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IJSRP, Volume 11, Issue 4, April 2021 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

April 2021 publication has started and publication will continue till 28th April 2021
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd April, their paper will publish in April edition in next slots i.e. 12th April or 18th April or 28th April.
Online print version will release latest by 30th April. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 28th April and minor corrections are accepted till 28th April 2021.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Anusuya M, Dr.K.C.Shyamala

Abstract: The present study aimed at studying the nature of “Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon (TOT) seen ubiquitously in most of the normal individuals in their day-to-day life as well as in disordered population such as individuals with aphasia. The study consisted of 30 normal subjects grouped in 3 age group: young, middle and old respectively and 6 subjects with fluent aphasia. Prediction of tip of the tongue phenomenon in normal subjects was investigated by the use of two basic ways: diary studies to acquire information on naturally occurring TOTs and experimentally induced TOTs which involved word retrieval tasks. Results revealed that TOTs are caused by deficits in the transmission of priming that occurs when the connections between lexical and phonological nodes become weakened due to infrequent use, non-recent use, and aging. Consistent with this theory, TOT targets were infrequent words in the language and often had not been used recently, even though they were highly familiar to the subjects. Results also indicated clear cut superiority on the part of conduction aphasics, as compared to Wernicke’s and anomic aphasic subjects, the results gave some insights about the occurrence of TOT in normal as w

      E.A.K.K. Amarasekara, A. Pathiratne, T.B. Wanninayake

Abstract: The brackish water clam, Meretrix casta is an abundant clam species, in some estuarine water bodies in Sri Lanka. It has a great potential for use as food and non-food resources. It is important to understand bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals in this species to consider its possible uses for human consumption and for shrimp feed in shrimp farming industry.


Abstract: The study conducted in Uasin Gishu County focused on competencies and perception towards secondary school agriculture. The objective was to establish the readiness of schools for implementation of competency-based learning. Using descriptive research design, a purposive sample of 358 secondary school students from fourteen schools participated in the study. Questionnaires, interview schedules, and observation checklists were used for data collection. Only 24.1% of the teachers were able to design assessment rubrics for competency-based learning while 75.9% needed further training. Creativity and imagination were acquired by 8% of the learners. Other core competencies were acquired by less than 10 % of the learners. About 35.7% of students acquired students’ leadership skills. Despite the low level of agricultural technology used in schools, the teachers attributed low crop yields to poor weather. There was no relationship between the teaching method and the competencies manifested (P (χ2=2.266, df 8) =0.972 at α 0.05).

      Dr. N C Srinivasa Prabhu, Dr. B Brinda, Dr. Kiran Nagaraju

Abstract: Introduction: Poisoning is a significant global health problem. Ingestion of chemical compounds has long been the adopted method of suicidal intension all over the world. Of late in the urban setup, impulsive behavior of stressed out individuals is witnessed with patients presenting to Emergency Department (ED) of hospitals with history of suspected ingestion of prescribed drugs, often multiple.


Abstract: The Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is an aspect of laboratory medicine that make uses of complex scientific techniques based on resonance epistemic decision in analyzing human samples-fluid and tissues-which aids in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of diseases and monitoring of response to prescriptions. A biomedical scientist is one qualified and versed in the principles and practice of the art and science of medical laboratory science.

      R.P. Erandi Rajapaksha

Abstract: Customer is the most imperative factor in any organization. It has proven that service quality leads consumer satisfaction by numerous researchers. Service quality measurements can be utilized to measure the Customer Satisfaction. In hotel industry it is basic prerequisite to keep up service quality to draw in more customers and for expanding the market share. The main purpose behind this research study is to investigate the impact of service quality on consumer satisfaction in ABC Hotel. Understanding the impact of service quality on consumer satisfaction is a critical issue for academic research. To agree to point, six essential hypotheses have been prompted for service quality and consumer satisfaction.

      Wanjiku Musili

Abstract: The last quarter and the first quarter of 2019 and 2020 respectively the world experienced the emergence of the novel coronavirus. This is a “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)” caused by a highly contagious disease that referred by scientists as “coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).” On 6th December 2019, China reported the first case of the disease in Wuhan City. After three months the disease had spread widely across the globe making the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it a global pandemic on 11th of March, 2020. So far, the pandemic have wreaked havoc in both developed and developing economies.

      Efrizal Ary, Arezoo Dadrasnia, Fuad Ameen, Suaad Alwakeel and Salmah Ismail

Abstract: Dadih is a traditional Indonesian buffalo milk product that is fermented naturally and that is believed to have many benefits to human health, this can be attributed to the nature of the lactic acid bacteria involved in the fermentation process. In the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria alter complex organic molecules compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats into simpler molecules, easily soluble and high digestibility. In this study, antimicrobial activity was performed by diffusion method in order to fight the pathogenic bacteria Salmonella enteritidis strain ATCC BAA-711, Salmonella enteritidis strain local Malaysia code number 4301/15, Escherichia coli strain ATCC 35401and Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 2592.

