure has yielded an area of 11 Sq.Km which is identified with specific trends (N-S and NNE-SSW), as a potential zone for uranium mineralization and is recommended for detailed and subsurface investigations.



      Saurav Singla, Nitin Kansal

Abstract: Introduction: Traumatic knee injuries were conventionally assessed clinically, and subjected to radiographs. In modern Orthopaedics, MRI and a subsequent arthroscopic procedure has come of age. Arthroscopy of the knee is a key hole surgery performed as a daycare procedure. There are many indications however, this study is to correlate the findings subsequent to an MRI diagnosis. Material and methods: 40 patients of different age group and sex with internal derangement of knee (IDK) were subjected to MRI for determining ACL,PCL, medial and lateral meniscus injury.and they were subjected to arthroscopy and the findings were recorded. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging performed on the injured knees revealed 30 tears of the menisci, of which 20 were of medial meniscus and 10 tears of lateral meniscus. There were 21 tears of the cruciate ligaments, out of which 15 were tears of ACL and 6 of PCL. 50 menisci on MRI were normal, of which 20 were medial meniscus and 30 lateral meniscus. Of the 59 cruciates showing normal signal on MRI, 25 were of ACL and 34 of PCL. Arthroscopy revealed 27 tears of menisci, 19 of these were of medial meniscus and 8 of lateral meniscus. 53 menisci were normal on arthroscopy, 21 of medial and 32 of lateral meniscus. There were 19 tears of cruciates, of which 14 were of ACL and 5 of PCL. There were 61 normal cruciates, of which 26 were ACL and 35 were PCL Discussion: The area under the curve of magnetic resonance imaging was 87.6% percent for the medial meniscus, 89.1 percent for the lateral meniscus, 76.1 percent for ACL, and 87.1 percent for PCL in this series of 40 patients. Various intra articular pathologies of the knee such as loose bodies, chondral fractures, degenerative changes, plicae can mimic a meniscal tear. Mucoid and eosinophilic degeneration can cause false positive results on MRI 15. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool in internal derangements of the knee. It is useful in circumstances wh



      S.Sivanaga MalleswaraRao, Ch.V.S. ParameswaraRao

Abstract: Wire electro discharge machining (WEDM) has become one of the most popular processes for producing precise geometries in hard materials, such as those used in the tooling industry. With the demands on the minimization of surface roughness, decrease of the producible geometric dimensions and improvement of the machining accuracy, Micro-Wire-EDM with a wire diameter of 80μm-250 μm has been a key technology for micro-machining. This work deals with the effect of the input parameter i.e thickness of the job on output parameters such as discharge current, cutting speed, spark gap/over cut, metal removal rate and surface roughness value of high carbon high chromium steel (HC-HCr), a die steel cut by wire-electrical discharge machining (WEDM). To obtain a precise workpiece with good quality, the parameters to be set on the machine are optimized experimentally. The output criteria can be estimated for a given thickness of the workpiece using the mathematical correlations developed.



      Ankit Dalela, Parul

Abstract: In communication systems, we have to increase the reliability of the communication operation between transmitter and receiver while maintaining a high spectral efficiency. The ultimate solution relies in the use of diversity, which can be viewed as a form of redundancy [1]. Multiple-input multiple-output systems include a variety of techniques capable of not only increasing the reliability of the communication but also impressively boost the channel capacity. In addition, smart antenna system can increase the link quality and lead to appreciable interference reduction. Smart antenna technology is one of the most vital developments in mobile communication. The signal that is been transmitted by a smart antenna cannot be tracked or received by any other antenna thus ensuring a very high security of the data transmitted.



      B.Gopinath , Dr.S.Suresh Kumar , S.Mohanapriya

Abstract: The Matrix Converter is an array of controlled semiconductor switches that connects directly the three phase source to three phase load. In the Matrix Converter there is no dc link for ac/ac conversion. MC-based UPFC (MC-UPFC) has reduced capacitor loss, volume, cost. sliding mode control techniques is used in the principles of direct power control (DPC) which is established for an MC-UPFC model as consists of input filter. Simulation results of DPC controllers for MC-UPFC provide no cross coupling in dynamic and steady state response, fast response time and decoupled active and reactive power control. The Proposing System matrix converter- based UPFC using a direct power control approach (DPC-MC) based on an MC-UPFC dynamic model. The design UPFCs, presenting robust behavior to parameter variations and to disturbances.



      Dafalla M.S, Ibrahim S. Ibrahim, Hago M.Abdel Magid, Ibrahim M.M.M , Elhag A.M.H

Abstract: Mapping of land use/land cover classes is important task to conserve natural resources and to put suitable management practices. Remote sensing techniques provide promising possibilities to map land use/land cover classes since remotely sensed data covers a large area with periodic synoptic view. The Kingdom of Saudia Arabia contributed significantly to world date production. The Qassim region of central Saudia Arabia is considered as one of most famous producing area locally, regionally and internationally. In this study Enhanced thematic satellite scene of path 168 and row 43 acquired on 28.08.1999 was used. Unsupervised classification approach was used. Three major land use/land cover classes were determined viz hilly area (1232566.06 ha), vegetated land (1663389.88 ha) and sand dunes (470068.08 ha). The vegetated land constitutes the first class, mainly the Wadis, and it is mainly devoted to dates production. Hilly unproductive areas constitute the second class. Finally, it is obvious that sand dunes cover a large proportion of the study area. It is worth to mention that sand dunes surround the vegetated land, which in turn will lead to the loss of some of the productive lands through sand encroachment. This fact necessitates the adoption of suitable management practices to retard and, if possible, to stop sand encroachment.



      Neeraj Kumar Mishra, Vikram Jain, Sandeep Sahu

Abstract: The use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has grown enormously in the last decade, pointing out the crucial need for scalable and energy-efficient routing and data gathering and aggregation protocols in corresponding large-scale environments. To maximize network lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) the paths for data transfer are selected in such a way that the total energy consumed along the path is minimized. To support high scalability and better data aggregation, sensor nodes are often grouped into disjoint, non overlapping subsets called clusters. Clusters create hierarchical WSNs which incorporate efficient utilization of limited resources of sensor nodes and thus extends network lifetime. The objective of this paper is to present a survey on clustering algorithms reported in the literature of WSNs. This paper presents taxonomy of energy efficient clustering algorithms in WSNs.



      M.Mogalali Raju, K.Ramakrishna, V.Tejeswara Rao

Abstract: A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of Cobalt(II) based on complexation reaction between the metal ion and 3,4,-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-1-(3-Chloro-2-Quinoxalinyl)Hydrazone (DHBCQH) in the presence of non-ionic surfactant Tween-80. The important parameters affecting the analytical procedure were optimized. Absorption maximum for a ternary complex was noted at 450 nm. The reaction was found to be rapid at room temperature and absorbance remained constant for more than 24hs. The method obeys Beer’s law in the range 29.46 to 132.59ng/ml. The apparent molar absorptivity of 4.45×105 L mol-1 cm-1 and Sandell’s sensitivity 0.13ng/ml. The effect of foreign ions was tested by taking a constant concentration of metal ion and determining its concentration in the presence of ≥ 100 folds in excess of foreign ions. The method was successfully used in the determination of Cobalt(II) in Biological samples. Second order derivative spectrophotometric method were developed at λmax = 482nm for the determination of Cobalt(II), which was more sensitive than the zero order method.



