International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 13, Issue 11, November 2023 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
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Development of a Supply-Demand Model At PERUMDAM Tirta Kahuripan Bogor Regency to Improve Service Coverage
      Nurhadi Satrio, Leni Sagita Riantini, Rahayu S. Arifin
Abstract: Bogor Regency is the regency with the largest population in Indonesia. There is an issue with the provision of drinking water in Bogor Regency, as the expansion of drinking water services by PERUMDAM Tirta Kahuripan cannot keep up with the growth rate of the Bogor Regency population. This study aimed to identify factors that influenced the increase in service coverage.

      Christine Cherop Limale & Dr. Anthony Osoro
Abstract: The foremost focus of the study was to examine community programming tools for Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and their protagonist in empowering youth in West Pokot County, Kenya. The study intended to determine the correlation amongst community programming tools in TVET and youth empowerment in the area. To accomplish this aim, the study delineated specific objectives, comprising designing and planning phase, facilities and community rendezvous in TVET to empower youth in West Pokot County, Kenya.

Abstract: Higher education institutions need to deliver excellent customer service in order to retain students and improve the institutions standing in various league tables, as well as to increase internal and external retention rates (Blackmore et al. 2006; Douglas et al. 2006). This premise became the inspiration behind the conduct of this study. This study determined the extent of stakeholders’ satisfaction to the academic and administrative services offered in the University of Cebu – Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue for the School Year 2021-2022. Subsequently, this study determined the top and low-performing academic and administrative departments of the University in terms of customer service. In terms of its objectives, this research is classified under the descriptive research.

      Kenedy Kaunda Mbulo, Dr. Isaac Abuga
Abstract: This study aimed at examining the influence of early assessment on resolving public property management disputes in Kenya Railways Corporation. This study was anchored on the Theory of Justice and Conflict Resolution Theory. This study employed a descriptive design. The study targeted 6 legal officers, 4 land surveyors, 12 property officers and 5 valuation officers drawn from the various departments of the Authority and the 80 tenants with active disputes with KRC. The sample involved 21 KRC staff: 5 legal officers, 3 land surveyors, 9 property officers, 4 valuation officers and 63 tenants with active disputes with Kenya Railways Corporation.

      Yu Ruiqing
Abstract: This paper delves into the emergence of remote education and online learning in modern education, discussing their advantages, challenges, and future trends. It also analyzes the roles and responsibilities of students, teachers, and policymakers in this educational paradigm.

      Ms. Saadia Ibrahim, Dr. Peter Wamalwa Barasa
Abstract: Supply chain management is typically understood to be the integration, coordination, and collaboration across businesses and throughout the supply chain with the goal of producing goods, services, and information that create value for clients and other stakeholders.

      Mr. Elphas Owiti Opiyo, Dr. Peter Wamalwa Barasa
Abstract: Global organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of environmental sustainability, leading to the incorporation of green supply chain management (GSCM) into their operations. This research study sought to assess the effects of Green Supply Chain Management practices on the performance of edible oil producers in Kenya; A case study of Mvita Oil Company Limited. The specific objectives were: to examine the influence of lean supply chain practice on performance of Edible oil manufacturing companies in Kenya; to assess the effect of renewable energyadoption practice on performance of Edible oil manufacturing companies in Kenya; to assess the effect customer management practice on performance of Edible oil manufacturing companies in Kenya and finally to find out the effect of reverse logistics practice performance of Edible oil manufacturing companies in Kenya.

      Leju Francis Apollos and Dr. Mary Chui Mugwe
Abstract: Most stakeholders in Juba City Council had singled out principals’ managerial practices among other factors as the basis and primary cause of the current state of education in public primary schools of Juba City Council as Principals are the custodians of the schools.

      Aisha Jahazi and Mwisila Lucas Pastory
Abstract: The use of city buses (also known as public transportation or mass transit) is essential for many people worldwide, particularly in urban areas where the demand for mobility is high. However, the use of these buses has raised concerns due to their negative impact on the environment, economy, and social aspects.