      C. Wonleh Sei Slehkie, Prof. Niu Dongjie

Abstract: The collaboration of stakeholders in the management of municipal solid waste is a common challenge that affects Monrovia, in Liberia. any such device poses a dynamic relationship between actors with various stakeholders, decision-making authority, and stakeholders with influence, as well as an atmosphere that is beneficial or disabling. This study used the techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and stakeholder analysis (SA) which can be effectively extended to better understand the position and behavior of participants, and evaluate the motivating factors of stakeholder collaboration, as well as recognize connectivity blockages that influence everyday operations or strategic planning for the future.

      Satnam Das, Dr. Parwinder Singh

Abstract: The game of kabaddi is an oldest and popular game of Indian origin. Kabbadi has been playing for a long time (about thousand years ago) in India. Circle Style Kabaddi is a four thousand years old game. With minor or major difference this game remained famous in other parts of the country. Circle Style Kabaddi is the most admired game in Punjab is considered as mother of all games in the countryside region.

      Dr. Sanam Vaseem Shaikh

Abstract: The title of the paper is “The Summer of Love: The Ecstasy and the Agony of Sylvia Plath”. The main intension of the paper is Plath search for an equal to accompany her through all the aspects of a multifaceted life. It reveals the solace Sylvia found in the love of Ted Hughes and the golden era they spend together unless Sylvia got to know about her husband’s extra marital affair. The agony and disheartened soul of Sylvia being projected in poems of her later years reveals the real frustration of her being alive.

      Thilakarathna H.M.A

Abstract: Hospital acquired infection (HAI) is an important cause of morbidity, mortality and prolonged hospital stay, and leads to increased treatment costs. The DGH, Matale was surveyed in January 2013 and in August 2014 for HAI by a team of two infection control nurses and one medical officer in 2013 and three infection control nurses and one medical officer in 2014.Infection Control strengthening Package (ICSP) was introduced to reduce HAI which includes fundamental changes in the infection control activities.

      Perera, KCM, Murali, V.

Abstract: Background Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity in adulthood and is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. The roots of the obesity epidemic need to be tracked back as early in life as possible. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and to describe the association of overweight with selected factors and anthropometric measures among children attending preschools.

      I Gde Putu Prajna Ananggadipa, Maria Mediatrix Ratna Sari

Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of corporate social responsibility, profitability, and leverage on tax aggressiveness as proxied by the Net Profit Margin Index, Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Index, Return on Equity and Dept to Asset Ratio. This research was conducted in mining sector companies listed on the IDX in 2017-2019. The population is 42 companies and the sample is 26 companies with 69 observations which were selected using purposive sampling method. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression. The results show that corporate social responsibility and leverage have a negative effect on tax aggressiveness also profitability, has a positive effect on tax aggressiveness.

      Anak Agung Istri Mita Suryani, Gayatri

Abstract: Globalization has an impact on the rapid pace of the world economy which requires companies to be able to adapt by improving the quality and performance of the firm in order to have good corporate value in the free market. Firm value is reflected in the stock market price. Firm value is measured using Tobins Q ratio. This study examines profitability as proxied by ROE, corporate social responsibility, and foreign ownership.

      Eric Bienvenue MUGABO, Prof. Edwin ODHUNO

Abstract: This research examined the corporate core values and service delivery, the case of Magerwa Ltd. Specifically the study had two objectives: to assess the ways in which corporate core values of integrity and efficiency are mainstreamed to achieve on-time service delivery in Magerwa Ltd and to investigate the key abilities of Magerwa Ltd to offer on-time service delivery, the target population was 150 customers of Magerwa Ltd where 114 respondents were sampled; information was gathered using questionnaire that were distributed to respondents by the researcher and the interview guide to compliment the data gathered from questionnaire.

      Aafreen Mushtaq, Meherunissa Sirajudeen

Abstract: Loneliness can be described as a condition of distress or uneasiness, which is a result of perceived isolation. It causes emotional pain due to a deficit of social connectedness. Psychological distress is a term which is used to explain a subjective experience accompanied by unpleasant feelings such as depression and anxiety. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between loneliness and psychological distress among adults. There is an increased necessity to learn more about the causes of psychological distress in the modern world, its relationship to loneliness and social isolation, as it will benefit the diagnostic field of psychology.

      Nicola Malizia

Abstract: Probation to social services (or external criminal area) is one of the alternative measures to detention provided for by the Italian prison system. This institution allows the person receiving a final sentence to serve all or part of his sentence outside prison, as the case may be. The aim is to re-educate and resocialize the prisoner by promoting his re-integration and re-integration into civil society, taking him out of the prison environment.

      Rahma W. A, Setyari W. N. P

Abstract: Economic growth is an indicator that is generally used to determine the success of the economic conditions in a country, one of which is by looking at the value of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). This study aims to analyze the impact of Foreign Direct Investment, the investment portfolio and the human development index on economic growth in Indonesia either simultaneously or partially. The method used in this research is multiple linear regression analysis.