      Arun Jaganathan V.R

Abstract: The worship of Renuka, the mother goddess can be seen in many places of India. In the southern parts of India, Renuka is worshipped in the name of Yellamma or Mariamma. Renuka, as mentioned in Puranas is the mother of Parasurama who according to Indian mythology is considered as the incarnation of Visnu and his cult also can be seen in many parts of India. But in the regions of Vindhya Mountains, worship of Renuka gets predominance. Although Renuka is considered as the mother of Parasurama in epics and Puranas, there are mythical stories, which made her a mother goddess. The rise of Renuka as a mother goddess was perhaps the result of a complex process including the merges of numerous personalities and myths. In south Indian regions like Andhra and Karnataka, there are many stories related to Renuka and she is being worshipped as Yellamma or Mariamma. The main thing to be noted in this cult is that Renuka has been more popular among the lower castes rather than among the Brahmanical groups. This may be due to the reason that the development of this cult largely occurred in the regions dominated by pastoral communities, who have several other deities with similar mythical structures. One of the interesting features in southwestern India is that the ritual performed by the community of Devadasis is associated with Renuka shrines. In this study an attempt is made to analyse how Devadasi system/prostitution is connected with the Renuka/Yellamma cult in and around Soundatti. The historical and cultural background of prostitution becoming divine in nature also will be examined.



      Pramitha. D

Abstract: Ayurveda, the science of life identifies man as an embodiment of nature. It encloses the essential concepts in various streams of Indian philosophy. Theory of instantaneous or ksanikavada is a significant concept in Buddhism, according to which all the universal things are momentary. A similar thought can be seen in Ayurveda known as Svabhavoparama or natural destruction, this expounds that all the things are in a succession of natural destruction. According to this theory, the process of ending occurs without a specific reason. Even though there are numerous conceptual similarities in the Buddhist and Ayurvedic doctrines, the present study mainly concentrates on the analysis of Ksanikavada and Svabhavoparamavada.



      V.N.Jeyadharshan

Abstract: Enzymes are biocatalysts obtained from plants, animals and microorganism. Microbial enzymes are becoming important for its technical and economical advantages .Various kinds of microorganisms in nature degrade different type of proteins indicating the Proteolytic capabilities of microorganism. About 80% of enzymes produced annually are simple hydrolytic enzymes, of which 60% are proteases. Different bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes are the major sources of microbial proteases. Extracellular proteases have high commercial value and multiple application in detergent, food, diary, pharmaceutical, leather, diagnostic, waste management and silver recovery industries. Here we consider the extra cellular protease which is secreted by Actinomycetes Sp. This enzyme is free from most of the toxic agents. And it is considered as a safe/suitable protease for the oral medication purposes. Here we find the best suit Actinomycetes strain which yield high protease, and its suitable Ph and the medium (Plate assay method). Then we find the high Protease production in different SSF and LSF. Thereafter we discuss the protease isolation methods, conformation and their application in the medical and industrial fields.



      K. Kamala, P. Sivaperumal, R. Rajaram

Abstract: Preparation and characterization of water soluble chitosan was examined for their antibacterial activity from P. stylifera. The yield of crude chitosan and water soluble chitosan was 54.3 % and 87.8%. The FT-IR spectrum of chitin, chitosan and water soluble chitosan also determined and characterization was done and compared with standards. Compare to other bacterial strains S.auerus (18.3mm) having more potential antibacterial activity in crude chitosan as well as water soluble chitosan. Both chitosans might have the antibacterial activity which would be used in novel drugs from the shrimp shell waste.



      Jia Huey Sim, Guat Kheng Khor, Azlina Harun @ Kamaruddin, Subhash Bhatia

Abstract: The effect of temperature on enzymatic transesterification was studied by many researchers for process optimization purposes. The optimum operating temperature was defined on the basis of high FAME productivity or lipase activation without considering the lipase denaturation factor. High thermal energy was favored to accelerate transesterification reaction but lipases for enzymatic transesterification reaction were susceptible to denaturation even at moderate temperature operation. In this work, studies of thermal effects on lipase kinetics were carried out to propose the most desirable operating temperature that achieves high FAME productivity while preserving lipase catalyzing activity. Catalyzing activity of Lipozyme TL IM increased with temperature up to a threshold at 40°C and successive fell beyond this value have explained the occurrence of reversible biocatalyst inactivation. The reaction rates obtained for experiment under different heat treatments have confirmed the deactivation process of Lipozyme TL IM follows first-order kinetics pattern. The most desirable operating temperature for transesterification reaction is 40°C that leads to the highest productivities, 100 % FAME yield at 4 hrs while preserving acceptable stability levels of 1.09% activity lost after 1 hrs.



      Anupriya Gupta, Anil Kumar Misra, Nikita Gupta, Ankur Shivhare, Manav Wadhwa

Abstract: Water is extremely crucial for the human being and economy of the country. Almost every industry from agriculture, hydropower and industrial manufacturing to production of readymade food and tourism relies on water to grow. Continuous population growth and economic development has significantly increased the agricultural and industrial water demand. Watershed development and management is one of solutions to such problems. To prepare a comprehensive watershed development plan, it becomes necessary to understand the topography, erosional status and drainage pattern of the area. A comprehensive study of watershed for south west Punjab region was carried out. This watershed region has the total area of approximately 4161.132 km2. The morphometric parameters are computed by using Geographic Information system (GIS). GIS was used in evaluation of linear and aerial aspects of morphometric parameters. The drainage patterns of the basin are dendritic and include a third order stream. In this study an attempt has been made to develop a recharge plan for the entire study area by locating the suitable site of recharge and recharge structures.



      Ranjita Goswami, Nityananda Barman

Abstract: The success of higher secondary education depends largely upon how well the schools are staffed with qualified and trained teachers. The present study is an attempt to study the real picture as regard to the training status of teachers belonging to higher secondary level under the Darrang District, Assam. Twenty five different higher secondary schools/Colleges (Govt. as well as private) of Darrang District, Assam have been selected for the present study. Four hundred samples of teachers have been selected from twenty five selected institutions. One questionnaire comprising of thirty seven questions are distributed among the selected teachers and data are collected. The result of the study revealed that the training status of teachers at the higher secondary level is not satisfactory in the Darrang District, Assam.



      R.Pushpavalli, G.Sivarajde

Abstract: In this paper, fuzzy based median filtering technique is proposed for enhancing highly corrupted digital images. This filter is obtained in two steps; in first step fuzzy decision rule is applied to detect the impulse noise on input image (noisy image). In second step, noisy pixels are removed using decision based filters. The performance of proposed filter is compared with other existing filters and shown to be more effective in terms of eliminating impulse noise and preserving edges and fine details of digital images.



      Vijay Kandalkar, Prof P.P Jagtap

Abstract: Solar is a green energy that consumes small streams to generate electricity without depends on any sources of non-renewable energy. Even though the power generated is less but the benefits gained from this energy is the ability to raise the standard living of residents in remote areas and it does not emit any pollution gas which is able to give an unfavorable effect in the local environment, get free from pollution and helps to maintain sound health. It is able to support the mission of protecting the environment particularly to the ecosystem. It is helpful to reduce the green house effect also. This paper presents a use of non-conventional sources such as solar power system for the fulfillment of power demand to some extent and gives remedial measures during extreme emergencies of electrical power.



