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IJSRP, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2013 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
January 2013 final edition has been released.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 25th Jan.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th January 2013.

   Advanced Search [OARD]   

      Sir Allan Zade , Dr. K.N.Prasannna Kumar

Abstract: We study and examine key aspects of Z-Theory. Those are Motion and Transposition. Each aspect has its own relationship with Space and Time (in common understanding). Z-Theory tends to use the notion of Duration instead of Time to separate understanding of Time as a fourth dimension of the Universe and uncomplicated duration of any physical process without any reference to a higher dimension. Difference between space trajectories and out-of-space trajectories (Z-Trajectories) is investigated and explained. Relation between Z-Trajectories and Time-Shift Effect is analyzed and explained using concrete examples. Ipso facto a time-independent system is shown to be the solution of the one in question. This of course is a desideratum with Synecdochal syncretism for all the systems that fall under the categorization that has been enucleated herein below.



      M.A Sulaiman, W.Z. Wan Yusoff , W.N. Wan Kamarudin

Abstract: Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is a key component in the evaluation for meeting the concept of green building that the aims towards sustainable development. Imbalance of IEQ contributes to sick building syndrome (SBS). The study focused on identifying the framework in the evaluation of IEQ in the context of academic buildings at institutions of higher education. The investigations include two factors; the level of IEQ and the level of users’ satisfaction in the academic buildings. Survey and on site scientific measurement approaches have been carried out for data collection. The data then analyze using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Experimental studies on the academic building focused on a propose IEQ evaluation framework based on four main elements IEQ; thermal (temperature and humidity) and noise comfort, indoor air quality (air movement CO2 concentration) and lighting. Experimental results obtain are compared with Malaysia Standard MS 1525:2007. The results showed that the element of temperature, air movement and the CO2 concentration are at accepted level. Meanwhile the elements of relative humidity, sound and lighting are below prescribed standards. The framework that has been developed as the measurement model can be used in the evaluation of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) at any academic building in Malaysia.



      Dr(Mrs)T.Kumutharanjan

Abstract: The disease Mathumeham is called by different names; Neerilivu, Salarogam, Mihuneer, Vehumooththiram, Inippuneer, Mehaneer, Theanneer and diabetes. On the international basis this had affected many people. At the beginning only the rich became victims to this disease but now it affects both the rich and the poor. In books; “ Siddha Maruthuvam, Yuki vaidya Sinthamani, Pararajasekaram the following symptoms are cited for this disease, excessive excretion of urine, collection of ants and flies in places where a person passes urine, loss of physical strength exhaustion of body, dry mouth etc. Further in the same books the following have been quoted as the causes of this disease. 1. Consumption of more and more sweet foods. 2. Lack of physical exercise 3. Increase in body weight 4. Heredity The symptoms of the disease as quoted are 1. Excessive hunger 2. Thirst In Siddha Pharmacopia (Dr.P.Ramanathan, page 38) Mathumeka Chooranam with hot water is recommended as a medicine for it. 90 patients whose blood had a glucose level of 120 – 180 mg/dl (FBS test was made) both males and female between the ages of 40 – 70 years who attended the pre Ayurvedic medical clinics conducted in Vadamarachchi South and West Pradesha saba were selected for the study. In the selected 90 patients were given 1 teaspoonful Mathumeka Chooranam with hot water was given both morning and evening for 50 days. The patients were instructed about dietary restrictions and also not to use any other drugs. The treatment was given in 2010 June to 2010 November. The collected data were statically were recorded and analysis made, according to the analysis 80% of the patients who observed all diet restrictions, the FBS was seen reduced to 70 to 80 mg/dl. It was seen reduced to 40 to 50 mg/dl to 60% of dose to drug but ignored the diet restriction. It was seen reduced to 20 to 30 mg/dl to 50% who observed diet restriction only. Signs and symptoms



      K.Niranjana, V.Sathiyaseelan, E.C.Jeyaseelan

Abstract: Plants based natural products have been widely used as curative agents for variety of ailments since immemorial time. In this study, powered plant material, leaves of Pongamia pinnata sequentially extracted using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water and the extracts were concentrated to dryness by evaporating the solvent at 40oC. In vitro antibacterial activities of these extracts were studied by agar well diffusion method against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli. Streptomycin and different solvent extracts (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water) were used as standard and control respectively. Phytochemical analysis also done to report the presence of biomolecules. This study demontratrated that the ethyl acetate extracts was higher antibacterial activity against tested bacterial pathogens than other extracts. All these extracts were able to inhibit the growth of S.aureus except aqueous extract. Phytochemical screening of the methanol, ethanol and aqueous plant leaf extracts revealed the presence of saponins and terpinods. The tannin was present in methanol extract and flavonoids was also present in methanol and ethanol extracts. The results also indicated the less antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts to standard, streptomycin and control also rather than didn’t reveal any antibacterial activity against the pathogens. This present study concluded that the antibacterial activity of various extracts of leaves of P.pinnata was carried in attempt to support the use by medicinal practitioner for the treatment of various diseases. However, further studies should be needed for the isolation and characterization of these active compounds.



      Nurul Aifaa Shazali, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Naimah Ali, Nur Afni Khaidir, Noor Hidayah Jamaludin

Abstract: Recently, Malaysia healthcare industry has been continuously vigilant about healthcare system. The increase the number of medical schools showed that Malaysia is serious about providing quality healthcare. Healthcare system is faced with challenges and opportunities from a rapidly changing operating environment, including increasing expectations on the quality of healthcare. Hence, this paper attempts to review and proposed structural relationship model of lean healthcare practices (LHP) and a healthcare performance. A structural relationship model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been proposed. Based on the proposed conceptual model and reviewed, research hypotheses are being developed. The paper culminates with suggested future research work.



      Huinan Yan

Abstract: This paper explores the most effective factors of housing price swings in recent years in Mainland China. According to the fundamental model of real estate market dynamics, housing prices together with 6 other ratios and figures were used. The sample covered 8 years from 2003 to 2009 and 31 administrative areas in Mainland China. Housing prices are considered as dependent variable, while income per capita, land prices, mortgage rates, density of population, unemployment rates, and savings are measured as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis was used for the investigation. To locate the fittest factors, both Panel Fixed Effect Model and Ordinary Least Square Model Newey-West HAC Modification were applied. The results of models indicated that the most effective factors affecting the housing prices are income per capita, land prices, and mortgage rates.



      Mengistu Sime

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during 2003/2004 to determine the effect of different stalk portion the effect different cane portions/cuttings on per cent sprouting, subsequent growth and yield of cane of sugarcane variety N-14. The trial was executed on a sandy soil at Wonji-Shoa Sugarcane Plantation. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications and five treatments comprising setts from top, middle and bottom portions of stalk; mixture of top+middle, and mixture of top+middle+ bottom. The results of the experiment showed that cutting taken from the middle and top portion of the stalk showed better results in sprouting and improved sprouting by 54.75 and 54.30% respectively, over those taken from the bottom portion. Similarly, setts (cutting) taken from the mixtures of tops and middle; top, middle and bottom portion of stalks cutting improved emergence by 45.5 and 47.5%, respectively, as compared to cutting taken from bottom portion. Besides, statistical analysis showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in sprouting of different stalk portions from the bottom portion, i.e. treatments (T1, T2, T4 and T5) significantly increased sprouting percentage over the bottom stalk portion. On the other hand, no significant effects of different stalk portions were observed on plant population, plant height, cane yield and its components at harvest. Cane growers are also advised to use the middle and top portions of cane plant as planting material for commercial sugar production. However, further studies are necessary considering a range of commercial sugarcane varieties and soil type in all sugar plantations in Ethiopia to come up with clear-cut recommendations.



      John Selvadurai

Abstract: Social Media Monitoring and Analysis are the new trends in technology business. The challenge is to extract correct information from free-form texts of social media communication. Natural Language Processing methods are sometimes used in social media monitoring to improve accuracy in extracting information. This paper discusses a web mining system that is based on Natural Language Processing to analyze social media information. In that process, this research examines Natural Language methods that are important for such analysis. Then the traditional web mining steps are discussed along with proposed use of Natural Language Processing methods.



      Mengistu Sime

Abstract: A two phase field experiment on the effect of N application was studied on growth, yield and quality of seed cane of sugarcane variety, B41/227 at Finchaa Sugarcane Plantation during 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 cropping years. Thirty two treatment comprised of four N levels – 0, 46, 92 and 138kg/ha, and applied at 21/2, 5 and 71/2 months after planting in whole and split applications were used in RCBD with three replications. The source of fertilizer is urea (46%N), which is the commonly used fertilizer in the plantation. The results of the experiment showed that application of high N rate resulted in better plant height, stalk population, stalk length as well as higher sett yield and improved sprouting of buds. In phase-1 experiment, significantly higher sett yield was obtained for the highest rate of 138kgN/ha applied in single, double and triple doses over the control. Apart from other treatments, application of 138kgN/ha in two doses at two and half and five months significantly increased stalk population and sett yield by 39.1 and 51.7%, respectively, over the control. In the second phase, seed setts obtained from seed cane plants treated with the same rate gave sprouting performance of average quality. Significantly higher sprouting performance was recorded for seed setts from seed cane plants treated with N rates applied at mid and late crop ages. Therefore, to get higher sett yield of average quality it is advisable that urea be applied to seed cane plants of sugarcane variety B41/227 at the rate of 300kgN/ha in two splits of 200 and 100kgN/ha at two and half and five months of crop ages, respectively. Besides, as this study is the first by its kind under Finchaa condition, it paves an opportunity for further investigation including major sugarcane varieties under cultivation in the study site and other sugarcane plantations in the country.



      Sabuj Das Gupta, Arman Riaz Ochi, Mohammad Sakib Hossain, Nahid Alam Siddique

Abstract: This paper advocates the operation of a toy car that is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the car. In the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called DTMF (dual-tone-multiple- frequency).The car perceives this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the (ATmega16) microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder MT887o. The decoder decodes the DTMF tone into its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in forward direction or backward direction or left and right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to mobile phone stacked in the car act as a remote. For that reason this paper does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units.