      Engr. John Lester S. Benigno

Abstract: The Implement-type cassava planting machine was attached to a hand tractor and was designed using AutoCAD and made of locally available materials using local manufacturing technology. The purpose of this machine was to increase the production of planting cassava and to decrease labor requirements. The machine consists majorly of a hopper, discharge chute, furrow opener, harrower, ground wheel and metering device. The machine performance was evaluated using 2.14, 2.28 and 2.67 kph travelling forward speed.

      Atemo Dishon Opulu, Dr. Serah Kimaru- Muchai

Abstract: Monitoring and Evaluation is an integral part of project performance. Devolution of development agenda in Kenya has faced challenges and tests of accountability. Efficiency and performance of county governments are under scrutiny which has necessitated need for counties to adopt and intensify M&E systems in their project cycles. However, cases of project failures increasingly witnessed across counties rise concerns to whether such occurrences are attributable to low monitoring and evaluation systems.

      Dr. Venkata Chaganti, Murali Cheruvu, Shastry V Munnagala

Abstract: Pravargya is Vedic and scientific process that generates very high Sun surface like temperatures in the range of 5,000 K to 9,225 K by producing a fireball (fire column) for shorter periods (1 to 3 seconds) that can produce UV (ultraviolet) rays to mitigate viruses/bacteria. The fireball helps converting fatty acids in the ghee, high nutrient organic compounds present in cow milk and goat milk into vapors having kinetic energies capable of increasing immunity, reducing the bacteria/virus counts, reducing air, water, and soil pollution in and around the vicinity where Pravargya process is conducted.

      Teja sree C, Amrutham Santoshikumari, and Puppala Veera Somaiah

Abstract: This paper reported the outcomes of a facile and active Gold nanoparticle synthesis approach based on aqueous solution of gum ghatti and HAuCl4, without addition of any hazardous chemical for the reduction and capping agent. However, formed effective stabilization of Gold nanoparticles in gum ghatti (AuNPGT) with a fine size and average diameter was 5±2 nm. The successful synthesis of AuNPGT was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, EDS and DLS.

      Jesin Varughese, Dr. Rema M.K.

Abstract: Present study examined the relationship between perceived stress, emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among nursing students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The questionnaires used were the PSS (Perceived stress scale) to measure perceived stress, the Emotional intelligence scale to measure emotional intelligence and SES (Self-efficacy scale) to measure self-efficacy, the data has collected from 120 nursing students from south India. Descriptive correlational research design was used and convenient sampling technique was employed to select the sample.

      Aown Alshowishin

Abstract: Well-organized accounting provides a systematic and chronological record of business transactions and other events, but also a complete picture of the effects of business transactions in the form of an annual report. The annual report is a legal and regulatory obligation for companies, and thus a potential subject of economic and financial analysis.

      Misbah Naureen, Sumaira Naz, Sana Majeed

Abstract: Objective: To assess the level of attitude, and practice about breast self-examination among women living in Taxila/Wah Cantt.

      Isiaku, Wada Bashir; Muhammad Ibn Abdullahi & Nweke, Prince Onyemaechi

Abstract: The study examined how assistive technologies are integrated to students with learning disabilities in universities in Nigeria. Two research questions were posed to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Northern Region of Nigeria. The population of the study comprised a total of 269 respondents with learning disabilities in Northern Region of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was structure questionnaire developed by the researchers. There was no any sampling technique since the populations was manageable. A 20 items structure questionnaire titled: Integrating Assistive Technology for Students with Learning Disabilities (IATSLD) was used as the instrument for data collection.

      Davies Ufuoma, Olukotun Stella

Abstract: For over a decade, attempts have been made by African writers and scholars to situate the import of culture in literature as a medium for reorientation and change in Africa. Objectively, this connection is uneasily recognized. Yet, literature and culture offer a viable instrument for socio-cultural change, unity and sustainability in Africa. Bearing this in mind, the paper adopts the comparative literary approach in its identification and exploration of cultural features in the family lives and marriages of two African rural communities, highlighted in the novels - The Stillborn by Zaynab Alkali and Trois Pretendant…Un Mari, translated into English as Three Suitors … A Husband by Mbia Oyono. It is evident that patriarchal customs and practices of polygamy, marriage subjugation, male supremacy, domination of women impel positive cultural relationships in families as well as marriages, especially amongst women. Consequently, education, freedom of speech and expression, positive self affirmation are advocated as avenues for achieving social change and reorientation.

      Nurbol Maidanovich Karakulov, Nasiba Iranqulovna Safarova, Urol Xamrayevich Safarov, Ziyoda Abduboisovna Amanbayeva

Abstract: This article describes the formation, development and geographical distribution of free economic zones in Tashkent region. The role of free economic zones in the socio-economic development of the regions was also assessed.