      P NagaSiva Kumar, A Sangeetha, G Srikanth

Abstract: Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) expands and extends the well-known technique of electrical time-division multiplexing into the optical domain. In OTDM, optical data streams are constructed by time-multiplexing a number of lower bit-rate optical streams. In this paper we present an experiment work in optical time-division multiplexing and simulating a packet-interleaved operation using OptiSystem



      Subhajit Karar, Ranjan Parekh

Abstract: This paper proposes an automated system for recognizing palmprints for biometric identification of individuals. Palmprint images are converted to the frequency domain using 2D DFT and thereafter bandpass filtered using a log-Gabor filter to extract the phase symmetry information. Classification is done on basis of correlation between training and testing set images. The approach is tested over a data set of 200 images divided into 10 classes and seen to provide 100% recognition accuracy. A contemporary technique is also implemented on the current dataset for comparison of accuracy results.



      Sandeep Nandanwar, Vikram Jain, Sandeep Sahu

Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. In such an environment, it may be necessary for one mobile host to enlist the aid of others in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited propagation range of each mobile host’s wireless transmissions. Some previous attempts have been made to use conventional routing protocols for routing in ad hoc networks, treating each mobile host as a router. There have been several routing protocol proposed. In Manet protocols are classified in two categories Reactive and proactive protocol.The most efficient reactive protocol is Ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. We examine AODV in term of advantage and limitation.



      Isao Taguchi, Yasuo Sugai

Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient learning method for the layered neural networks based on the selection of training data. The multilayer neural network is widely used due to its simple structure. When learning objects are complicated, the problems, such as unsuccessful learning or a significant time required in learning, remain unsolved. The aims of this paper are to suggest solutions of these problems and to reduce the total learning time.



      MeghaJhamb, AbhishekSinghal, AbhayBansal

Abstract: Before delivering the software to the customer the testing of the software is an essential task. Many testing have been used by the software testers in order to check the functionality and quality of software, one of these testing is Mutation testing. Mutation testing is the testing that has received a large amount of investment.In this paper we have reviewed various proposed methods that are capable of performing Mutation testing of software from the consumers perspective and able to manage the quality requirement in the application.



      Kaushalya K. P. D. C. H., Alahakoon P. M. K.

Abstract: The main function and the duty of the teacher is to educate the next generation and prepare them for the challenges of the future. The task of teaching does not end by delivering the lectures, descriptions, demonstrations, or additional material that are designed to help the student follow the course. An integral part of teaching is assessment where the teacher is given the responsibility of assuring that the students have achieved the intended knowledge and skill targets prescribed in the course or the training program. Most teachers also find this as the most difficult component in their teaching career.



      Ankit Kumar Jain, Gutta Krishna Chaitanya, Vaddi Ajay Kumar

Abstract: Controlling the speed of the Induction Motor is very essential in today’s industry. Conventionally Gear box is used for speed control which consumes more energy. This Paper presents the Modeling and Simulation of frequency converter used for speed control of asynchronous motor through digital approach which has high reliability and energy conservation by using MATLAB/ SimulinkTM. The Frequency Converter is mainly used as variable frequency source to adjust the speed of asynchronous motors. The Frequency Converter circuit consists of three-phase Rectifier, IGBT module, DC link and the three phase inverter. The Transistor three-phase inverter converts the DC voltage into variable voltage and variable frequency (VVVF) power source. The commonly used Capacitors bank is replaced by the LC filter. The Inductor and the capacitor are used to reduce switching stresses so that during power up the voltage source inverter is protected by the inrush currents. The circuit is simulated and output results are obtained.



      Swarn Sunil (ECE), Sweta Kumari (ECE), K B M Sushma (EEE)

Abstract: This paper presents the inventions and discoveries already made in quantum physics which are used now as the main base. It also contains the new technology that has come up by various scientists studying it and researching over it. The invention of quarks and neutrinos has not been an easy task. This paper proposes a new outlook with which we can start thinking in developing communication and technology.



      Abhijeet Gade, Sagar Patil, Shalaka Patil, Divya Pore

Abstract: In todays world, every aspect of business is driven by IT. Jobs in IT Industry are never static. They are most dynamic and people keep on switching from one industry to other. So this result in lack of continuity of same people working on same project tills its completion and hence at any time there is need to add new people to the project. So the most important thing for the new comers to any project is to understand the flow of entire project. Reverse engineering is the study of an applications code and behaviour, in order to better understand the system and its design. There are many existing tools that will assist the developer with this undertaking, such as Rational Rose®, jGRASP®, and Eclipse®.So there is necessity to provide a framework which would convert the given code into UML diagrams. So, our project idea is to develop a tool which would convert the given code into UML diagrams. Although, there are certain tools available in the market as given above which do this work, but all these tools are paid application and other which are open source lack behind in certain aspects which would be overcome by our tool.



      Ramesh Kumar Mallavarapu, Tota Srinivasa Rao

Abstract: A novel technique for integer multiplication is implemented in this project. It is twin precision technique which is noteworthy for its low power dissipation. Multiplier is adapted to bitwidth of the operands to be computed to obtain the reduced power dissipation. The technique also results in an increased computational throughput, by allowing several narrow-width operations to be computed in parallel. Using Twin-precision technique with Baugh-Wooley algorithm, we achieve significant delay penalty and good power reduction.



      M.K. Mishra, Aarthi .U, Raja soundarya.S, Suriya.B

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed paper is that analysis of uncertainty and impression handling in fuzzy Relational Data Base by defining the fuzzy relationships between the existing database model to Fuzzy Vague Relational Database Model (FRDBMS) with the help of fuzzy membership function for analysis of the degree of uncertain information of existing data base. Some theoretical properties of the model can also be defined by the Slandered Relational Database Model (SRDBMS).



      M.K. Mishra, M.Shukla, Aarthi .U, Suriya.B, Raja soundarya. S

Abstract: In the present work we try to introduce new prototype hybrid car model with the help of fuzzy controller. Renewable energy was used for transportation long before any other energy sources thousands year ago the human used only their own energy to get around like walking and gaudily running ,later they are using animals like horses and carts, camels, elephants etc but all the energy source is food only and the food energy were comes out from sun air and water these are the forms of renewable energy, as soon as requirement is increasing the new invention comes than the variety of various energy sources comes out and now a days we are all dependent on all those product . In this we utilize the conventional hybrid technology like solar and wind. Because from the conventional battery model having lot of draw back like difficulty of charging, limited speed due to using various number of batteries the weight is increased and consuming the large space and not secure too and the structure is also large which also increase lot of problems on the road. There are lot of drawbacks of individual one like limited driving speed, more charging time, Some of the other drawbacks are fixed distance; due to lack of sufficient wind and sun energy it can’t give appropriate output. Due to all the reason which indicates a new way to introduce a new proto type model can easily designed with the help of fuzzy controllers has to be implemented for rectifying all sorts of drawbacks . Throughout this work we utilize three combined conventional energy sources and try to introducing new sophisticated models which can work efficiently.