      Kadhim Fathel Khalil , Julaihi Wahid

Abstract: The problem of the current research has been represented by the lack of studies on the foundations of forming the proportional relations in the Islamic architecture. The objective of the study was defined in an attempt to reveal the concepts and the items of the system of proportional relations in the Islamic architecture. The proportion in architecture either derived from the mathematical matrix or other disciplines are always concerned on the spatial system through measurement and form’s relations. The obtained conclusions show the authenticity of the system of proportional relations in the Islamic architecture which was based on two factors, the aesthetic sense related to the symbolic aesthetic systems and the acquired knowledge related to the mathematical geometrical systems of Muslims. Hence, the Islamic architecture compositions are correlated even though the functional types and the architectural styles of its architectural models are differentiated by a unified view of the constructs underlying the proportional relations system.



      Sureka P, Nilani K, Eswaramohan T, Balasubramaniam K

Abstract: Fractionation of female and male spermatozoa has been practiced for selection of preferred sex of offspring to increase the profit in livestock industries. Furthermore, female calves are desired by the farmers for enhancing milk production in dairy cows, whereas in goats farmers prefer male calves than female calves for beef production. Meanwhile sexed semen for AI purpose in SL has been importing from India with high cost. Thus the objective of the present study is to separate ‘Y’ chromosome bearing sperm through low cost method for sustaining the male goat requirement satisfying the demands of male sex goat. Sucrose stock solution (2g/ml) was prepared. It was diluted with sodium citrate buffer solution to obtain the following densities such as 1g/ml, 1.1g/ml, 1.12g/ml and 1.13g/ml. The density gradient was prepared by pippetting 0.5ml of each sucrose solution along the wall of the tube and layered without mixing one another and then 10µl of diluted semen was dropped on the top of the layer. Then it was centrifuged (at 500 x g for 12 minutes at 24°C) for sexing the semen by means of density gradient and then each layer was examined to get the percentage of Y-bearing chromosome after eluting each layers. Statistical analysis was performed by using Prism 5.04. One way ANOVA with Bonferroni test was performed to compare the percentage of ‘Y’ chromosome in each sucrose gradient layer. The percentage of ‘Y’ chromosomes decreased significantly (P<0.05) for 1g/ml (59 ± 2.466, 62.56 ± 2.657%), 1.11g/ml (52.33 ± 0.8819, 56.75 ± 0.866 %), 1.12g/ml (41.00 ± 1.155, 45.34 ± 1.115 %) and 1.13g/ml (33.67 ± 0.8819, 43.9 ± 1.617) in Sannan and Jamunapari respectively. The present study revealed that this technique can be considered to establish low cost semen sexing in developing countries.



      Sangeeta Pandit, Prakash Kumar, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract: Handloom is the mostly widely established cottage industry of North East India (NE) that is most wide spread throughout the region. It employs a large skilled and unskilled workforce and which, in North East, mainly consists of women workers. In the present era of commercialization, handloom sector is also witnessing changes and large number, of women are adopting the weaving activity as their profession. The activity they performed previously during their leisure time, has now been transformed to 8hours job. But, in spite of the increased weaving time spent on loom, the workstation design remains unaltered. The paper reports the ergonomic issues related to weaving practices as adopted in NE, at present and tries to analyze them from the design perspective.



      Mariappan Senthilkumar

Abstract: Gloriosa superba Linn. is one of the important medicinal plant now in endangered list. This plant is widely used for several ethano-medicinal purposes by tribal peoples and traditional practitioners. Seeds and tubers contain valuale alkaloids viz., colchine and colchicoside as the major constituents, which are used an antidote for snake bites, gout and rheumatism. Present study was to evaluate the phytochemicals present in leaves, flowers, seeds and tuber samples were collected from four different places of Dharmapuri District. Preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out by standard procedures. Methanol extract of all samples were evaluated for protein, starch, total sugar and total phenol. The screening tests also were performed for the presence of the following secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin and terpenoids. The results were revealed the presence of various classes of compounds in different parts of the plant. Among the five different geographically collected plant samples, the Hoganekkal Hills sample showed the maximum amount of bioactive compounds than the other samples. The result of the extract from the tuber and seed samples were yields high amount of various biologically active compounds than the leaves and flowers. These compounds could serve as potential source for traditional medicines. Further research on this plant for the specific part could be used for isolation and characterization in large scale production.



      Boggiti Rajesh Jayaratnam, Dr.N.S.Dileep

Abstract: In This paper we are taken these following methods ” Field Hockey better psychological performance through ACHIVEMENT MOVITATION and STRESS” we are taken 60 players, It was concluded that twelve weeks yogic exercises significantly altered motivation and stress of the inter university hockey players. It was concluded that six weeks autogenic exercises significantly altered motivation and stress of the inter university hockey players. It was concluded that there was no significant differences between yogic exercises and autogenic training groups on motivation and stress of the interuniversity hockey players. Compare to previous work motivation is saved of 99% stress is saved of 3 %.



      Narayanam Ranganadh , Muni Guravaiah P

Abstract: A large family of signal processing techniques consist of Fourier-transforming a signal, manipulating the Fourier-transformed data in a simple way, and reversing the transformation. We widely use Fourier frequency analysis in equalization of audio recordings, X-ray crystallography, artefact removal in Neurological signal and image processing, Voice Activity Detection in Brain stem speech evoked potentials, speech processing spectrograms are used to identify phonetic sounds and so on. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT) [1] and the other one is the Grigoryan FFT based on the splitting by the paired transform [2]. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms by implementing them on the Xilinx Virtex-II pro [3] and Virtex-5 [4] FPGAs, by developing our own FFT processor architectures. Finally we show that the Grigoryan FFT is working fatser than Cooley-Tukey FFT, consequently it is useful for higher sampling rates. Operating at higher sampling rates is a challenge in DSP applications.



      V. Shrivastava, R. K. Pensia, G. S. Kachhawa, A. K. Patidar, D. L. Sutar

Abstract: The Jeans instability of infinite homogeneous, self-gravitating quantum plasma is investigated under the assumption of optically thick medium and black body radiation. The general dispersion relation is obtained and the condition of instability is discussed.



      Ch. Harish Kumar

Abstract: The performance of the any processor will depend upon its power and delay. The power and delay should be less in order to get a effective processor. In processors the most commonly used architecture is multiplier. If the power and delay of the multiplier is reduced then the effective processor can be generated. The architectures for multipliers are mainly Array and Vedic multipliers. In Vedic multipliers there are two types of techniques for multiplications based on Urdhva Triyagbhyam and Nikhilam sutras. In this paper the comparison of these architectures is carried out to know the best architecture for multiplication w.r.t power and delay characteristics. The design of architectures are done in Verilog language and the tool used for simulation is Xilinx 10.1 ISE.



      Pradeep Kumar Singh, Meenakshi Singh, V. K. Agnihotri, Deepak Vyas

Abstract: The present study shows the status of mycorrhization in three test varieties of chickpea. As the results revealed irrespective to the crops when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were assessed under the influence of soil quality better results were obtained with unsterile soil in comparison to sterile soil. Chickpea variety ICC 11322 showed the best result against the Fusarium wilt and chickpea variety ICC 4951 was susceptible against the Fusarium wilt. Acaulospora spinosa showed best results with JG 74, Glomus mosseae with ICC 4951 and Glomus fasciculatum showed best results with ICC 11322. The lowest percentage mycorrhizal colonization was found on plants with the most severe disease symptoms.



      P.V.Kumaraguru, Dr.S.P.Rajagopalan

Abstract: All the insurance industries are facing the great challenge to find the ways and means to handle the huge digital data of the event logs, which were automatically generated for every business activity. It is a great challenge before the solution providers to find a solution to manage this data explosion. Merely providing a solution to hold these digital data is not wise enough, instead converting this digital data as a boon to trace the foot prints of the process and then convert it into visual models. These models can further be enhanced, which leads to process evolution. Machine learning and data mining are the only solutions to handle this challenge properly. This paper has made an attempt to convert the event logs in to a tangible visual model.



      Aartee Sharma, Nishchhal Yadav, S. Ghosh

Abstract: Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model, a comprehensive investigation of propagation of longitudinal acousto-electric wave in colloids laden semiconductor plasmas is presented. It is noticed that the Bohm potential in the wave spectrum of the semiconductor plasma enhances the gain and also modifies the amplification characteristics of sound wave for both cases in which colloidal particles are either stationary (0d = 0) or streaming (0d ≠ 0). The result of this investigation would be useful in understanding the characteristics of longitudinal electro-acoustic wave in magnetized n-type piezoelectric semiconductor quantum plasma and would be helpful in the fabrication of acousto-electric devices.



      M.Soundarrajan, T.Gomathi, P.N. Sudha

Abstract: In the present study, the performance of chitosan coated carbon was evaluated for the removal of chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) from its aqueous solution. The chitosan coated carbon was prepared and characterized by using the various analytical tools such as FTIR, TGA, DSC and XRD. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of initial concentration, pH, and adsorbent dose and contact time for the removal process. The metal ion removal was pH-dependent. The optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for Cr (VI) and 5.5 for Cd (II). Experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related correlation coefficients have been determined. The isotherm study revealed that the adsorption equilibrium is well-fitted to the Freundlich isotherm for both the metals. The kinetics study revealed that adsorption of Cr (VI) and Cd (II) onto chitosan coated carbon follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results showed that chitosan coated carbon were a favorable adsorbent for both the metals.



      Vidhu Gaur

Abstract: Success is a sweet seven letter word much relished by one and all in their lives. People have been striving hard to achieve success in their chosen fields since time immemorial. Whilst a few had tasted real success, majority had to content with much less. This has been the story so far and may remain so in future too considering the competition, resources and opportunities available. Be that the case, striving is needed to gain anything worthwhile. Should that become a chore, habit, passion or an obsession depends on the mindset of the individual concerned. Many suffering from achievement syndrome believe that more work is the key to success. Time alone will reveal the truth of their belief. By that time, unfortunately, youth and even life would have ebbed away. This paper is an attempt to take a peep into the dynamics of achieving sustainable success and ecstasy in one’s life – sooner than later.



      Garima Goyal, Ajay Kumar Bansal, Manish Singhal

Abstract: This is a review paper .Review is carried out in two directions. Firstly, a survey is done to know to know the work done on TEM images and secondly to know how and where the basic filters which led to the evolution of number of other filters are being used in number of applications over the years and the effect of these denoising filters on normal images over the years.