      Habib Lebsir
Abstract: For all non zero natural integer n, the interval [n2, (n+1)2 [of N*, contains at least one three – term arithmetic progression, including at least two primes and which arithmetic mean is either n2 + n – 1, n2 + n, or n2 + n + 1.

      Deep Manishkumar Dave
Abstract: Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) is an emerging software engineering approach that can significantly enhance manufacturing operations. This paper explores how applying SRE practices improves efficiency through automation, reduces downtime via rapid incident response, and increases the reliability of manufacturing systems. Case studies demonstrate SRE principles in action, such as incident management to minimize equipment downtime losses.

      Mahendra Singh
Abstract: Fluoride occurs in the environment in water, soil, air, food, and vegetation significantly increased body burden, fluoride was discovered by karl schele in 1771, recognize as halogen in 1825, it was the 13 most abundant elements in earth crust. The range of species in animal experiments that reported adverse effects. Fluoride is the ionic form of the most electronegative elements fluorine, which is widely distributed in igneous and sedimentary rocks; earth’s crust and oceans. Water pollution has become world-wide phenomenon. Both deficiency and excess of minerals and trace elements in water can have deleterious consequences on biological system. The major ecological problem are the pollutants from industries, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and chemicals.

      Carren Tabot, Dr. Peter Simotwo and Dr William Sakataka
Abstract: A number of researchers have highlighted the significance of Community Based Organizations and the contribution these organizations make in national social and economic development in general and rural communities in particular. This study was conducted in West Pokot County to analyze the role of Community Based Peace Programs in the rural community development.

      Hussein Mohamed Olow and Prof. Kennedy K. Mutundu
Abstract: Traditionally, women have been viewed as child-bearers and keepers of the home. Undeniably, women are still discriminated against in terms of access to education, family decision making, employment and elective positions as well as property ownership in many countries.

      Nguyen Thị Hải Oanh, M.A
Abstract: The study employs a quantitative research design to assess the effectiveness of using games as a pedagogical tool in language teaching at a specific university in Vietnam. The secondary purpose of the study is to investigate the level of student engagement in language classes where games are utilized.

      Farzana Mohamedhanif Khan, DR. Kennedy Okemwa Nyariki
Abstract: The mobile revolution and technology innovation have significantly changed the banking sector. As a result, the banking sector has become one of those that is most dependent on consumer markets adopting new technology. By removing distance and time restrictions, the modern mobile revolution has not only made it possible for individuals to connect with one another globally but has also greatly improved the lives of many by giving them access to basic financial services through phone-based money storage and transfer.

      Raymond Akena, Christopher Onencan, Gerald Ocira Olali
Abstract: The public health care system in Uganda is unable to provide adequate health care services to the ever increasing population. The private health care sector including community pharmacy is the bridging gap. However studies revealed little knowledge about the services offered in community pharmacies. Here we present the recent findings on public’s attitude towards community pharmacy practice to identify the loopholes and areas of improvement.

      Simiyu Edgar Laleti, Dr. Peter Simotwo and Dr William Sakataka
Abstract: This research study aims to assess the influence of resource mobilization strategies on health service delivery in Trans Nzoia County Government, Kenya. The study focuses on three main strategies: technology adoption, on-the-job training, and public-private partnerships (PPPs). The research gave vital insights to Trans Nzoia County Government policymakers and healthcare managers. Policymakers may make educated judgements and create evidence-based solutions to address the highlighted difficulties by studying the effect of resource mobilization strategies on health service delivery.

      Nsengiyumva Innocent, Dr. Mugiraneza Faustin
Abstract: There are many teaching practices to be used in a classroom setting in order to enhance student’s competences specifically learners with mental disabilities. Target of this paper was to assess the influence of teachers’ practices on learners with mental disabilities competences in primary schools of Rwanda, Case of Bugesera district Rwanda.It was with three specific objective such as to identify the teachers competences in Bugesera primary schools ,To assess the learners with mental disabilities competences primary schools to examine the influence of teachers’ practices on learners with mental disabilities competencies in primary schools of Rwanda, Case of Bugesera district Rwanda.