      Dr. (Mrs.) Laxmi Sharma, Geeta Harsana, Komal Sharma

Abstract: Students of Faridabad district .The main findings of the study are: (i) A significant difference has been found between the means scores of post test for the achievement test administered on the control group and experimental group both at 0.05 and 0.01 levels. The difference between the mean scores of the student s of the two groups are quite significant showing the effectiveness of the learning through Concepts Maps over Lecture method and proving that concepts Maps play positive role in enhancement of learning basic concepts of science. (ii) It has been found that the correlation between Maps score and the scores on the maps related to multiple choice items on the unit test varied from 0.04 to 1, which inference that correlations are generally high. The present study was conducted to study the effectiveness of using concept maps in science among VI grade 100



      Dr. S. M. Khairnar, R. A. Sukne

Abstract: In this paper authors introduced two new subclasses ∑_ϱτςξmp (α,β,η)and∑_ϱτςξmp^+▒〖(α,β,η)〗of meromorphically multivalent functions which aredefined by means of a new differential operator. By making use of the principle of differential subordination, authors investigate several inclusion relationships and properties of certain subclasses which are defined here by means of a differential operator. Some results connectedto subordination properties, coefficient estimates, convolutionproperties, integral representation, distortion theorems are obtained.We also extend the familiarconcept of (n,δ)-neighborhoods of analyticfunctions to these subclasses of meromorphicallymultivalentfunctions.



      Prity Bala

Abstract: Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is still an open research area in natural language processing and computational linguistics. It is from both theoretical and practical point of view. Here, the problem is to find the sense for word in given a context, It is a technique of natural language processing(NLP) ,which requires queries and documents in NLP or texts from Machine Translation (MT). MT is an automated system which involves Marathi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi, and English etc. Most of the work has been completed in English, and now the focus has been shifted to other languages. The applications of WSD are disambiguation of content in information retrieval (IR), machine translation (MT), speech processing, lexicography, and text processing. In this paper, we have used knowledge based approach along with selectional restriction. It is used to block the formation of component word meanings representation that contains selectional restriction. We have developed a WSD tool using Hindi wordnet. Wordnet is built from co-occurrence, and collocation and it includes synset or synonyms which belong to either noun, verb, adjective, or adverb. In this paper we shall discuss the implementation of our tool and its evaluation.



      K Prasada Rao, Dr Sukhdeo Sao, Dr JBV Subrahmanyam

Abstract: In this paper a single stage inverter for solar PV system with energy capture improvement based on voltage control to solve fast changing irradiation problem is proposed. A cascaded control structure with a dc link voltage control loop and a current control loop is used. The maximum power capturing controller is applied to the reference of the outer loop control dc voltage photovoltaic,. without PV array power measurement. In order to generate the correct maximum power point reference voltage under rapidly changing irradiation, a robust maximum power point capturing controller has been proposed. In this controller, the d-axis grid current component reflecting the power grid side and the signal error of a proportional–integral outer voltage regulator is designed to reflect the change in power caused by the irradiation variation. Hence, with this information, the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the power losses caused by the dynamic tracking errors under rapid weather changing conditions. The superiority of the newly proposed method is supported by simulation and experimental results. The robust tracking capability under rapidly increasing and decreasing irradiance is verified experimentally with a PV array emulator. The performance of the power flow depends largely on the quality of the applied current control strategy.



      Bagadi Madhavi, G Kanchana, Seerapu Venkatesh

Abstract: In deep submicron technologies, leakage power becomes a key for a low power design due to its ever increasing proportion in chip’s total power consumption. Power dissipation is an important consideration in the design of CMOS VLSI circuits. High power consumption leads to reduction in battery life in case of battery powered applications and affects reliability packaging and cooling costs. We propose a technique called LCPMOS for designing CMOS gates which significantly cuts down the leakage current without increasing the dynamic power dissipation. LCPMOS, a technique to tackle the leakage problem in CMOS circuits, uses single additional leakage control transistor, driven by the output from the pull up and pull down networks,which is placed in a path from pull down network to ground which provides the additional resistance thereby reducing the leakage current in the path from supply to ground. The main advantage as compared to other techniques is that LCPMOS technique does not require any additional control and monitoring circuitry, thereby limits the area and also decreases the power dissipation in active state. Along with this, the other advantage with LCPMOS technique is that it reduces the leakage power to an extent of 91.54%,which is more efficient in aspects of area and power dissipation compared to other leakage power reduction techniques.



      P.V.Sasanka, Y.V.Ramana Rao, A.L.Siridhara

Abstract: This paper presents a Verilog based Universal Sequence Detector, which will be able to detect a binary sequence, from a sequence of inputs. The Sequence Detector looks for some specified sequence of inputs and outputs 1, whenever the desired sequence has found. The sequence detector is like a lock which unlocks (outputs 1), only when a combination appears. Coding of design is done in Verilog HDL and the design is tested and simulated in ModelSim Simulator and is implemented on Xilinx Virtex 4 XC4VFX12 FPGA device.



      Deborah Olufunmilayo Makinde, T.O. Opoola

Abstract: Let A(w) be the class of functions analytic and univalent in the unit disk U={z:|z|<1} and have the form: f(z)=(z-w)+∑_(k=2)^∞▒〖a_k (〖z-w)〗^k 〗 In this paper we provide the coefficient bounds for function in A(w) that are starlike and convex.



      S.Karthick Raja Namasivayam , E.Allen Roy

Abstract: Microbial biofilms, which are formed when bacterial and/or yeast cells adhere to abiotic and biotic surfaces represent the most prevalent type of virulent factor involved in the crucialdevelopment of clinical infection exhibiting resistance to antimicrobial agents. Metalnanotechnology chemistry has the potential to prevent the formation of these life-threatening biofilms on life supporting devices. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the antibiofilm effect of metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNP) stabilized with biocompatible chitosan polymer against biofilm of clinical isolate of Escherichia coli and their effect on biochemical composition of biofilm matrix in terms of total carbohydrate and total protein under in vitro condition. Free and chitosan stabilized AgNPs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR), Transmission Electeron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). Both free as well as the stabilized nanoparticles were found to be effective in bringing about the inhibition of biofilm formation. But enhanced biofilm inhibitory effect inhibition was observed in case of polymer stabilized nanoparticles. Biochemical composition of biofilm matrix in terms of total carbohydrates and total proteins was appreciably reduced in all tested concentration of polymer stabilized nanoparticles compared to free AgNPs.



      Aastha Singh, Sonam Sinha, Archana Priyadarshi

Abstract: Compiler construction is a widely used software engineering exercise, but because most students will not be compiler writers, care must be taken to make it relevant in a core curriculum. The course is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Auxiliary tools, such as generators and interpreters, often hinder the learning: students have to fight tool idiosyncrasies, mysterious errors, and other poorly educative issues. We introduce a set of tools especially designed or improved for compiler construction educative projects in C.We also provide suggestions about new approaches to compiler Construction. We draw guidelines from our experience to make tools suitable for education purposes. The final result of this paper is to provide a general knowledge about compiler design and implementation and to serve as a springboard to more advanced courses. Although this paper concentrates on the implementation of a compiler, an outline for an advanced topics course that builds upon the compiler is also presented by us.