      Sumitra

Abstract: In recent years network security has become an important issue. Cryptography has been used to secure data and control access by sharing a private cryptographic key over different devices. Cryptography renders the message unintelligible to outsider by various transformations Data Cryptography is the scrambling of the content of data like text, image, audio and video to make it unreadable or unintelligible during transmission. Its main goal is to keep the data secure from unauthorized access.



      Sandhyarani B, Dayanand Huddar

Abstract: Piercing is today’s popular form of body art and self-expression. It may seem totally safe because some celebrities use piercings to flaunt their style or attitude. But piercing tongue, lips, cheeks, or uvula is not safe and may cause extreme complications and can be life threatening. This article reviews some of these complications of oral piercings.



      Manoj Mishra, S. S. Thakur

Abstract: The purpose of present paper introduce the concepts of fuzzy aw- closed mappings and to obtain some of their basic properties and characterizations.



      Ira Das

Abstract: Geographically, men and women share the same space, but everywhere in the world, women are accorded a lower status than men. The North Eastern Region of India has been considered as a backward region in terms of growth in per capita income. However, there is a perception that the status of women is higher in the North Eastern Region of the country in comparison with the status of women in all India average. In this study, an attempt has been made to examine the status of women in the North Eastern Region in comparison with all India average. It is found from the analysis that the status of women in the region is comparatively better than the rest of the country only in some selected indicators. The indicators reveal that women have a very low degree of freedom of movement and low level of control over themselves in North Eastern Region.



      Mayur Nandihalli, Vishwanath Baligar

Abstract: This paper presents a novel way of predicting pixel values of grayscale images using dynamic arrays. It is shown that the predicted values are always near to zero and this method does use a sign bit. Predicted values are compressed using bitplane method starting from 8th bitplane to 5th bitplane. The results shown are encouraging and comparable with the existing results.



      Faraz Ahmed Ansari, RajShree Taparia

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to construct an active suspension control for a quarter car model subject to excitation from a road profile using an improved sliding mode control with an observer design. The sliding mode is chosen as a control strategy, and the road profile is estimated by using an observer design. The objective of a car suspension system is to improve the riding quality without compromising the handling characteristic by directly controlling the suspension forces to suit the road and driving conditions. However, the mathematical model obtained suffers from few uncertainties. In order to achieve the desired ride comfort, road handling and to solve the uncertainties, a sliding mode control technique is presented. A nonlinear surface is used to ensure fast convergence of vehicle’s vertical velocity. The nonlinear surface changes the system’s damping. The effect of sliding surface selection in the proposed controller is also presented. Extensive simulations are performed and the results obtained shows that the proposed controller perform well in improving the ride comfort and road handling for the quarter car model using the hydraulically actuated suspension system. The main motivation for designing an active suspension system is to improve the ride comfort by absorbing the shocks due to a rough and uneven road.



      Dr. Shikha Goel, Dr. Darshan Kaur Narang, Dr. Kavita Koradia

Abstract: The present research was taken up with broad objective to study the marital adjustment and mental health in middle aged couples (40-55 years) from Delhi, India. The sample comprised of 100 working couples (n=200) which are bank employees and doctors, within the age range of 40-55 years from Delhi, India. It was seen that in bank employees, autonomy was positively correlated with family adjustment, positive self evaluation and financial adjustment. In middle aged doctors, autonomy was positively correlated with family adjustment and social adjustment; whereas integration of personality was found correlated with role distribution. On the other side, perception of reality was negatively correlated with recreational adjustment and role distribution. A significant interactive affect of job and age, was found on marital adjustment, mental health of middle aged couples.



      Sonia Rathee, Amita Yadav

Abstract: Spatio-temporal data is the abstract of the spatio-temporal characteristics and process of the real world .Spatio-temporal database modeling on the earlier stages attempted to capture the state of real world objects or the physical event upon them ,on the time line .The spatio-temporal data models integrates time and space so it can truly describe the reality . In this paper ,we have review the different types of spatio-temporal datamodels that have been proposed in the literature as welll as new theories and concepts that have emerged .



      Nirmala Huidrom , Neha Bagoria

Abstract: The web user-session can be defined as a set of several TCP connections generated by a single user while surfing the web during a given time frame. An activity period, i.e. session, is terminated by a long silent period. This activity period is comprised of several TCP connections which may be used to transfer data. However, identification of active and silent period is not trivial. Correct identification of session is the main goal of our study. Traditional method used threshold-based mechanism for the identification of web user-sessions which required a priori definition of the threshold value. This method is very sensitive to the threshold value, which is very difficult to set correctly. By using clustering techniques, web user-sessions can be identified without requiring a priori definition of threshold values. This paper is based on the definition and identification of web user-sessions. The main goal of this paper is to exploit the property of clustering techniques to group TCP connections in order to identify web user sessions and to compare the performance with that of the threshold-based mechanism.



      G.Nirmala, G.Suvitha

Abstract: In this paper, we can see a brief description to fuzzy logic operation and Logic gates. Here we see how Fuzzy Logic extends and generalizes classical logic with propositional logic. Proposition logic deals with finding truth values of formulas containing atomic propositions, whose truth value is either zero or one, connected by “and” () “or” (), implication () etc...Finally we find truth values of formulas using a t-norm for  and a t-co norm for .



      Deepak Bagale , Sanjay Shekhawat , Jitendra Chaudhari

Abstract: In this paper, the effects of load, velocity of sliding and sliding distance on sliding friction and sliding wear of polymer material made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and PTFE composites with filler materials such as 40% bronze and 40% carbon are studied. The experimental work is performed on pin-on-disc apparatus and analyzed with the help of Design-Expert 7 software. The results of experiments are presented in tables and graphs which shows that the addition of bronze and carbon filler to the virgin PTFE decreases wear rate significantly and there is marginal increase in coefficient of friction .The highest wear resistance was found for 40% carbon filled PTFE followed by 40% bronze filled PTFE and virgin PTFE. Through this study, we can design and develop a best bearing material for industrial application.



      Sarita Sood, Arti Bakhshi, Pooja Devi

Abstract: This study was carried out to find out the level of perceived stress, resilience and mental health of adolescents living at international border in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Further an attempt was made to explore the relationship between these variables. A random sample of 100 adolescents in the age group 13-18 years was drawn from villages falling within five kilometers from the actual border. Data was obtained through administering Perceived Stress Scale, Resilience Scale, and Mental Health Inventory. Sample was dichotomized using median values for perceived stress and resilience. Difference in mental health of participants with low and high resilience was analyzed using t test. Pearson’s correlation revealed negative meaningful correlation between perceived stress and mental health. However, positive correlation became evident between perceived stress and anxiety as well as psychological distress. Resilience and mental health was also related signifying better mental health in resilient adolescents in border areas. Positive correlation was observed in resilience and general positive affect, emotional ties, and psychological well being. Negative association was found in resilience and loss of emotional control. Steps should be taken to build up resilience to enhance mental health of adolescents living with great stress in border areas.



      Dr. S.P.Lenka, Dr. Subrat Kumar Padhiary, Dr. Santosh kumar Subudhi, Dr. Harshmohan Pathak, Dr. Sujit Sahoo

Abstract: The pleomorphic adenoma otherwise called as benign mixed tumor, is the most common salivary neoplasm.1 It accounts for 53% to 77% of parotid tumors, 44% to 68% of submandibular tumours and 33% to 43% of minor gland tumors.2 Pleomorphic adenomas are derived from a mixture of ductal and myoepithelial elements.2,3 The terms pleomorphic adenoma and mixed tumor both represent attempts to describe the tumor’s unusal histopathologic features, neither term is entirely accurate.4 The tumor often has a prominent mesenchyme appearing stromal component; it is not truly a mixed neoplasm that is derived from more than one germ layer.1,4 This paper describes a case of pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland in palate of a middle aged male patient who was treated with wide surgical excision showing no evidence of recurrence 2 years post operative follow up.



      P. G. Dhawale

Abstract: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants from Amravati District (MS) was done. The plants were Abutilon indicum L .(Swart)., Euphrbia hirta L., Ficus hispida L. f., Melia azedarch L., Phyllathus reticulatus Poir. ,Psidium guajava L., vitex negundo L., Vitex pinnata L. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid. The presence of these phytochemicals can be correlated with medicinal potential of these plants.



      Anusha Vohra, Sanjay Khanna, Pratap Shankar, Rakesh Verma, R. K. Dixit

Abstract: Aims and Objective- Present study was undertaken to see and compare the effect of solifenacine alone and solifenacine with duloxetine therapy in patients with overactive bladder. Material Methods:- The study was done on the patients with overactive bladder. The patients were diagnosed clinically by the physician and urologists. Before enrolling in the study each patient was asked to give a written consent. The outcome measures were evaluated in form of reducing the frequency, urgency and other clinical symptoms. Simultaneously we also measured the quality of life of the patients using accepted scale. Results and Conclusion:- Present study showed that addition of duloxetine with solifenasin has definitely produced better clinical improvement in patients as well as the quality of life was also imporved. Though minor side effects increased by this addition but overall quality of life was better in patients on combination therapy as compared to the single solifenasin treatment.



      Aqheel Murtuza Siddiqui, G.M.Sayeed Ahmed

Abstract: Generally a Scramjet Engine starts at a hypersonic freestream Mach no. 5.00. In order to propel to those speeds, we use turbojet engines which propel to around 3.00-4.00 Mach and from there the ramjet picks upon and starts to propel to start the scramjet engine. If we reduce the scramjet engine starting Mach number to say 3.50 or 4.00, we can eliminate one propulsion engine, i.e., ramjet engine and thus reducing weight and complexity. The design for such a scramjet engine is carried out in this project considering only the inlet designs and the flow analysis is carried out in CFD. A two dimensional analysis is carried out in this project. GAMBIT is used to create a model. FLUENT is used to cover the flow analysis.



      Harish H.S, Dr. Suresha S.N

Abstract: Bangalore is one of the most important cities in India as it has rapid growth in the IT sector. As a direct result of rising population, the number of vehicles in the city has been increasing considerably. What adds to the traffic pressure in Bangalore is that there is very little scope for expansion of roads. This has led to massive congestion in the arterial roads of the city. The ill effects of congestion may reach highly undesirable proportions very rapidly. Traffic congestion is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased queuing. The main objective of the present study is to estimate the travel time and travel delay along the selected bus route i.e. BIG10 route number G6 - from Shantinagar bus stop (SNBS) to Kengeri satellite town bus stop (KSTBS) and analyse improvements to same through several congestion reduction measures using traffic micro simulation modelling and mobility indicators. The information and data necessary for making improvements in vehicular movement along this corridor is gathered together and considered. This data includes traffic volume data, road inventory data, travel times for various modes of travel and signal timings of all signalized intersections. The data so collected is used to simulate the vehicular flow using micro-simulation software. Changes with respect to road infrastructure, signal timings and various other possible solutions to reduce congestion is simulated and a cost benefit analysis is conducted.