      W D K Wijesinghe, S Sridharan

Abstract: Purpose: It is well recognized that addressing patient safety related incidents have a positive impact on patient healthcare outcomes. However, health care professional’s attitudes towards patient participation in patient safety were minimally assessed in Sri Lanka

      Prasitha P and K Prema

Abstract: Language is a complex process and its acquisition is hierarchical in nature. There is a critical age for the acquisition of each process. Some children with language impairment show a delay in the acquisition of these processes. There are many studies supporting the delay in children with language impairment. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the development of morphosyntax (conjunction, negation, case marker, tense and person-noun- gender marker) in children with specific language impairment.

      Shiv Prakash Mishra

Abstract: The solubility of substance is depends on temperature and interaction of solute-solvent with its dissociation in ionic form as ionic strength of acid at different pH, where their partitioning (K) are observed between two immiscible liquid-liquid solvents system. Presently, we have been reported to benzoic acid for these solubility as well as its partitioning study at different pH between in hydrophilic aqueous water and hydrophobic organic benzene layers at room temperature (25°C). Here, the benzoic acid are distributed between such solvent by applying shake-flask method and by titrimetrically, there equilibrium concentration in both solvents are analyzed. The solubility of benzoic acid and it partitioning between water and benzene buffer solution at different pH range as 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 have been studied well.

      Thilakarathna H.M.A

Abstract: Background: Medical equipment are imported assets that directly influence the medical management in patient care. To ensure effective and safe health care, medical equipment must be maintained efficiently and effectively with expected performance. The way in which it is used and maintained may greatly affect the reliability and productivity of an equipment (H. Mahfoud, 2016).

      Sulaiman Agteit

Abstract: Economic development is a complex concept that, in addition to economic growth, includes changes in the structure of the economy, changes in the social sphere, technology. Economic development can be defined as a process that involves the creation of new features in the country economy (in addition to the quantitative growth of structural elements). Dynamic character of the economic structure gives a qualitative dimension to this process.

      Sourav Boro Choudhury, Sachit Anand Arora , Rupali Kalsi, Kumar Saurav Singh, Lukram slim

Abstract: Gingival recession (GR) is the most common periodontal condition that causes negative impact on plaque control, esthetics and hypersensitivity. The exposed root surfaces are prone to root caries and noncarious cervical lesion development .With the advancement of techniques various approaches for the management of recession are done. Pinhole surgical technique is one such approach which shows effective result in the treatment of root coverage.Various regenerative material are used along with the treatment to have a good clinical outcome. The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the Pinhole Surgical Technique (PST) along with PRF and collagen membrane for the management of miller’s class I recession.

      Alphonse NKEZA NYABYENDA, Dr. Andala O. Hesbon

Abstract: Crop yields in Rwanda remain as low as 40-50 percent of their potential owing to subsistence farming practiced by more than 70% of the population. This study examined the impact of adoption of modern agriculture on poverty reduction among KOBAKU cooperative members in Nyagatare District, Rwanda in a period of 2013-2018. The specific objectives were; to identify determinants of farmer’s decision to adopt modern agriculture, to compare farmers’ household income and consumption expenditure, and to determine the relationship between the farmer’s adoption of modern agriculture and their households’ poverty reduction.

      Prof. Leonardo F. Cada, Jr., Ed. D

Abstract: Work-life demands vary day after day. Life is not smooth as we think. Life alters works and vice-versa. Work-life balance is not stable for all individual. The purpose of this study is to enhance the individual awareness about the behaviors that are affecting the work-life balance of the graduate students in one of the higher educational institutions in Manila. Graduate students are not exempted from the issue of balancing work and life while studying.

      Adhiambo Faith Magadi, Dr. Kefa O. Nyandoro

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess Relationship between Characteristics of Households and Food Accessibility in Rhamu, Mandera County in Kenya. A correlational research strategy was adopted to conduct the study. A descriptive research design strategy was embraced during the study where only quantitative data were utilized. The study examined the Relationship between Characteristics of Households and Food Accessibility in Rhamu.

      Diyah Santi Hariyani, Tri Ratnawati, Nekky Rahmiyati

Abstract: CSR disclosure in the companys yearly report is expected to be a plus that will increase investor confidence to invest and increase the company value. This research empirically tested and analyzed the influence of macro-economic, dividend policy, good financial governance on companies value with corporate social responsibility disclosure as moderating variables in SOEs and listing IDX in 2014-2019. Research sample number 16, data analysis techniques using quantitative methods with SEM-PLS to connect between variables..