      Sheeja K Raj, Nimmy Jose, Reena Mathew, Leenakumary S

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station, Moncompu during kharif 2012 to study the effect of different stand establishment techniques on yield and economics of rice cultivation in Kuttanad. The experiment was laid out in RBD replicated four times with five treatments in plots of 60 m2. Mechanized transplanting @ 22x 14 cm with early post emergence application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP @20 g ai ha-1 on seven DAT (days after transplanting) followed by hand weeding at 40 DAT significantly influenced the growth and yield attributes and recorded higher grain yield (5350 kg ha-1), straw yield (9140 kg ha-1), gross returns (100090 Rs ha-1), net returns (73303 Rs ha-1) and B: C ratio (3.74). Among the direct seeding techniques, drum seeding with early post emergence application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP @ 20 g ai ha-1 on seven DAS (days after sowing) followed by hand weeding at 40 DAS recorded higher gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio. The lowest grain yield (4566 kg ha-1), gross returns (86127 Rs ha-1) , net returns (56777 Rs ha-1) were recorded in broad casting of pre-germinated weeds with early post emergence application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP @ 20 g ai ha-1 on seven DAS followed by hand weeding at 40 DAS. The dry weight of weeds were found to be less in treatments with post emergence application of pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % WP @ 20 g ai ha-1 followed by hand weeding at 40 DAS/DAT than conoweeding at 15, 30 and 40 DAT. Conoweeding alone failed to control weeds effectively, but it influences the crop growth and yield by stimulating aeration and root growth.



      Yogesh P. Patil, Sachin H. Pawar, Sharu Jadhav, Jitendra S. Kadu

Abstract: Living is made comfortable by continues and the enormous advancement of Science and Technology so far. Nano technology is now days a favorite tool for technologists from academia as well as industrial sector. Nano particles were present in earlier days also, but up to limited extent. The prevailing use of Nano particles now days, to serve almost every sector of human life, would result in to increased concentration of Nano particles in the environment; eventually to term them as a pollutant. Metal absorption in human body is a very complicated phenomenon itself. For trace element absorption a protein, namely, metallothionein is responsible. Metal particles, when enter the human body, are likely to accumulate in kidney, lungs or brain. Greater surface to volume ratio of Nano particles makes them highly reactive and may act as catalyst even. This gives a call to understand the biochemistry behind metal absorption in human body and to define a strategy for the use and production of nano particles for their discrete use.



      Harpreet Kaur, Baljit Singh

Abstract: This paper proposes machine algorithm to grade (Premium, Grade A, Grade B and Grade C) the rice kernels using Multi-Class SVM. Maximum Variance method was applied to extract the rice kernels from background, then, after the chalk has been extracted from rice. The percentage of Head rice, broken rice and Brewers in rice samples were determined using ten geometric features. Multi-Class SVM classified the rice kernel by examining the Shape, Chalkiness and Percentage of Broken (Head Rice, Broken and Brewers) kernels. The SVM classify accurately more than 90% .Based on the results, it was concluded that the system was enough to use for classifying and grading the different varieties of rice grains based on their interior and exterior quality.



      P.Tamilselvam, M.V.Mahesh

Abstract: In this paper proposed blotches and impulse removal in color scale images using nonlinear decision based algorithm. The implementation of this algorithm can be obtained by two stages. In first stage the pixel are detected as corrupted / uncorrupted using decision rules. In second stage estimate the new pixel value for corrupted pixels. The algorithm used as a adaptive length window whose maximum size is 5X5 to avoid blurring due to large window sizes. The mean filtering is automatically switched in this proposed algorithm. It also tests the different images. To analyze the performance of this algorithm as mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, computation time and image enhancement factor compare to other algorithm. The noise level is effectively removal without any loss it produces the better result in quantitative and qualitative measures of the image and also provides better performance.



      Narayani Rajagopalan, A S Khanna

Abstract: Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) is extensively used as a UV-blocking material and finds application as a UV-blocker in cosmetics, textiles and protective coatings. However, with varying sizes and morphologies in the nano scale length, the UV-blocking behavior of nanoZnO gets varied. In the present study a DGEBA based epoxy coating on MS substrate was formulated and modified with nanoZnO with two different sizes and morphologies. Flake-like and spherical nanoZnO were synthesized by chemical routes using different precursors and characterized for their structure, size and shape. The nanoZnO modified epoxy coatings were exposed in UVB weathering conditions and the UV-blocking efficiency of the two types of nanoZnO particles were studied by evaluating the color change (dE) and yellowness index (YI) for the UVB exposed epoxy coatings with and without nanoZnO. It was observed that the flake-like nanoZnO was more efficient in lowering yellowing resistance of the epoxy coating on weathering compared to the spherical nanoZnO particles.



      Dr. Mantosh Kumar Sinha

Abstract: The State of Chhattisgarh has about 44% of its geographical Area Covered with forests. The Koria district in Chhattisgarh lies between 22058’ to 23049’ North latitudes and 810 33’ to 82045’ East longitude. The average rainfall is 121.36 cm. The forest area is 81.23% of Total dist. area. The annual mean temperature is 240C. The temperature varies between 16.20C to 310C. Geologically the area is dominated by upper Gondwana rocks. Which are rich in coal deposit. The highest mountain ranges of the region occupy the northern part of the district. Koria District of Chhattisgarh state has a very rich flora exhibiting diversity of flowering plants. There is no comprehensive description of the flora as well as vascular cryptogams of the district. Some plant species are on the verge of extinction . Keeping these points in view, the present investigation was planned. Present paper deals with floristic account of flowering plants and provides a preliminary analysis of the flowering plants of Koria district. The district harbours 657 species under 439 genera and 119 families of Seed plants (Angiosperms). Of these, 364 species are wild and 293 species are cultivated/planted. D:M (Dicot:Monocot) ratio was found to be 6.00 family-wise, 4.85 genera-wise and 5.19 species-wise. Generic coefficient was found to be 66.81. The Genera:Species ratio was 1:1.496.



      MP Singh, Dr Jyotsna Sinha

Abstract: This paper is aimed at examining the level of job satisfaction among the executives serving in various organizations. For the purpose of conducting this study, a sample comprising 69 executives was selected with a deliberate effort to ensure that the sample comprises executives serving at junior, middle and senior levels. All subjects were administered MAO-R (Motivational Analysis of Organization – Roles), a questionnaire to assess level of job satisfaction. It was found that the job satisfaction level was high among executives. The need for achievement and the need for influence were more satisfied as compared to other needs. Detailed implications of this study will be discussed in the paper.



      Sunil J. Kulkarni, Dr.Jayant P. Kaware

Abstract: Phenol is a major pollutant in the wastewater because of its presence in the effluent of major processing and refining plants. It has severe effect on human being, both short term and long term. Various methods are used for removal of the phenol from wastewater such as adsorption, photodecomposition, volatilization and other various biological and non-biological methods. In the present study attempt is done to present the survey of the research on the phenol removal by various methods. The methods such as Polymerization, electrocoagulation, extraction, photodecomposition, advanced oxidation and ion exchange were used effectively by various investigators. These methods are reported to be efficient for the phenol removal. Suitable method for phenol removal can be selected based on availability of the material, extent of separation required and properties of phenolic effluent.