      P. S. Malviya, Nilesh Nimje, Nishchhal Yadav

Abstract: Based upon the electromagnetic treatment, Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a strain dependent n-InSb crystal which is subjected to a transverse magnetic field is investigated analytically. The origin of this nonlinear interaction is considered to be found in the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility arising due to nonlinear current density and strain dependent polarization of the medium. The threshold condition is obtained for onset of the SBS process. The effective Brillouin susceptibility and gain is determined using coupled mode scheme of interacting waves. The effects of magnetic field and doping on threshold and SBS gain are studied. Numerical estimations are made at 77K duly shined by a pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. In the highly doped regime the transverse magnetic filed effects a significantly decrease in the threshold and an appreciable enhancement in the SBS gain is obtained. When cyclotron frequency is nearly equal to the applied field frequency minimum threshold and maximum gain of SBS process is achieved. The numerical value of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility by our analysis is well agreed with previously obtained theoretical as well as experimental values.



      Anil Kumar Sahu, Dr. Arun M. Shandilya, Dr. S. K. Bhardwaj

Abstract: In a remote areas supply of energy from national grid is insufficient for a sustainable development. Integration and optimization of local alternative renewable energy sources is an optional solution of the problem. The needs of rural electricity is met by conventional approaches is limited. In economic perspective, non-conventional forms of rural electrification may least-cost, particularly where villages are some distance from each others. In this paper the renewable energy reduces the burden on electricity supply shortfalls and the urgency of costly grid extension. In this paper we will bring in some new concepts associates with renewable energy forecasting. Energy plays a significant role in the economic and technological advancement of modern society and plays crucial role in human life standard. In hilly regions energy situation in terms of availability and demand is very different from that in the urban areas. Large parts of hilly and remotely located regions remain un-electrified. The studies are carried out for load management during a typical rainy, winter and a summer seasons. The results with using matlab for the rainy, winter and summer seasons scenarios are present in this paper. This paper presents a how manage the load forecasting of rural areas.



      Dr. Shri Krishna Mishra, Mr. Badri Yadav

Abstract: The importance of education in our country is an important point of discussion today. Education is a life long process. It begins from the mother’s womb. Home is the first school of a child. It is important to co-ordinate life in home and the school as recognized by all educationists. The importance of formal education is basic and fundamental in the sense that on it the whole educational superstructure is built up. In this modern era of science and technology nobody denies the importance of girl’s education. NPE (1986) emphasized that women education should be carried out all over the country in priority basis. In the proceeding chapters, the complete account of the work done has been given. Now the present chapter is devoted to provide a summary of the entire study, which includes a brief outline of the major objective, methodology and procedure followed in different phase of the study. This study was undertaken to know the views of teachers, students and parents on the girl’s education in Govt. Girls High Schools.



      Jasvir Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur, Satvinder Kaur, Anu Mahajan

Abstract: Targeted therapy is a cutting edge technology that deals with drugs that target some specific pathways in the growth and development of tumors.The cells of this category include polyps, precancerous lesions, premalignancies and other aberrant phenotype which may progress to cancerous state.Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Indomethacin have been reported to shrink the polyps by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via a variety of COX-dependent and/or COX-independent mechanisms. It has been reported that indomethacin can inhibit the growth of transplanted human colorectal tumor through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor .Effectiveness of Indomethacin to treat colon polyp can be increased if it is targeted directly to colon .So the present study is aimed to prepare colon specific beads of Indomethacin to target directly to colon . An interpolymer complex of polymers like chitosan and Chondroitin sulfate in different ratio are used to prepare the beads.The results confirmed that specific delivery of Indomethacin to colon can sustain the release for a long duration in comparison to marketed product.



      Chanchala Joshi, Teena Jaiswal, Himanshu Gaur

Abstract: Personalized web search is one of the growing concepts in the web technologies. Personalization of web search is to carry out retrieval for each user incorporating his/her interests. For a given query, a personalized Web search can provide different search results for different users or organize search results differently for each user, based upon their interests, preferences, and information needs. There are many personalized web search algorithms for analyzing the user interests and producing the outcome quickly; User profiling, Hyperlink Analysis, Content Analysis and collaborative web search are some of the instances for that kind of algorithms. In this paper we are analyzing various issues of personalized web search.



      Jesikha.M , M. Lekeshmanaswamy

Abstract: The growth of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) in cattle waste and Pongamia leaf waste was studied. The wastes where prepared separate media for growing worms. The worm’s growth in the form of weight has been recorded in every week. The result of both media in total weight was gradually increased. The highest total weight 1,287mg in cow dung medium and followed by Pongamia leaf medium1,098mg. The maturation of worm also recorded in 8th and 9th week in cow dung and Pongamia leaf media respectively. The growth gain and growth rate was also observed in both media. The waste can composed by earthworm to form good fertilizers but the Pongamia leaves contain some chemical substrate affect the growth and maturation of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.



      Lavanya Pamulaparty, T. Praveen Kumar, P. Vijaya Babu Varma

Abstract: As storage of data plays an integral part of databases, security issues becomes major concerns. Relational databases hold a significant portion of data stored in software, therefore today’s database purchase decisions revolve around how secure the product is. This paper provides a categorical feature comparison between Oracle9i Database (Oracle) and IBM DB2 Universal Database (DB2), in addition to examining features provided in the SecureWay product line from Tivoli, an IBM subsidiary [7]. It explores the impact of IBM’s and Oracle’s security models on users seeking to protect their critical information systems and contrasts IBM’s strategy of building security outside of the DB2 database against Oracle’s strategy of securing information in the database server[6].In addition to the security issues we explore some of the strategical issues arises in database migration.



      Vasanthi. P , T. N. Raviprasad

Abstract: The biology of cashew stem and root borers Plocaederus ferrugenius L. and P.obesus Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was studied on cashew bark under laboratory conditions. In case of Plocaederus ferrugenius L the mean grub period was recorded 163.10 ± 20.55 and 168.37± 30.32 days, mean pupal period was 144.33 ± 29.57 and 145.16 ± 29.10 days for males and females, respectively. The total development period ranged between 261-363 days (male) and between 242-356 days (female). In case of Plocaederus obesus Gahan., mean grub period was 152.75 ± 31.35 and 158.49 ± 33.26 days, mean pupal period was 142.90 ± 22.57 and 152.34 ± 38.46 days for males and females, respectively. The total developmental period ranged from 226 to 379 days and 247 to 347 days for males and females respectively. The duration of grub stage was more than 40 per cent of the total life duration of Plocaederus spp. The details of adult morphometrics of P.ferrugenius L. indicated that in case of males, the mean body length was 38.8 mm; mean body width being 8.76 mm and mean body weight being 0.89 g; the females had mean body length of 33.5mm; mean body width of 10.29 mm and mean body weight of 1.39g . The morphometric details of adults of P.obesus males indicated a mean body length of 38.6 mm; mean body width of 8.63 mm and mean body weight of 1.4 g, while females had mean body length of 36.6 mm; mean body width of 9.31 mm and mean body weight 1.76 g. In both the species, the length of pro, meso and meta thoracic legs did not differ significantly, wing to elytra length was in the ratio of 1: 0.9.



      Dr.Harshmohan Pathak, Dr.Santosh Kumar Subudhi, Dr.Subrat Padhiary, Dr.P.R.K.Rao, Dr.Sujit Sahoo

Abstract: Aneurysm is a localized pathological dilation of a blood vessels. False aneurysm is discontinuity in the vascular wall leading to an extravascular hematoma that freely communicates with the intravascular space producing pulsatile hematoma. In false aneurysm wall is ruptured and there is collection of blood(hematoma) that is bounded externally by adherent extravascular tissue. However any vessel may be affected by a wide variety of disorders that weaken the wall , including trauma( traumatic aneurysm), infection ,congenital defects such as potentiating berry aneurysm. Sporadic cases of false aneurysm following fractures of the facial bone have been reported but are few. aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm are complication of maxillo-facial trauma but sometimes occurs a result of isolated mandibular condylar fracture.



      Geetha K.S , Belagali S.L

Abstract: The natural plant based adsorbent (Tea powder) was activated by heating and treating it with 2N HCl and dried at 150oC for 2 hrs, stored and used for adsorption studies. The Groundnut oil, Coconut oil, Gingelly oils and Hydrocarbons like Hexane, Benzene, Kerosene, Petroleum ether and Toluene were selected for adsorption studies. The pH and heat had no effects on oil as it is inert to the same, at room temperature. The contact time and dose had effect on the adsorption which increases the adsorption with increase in the time and dose. The XRD spectral study of adsorbent before and after adsorption, confirms the adsorption process. The percentage of adsorption was calculated using spectrophotometry.



      Mahendra Tiwari, Randhir Singh

Abstract: Decision Support System is developing from its starting as a support tool and it is becoming the common resource in an organization. Decision Support System serve the management level of an organization for support to make decisions. Data Mining and DSS can lead to the improved performance and can enable to handle new types of problems. Classification is main task of Data Mining, various types of classification algorithms have been proposed and compared to determine the trends on data. There has been no single algorithm are to be superior over all others for data sets. Robustness and scalability must be considered for judging the suitable algorithm for any data, In this paper two decision tree algorithm, one algorithm are tested and compared.



      Ganesh Patidar, Nitin Agrawal, Sitendra Tarmakar

Abstract: Encryption is widely used to ensure security in public networks like the internet. Any type of data has its own attribute; therefore, various algorithms should be used to protect confidential data from unauthorized access. Mostly the available encryption algorithms are used for text data. However, due to large data size and real time constrains, algorithms that are good for textual data. In this research, a block-based encryption model is proposed for information security using a combination of logical and mathematical operation. This model will be used as a pre-encryption technique to confuse the relationship between the original data and the generated ones. The generated data are then fed to the proposed encryption model. Efficiency, Avalanche Effect, and Execution Time have been used to measure the security level of the data. The experimental results have shown that the existing algorithms resulted in a lower efficiency, a higher execution time, and a more uniform efficiency. This implies a high similarity and a good quality of the retrieved data compared to the original one. Another feature of the proposed model is its generality; it can be applied with any other traditional algorithm to enhance its performance. Experimental results have shown that using the proposed model along with the other algorithms resulted in a better performance compared to using the other algorithms alone.