      Mohd Harridon, Nur Hadifah Syifa
Abstract: Cabin crews provide first hand services to passengers during flights and they are vital to ensure the comfort of passengers. The functionalities of cabin crews varies and some of these tasks require substantial amount of physical fitness. This paper denoted the physical exertions of cabin crews through Rated Perceived Exertions where the tasks of cabin crews were measured in terms of the exertions produced by the crews.

      Yousif Ibrahim Kannosh
Abstract: One of the key activities in human resource management is their support for the implementation of various changes, such as corporate change management. Managers and other employees today are increasingly faced with a permanent need for change, but they also have different abilities to endure changes, and therefore this issue is becoming more and more important. Change management represents a systematic and structured approach that aims to create a sustainable change in human behavior within an organization, i.e. a company, and therefore the involvement of employees in the change process is extremely important. In order to involve employees in the change process in a way that is satisfactory for both employees and the company, there must be a two-way exchange of value, because otherwise the individual can deny the company resources.

      Muftah Asseid
Abstract: In contrast to the complexity of business processes, management today has at its disposal a whole set of internal control mechanisms. Internal control mechanisms need to be used both individually and mutually adapted to the legal needs and the needs of your company.

      Muhammad Rif’an Jailani, F.X. Kurniawan Tjakrawala
Abstract: This research aims to assess the effectiveness and evaluate the Internal Control System the East Lampung Regency Government as well as identify the causes of the findings of the Internal Control System in Financial Report of the East Lampung Regency Regional Government for Fiscal Year 2022.

      NKURUNZIZA Victorien, Dr. MUGIRANEZA Faustin
Abstract: Rwanda is land locked and do not have enough natural resources and simply relies on its citizen in terms of development and has recovered economically and united its people working closely together to forge a greater nation. Purpose of this study was to assess the influence of children rehabilitation center activities on students’ school reintegration in Rwanda, case of Nyamagabe Rehabilitation center.

      George Kimathi Gikunda and Prof. Kennedy Mutundu
Abstract: Despite attempts to end FGM, the practice continues and damages girls and women seriously. Several socioeconomic like household education levels have an impact on the frequency of FGM in Samburu County. In research on socioeconomic and cultural factors, household education levels are not adequately explored. Current research has mostly concentrated on the prevalence and risk factors for FGM at the national level, which could not accurately reflect the particular context of Samburu County. As a result, there was a study gap about the precise household education as well as their interactions, that contribute to the frequency of FGM in Samburu County.

      Pham Thi Kieu Oanh
Abstract: This study aims to identify the beliefs toward constructivist teaching (CT) of a group of English teachers at high school from a mountainous province in Vietnam. In addition, it seeks to shed light on the nature of constructivist teaching in their English actual classes.

      Kelvin L Nkai, Prof. Peter Kithae
Abstract: The research study addressed the Market Information Dissemination Programs and Growth of Export Businesses in Kenya: A Case Study of The Kenya Export Promotion and Branding Agency with a focus on the role of export policy forums, market survey dissemination forums, export trade information services, and product development dissemination programs. The research problem revolves around the need to understand how these factors impact export business growth in the Kenyan context.

      Thayahlini Sasikumar, Mayuran Nagalingam
Abstract: Background: Safety and appropriateness of different birthplaces for pregnancies and antenatal care from skilled provider are always under discussion. There are many factors which influence the birthplace decision making. All the risk pregnancies need tertiary care services. This was carried out to assess the transfer of selected antenatal care mothers from primary and secondary care hospital to tertiary care hospital in Batticaloa District.

      Dr. Sandeep Ghosh, Dr. Rohit Gupta, Dr. Megha Sharda, Dr. Sandip Bhattacharya, Dr. Ashok Kumar Sharma
Abstract: Background: Cryptococcal infections are frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients including patients with idiopathic CD4 T cell lymphocytopenia (ICL). They are predisposed to severe Cryptococcal infections like Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and few may present atypically as stroke mimic.

      Weligamage Dedunu Chandrananda Udeni Dias, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Indika Sujith Priyantha, Wathsala Dilini Kumari Wijesinghe
Abstract: Introduction; Healthcare performances of countries with similar income levels, educational statuses, and health expenditures are not always similar. Therefore, deploying the most cost-effective strategies to achieve the desired level of healthcare is very important for any country. Healthcare provision of the public health sector in Sri Lanka is free of charge at the point of delivery of care.