      Sudhir K. Upadhyay, Mustaqeem Ahmad, Anshu Singh

Abstract: Parthenium density and species richness were found to be more in non-invaded (N-I) sites as compared to invaded (I) sites of Jaunpur district. pH, OC and %N of the soil indicates that the plant survive naturally at higher level of salinity. In pot experiment, plant growth, proline content, TSS content, chlorophyll, N, P and K was not significantly affected up to 1% NaCl (w/w) over the control after 30 and 60DAS. BCF for parthenium plant was >1 up to 2% NaCl treatment. Bacterial population was more in rhizospheric soil then rhizoplane soil under NaCl after 30 and 60DAS, and indicates bacterial-rhizoadaptation. Hence, the parthenium plant able to improve soil health and might be useful in the field of restoration ecology.



      Niraj Nake

Abstract: Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) has emerged as most promising technology in supporting broadband multimedia communications. Congestion control plays important role in the effective and stable operation of ATM networks. The management of these networks creates new challenges for both private network operators and public telecommunications service provider communities due to the heterogeneous mix of ATM Switch equipment, and the need to establish, control and monitor end-to-end connections (virtual circuits) through a network. ATM is a standard for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals. It is designed to unify telecommunication and computer networks. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and it encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells. ATM provides data link layer services that run over a wide range of OSI physical Layer links. ATM has functional similarity with both circuit switched networking and small packet switched networking. It was designed for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic (e.g., file transfers), and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video.



      Nirmal Pradeep Jeldi, Venkata Krishna Mohan Chavali

Abstract: Agile methodologies are enhancement in SDLC with the aim to provide more efficientsoftware on time. In this, where the universally accepted AGILE Methodology calledSCRUM came into existence, almost the 65% of the industry moved to SCRUM model,from the existing regular Software Life Cycle Model. SCRUM assumes that the systemsdevelopment process is an unpredictable, complicated process that can only be roughly described as an overall progression. SCRUM defines the systems development process as aloose set of activities that combines known, workable tools and techniques with the best thata development team can devise to build systems. Since these activities are loose, controls tomanage the process and inherent risk are used. SCRUM is an enhancement of the commonlyused iterative/incremental object-oriented development cycle.



      Amali, E. Precious, Kortse, P. Aloho, Vange, Terkimbi

Abstract: A study of two cultivars of egusi melon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun and Nakai] known as bara and serewe, was undertaken at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Makurdi in 2010. The aim was to study the effects of variable developmental stages and position of fruits on the mother plant on seed quality. Bulk crop was raised and fruits that developed from date tagged flowers were harvested at three days interval from 20 DAA to 47 DAA to monitor seed development and maturation. In another experiment, basal, middle and apex flowers were date tagged as they developed along the growing twine and fruits that developed were harvested at full maturity to monitor seed quality as influenced by fruit position. Mass maturity was attained between 35 and 38 DAA in the two cultivars and highest germination percentages of 85 and 87 were obtained at the last harvest (47 DAA) for both cultivars. Germination of fruits positioned at the base and middle, which showed no significant differences in themselves were significantly superior to apex fruits. It was therefore concluded that seed crop of the two cultivars should be delayed for up to 47 DAA or beyound and preference should always be given to seeds from base and middle positioned fruits against apex fruits.



      P. R. Gundalwar, Dr. V. N. Chavan

Abstract: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is widely deployed in IP networks to manage intra-domain routing. An OSPF is a link-state protocol, in which routers establish relationships developing neighbors, enabling each to build a consistent, global view of the routing topology. This paper is based on overview of OSPF comprising different types of routes, routers, networks, areas, and protocols/processes used in OSPF. We used OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition 9.1 network simulator for six different network scenarios to calculate the shortest path from source to destination router. The simulation developed with different parameters and is configured based on OSPF area and link failure using traffic sent in bits/seconds as performance metric. Finally, the research experiment results showed that balance area OSPF is performed better in finding the shortest path in traffic sent after a link fails.



      S.Prema, S.Nagaraj

Abstract: An Unattended Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) collects the sensing data by using mobile sinks (MSs). It differs from the traditional multi- hop wireless sensor networks in which unbalanced traffic makes the sensors close to the base station deplete their power earlier than others. An UWSN can save the battery power and prolong the network lifetime. Unfortunately, MSs would be given too much privilege when acting as the collecting base station, which will cause security concern if Replicated. Besides, UWSNs are usually deployed in unreachable and hostile environments, where sensors can be easily Replicated. Thus, their security issues should be carefully addressed to deal with node compromise. In this paper, we present a novel key management scheme to secure UWSNs. We employ the Blundo symmetric polynomial mechanism to guard against the newly Replicated nodes in a period while utilizing the periodic key updating based on the reverse hash chain to block the Replicated nodes and revoke the Replicated MSs if failing the authentication. We show that our scheme is robust against node Replicated attacks and carry out comparison analysis on the intrusion-tolerance ratio, communication and computing overhead.



      Prof: Wakchaure P.B., Prof: Borkar B.R.

Abstract: A parking brake (PB) system is a type of mechanical brake-by-wire system that is the conventional lever parking system by generating a clamping force for parking using lever system. At the push of a button, a driver can easily apply or release the parking brake; this enables elderly or disabled persons to easily apply a full braking load. The PB system operates quickly and over a wide force range through the use of electrical components It is sometimes also used to prevent a vehicle from rolling when the operator needs both feet to operate the clutch and throttle pedals. Automobile hand brakes usually consist of a cable directly connected to the brake mechanism on one end and to a lever or foot pedal at the driver position. The mechanism is often a hand-operated lever (hence the hand brake), on the floor on either side of the driver or a pull handle located below and near the steering wheel column, or a (foot-operated) pedal located far apart from the other pedals. Although sometimes known as an emergency brake, using it in any emergency where the footbrake is still operational is likely to badly upset the brake balance of the car and vastly increase the likelihood of loss of control of the vehicle, for example by initiating a rear-wheel skid. Additionally, the stopping force provided by using the handbrake is small and would not significantly aid in stopping the vehicle.



      Sanjukta Ghosh

Abstract: The area which has been assessed is Purba Putiary Unnoyon Abashan Samaboy Samiti Ltd. The FGD was conducted in the Purba Putiary Kundghat Uopohar Abashan which consists of 192 single room flats divided into 6 blocks namely A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. The people mainly belonging from Hindu community and are primarily Bengali. The Rehabilitated dwellers are mostly belonging from areas namely Enny Sarani, Thakurpukur Cancer Hospital area and Keora Pukur Khalpar area as well as from Kabardanga area. According to the committee of this abashan , 40% of the dwellers came from Enny Sarani / 30% Thakurpukur Cancer Hospital area / 30 % Keora Pukur Khalpar area.



      Md Kausar Alam, Sharmila Banu K

Abstract: Now a days rapidly increased use of cloud computing in the many organization and IT industries and provides new software with low cost [1]. So the cloud computing give us lot of benefits with low cost and of data accessibility through Internet. The ensuring security risks of the cloud computing is the main factor in the cloud computing environment, for example sensitive information with cloud storage providers may be entrusted. But single cloud providers is a less popular with customers due to risks service availability failure and possibly of malicious insiders in the single cloud. A towards movement of multi clouds or multiple clouds or cloud-of-clouds has emerged currently using Shamir Secret Sharing Algorithm.