      Sidra-Tul-Muntaha, Sayeda Sarah Mubarak, Fatima Khan Sherwani, Nazma Azim

Abstract: To evaluate the allelopathic effect of Papaver somniferum against the 3 varieties of Zea mays seeds cv. Azam, Pahari and Iqbal. Aqueous extracts were made by soaking the powder of dried leaves of Papaver somniferum. For the aqueous extract treatment, the extract was soaked in distilled water for 24 and 48 hours separately. For mulching treatment, the seeds were sowed in soil and sprinkled powder of leaves. For litter, the petri dishes were grounded with randomly cut pieces of filter paper wetted with extract. For hot water treatment the water was boiled for 5 minutes. The powder was then mixed in boil water. Azam got effected in 24h extract in aqueous extract treatment while Pahari in 48h treatment. In mulching all the three varieties got inhibited by extract. Azam showed resistance toward the inhibitory effect of extract in litter experiments. Iqbal was affected in hot water extract. It is concluded that the extracts obtained from Papaver somniferum showed inhibitory effects on all the three varieties except few exceptions in treatments.

      Marilou Jose del Rosario, PhD

Abstract: This study sought to analyze how the current curriculum develops learners’ knowledge, skills, and attitudes based on teachers’ assessment and teaching experiences and their views on decongesting the curriculum by reducing the number of subjects. It used a self-made survey questionnaire with interview questions to describe how teachers assess curriculum theory and practice grounded on Aristotle’s theory on the categorization of knowledge (Aristotle, 1976) based on their teaching experiences and views on decongesting the curriculum considering Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory. The data gathered were analyzed through quantitative and qualitative methods. It was revealed that the assessment of teacher-respondents was the same as the recommendation of the researcher that the road to improve literacy and numeracy development among Filipino children was to focus on Reading in English and Filipino/Mother Tongue, studying Arithmetic and Right Conduct or Character Education. These subjects were referred to as the 4 R’s – Reading in English, Reading in Filipino/ Mother Tongue, Arithmetic, and Right Conduct.

      Anggi Saktina Sari Batubara, Adi Muradi Muhar, Budi Irawan

Abstract: Background: The 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recommendation states that Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is checked before surgery to aid in staging or planning of action as well as in assessing the response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy in colorectal cancer can be performed as adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative therapy. One type of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients is capecitabine. Capecitabine is a type of adjuvant chemotherapy with oral preparations that has advantages in terms of flexibility of use, is not invasive, and is less costly.

      Dr Sara Kamil, Dr Saba Reyadh Shaker, Prof. Abdulrazak H Alnakash

Abstract: Background: Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, that may contribute to insulin resistance by the actions of inflammatory adipocytokines. Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels are found to be significantly related to insulin resistance in women with PCOS and may exacerbates the disease.

      Dr. Arshi Iram

Abstract: In agriculture, the use of pesticide has been the dominant form of pest management since the 1950s to kill pest organisms including insects, weeds, fungi and nematodes. In recent times, use of pesticides in rice farming has increased rapidly and this scenario contributes significantly towards adverse effects on human health and environment. This paper reviews the environmental situation with regards to pesticides worldwide. It tracks the history and the current status of pesticides usage.

      H.K.G.K.D.K. Hapuhinna, R.D. Gunaratne, H.M.J.C. Pitawala

Abstract: Worldwide rock phosphate deposits are a kind of non-renewable natural resources, which do not regenerate themselves over humanly meaningful time spans. Obtaining the right compensation as a resource-related wealth is a timely requirement. Current study discusses both the economic importance and impact of value addition to Sri Lankan Eppawala rock phosphate via innovative commercial products. Rock phosphate has been value-added into Hydroxyapatite bio ceramic chemically, their properties were analyzed under several characterization techniques, their composites were processed to obtain improved properties via incorporating with liquid monomers and costs analysis were performed to obtain economic validity.

      Luvisi Moses Ayumba, Dr. Ondiek Alala

Abstract: County Governments in Kenya have been consistently accused of poor budget absorption. However, there are no comprehensive studies that have been advanced to assess revenue allocation against absorption rate in County Governments. The implementation of the New Constitution has been said to be amongst the greatest challenges encountered under the new dispensation. Devolution, though holding the key to great development and transformation for the Country, has been labelled the most complex and least understood aspect of the New Constitution of Kenya. Revenue allocation within Counties as a part of the process geared towards this realization needed to be scrutinized and gain insights as to how the functions are funded and the absorption rate of the same funds. The paper was guided by Separation of Powers theory.

      Leila Tolderlund, Martin Egan, Peter Jenkins, Adam Bosco

Abstract: Green roofs can significantly reduce, and in most cases eliminate, the damage and cost of roof repairs caused by hailstorms. Green roofs act as a buffering layer of substrate and plants, absorbing the destructive impact of hail hitting the surface during a hailstorm. Anticipating severe weather and implementing cost-effective protection strategies, such as green roofs, can result in significant savings for property owners and insurance companies. This study demonstrates and quantifies the advantages associated with the use of green roofs to prevent hail damage and associated cost benefits. Testing and data collection in this study were based on the current recommended testing method, UL 2218 Standard for Impact Resistance of Prepared Roof Covering Materials, testing impact resistance by dropping steel balls onto the roof surfaces from various heights.