      Bhojraj Singh Dhakar, Sitesh Kumar Sinha, Krishna Kumar Pandey

Abstract: In developing countries like India and India where English is only 30% know there automatic machine translation systems in research, education and commercial activities of the extremely important role. India has claimed a large gathering in Hindi is the language you speak and in many areas it works in all kinds of official and study. Many online translator technologies today use different machine translation approach. As each translation approaches different characteristics, the results of the translation would be different. Google Translate and Bing Translator free online machine translators is using statistical machine translation. Both translators are of the most popular. It keeps increasing the language option and expanding its usability. Due to the major opposite characteristics of both machine translator services and their important role for the development of machine translators especially in internet platform, it is decided to have a study about their comparison. Google translate and Bing translator in the entire world have to use automatic online translation system is used extensively in India is also because it is a free and reliable. The purpose of this study is to create understanding about the different performance of the two online translation services due to the same procedures they have. The experiment designed is meant show how the two online translation services have its own advantages and drawbacks which can affect their performance. Other secondary aim of this study is to find out the typical problems that may arise in translation between English and Hindi and to find out from the two online translation services, which is more suitable. A fully automatic high quality machine translation system to get is a difficult task. In this paper, we describe the online translation systems (like Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator) for English to Hindi translation and its translation quality. My researches focused on survey of online translati



      Rizwan Abdul Rasheed Shaikh, Wasundhara A. Bhad

Abstract: Aim: This study aims to find awareness of healthcare practitioners and students about computer based patient education in central India.
Methods: This study is based on questionnaire survey with a list of 8 questions. 250 doctors and medical students belonging to different areas of specialty were selected randomly from four different cities of central India. They filled out a questionnaire. Results: It is found that 100% doctors and 97% students of central India are aware of the use of computer in health science. 96% of all healthcare workers are aware of computer based patient education method, however only 24% of them use the computer based patient education in their practice. 81% of doctors and 86% students agreed about high cost of computer based patient education. 49% doctors and 58% students agreed that patient to patient variations in psychology, socioeconomic status and education are the main reasons because of which computer based patient education is not used by them.
Conclusions: Healthcare practitioners and students of central India are aware of computer based patient education, but majority of them are not using it in their own practice. Hence healthcare practitioners of central India should be encouraged to use it. Undergraduate medical students found less aware about computer based patient education, so increase in awareness of undergraduate students is required in central India.



      N.A.Charaniya, Prof. Dr. S.V.Dudul

Abstract: Indian summer monsoon rainfall is a process which is dependent on number of environmental and geological parameter. This makes it very hard to precisely predict the monsoon rainfall. As India is agriculture based country, a long range monsoon rainfall prediction is crucial for proper planning and organization of agriculture policy. Severe hydrological events, such as droughts, may result in decline of agricultural output, affecting both inhabitants and national economy of the country. El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) play an important role in the success or collapse of Indian monsoon development. The year-to-year variability in monsoon rainfall could cause extreme droughts and floods in the country. El Niño is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe. Understanding the relationship between ENSO and Indian monsoon rainfall is crucial to reduce negative impact or to take benefit of positive conditions. In this paper, a focused time lag recurrent neural network model has been proposed in order to determine the temporal relationship between ENSO and Indian summer monsoon rainfall.



      V. Ravindra Babu, K.Shreya, Kuldeep Singh Dangi, G. Usharani, P. Nagesh

Abstract: Genotypic differences in grain quality including protein, micronutrient concentrations and few of the yield attributing parameters of twenty one popular rice hybrids were assessed. The data revealed huge variations in grain quality among the hybrids. All hybrids tested have statistically similar milling percentage (70.1- 72.9 per cent). Head rice recovery of PA 6444 being the highest (70.9 per cent) at par with 15 hybrids was significantly higher than Sahyadri-4, Indirasona, HSD-1 and CORH-3. Most of the grain types of the hybrids were classified as long slender types. Highest water uptake was exhibited with Pusa RH-10 and PSD-3. Protein content varied by 4.05 per cent among the hybrids ranging from 5.74 per cent in PSD 3 (lowest) to 9.79 per cent in DRRH-2 (highest). Mean micronutrient iron concentration of hybrids (68.4 ppm) was found to be 1.83 times that of zinc (37.3 ppm). Two hybrids with both high iron and zinc concentration (DRRH-2 with 125.8 ppm and 43.8 ppm; and Sahyadri-4 with 104.8 and 43.0 ppm) were identified.



      K. Karthikeyan, M.Kavitha

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks consists of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. The life time of a sensor node depends on its energy consumption. Saving energy and increase network life time are main challenges of wireless sensor networks. The efficiency of the sensor node depends on the routing protocols used. Routing protocols provides a best data transmission route from sensor nodes to sink node to save energy for nodes in the network. This paper compares the three data centric routing protocols SPIN, SPIN-1,M-SPIN for energy efficiency. Based on this analysis M-SPIN performs better than other two. M-SPIN is a better approach for the application need quick and reliable response. The network simulator version 2 is used for performances analysis.



      K M Sadyojatha , Vinayadatt V Kohir , Subhash Kulkarni

Abstract: Proposed work is aimed at finding a method to estimate a scaling parameter λ because of which minor object irregularities in the target texture image are ignored by the level set function during the process of curve evolution. Here the texture segmentation is achieved by embedding the statistical moment features in to the Level set frame work implemented as per Chan – Vese approach. The scaling parameter estimated here is used for emphasizing the variances of intensities of inside or outside regions of the evolving curve, which is estimated from the histograms of the extracted moment features. Reasonably correct values of λ are estimated and are substantiated by the results presented in the further sections.



      Lakshmi.S.Dutt, Mathew Kurian

Abstract: Uncertainty is a state of lack of certainty, where having incomplete knowledge can make it impossible to describe the outcome. There are many challenges that occur due to uncertainty. Uncertainty in events can cause losses of data, providing inaccurate data, noisy output. Thus the need to handle uncertainty is essential. This paper represents an outline of various methods through which the uncertainty can be analyzed and handled.



      Jyoti Mishra, Neelam Pandey

Abstract: In the present paper we derive an integral involving general class of polynomials whose integrand contains product of I-function and a general class of polynomiyals.The integral evaluated is quite general in nature and we can derive from them by a large number of integrals involving simpler functions as their particular cases.



      Subita Sharma, P K Rao , Rajni Sharma

Abstract: Women are the major contributor of Indian economy. Women participate in all type of farm activities and do more work as compare to male workers but their participation in decision making related to farm and income generating activities is low. Women’s active involvement in decision making is considered essential for rapid economic development of the country. A sample of 200 farm women belonging to 3 different villages of Jammu District were selected by random sampling technique with the objective of studying extent of involvement of women in decision making related to farm and income generating activities and have been analyzed in terms of fully independent, partial involvement and no involvement. For data collection interview schedule, field observation and case studies were framed. Many times cross checking and cross questioning techniques for a particular response were also adopted to get qualitative data.



      Hemla Aggarwal, Subita Sharma , Rajni Sharma

Abstract: Rural women in J&K are extensively involved in different type of agricultural activities. About 20 to 70% of the rural women are involved in agricultural production and post harvest activities, The agricultural activities in which the women play a very leading role in the state are, transplantation, weeding, threshing, reaping, looking after the farm cattle and other live stock (poultry, goat rearing, sheep rearing etc) collecting fodder, watering fruit plants, preparing and transporting manure and other inputs to the field. They also help in constructing and repairing of irrigation channels and storage facilities. A sample of 150 farm women belonging to 5 different villages of Jammu District were selected by using random sampling technique with the objective of studying different activities performed and the problems being faced by them in doing these activities. For data collection interview schedule, field observation and case studies were framed. Data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively.



      Patki H. S, Lucy K. M, Chungath J. J

Abstract: Postnatal histological development of infundibulum of the oviduct in the Kuttanad duck (Anas Platyrhynchos domesticus) was studied using 78 ducks in different stages of development from day-old to 24th week of age. In the day-old ducklings, the cranial end of the undifferentiated oviduct corresponded to the infundibulum with no distinct differentiation into different tunics. At 12th week of age, tubular glands first appeared in the lamina propria of the neck region which was accompanied by ciliogenesis. Goblet cells increased in number in the lining epithelium of the caudal most region of the neck of the infundibulum, at 24th week of age. At this age, the proprial glands in the neck of the infundibulum were large in diameter, which increased in number as well as width gradually and attained maximum width. In all the age groups, lamina propria of the funnel region of the infundibulum was devoid of any glands and the mucosal folds in the funnel were shorter than that of neck region. Tunica mucosa occupied the maximum thickness followed by the tunica muscularis and tunica serosa respectively.



      Kshirsagar A Y, Patil R K, Chotai T, Bane P, Agarwal S, Patil M.

Abstract: Background: The incisional hernia can present in various clinical presentations which require emergency surgery for better outcome and survival. We want to share our experience in the management of incisional hernias. Methods: 100 patients were treated for incisional hernias. All patients were treated with intraperitoneal mesh repair except patients with enterocutaeneous fistula, who were treated with anatomical repair. Observations were made with regards to presentation at the time of admission like skin necrosis, type of incision, obstruction and strangulation, enterocutaeneous fistula, post-operative complications, hospital stay and recurrence were also observed. Results: In our series of 100 patients 42 were males and 58 were females. Sites of hernia were pfannenstiel incision in 30 patients, colostomy closure incision in 19 patients. 10 patients presented with skin necrosis, 25 patients presented with strangulation and obstruction and 19 patients presented with enterocutaeneous fistula. All patients were followed up for a period of 6 months after surgery, with recurrence seen in 2 patients. Conclusion: The treatment of complicated incisional hernia by intraperitoneal method is preferred as it has less complications and less chances of recurrences. In cases with enterocutaeneous fistula where infection is already settled and anatomical repair is preferred to mesh repair.