      M.R.M.S.B. Rathnayaka, I.D.S. Jayasinghe, EnitJayanth, S.I Swarnajith, M.A.S.C.Manamendra, G.Wimalaratne

Abstract: Billing is a critical function of both the Electricity and the Water Boards towards getting a meter read. Meter reading, even though it looks simple, is far from simple and involves processes that can give various problems. Most problems, currently seen, result from the manual processes followed. Calculation errors, delays in system updating and fault tracking issues are the major problems that companies find difficult to find answers for. This paper suggests a mobile based system to collect, process and notify consumers about consumption. This system will be reliable, efficient and accurate to suit the requirements of these companies. The proposed solution uses evolving Mobile Technologies, over a solution which uses Mobile applications to handle a company day today work. The burden on the Meter Reader is lessened and other new features have also been introduced. Customer interaction with the company is improved and customers can easily view their current electricity usage using their mobile phones. However, the feasibility of such a project for a third world country like Sri Lanka, is a concern with tregard to the cost factor involved. The project demands substantial investments. Will the country be able to meet the costs involved? Yet, most of the problems related to Electricity Billing are addressed through this system and this might prove to be the best solution for specific companies to optimize services on a low budget.



      Mr. Saurabh. N. Tiwari, A.P.Thakre, B.S.Badak

Abstract: The four stroke engine of motorcycles is mainly worked upon on four basic actions of engine induction, compression, power and exhaust. Initially these stokes has the relationship between TDC [top dead curve] to BDC[bottom dead curve ] and pressure created in assembled engine, there are many types of engine having different types of cc i.e. cubic centimeter such as 100,110,125 up to 1300cc. The combustion in petrol engine is done using flammable mixture of air and petrol which is ignited by time spark when the charged is compressed. Now a day’s many researches are working to increase the fuel efficiency in order to increase the mileage of the vehicle. Our idea proposed is giving a significant results and mileage is observed to be increase dramatically.



      P. Osei-Bonsu, J.Y. Asibuo

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted on-farm in the forest zone of Ghana to determine the effects of stubble mulch (in-situ residues from Mucuna pruriens var utilis or natural grass fallow) and method of land preparation on the yield of dry season tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Land preparation methods studied were slash burn and ridge; ridge and mulching with the existing residue; and zero tillage without burning. The design was randomized complete block with four replications. Tomato seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 50 cm within plants and 90 cm between rows; 2 seedlings per hill. Results showed that stubble mulch resulted in significant reduction in soil temperature and an increase in soil moisture content. Ridging resulted in a higher content of soil nutrients. Mulching especially with Mucuna residue, was however associated with insect pest problems. Despite this problem, stubble mulching with mucuna resulted in up to 100% increase in tomato yield and resulted in the highest yields among the management options. Result of the studies showed that soil moisture and temperature might be more important than soil fertility in the short term in determining yield in dry season tomato in the study area.



      Fatima Al Gunaid Hassan, Muna Abdalla Ibrahim

Abstract: Moringaoleifera, commonly called the horseradish tree, drumstick tree, ben oil tree, miracle tree, and Mother’s Best Friend, known for its multi-purpose attributes, wide adaptability, and ease of establishment. Its leaves, pods and flowers packed with nutrients important to both humans and animals. This review gives information regarding cultivation, nutrients and uses potentials of Moringaoleifera. Where diets lack in these essential nutrients the Moringa tree makes a major contribution to human health.



      Deepti Aggarwal, Prof. A. K. Kapoor

Abstract: Emotion is important because they avail the perceiver with information about another’s behavioral readiness and information about the environment. Various theories suggest that emotion involve complex combination of physiological sensation, cognitive appraisal of situation, cultural beliefs and social environment. Feelings and behaviors are consistent with gender specific emotion beliefs. By using self administered questionnaire the authors investigated whether Bania-an ethnic group of North India differs in expressing their emotions in different situations. Also, they tried to find out whether strength of emotion varies according to the age groups.



      Rekha Singla, Mohit Malhotra, Dishti Agarwal, Deepti Chopra

Abstract: This paper will explain how the Multi-touch technology presents a wide range of new opportunities for interaction with graphical user interfaces, allowing expressive gestural control and fluid multi-user collaboration through relatively simple and inexpensive hardware and software configurations. We as the developers of the low cost multi-touch table draw our experience to provide the practical knowledge to build and deploy applications on the multi-touch surface. This will include the hardware and software requirements, comparison of various optical techniques and implementation of the multi-touch surface.



      Dr. Ranjan Das, Gunendra Chandra Das

Abstract: Math anxiety indicates psychologically a negative mind-set towards solving mathematical problems which impacts on students’ learning practices and outcomes. In looking more closely at why a remarkable no of students may be struggling for improvement in mathematics in comparison to other subjects, it is timely to consider, the math anxiety factor. This literature review looks at the concept of math anxiety and solving mathematical problems highlighting math anxiety as an important factor of poor performance in terms of solving mathematical problems of school students in mathematics and how to assist in mitigating math anxiety.



      Md. Sadak Ali Khan, Syed Ali Sufiyan, Jibu Thomas George, Md. Nizamuddin Ahmed

Abstract: In the last decade many researches have been carried out on wind driven vehicle, a large number of academic publications have been presented. There have been many Down Wind Faster Than The Wind arguments based on energy flow. Wind driven vehicle systems travel faster than the wind along its direction. This paper deals with energy conversion mechanism of a vehicle driven by wind. The Downwind vehicle is designed with a propeller that pushes it along like an aircraft propeller does. The propeller is connected to the wheels of the vehicle through a chain/belt drive, so that when the vehicle moves forward, the propeller spins in such a way to provide a thrust that will speed up the vehicle if there is energy available from a tailwind, which explains the energy conversion mechanism. Specifically, focus is on the horizontal axis propeller of a downwind vehicle to make it have a relative motion with the wind at a speed greater than the speed of the wind. The simulations of the analysis are carried out in JavaProp software.



      Shalini K.Kharkate, Prof. Nitin J. Janwe

Abstract: Automatic image annotation is the process of assigning keywords to digital images depending on the content information. Automatically assigning keywords to images is of great interest as it allows one to index, retrieve, and understand large collections of image data. Selection & implementation of proper feature extraction and weight calculation method plays important role in image annotation. Many techniques have been proposed for image annotation in the last decade that gives reasonable performance on standard datasets. This paper presents detailed literature about the Automatic Image Annotation and explains the feature extraction as well as weight calculation method.



      M.V.Gaikwad, Prof. N.J.Janwe

Abstract: Natural phenomena show that many creatures form large social groups and move in regular patterns. To reduce the data an efficient distributed mining algorithms are used to jointly identify a group of moving objects and discover their movement patterns in wireless sensor networks. In object tracking applications, many natural phenomena show that objects often exhibit some degree of regularity in their movements. To reduce the data volume, various algorithms have been proposed for data compression and data aggregation. In this paper we have surveyed various research papers of movement pattern mining, clustering, and data compression techniques.



      Umana, Uduak E., Timbuak, J A., Musa, S.A, Samuel Asala, Joseph Hambolu , Anuka J. A.