      Thi-Duong, Nguyen and Ke-Duc, Le

Abstract: Since the Covid-19 has boomed all over the world, most of the transactions were conducted online even in the rural or remote areas in Vietnam. The majority of population stayed at home with devices connected to internet, which increased the e-commerce transaction not only within domestic but also the cross-border transactions. Along with it, the 3G and 4G availability in most of cities and provinces in Vietnam has increased the access to the internet with 54 percent of Vietnam’s population accessing the internet. As a result, the e-payment transactions have increased significantly.

      M.C. Okafor, M.N. Ono and M.I. Okongwu

Abstract: The earth’s crust is deforming due to plate tectonic which causes earth tremor. Monitoring of this deformation is essential for the preservation of life and property. Gravity Survey plays an important role in crustal deformation monitoring which means a change in geometric configuration whose monitoring problem is to determine the spatial relationship of a set of object point relative to a number of reference points.

      Dr. Chrine Hapompwe, Dr. Crispin Kukano, Kiru Sichoongwe

Abstract: This study was purposed to empirically analyse challenges, opportunities and prospects for loan financing of SMEs in Lusaka through the statutory Citizens Economic Empowerment Fund. The study adopted a descriptive analytical research design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methodological paradigms with the questionnaires, focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews being the main data collection tools. The study targeted 500 (N) SMEs in selected Central Business District points of Lusaka with 50 as sample size (n).

      Dr. Chrine Hapompwe, Dr. Crispin Kukano, Kiru Sichoongwe

Abstract: This study was purposed to explore the challenges and prospects for quality higher education through effective e learning management in Zambian Private Universities with special reference to Acacia University Zambia (AUZ) (pseudo). In order to gain in-depth understanding of the phenomena, the study adopted a case study method which incorporated a qualitative paradigm. A purposive sampling criteria was adopted in which persons in line faculty portfolios (deans, HoDs, directors) were subjected to an in-depth structured interview to probe the issues incidental to the delivery of education services through e learning platforms as occasioned by the tragic advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. The students from the medical faculty were equally subjected to a semi-structured interview as to their experiential perspective on the available institutional e learning platforms.

      Otong Karyono, Kamiruddin

Abstract: The concept of performance assessment system design and strategy with a Balanced Scorecard model is the concept of performance assessment in a contemporary because it combines the perspective of financial, customer, internal business process, and integrated learning and growth.

      Surono Parabang

Abstract: Household wastewater generally consists of gray water and black water. Gray water or used water comes from used water in households, such as water used for bathing, washing, cleaning the house, and so on; while black water comes from excreta which has been mixed with toilet rinse water. Domestic wastewater, both gray water and black water, contains pollutants, both physical, chemical and biological pollutans. Physical pollutants, including suspended solids (TSS), clarity, odor and color; chemical pollutants, including pH, BOD, COD, NH3-N and fat; and biological or microbiological pollutant is Total Coliform.

      Yashvardhan Singh, Sakshi Jain, Shubham Rawal

Abstract: "The traditional workflow of authentication uses passwords as the security for any kind of account a person uses on the internet. Passwords are the bane of online existence as they are easy to forget, susceptible to getting stolen and a virtual doorway to one’s personal information. Studies have determined that given a choice, most people choose very weak passwords such as birthdays and phone numbers that make them easy to crack. According to Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, 81% of data breaches are caused due to hacked passwords. This paper proposes a reliable, secure and efficient solution to manage authentication, to enable passwordless authentication by leveraging the power of Decentralised Digital Identity (DDI). The Internet makes it possible to exchange information between peoples, servers, corporates and Business Enterprises and makes security more and more secure."

      Rodriguez T. Erik A, Michinaux A. Andrea, Awomuti Adeboye

Abstract: The mining arc in Venezuela has been a controversial issue since its official legalization in February 2016 as a National Strategy of Development Zone of the Orinoco Mining Arc, not only for the environmental impact and the disastrous consequences that entails the development of this project, as well as the impact it will have on indigenous communities in the region. Environmental Impact Assessment.

      Eman Sharif Elazhari

Abstract: In post-Gaddafi Libya, women struggled to retain and increase the rights and responsibilities that many of them thought they had won during the revolution. Faced with a conservative reaction that threatens to limit or deny fundamental rights, Libyan women are embroiled in a revolution within the revolution, fighting for socio-economic and political empowerment and gender equality. Since the fall of the Gaddafi regime, Libyan women still lack basic rights and access to political participation, ie they are still insufficiently represented in official state institutions.

      Krishanu Kumar Das

Abstract: In 1870, Ludimar Hermann reported an optical illusion that has been popularized thereafter after his name. In this Hermann Grid illusion, we see either white grid upon the background of complete black or black grid on the background of complete white. If we watch the grid, we see blobs of darkness or blobs of white smudges appearing at the intersections of the white or black grid respectively that are more prominent at peripheral view.