      Dr. S. Meenakshi

Abstract: Recording og forced eexpiration from tidal breathing referred to as forced expiratory capacity (fec) and its volume for first sec. Referred to as (fec1) appears to be a simple convenient technique than the conventional forced vital capacity manuevre(fvc). From fec tracings volume expelled for the first sec and its % can be measured (fec1%) such spirometric recording obtained from tidal breathing to residual volume may be referred to as spirometric recording at low lung volume. Asthmatics and old subjects find this manuevre easier to perform than the conventional manuvre of forced vital capacity (fvc) fec recording offers no discomfort to subjects as it does not involve maximal inspiration before forced expiratory effort in its procedure as seen in conventional spirometry recording of FVC. FEC recording is a simple, reliable and sensitive test for evaluation of early airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers and therefore may be utilised in clinical and epidemiological survey.



      Madhushree M. Routh, Manisha P. Mangulkar

Abstract: Medicinal plants form the largest segment of the biodiversity used by indigenous people. The objective of this study was to preserve the perishing knowledge of traditional home remedies for health care in villages of Maharashtra state of India. Men and women from nineteen villages were interviewed and information collected were documented. Crude drug samples were collected. The rural people used medicinal plants available locally for health care. Plants were used as raw, cooked or decoction forms. All the plants used were identified upto species level. Digital and written documentation were made as well as herbaria are prepared. This study gives scope for use of their time tested remedies by the future generation. In addition it gives scope for reverse pharmacological studies.



      Nice Menachery, Biju C V, Sijo M T

Abstract: An attempt has been made to investigate the influence of micro structure on mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, hardness, and elongation of the 5xxx alloys under different annealed conditions. Pure Aluminium material does not possess sufficient strength hence the application are limited to a few. The alloying element Magnesium added to pure Aluminium enhances the mechanical properties through solid solution and leads to improve strain hardening ability. The large strength to weight ratio of 5xxx alloys find applications in aircraft industries. The experiments were carried out for a composition of Al 5xxx alloy having 92.47 % of Al and 6.46% of Mg in the form of rod produced by extrusion process. The correlation of mechanical properties with grain structure is established in the study.



      Kumar Rajesh, Kumar Sanjay

Abstract: Leishmania donovani, causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), which is very serious disease and endemic in warmer part of the world covering almost 88 countries. It is most prevalent in India, Bangladesh, southern Sudan, Nepal and northeast Brazil. VL is transmitted by an insect vector i.e. Sand fly (Phelobotomus argentipus) that lives in warmer places (cervics, tree hole, dung and domestic wastes) where humidity and temperature both are present at regular intervals in a day (humidity during night and temperature at day time). These conditions are essential / necessary for the survival of vector, parasite development and for their distribution. But now a day, due to global climate changes and temperature increases, which support the high degree of sand fly growth, the transmission of disease has increased manifold. The flooding also increase the transmission of larvae from one place to another place thus also increases the distribution of disease.



      Bhupinder Singh

Abstract: V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad to parents of Indian descent. He is a postcolonial writer, who has focused much on the legacy of colonialism of the British Empire through his writings. His novels are situated both in the colonial as well as ex-colonial societies. The New York Review of Books celebrates him as “a master of modern English prose. The major themes of his novels are linked with the problems of the colonized people. The present article attempts to show the impact of the colonial rule on the politics of the rulers of independent India. The author compels irresistible aesthetic pull in his projection of the politics of the Indian rulers after the end of British colonial rule. In his book India: A Million Mutinies Now, Naipaul argues that the differences on the basis of class, caste, gender, religion lead to million mutinies i.e. fragmentation of Indian society. The political leadership is responsible for the infighting among Indians on various issues such as region, religion, caste or language. Castes dominate the political scenario in India. National issues are neglected often at the expense of the local ones. Politicians are more concerned about their own well being than the nation. There is loss of culture, tradition and religious identity. There is hardly any attempt made to preserve and propagate the Indian culture, language and religious beliefs. Contrary to this all out efforts are made to westernize the Indian society by promoting the language and culture of the colonizers. The satirical portrayal by Naipaul of Indian separatism, regionalism and its split into diverse groups depicts the divisive policies followed by the Indian rulers. In Lillian Feder’s considered opinion, V.S. Naipaul



      K.Krishnamurthy, J.Venkatesh

Abstract: The utilization of TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composite materials in many different engineering fields has undergone a tremendous increase. Accordingly, the need of accurate machining of composites has increased enormously; an attempt has been made to assess the factors influencing surface roughness and material removal rate on machining the composite. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of 5 and 10 wt. % TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composites. Taguchi method was used to find the optimal cutting factors for surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). Three cutting factors namely speed; feed and depth of cut were optimized with considerations of Ra and MRR. The experimental plan and analysis was based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with three cutting factors using carbide tool (K20). The optimal parametric combination for K20 carbide insert was found to be feed, speed and depth of cut. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) result shows that feed the most significant process parameter on surface roughness followed by speed. The depth of cut was found to be insignificant from the study. For MRR result show that the speed and the feed are the most significant parameters followed by the composition of composite material.



      Shweta Sharma, Seema Rana, Charu Katare, Tara Pendharkar, GBKS Prasad

Abstract: The increase in diabetic population of the world is among the top ten causes of death, with diabetes always high on the list of causes of death. The eating habits and patterns of the diabetic patients are the main causes for pour glycemic control. It is reported in epidemiological studies that high fiber dietary intake can significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes. The study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability and glycemic response of bottle gourd pulp powder (BGPP) enriched biscuits against standard wheat biscuits. Normal healthy subjects (n=7) and prediabetic subjects (n=7) were included in the study. Blood glucose values at 0, 30, 60, 90 & 120 minutes indicated significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of glucose and two varieties of biscuits in prediabetic subjects as well as in normal healthy subjects. The mean IAUC of BGPP enriched Biscuits (p=<0.001) was significantly lower than that of glucose and Wheat flour Biscuits (p=<0.001) in normal as well as prediabetic subjects.



      Mr. L.S.Khedekar, Dr. A.S.Alvi

Abstract: Today barcode system is very popular to protecting sensitive information. Many organizations are using this technique for protecting sensitive information. This paper presents an algorithm for hiding of data using 2D matrix code for high level of security. The proposed algorithm uses some modified definition of support and confidence so that it would hide any desired sensitive association rule without any side effect. Actually the enhanced technique is using the same method (as previously used method) of getting association rules but modified definitions of support and confidence are used Data Matrix is a matrix (2D or two-dimensional) bar code which may be printed as a square or rectangular symbol made up of individual dots or squares. This representation is an ordered grid of dark and light dots bordered by a finder pattern. The finder pattern is partly used to specify the orientation and structure of the symbol. The data is encoded using a series of dark or light dots based upon a pre-determined size. The minimum size of these dots is known as the X-dimension.



      M. K. Mishra, Manisha Shukla

Abstract: In this paper we extend the concepts of a- super closed sets and a- super continuous mappings due to Baker [2 ] in fuzzy topological spaces and obtain several results concerning the preservation of fuzzy g- closed sets. Furthermore we characterize fuzzy a-super continuous and fuzzy a-super closed mappings and obtain some of the basic properties and characterization of these mappings.



      Vijay D Rajanna

Abstract: Accelerometer is one of the prominent sensors which are commonly embedded in new age handheld devices. Accelerometer measures acceleration forces in three orthogonal axes X, Y, Z. The raw acceleration values obtained due to the movement of device in 3D space which is hosting accelerometer can be used to interact and control wide range of applications running on the device and can also be integrated with desktop applications to enable intuitive ways of interaction. The goal of the project is to build a generic and economic, gesture recognition framework based on accelerometer sensor and enable seamless integration with desktop applications by providing natural ways of interaction with desktop applications based on the gesture information obtained from accelerometer sensor embedded in Smartphone device held in user hand.



      Anjum Jeelani , Syed Afroz Ahmed, Farah Vaqar Momin

Abstract: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in India in the 21st century, affecting majority of the country population, both young and old. The pathophysiology of obesity has been attributed to various etiological factors such as hormones, diet, genetic and inflammatory nature. The microbiotas in the mouth have a significant impact on both the oral and general health. The salivary microbiota is a potential diagnostic indicator of several diseases. Recent research suggests that the composition of salivary bacteria changes in overweight subjects, and it is likely that Selenomonas noxia could serve as biological indicator of a developing overweight condition. Culture –independent techniques are required to study the salivary microbial commu- nity since many of its members have not been cultivated.



      Sir Allan Zade, Dr. K.N.Prasanna Kumar

Abstract: Systems of Z-Theory and Quantum Field Theory are investigated. It is shown that the time independence of the contributions portrays another system by itself and constitutes the equilibrium solution of the original time independent system. Further papers extensively draw inferences upon such concatenation process, ipso facto fait accompli. One work that relates Structural stability, electronic properties, and quantum conductivity of small-diameter silicon nanowires is that of Inna Ponomareva, Madhu Menon, Ernst Richter, and Antonis N. Andriotis, wherein they study structures and energetics of various types of silicon nanowires have been investigated using quantum molecular dynamics simulations to determine the most stable forms. The tetrahedral type nanowires oriented in the ⟨111⟩ direction are found to be the most stable. The stability of the cage like nanowires is determined to lie somewhere between this and tetrahedral nanowires oriented in other directions. Furthermore, their electrical conducting properties are found to be better than those of tetrahedral nanowires, suggesting useful molecular electronic applications. quantum dots which we shall later concatenate and with Z-Theory is Stability of quantum dots in live cells by Zheng-Jiang Zhu, etal. Quantum dots are highly fluorescent and photostable, making them excellent tools for imaging. When using these quantum dots in cells and animals, however, intracellular biothiols (such as glutathione and cysteine) can degrade the quantum dot monolayer, compromising function. Here, we describe a label-free method to quantify the intracellular stability of monolayers on quantum dot surfaces that couples laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.



      Anita Rani, Jyoti Chopra, Archana Rani, Arvind Kumar Pankaj, Rakesh Kumar Verma , Rakesh Kumar Dewan

Abstract: Sometimes the ligamentous connection between clavicle and first rib can be converted into a diarthrodial union and a new joint: costoclavicular joint comes into existence. Very scanty literature is available documenting the presence of faceted apophysis on the under surface of clavicle at the attachment area of costoclavicular ligament, suggesting an articular area for costoclavicular joint. It is said that when such type of joint is present, the costoclavicular ligament acts as a joint capsule.120 CT scout films (cervical and thoracic region) and 245 digital chest X-ray films (postero-anterior view) were observed. Out of 365 radiological images (males =202, females=163), 10 cases (2.7%) showed approximation of clavicle and ossified first costal cartilage at site of attachment of costoclavicular ligament, suggesting presence of costoclavicular joint.