Abstract: Carica papaya is a medicinal plant which has been proven to contain substances that are being exploited for medicinal purposes. Some of its uses include anti-ulcerogenic, anti-amoebic, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-tumour, employed in wound-healing activity and antifertility activity. This study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of orally administered chloroform extracts of Carica papaya seed in adult Wistar rat. The OECD, 2003 guideline was used for the acute oral toxicity study to determine LD50 and this was above 2000mg/kg. For the acute and chronic studies five adult wistar rats per group weighing 160-220gm were used. They animals were grouped into two major groups (acute and chronic) of three sub groups each. Group one was the control, group two and three received 100mg and 1000mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for five days and 60 days respectively. The haematological indices for both acute and chronic studies were normal and so also were the renal function test and liver function test. The histological studies of the liver kidneys and spleen did not reveal any pathologic changes when compared to the control group and this was in line with the organ body weight which was within normal. In Conclusion it can be said that chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed extract is not hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic to adult wistar rats in the tested doses and duration.



      Priyanka Sharma, Asha Mishra

Abstract: Back propagation algorithm (BPA) have the complexity, local minima problem so we are using Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to reduce and optimize BPA. In this paper, two variants of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) PSO_Hill and PSO_A* is used as optimization algorithm. PSO_Hill and PSO_A* algorithms are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their advantages, applied to feed forward neural network(FNN) for back propagation algorithm(BPA) which is a gredient desent technique. where BPA is used for non_linear problems. These non_linear problems are improved by a PSO_Hill and PSO_A* algorithms.



      Breetha S, Kavinila R

Abstract: Class discovery is one of the most important tasks in cancer classification using biomolecular data. To perform this, a multiple clustering approach called Hierarchical clustering is used. It uses one of the metrics called Manhattan Distance which measures the distance between the values of the data set and builds a hierarchy of clusters after analysing it. The clustering result enables to classify the cancer types and it is further evaluated by Range check and Delta check. The various test results are compared with the known initial range of values using Range check. Delta check is performed on the current test result and the immediate previous test result for better results. These techniques are used to improve the diagnosis of cancer.



      Sagar Bhavsar , Akhil Rao , Abhishek Sen , Rohan Joshi

Abstract: Microcontrollers and microprocessors are finding their way into almost every field in today’s world, incorporating an element of ‘smartness’ into conventional devices. Energy efficient, space efficient and optimized microcontrollers are the need of the day. Our paper proposes a new Instruction Set that is a subset of the MIPS architecture. It derives the advantages of MIPS like simplicity and speed. Besides, since it is a smartly optimized subset of MIPS, it is a smaller version consisting of the most commonly required instructions.



      Gopika V Mane, G. G. Chiddarwar

Abstract: The protection and illegal redistribution of digital media has become an important issue in the digital era. This is due to the popularity and accessibility of the Internet now a days by people. This results in recording, editing and replication of multimedia contents. Digital watermarking can be used to protect digital information against illegal manipulations and distributions. Digital watermarking technique is the process of embedding noise-tolerant signal such as audio or image data in the carrier signal. This technique provides a robust solution to the problem of intellectual property rights for online contents. This paper reviews different aspects and techniques of digital watermarking for protecting digital contents.



      Mr. Satish M. Kaple

Abstract: In this paper, I have invented the formulae of the height of the triangle. My findings are based on pythagoras theorem.



      A.R.M. Ravi Shankar, K. Mahesh

Abstract: A Sniffer is a program on the network traffic by grabbing information travelling over a network [1]. Many people assume computers connected to a switch are safe from sniffing here we go for Antisniffing [2]. Nothing could be further from the truth. Computers connected to switches are just from vulnerable to sniffing. Computers connected to switches are just as vulnerable to sniffing as those connected to a hub. Here in this paper we propose Mobile Agents to detect sniffers. Mobile agents perform a task by migrating and executing on several nodes connected to the network. Ignored to detect sniffers [3], the network administrator sends some special types of mobile agents in the network and collects information from different nodes. After analyzing this information the network administrator can identify the computer system running in promiscuous mode.



      R.T.Jadhav, Narve N.G

Abstract: Ceramic magnets became commercially available in the 1950’s (Alnico magnets were the first true magnets to be introduced n the 1930’s).There are currently 27 grades of Ferrite Permanent Magnet available. Ferromagnetic, Paramagnetic, and Antiferromagnetic materials are all made up of intrinsic magnetic moments. Magnetic moments depend on temperature as thermal disorder destroys alignment between dipoles. It is at this temperature point, the Curie temperature where the materials change from Ferromagnetic order to Paramagnetic order or vice versa. Ferrite is ceramic material with magnetic properties, is useful in many types of electronic devices and building materials.. It is the component which gives steel and cast iron their magnetic properties, and is the classic example of a ferromagnetic material. Our observations is that the Curie temperature decreases with addition of Cu 2+,Cd2+ ions tends to decrease the number of A-B interactions. This may be due to A-O-B distance. Due to thermal vibrations, the magnetic A-B interactions in ceramic material are broken at Curie temperature.



      B.M.Sangeetha, M.Rajeswari , S.Atharsha, K.Saranyaa Sri, S.Ramya

Abstract: In India, the textile industry contributes substantially to the foreign exchange earned by the country. The textile industry is providing employment opportunities to numerous people in the country. The emphasis on awareness about the environmental concern such as air, water and noise pollution during the processing from fibre to fabric is essential in the present circumstances. Information regarding cotton dust exposure impacts and the control strategies is lacking among textile employers and its management. The main aim of this paper is to provide, dust level in the textile industry and the available air quality standards are discussed to facilitate textile mill employers and management to establish cotton dust control strategies to save their workers from its harmful impacts. The study has been carried out in textile industries located in Tirupur. This study is based on the analysis and monitoring of air pollutants using respirable dust sampler in work place.



      Pragati Pawar, Prof. P.S. Kulkarni

Abstract: This paper describes the Windows registry which stores a lot of system information and can also be used as forensic evidence. Many researchers have worked to know how the information is stored in the registry, but carving the registry files from the raw disk is not described. Till now the researchers performed the researches on how the registry files are carved when each block is not fragmented using the internal structure of registry file. It is also based on the internal structure of registry files, but in this paper, the fragmentation is performed on the multiple HBIN blocks instead of two HBIN blocks. It also recovers the Windows registry files using back up when the file system is crashed or damaged. The carving technique is used which is more effective and accurate for Windows registry files.



      Yakubu Aminu Dodo, Abdulaziz Umar Raji, Aisha Haladu Bornoma, Ahmed Yahaya, Parviz Gohjogh Najad, Sabeen Qureshi

Abstract: As sustainability becomes a central point in the conceptual stage and design process in most architectural practice, research on office buildings’ impact on the environment is greatly increasing and gaining high attention around the globe. Although many designers claim their buildings to be sustainable, unless a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study is carried-out to ascertain the real situation, it is difficult to ascertain the total environmental burden a particular building has on its surrounding and global environment. This paper demonstrates how design policies for adaptability is applied to choose more sustainable materials alternatives during the maintenance (retrofit) phase of the building with an estimated projected life cycle of 50 years.



      Chitra.R, Jayalakshmi.V, Jayashree.R, Keerthana.N, P.Karthik

Abstract: The Leader election process is done in the presence of selfish nodes for intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The leader-IDS election process can be either random or based on the connectivity model. Unfortunately, with the random model, each node is equally likely to be elected regardless of its remaining resources. The connectivity index-based approach elects a node with a high degree of connectivity even though the node may have little resources left. Due to limited battery power nodes die out early and affect the network lifetime.


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