      Dr. Mousumi Deka

Abstract: The present paper focuses on the impact of Buddhism in sculptural art of Assam. A controversy has been continuing since antiquity on the existence of Buddhism in Assam. Though, mostly Brahmanism sculptures are observed in the temple sites of Assam, but the sculptures carry sometimes the message of Buddhism. Several archaeological sites display the image of Buddha and Buddhistic female goddess. Buddhism is closely related to Tantricism which was predominant in ancient Assam. Therefore, it is observed that image of Buddha is sometimes illustrated with the erotic figures.

      K.M.Malik, A.H.Wani- and I.T.Nazki

Abstract: The main focus in lily cultivation has been on cut flower production and other attributes like pot culture and garden display have not been addressed so seriously resulting in damage to the flowers during medium and high wind storms particularly to the cultivars which have long stems. The present investigation on effect of growth retardants on growth, flowering and bulb yield of Asiatic Lilium was carried out at the Experimental field of faculty of agriculture Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura campus. The results obtained revealed that growth retardants (paclobutrazol and cycocel) had significant effects on growth, flowering and bulb characteristics of Asiatic lilium. The treatment combination paclobutrazol (60ppm) and cycocel (200ppm) took minimum days to bulb sprouting(17.66 days), produced shortest plant(45.18cm),less number of leaves (35.00),lesser number of days to colour break(48.00 days),minimum number of days to anthesis (52days),maximum number of bulbs plant-1 (3.91) and diameter of bulb (6.33cm) with highest propagation coefficient (3.91) whereas maximum flower diameter (15.27cm),weight of bulb (98.10 g) and maximum scale size (2.03)was obtained under T7 (cycocel@ 200ppm). On the other hand number of daughter bulbs produced bulb-1was observed under T4 i.e., paclobutrazol @ 60ppm. However there were no significant effects of growth retardants on number of flowers plant-1.

      Paul, Dakup Dakang, Emmanuel, Edoja Achor, Emmanuel, Eriba Otor

Abstract: The study investigated how utilizing interactive students notebook with feedback strategies could enhance science process skills acquisition, performance in and attitude towards physics in Plateau state, Nigeria. Three research questions and three null hypotheses formulated guided the study. The study adopted quasi-experimental research design. The population consists of 3,182Senior Secondary (SS) II Physics students in all the secondary schools located in Plateau State of Nigeria. A sample of 113 SS II Physics students in four intact classes was used for the study. Physics Students’ Academic Performance Test (PSAPT) with reliability coefficient of 0.97, Test of Physics Related Attitude (TOPRA) with reliability coefficient of0.84 and Test of Science Process Skills Acquisition (TOSPSA) with reliability coefficient of0.98were used for data collection.

      Professor Thanabalasingam Krishnamohan, Mr.Kandasamy Sathiyasegar

Abstract: The first confirmed victim of COVID-19 in Sri Lanka was identified in the latter part of January 2020. There was no vaccine in the world for COVID-19 at that time, the Government of Sri Lanka encouraged the people to strictly adhere to the social distancing to prevent the decline of the public health sector like other countries, for the prevention of the second wave, and to control the spread of the disease. Similar to all other countries, the Government of Sri Lanka either abandoned or postponed all important events, ordered all educational activities including schools and universities to be closed and controlled the operation of workplaces in the state and private sectors, and implemented work from home. From mid-March to June 2020 strict lockdown operations were carried out in Sri Lanka. On March 20, 2020, a nationwide police curfew was imposed without an emergency order, and inter-district travel was also soundly restricted.

      Rizky Kurniawan, Sri Astuti Indriyati, Fitri Suryani

Abstract: In supporting the success of a project need to know in advance what is the determining factor of success. These factors are usually grouped into critical success factors (CSF) to know what are the important things needed for the project to run well and successfully. In this study, CSF analysis was conducted on a self-help housing stimulant assistance program (BSPS) in Lebong Regency, Bengkulu Province. This program is a government project in addressing the needs of habitable housing for low-income people (MBR), where activities are carried out with the concept of community empowerment.

      V Ramanathan, SM Almeida, KWDK Fernando

Abstract: Cardiac catheterization procedures play major role in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in interventional cardiology. Meantime, concern has been expressed regarding the radiation exposure to medical staff and patient since the significant amount of fluoroscopy imaging is used during the cardiac catheterization procedures. This study investigates the occupational radiation dose to radiographers who work at cardiac catheterization laboratory.

      Dr. Joyce A.M. Ejukonemu

Abstract: The world was taken by surprise at the dawn of the Corona Virus Pandemic. Every sector in every nation of the world is being affected, although some were quick to adjust to the new normal, while others are still lost as to what to do. The pandemic created a unique system of doing things and a new life style. Nigeria like most African nations were among those greatly affected by the pandemic. A probe into the health sector and the leadership style in Nigeria will bring to light the devastating nature of the health system. Drawing from secondary data, the paper seeks to answer the question: what is responsible for the deploring nature of the health system. The thrust of the paper is that leadership style is pivotal in solving the health crises in Nigeria. The paper therefore recommends, democratic leadership as the way out.