      Mrs. Shobha Shukla

Abstract: We introduce here the notion of (i) a fuzzy subgroup (ii) a pseudo fuzzy coset and (iii) a pre class. In this paper we give necessary and sufficient condition for a of pseudo fuzzy coset a fuzzy group.The aim of the paper is to invastigate conjugate fuzzy subgroup of a group from a general point of view.



      Asst. Prof. Badri Yadav, Prof. Shri Krishna Mishra

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects a laboratory based on the 7E learning cycle model with verification laboratory approach on university students’ development of science process skills and conceptual achievement. In this study the sample consisted of 81 freshman university students who were taking the General Physics Laboratory-I- course at the university in DAVV Indore. In this study pretestposttest design with control group was used. B.Sc.class students (43) who took lower weighted standard points from university entrance exam (UEE) than BCA class students were selected as experimental group. BCA class students (38) were selected as control group. Thus, this study was quasi-experimental in design. In order to assess hypotheses of study was used “Science Process Skills Test-SPST” and “Force Concept Inventory -FCI” to compare skills and conceptual achievement of control and experimental groups students. Both tools were given to both groups as pretest and posttest.



      J. B. Bhaiswar, M. Y. Salunkhe, S. P. Dongre

Abstract: Polyaniline/Cds nanocomposite has been prepared using chemical oxidation technique. The prepared products were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and Transmission electron Microscopy and TGA thermogram. FTIR absorption band at 414 cm-1 indicated the presence CdS nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The XRD study revealed the increased in crystalline nature of nanocomposite.TEM showed the CdS particles are in nanorange with the average diameter of 21 nm. Thermo gravimetric analysis clearly indicated the increased in thermal stability of nanocomposite than the pure PANI. The D.C electrical study of PAni/Cds nanocomposite clearly indicated that the CdS nanoparticles increased the electrical conductivity of polyaniline nanocomposite to 1.79x10-3 S/cm compared to the pure polyaniline (10-10 S/cm) and Silicon (10-4S/cm) semiconductors. Its electrical conductivity was found to be analogous with existing semiconducting metals [14].



      Dr.K.Kajavinthan

Abstract: This research work is an attempt to study the level of depression among fresh college Hostellers. The sample for this study comprises of 100 fresh college hostellers (50 male and 50 female). Data was collected by face-to-face interview method. Tools used for data collection were the personal information schedule and revised. Beck depression inventory (BDI) developed by Beck (1961). Mean, standard deviation and‘t’ test were the statistics calculated. The results indicated that depression among fresh college hostel inmates differ significantly in pre and post semester. Depression of fresh college hostel inmates found to be reduced in post semester when compared to pre semester. Depression of fresh college hostel inmates of female students also differs significantly in pre and post semester.



      Anupama Gupta

Abstract: Communication is all based on Mathematics, be it digital, wired or wireless. Signal transmission is done through modulation i.e. amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM) or phase modulation (PM). At the receiving end the transmitted signal is demodulated to extract the information. All these techniques are based on pure mathematics. While modulating the information signal, a high frequency sinusoidal carrier signal is used to transmit the message signal through a medium (cable or air). It is then received and demodulated using Fourier Transform analysis. So for understanding the communication technology, the processes of modulation, demodulation and Fourier Transform need to be explored first. In this paper, I have discussed how Fourier Transform is used in cell phone networking. Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 94B12; Secondary 90B18



      Nazar Ul Islam Wani

Abstract: Historically Islam has been in conflict with the west since 8th century. The Arabs were in Spain for 700 years and Sicily for 500 years. Then there were about two hundred years of so-called crusades. Some centuries latter Ottomans threatened to overran Europe, making their way to Vienna. The colonial movements of the west in Muslim lands and the Muslim reaction to get political independence from France, Russia, Britain, and Holland etc also created the conflict between the West and Muslims. Hence, the animosity is deep rooted into the minds of both westerners and Muslims. The two communities are caught up in a whirlpool of violence. I consider the dialogue between Islam and West, a work of immense importance.



      Mrs. Mayuri Joshi, Prof. Sunil .S. Morade

Abstract: At present, multimedia is widely used in classroom for teaching , using chalk is not only laborious, but it also produces a lot of chalk dust, polluting the air and adversely affecting the health of the students and teachers, also the use of multimedia helps in better teaching learning process. At present the traditional black board is replaced by smart electric boards produced by companies like Hitachi, Panasonic, which are very costly. This design uses ARM 9 processor for hand-held terminal hardware and Embedded Linux operating system for hand-held terminal software. When teacher writes on a book-size touch screen with an electrical pen, handwriting signal will be transferred to the PC terminal by wireless transmission module. Thus it makes classroom teaching be more efficient.



      Manju Pillai, Pramila Adavi

Abstract: Contracting is an integral part of construction projects. Managing the contracts therefore is equally important for the success of any business process due to rapid increase in multiple contracts. The conventional method of managing contract involves risks and chaos which include inadequate information in contracts, inadequate delegation of authority and responsibility, fraud, theft, corruption, other unethical activities, communication gap, delayed financial decisions thus dampening the progress of the project, all due to manual intervention in managing contracts. This calls for a need of systematic and an effective method of contract management. This paper speaks about Intelligent Contract Management (automated contract management) which is an efficient, transparent and flawless concept of managing contracts. This technique will streamline the business process by reducing the time taken to create, review, execute and approve contracts, thus easing activities like tracking, central storage of contract documents, and reduction in disputes, minimize risks associated with manual data entry. Contract management is an issue of strategic importance to both organization and to projects and through automated contract management technique; organizations can increase control, increase effectiveness, reduce cost and also provide strategic and competitive advantage. Key objective of automated contract management system is to ensure easy access to contract information to form flexible support for the contract workflow.



      Jaishree Singh, Hari Ram, Dr. J.S. Sodhi

Abstract: Association rules are the main technique to determine the frequent itemset in data mining. Apriori algorithm is a classical algorithm of association rule mining. This classical algorithm is inefficient due to so many scans of database. And if the database is large, it takes too much time to scan the database. In this paper, we proposed an Improved Apriori algorithm which reduces the scanning time by cutting down unnecessary transaction records as well as reduce the redundant generation of sub-items during pruning the candidate itemsets, which can form directly the set of frequent itemsets and eliminate candidate having a subset that is not frequent.



      Parvaiz Ahmad Lone, Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj , Fayaz Ahmad Bahar

Abstract: In the balancing of lake ecosystem macrophytes play very important role. They have capacity to improve the water quality by absorbing nutrients with their effective root system and hence as Biofilters. An attempt was made in which samples of two Potamogeton species viz. Potamogeton crispus and Potamogeton pectinatus were collected during December 2008 to April 2009 from three different sites of Upper Lake of Bhopal. The nutrients including the Phosphorus, Potassium and Sodium in the plants were analysed and found to be high. Significant correlations in Phosphorus, Potassium and Sodium levels were apparent between the tissues of two Potamogeton species which were related to their life forms and to the limnological characteristics of the lake. The objective of the study was to know comparative purification efficiency of two species of Potamogeton in wastewater treatment i.e. in reducing the nutrient content of the water. Purification of water through macrophytes is a good example of purification of water with natural means. Results indicated that both species were capable of improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations. But, Potamogeton crispus rather than Potamogeton pectinatus was found more potent in improving the quality of lake water.



      Dr.Maneesha Godbole, Dr.Sulochana Abraham, Dr.Jasmine Prasad

Abstract: Background: Infections of the reproductive tract in females is a major public health concern because of the associated morbidity. Women often delay seeking care for problems pertaining to the reproductive tract, as they feel shy to take these problems to a doctor, especially a male doctor. Moreover, health services are usually not accessible to the rural people and the urban poor. The nurses and paramedical workers are not trained to deal with gynaecologic diseases, and the availability of doctors in rural areas is very limited. Objectives: This study aims to assess the validity of diagnosis of the reproductive tract infections by the Female Health Worker, after a period of training. Material and Methods: 10 female health workers (known as Health Aides) of the Community Health Department of the Christian Medical College Vellore, were provided training in diagnosing the reproductive tract infections from visual examination of the vaginal discharge using a speculum. Training was also provided in counselling the patient and the partner. Results: The validity of diagnosis by the Health Aides showed a sensitivity of 87 %, a specificity of 91%, Likelihood Ratio of8.7, Positive Predictive value of 85.95. Kappa for agreement between the trainer and the Health Aide was 74.3%. Conclusions: Utilising the skills of the Female Health Workers would overcome the problem of accessibility and lack of availability of a female doctor, and contribute positively to the reproductive health of the community, especially the rural poor who have poor access to services, and thus ensure an optimum level of health for all.



      Vaishali Rajput, Tanaji Khadtare, Atul Rohankar

Abstract: The traditional network is layered designed. Most network architectures of the radio network are also layered. In the layered design, each layer just is responsible for its own task. This can make the design more easily, and the network architecture adapted more application. But this also may make the design not efficient. Because each layer does its only job and does not know the other layer’s status. For example, in many applications of wireless sensor networks, the MAC layer will shutdown the transceiver when the MAC layer thinks no data packet to send. But if when the node shutdown the transceiver, the routing layer thinks it is time to send a hello packet or something else, the node must reopen the transceiver. This does not save the energy. It is a waste of energy, the frequently open and shutdown operation will consume a lot of energy. But if the design is cross-layer, this situation could be avoided. When the MAC layer want shutdown the transceiver, it will check that whether it is time for the routing layer to send the hello message. Then the conflict is avoided. The radio network is application-dependent. So according to the actual application, the cross-layer design will make an efficient routing protocol for the wireless sensor networks.



      Revati Sharma, Chitra Pai, Harapriya Kar

Abstract: In industrialized countries 15%-30% of patients receiving long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy have discordant responses with a poor CD4 count response despite full suppression of HIV replication, 6 months to 2 years after starting therapy (1, 2). There are few data representing the scenario of such discordant cases in developing countries like India. (1) The present study was aimed to find the rate of discordant responses among HIV patients attending a tertiary care centre in Navi Mumbai.



      Jagadish.A.T

Abstract: In this paper there is attempt to portray the law of intellectual property, its statutory framework, rights and liabilities of intellectual property holder with special reference to patentee and protection afforded by intellectual property to bioinformatics. There is also focus on nature of bioinformatics, scope and significance of bioinformatics and how the various components of bioinformatics relate to intellectual property protection, India’s position on patent protection to bioinformatics and other branches of intellectual property rights. Whether intellectual property protection should be extended for bioinformatics



      Mukta Sharma, Dr. R.B. Garg

Abstract: There is no doubt the Internet is a wondrous creation. The entire world is rapidly becoming obsessed with it. With the advancement of technology, there was a long felt need to give recognition to the electronic means as an alternative to paper based banking. The internet has made banking and other business transactions a lot easier because money is easily transferred from bank to bank, employer to employee, employee to bank, shopper to department store, and almost any scenario in which money has to be transacted, all because of the internet and other electronic technologies.



      Suresh Kumar N , Prasanth MK , Ajith Sundaram

Abstract: The fundamental skills that are acquired by the students at the school level have an overall impact in shaping the career of students. In the later stages the extracurricular activities such as technical events, arts, sports and games, has an impact on the overall personality development and hence increases the employability of the students. Apart from that the quality of teaching and medium of instruction are important component at various stages of selection process. The percentage of drop outs in the first and second stage (Screening test and Group Discussion) is the highest in the selection process. The level of interest of students in campus placements whose guardian is in various professions such as business, salaried and professional differ. More over there is association between number of placement drives attended by the students and the percentage marks obtained by the students, the number of times the candidate have cleared the group discussion and the percentage mark obtained by the candidate.



      Gayathri Rao, Dr. Ankur Madan

Abstract: While attachment has been a topic of extensive research in developmental psychology, its impact in the context of the technological changes in the 21st century and the changing dynamics of familial structures and relationships have not been so extensively explored. The present research examined the attachment styles of 95 adolescents varying from 14 to 17 years of age, from reputed English medium schools all over Bangalore. They were given the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment and then categorized into those who use Facebook for more than 7-8 hours a day and those who don’t. Five securely attached adolescents and five insecurely attached adolescents with heavy Facebook use were selected randomly and were interviewed to investigate the reasons for Facebook use. Results indicated that there existed substantial differences in the reasons for Facebook use by those securely and insecurely attached adolescents.



      P.Sankara Rao

Abstract: This paper describes the concepts of diffraction, diffraction gain, diffraction loss, field strength at receiver due to knife-edge obstacles between the propagation path of the signal i.e. b/w transmitter and receiver. This paper also present the complete idea of identifying the position of obstacle in a Fresnel zone, diffraction loss, position of obstacle with varying distances b/w source and field and varying heights of obstacles in a Fresnel-zones represented by tabular forms and appropriate charts. The calculation, based on an approximate evaluation of the contribution of individual Fresnel zones to the total field, leads to the Fresnel theorem: the total field is just one-half that due to the first zone alone.



      Upasna, Jyoti Chauhan, Manisha

Abstract: Mobile ad-hoc network networks are self-organizing network having a concise radio range and limited bandwidth without having the any specified infrastructure. The topology of the ad hoc network may change suddenly. At this type of situation, is finding the shortest path (SP) between source and destination nodes within a specified time so as to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) with security. For finding the shortest path between the sources to destination, we will use the genetic algorithm (GA) with backups of routes and authentication with having, minimum power consumption and congestion. This type of routing technique will reduce the reroute discovery if failure occurred in the path. It will take the less time in resending the packet to the destination and the throughput will be high in the Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET). In this paper, we will also discuss the routing protocols, its classifications, advantage and disadvantages of the routing protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET).



      Dr. Vinod Kumar Gupta, Renu Bagoria, Neha Bagoria

Abstract: This paper identifies and investigates the factors which influence customers decision to use a specific form of mobile banking, and specifically focuses on the evaluation of SMS-based mobile banking in India. Other my study plans to connect the gap of research in the acceptance of mobile banking among the customers. Main challenges are what the Positive are and Negative factors which influence the adoption of SMS-based mobile banking? Second is Focus on the adoption of mobile banking services by customers and usage of mobile banking in India. Third is Different Technologies behind Mobile Banking. Although the study has its limitations, the implications of the results allow providing practical recommendations to the banking areas, banking industries and directions for further work.



      R. Dineshkumar, Prof. Dr.J.Suganthi

Abstract: Sanskrit (Devanagari), an alphabetic script, is used by over 500 million people all over the world. Recognition of Sanskrit (Devanagari) handwritten scripts is complicated compared to other language scripts. However, many researchers have provided real-time solutions for offline Sanskrit character recognition also. Offline Sanskrit handwritten documents recognition still offers many motivating challenges to researchers. Current research offers many solutions on Sanskrit (Devanagari) handwritten documents recognition even then reasonable accuracy and performance has not been achieved. This paper analyses the various approaches and challenges concerning offline Sanskrit (Devanagari) handwritten character recognition.



      Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

Abstract: Ocean occupies 70 % of the earth’s land mass. Forty percent of the world inhabitants are living along the coastline of the oceans. Marine ecosystems provide more potential biodiversity for novel products and services than any other ecosystem in the world. Marine lives ranging from bacteria to higher forms of lives are sources of micro and macro molecules required for advancement of biotechnology. Despite the vast socio economic potentials of oceans, yet developing countries are yet to fully tap the potentials. Hence, marine microbiology which is the study of microorganisms from marine environment and marine biotechnology defined as application of marine micro and macro organisms either in whole or part for production of various industrial, medical, environmental and agricultural products and services for human utilization serve as key tools in exploring oceanic potentials. This paper aim to highlights potentials of marine microbiology and biotechnology as key tools in tapping vast marine biodiversity and challenging factors to utilize the tools like other developed countries of the world.



      JGS Ranasinghe, SSP Silva, N. Herath

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus genera on serum cholesterol and triglyceride lowering potential of probiotic in guinea pigs and the changing pattern of above serum parameters after termination of the treatment. The effects of oral supplementation of probiotics to animals have been carried out in many occasions but their outcome after the termination of treatment is lacking. Twenty four eight weeks old guinea pigs were selected randomly divided into two groups (n=12) ) the test and the control, were reared in six cages (four per cage). Both groups received control mash diet (based on corn and soybean) during the experiment, to meet the nutrient requirements. A 5 ml of aqueous medium culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus with 1.76 x 109 and 1.5 x 108 colony forming units/ml, respectively were given to test animals for fourteen days and the control animals were given the same volume of distilled water. Blood samples were withdrawn by heart puncture at 14 and 21 days after the initiation of probiotic supplementation and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and total protein levels were assayed in both groups. The total cholesterol level of the test group was significantly lower (p<0.01) than the control group after 2 weeks and it increased slightly after the termination of probiotic supplementation. HDL cholesterol level was significantly higher in test animals after 3 weeks (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in serum triglycerides, total protein, weight gain, body temperature, food and water intakes and body temperature between the control and treated groups. It was concluded that live probiotics significantly reduced the serum total cholesterol during the treatment period and increased the HDL cholesterol significantly following termination of the treatment. It is suggested that the feeding of probiotic does not affect food intake and bring up



      Abu M. Baker, Yingtao Jiang

Abstract: As CMOS technology scales down, process variation introduces significant uncertainty in power and performance to VLSI circuits and significantly affects their reliability. Although Static-Timing Analysis (STA) it is an excellent tool, but current trends in process scaling have imposed significant difficulties to STA. As one of the promising solutions, Statistical static timing analysis (SSTA) has become the frontier research topic in recent years in combating such variation effects. This paper will be focusing on two aspects of SSTA and its applications in VLSI designs: (1) Statistical timing modeling and analysis; and (2) Architectural implementations of the atomic operations (max and add). Experimental results have shown that our approach can provide 282 times speedup when compared to a conventional CPU implementation.



      Gamage. M. P, Kodagoda. G. N

Abstract: The internet has affected business in many ways. As a result banks have been under pressure to implement more advanced electronic delivery channels and payment methods. Most banks are now offering online services known as online banking or internet banking to their customers in order to remain in a competitive edge as well as to remain in business. In order to improve this facility it is needed to better understand customer attitude and the level of satisfaction and acceptance of this technology. The study considers web usability as a dominant factor effecting customer satisfaction of online banking. In several web usability researches done the usability issues of web sites in general were talked. The few specific web usability researches are focused mainly on Electronic commerce web sites. There is only limited literature available related to financial websites such as online banking websites. Bearing in mind that usability is still a major weakness in many websites and the importance of bank websites it would be valuable to extend the knowledge about usability in this sector.



      P.Paramadevan, W.B.Daundasekera

Abstract: In this paper we develop an optimization model to generate a finite sequence, where i th term of the sequence is the number of occurrence of i in that sequence. This model is formulated as a 0-1 Integer Programming Problem and is solved using Branch-and- Bound algorithm.



      G. Edirisooriya, H.A. Dharmagunawardhane

Abstract: Early Jurassic fossil plants from sedimentary rocks of Tabbowa, Sri Lanka show a variety of evidence for plant-insect interactions indicative of a terrestrial habitat prevailed in the Gondwanaland. The observed interactions are skelitonizing, blotch and galls, ovipositions or coprolites, leaf mines and leaf chewing. These traces indicate that insects had associated the plants for various purposes, such as feeding, ovipositioning and sheltering for insect larvae etc. Further, these morphotraces tend to pin point some similarities of plant- insect interactions among extant plant species such as Piper betle and Musa sp. local plants of Sri Lanka. Although the taxonomic morphology of the phytophagous insects associated with fossil samples are unknown, present findings reveal that observed plant-insect relationships existed during early Jurassic period and continued up to present, having a role in the co-evolution of present day flora and fauna.



      Zidan A. Bashir

Abstract: In this study, the ability of two antibiotics daptomycin and pantoyl lactone to inhibit growth of horse originated pathogen Streptococcus equi by disrupting plasma membrane of the bacterium was investigated using agar diffusion and micro tube dilution methods. The results obtained from this study indicated that daptomycin was more effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen in vitro than the second antibiotics. The 3 tested strains were susceptible to daptomycin but completely resistant to pantoyl lactone. Hence, daptomycin therefore tends to be potent for treating horse infections caused by this pathogen.


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