      Olayinka, Olalekan Moses and Owolabi, Sunday Ajao

Abstract: Environmental Sustainability reporting enhances the quality of financial reporting by revealing the corporate investments in the care of the environment. As a result of the deficiency of traditional financial reporting in information disclosure to stakeholders on the impact of negative externality resulting from company operations, the need for environmental sustainability reporting has become a global phenomenon. This study explored the effect of corporate governance dimensions of board size, board independence, chief executive officer (CEO) duality, female directorship and board ownership on environmental sustainability reporting.

      Harizal Hamid, Zuraida Khairudin, Muhidin Arifin, M. Hakimi, Nurazlina.I

Abstract: The use of lubricants that are based on vegetable oils is increasing rapidly due to their biodegradability, low ecotoxicity and excellent tribological properties. Bio based lubricants have lower coefficient of friction, improved wear characteristics, a higher viscosity index, and lower volatility and flashpoints than mineral based oils, Properties of the Bio-based based lubricants could be enhanced by adding additives and diluting with other synthetic oils. However in many cases additives and synthetic fluids are not sufficient. In such occasions chemical modification is a better alternative.

      Onisha Basnayake, Irosha Perera

Abstract: The burden of oral diseases is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Evidence exists to reduced healthcare costs and improved efficiency due to quality primary health care which is also the key to affordable and accessible oral health care which is often neglected in many countries.

      Danasekara, D.R.A.K

Abstract: Soil erosion has become major challenge in rural agricultural process in the world. World land resources are declining day by day due to soil erosion. Beside it effect to agronomic productivity. The peg method is one of the most suitable biotechnical construction methods for analysis soil erosion on agricultural lands. Under the judgment sampling method Kandy district, Wewere GND was selected as the study area and the main objective is to analyze how much topsoil has been washed away from an agricultural land.

      Rabeea Alqamoudi

Abstract: Establishment of the United Nations, as a system that determines the direction of human rights and the adoption of the Universal Human Rights of the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights and the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, have unedvocally established the path of current civilization , putting the question of the right of man among the priority issues of the Global Society.

      Junil A. Constantino, Rodella F. Salas, Ma. Teresita C. Vega, Narcisa S. Caymo, Rita L. Cajucom, Pastora S. De Guzman, Joannie A. Galano, Angelo R. Santos

Abstract: This study focused on identifying the Leadership Style of the political Student Leaders in Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Isidro Campus. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used wherein the respondents of the study include 71 political student leaders who are members of the following political organizations; Campus Student Council (CSC), College Confederation (Confed), and Classroom Officers (CO). Gathered data were treated using frequency, percentage, and chi-square.

      O.L. Godwin-Nwankwo, M.N. Ono and M.I. Okongwu

Abstract: This study is aimed at densifying gravity stations and generating gravity baseline data for monitoring the Earth Tremor and natural disaster in Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State Nigeria. This was achieved through the densification of controls and gravity Stations within Ijebu-Ode by GNSS/GPS and Gravity observations respectively. The methodology was divided into data acquisition, data processing and results presentation and analysis. The baseline gravity data of the study were collected from field work using gravimeter and GNSS/GPS techniques while the gravity values of the reference gravity station were collected from the office of the Surveyor General of the Federation. Trimble Business centre software with its accessories for the processing of the coordinate data to obtain latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height of the studied stations, GravSoft software and Notepad were used to process raw gravity data to correct for errors and to also obtain the gravity values of the established stations.

      Prajakta Ingle, Ramya Joshi, Neha Kaulgud, Aarti Suryawanshi, Meghana Lokhande

Abstract: In the recent years Twitter has emerged to be a great source for users to broadcast their daily activities, opinions and feelings via texts and images. Cyberbullying is a harassment that takes prominently happens in social networking sites where cyber bullies target vulnerable victims and it has major psychological and physical effects on the victims. Hence, the Cyberbullying Monitoring System on Twitter is a solution with an aim to identify bullying tweets real time. In our research we have developed a cyberbullying monitoring system.

      Akila V, Jayanthi M, Poornima V, Deebiga K,Swathika M C L, Aarthi V

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this analysis is to compare and contrast the compressive power, microleakage, and amount of primary tooth reduction needed for posterior zirconia crowns versus stainless steel crowns.

      ADARAMOLA, Anthony Olagbenga; Fapojuwo Gbenga Theophilus

Abstract: Corporate finance play a role in determining the capital structure of the firms, this study has been examined the relationship between corporate finance and the use of debt financing. The study shown that funds holdings have a negative and significant impact on leverage, suggesting that financial leverage degree decreased with the increased monitoring power of funds and institutional stockholdings. In this study, a number of explanations by viewing that entrenched managers may obtain a better access to debt market and then they can finance with extra debt this possibly is consider as an outcome of conservative investments policy they used. Our findings could be a helpful and practical for not only investors and financial managers, it could be useful also for financial consultants.



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