      Wathsala Dilini Kumari Wijesinghe, Wijewardane Abeywickrama Nishshanka
Abstract: Introduction; - All patients who are admitted to a government hospital in Sri Lanka are offered food free of charge during their inward stay. This process requires a joint effort of the office, wards, and the kitchen of the hospital. A patient’s diet for a day is the whole requirement of food for 24 hours starting from 12 noon each day to 12 midnight the following day.

      Ojeka, S.Oa., Zabbey, V.Za and Nkwadochi, D.Oa.
Abstract: Introduction: The huge reliance on medicinal plants in Africa can be attributed to cultural background, low economic levels and poor access to orthodox medications. However, often times, such reliance are accompanied by the challenges of poor evaluation of their safety profiles before commercialization. The present study investigated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (ELEPN) on lipid profile and white blood cell parameters in male Wistar rats, exposed to Phenylhydrazine.

Abstract: The successful execution of projects holds paramount significance for both public and private sector organizations. An all-encompassing grasp of the primary factors influencing project performance is vital for project managers and partners in order to make informed decisions and drive progress.

      Ronak Pansara
Abstract: This paper explores the crucial link between Master Data Management (MDM) and Manufacturing industry, where MDM serves as a key technological component in the realm of Manufacturing technology. Master Data Management (MDM) plays a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector, serving as the cornerstone for maintaining data accuracy and consistency. In todays complex and data-driven manufacturing landscape, effective MDM practices have become indispensable. This comprehensive paper delves into the profound significance of MDM within the manufacturing industry, shedding light on its guiding principles, navigating the unique challenges it presents, and uncovering the extensive benefits it bestows upon organizations.

      Ronak Pansara
Abstract: This paper explores the crucial link between Master Data Management (MDM) and Agtech, where MDM serves as a key technological component in the realm of agriculture technology. MDM is fundamentally concerned with the establishment and maintenance of a unified, accurate, and consistent data source within organizations. Conversely, Agtech represents the integration of technology to bolster agricultural practices.

      Athman Komora Garisse, Dr. Hassan Kinyua Omari, Dr. Mohamed Alio
Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Salat in strengthening morality among the Muslims in Amu town, Lamu County in Kenya. The objectives of the research include; to investigate the frequency of performance of Salat among Muslims in Lamu town, to establish the effectiveness of Salat performed by Muslims in Lamu town, to examine the relationship between effective performance of Salat and the rate of immortality and suggest ways and means of strengthening morality through the performance of Salat. The study is both qualitative and quantitative thus it employed descriptive research design.

      Anugrah Nur Rahmat, Husaini, Erida Wydiamala, Eko Suhartono, Adi Nugroho, Lenie Marlinae
Abstract: Water is the main requirement in life so that every living thing can grow and develop properly on earth. According to WHO, each person requires between 60-120 liters of water/day, while in developing countries, including Indonesia, each person requires between 30-60 liters/day of water.

      Rudi Fakhriadi, Dian Rosadi, Adinda Ratu Fitri, Lathifah Nurul ‘Aini, Pradiptha Hulanda Saputra
Abstract: World Health Organization (WHO) in 2021 stated that hypertension is the main cause of premature death worldwide and is often referred to as a "silent killer". At productive age, they are prone to hypertension because of their busy level and lif estyle that pays little attention to health, many factors play a role in the occurrence of hypertension.

      Tarek Alhamshri
Abstract: Representatives of international business and law from different countries, when preparing for a business partnership or transaction, often analyze the traditions, differences and characteristics of other countries. Companies try to adapt to the specifics of the other party in order to facilitate the business process. In order to achieve this, cultural dimensions can be analyzed that can convey essential incompatibilities between the parties. Analyzing the incompatibilities between different cultures, Hofstedes cultural dimension analysis can be used. This can be very useful in designing an international business negotiation process because it can convey the differences between different cultural dimensions among the negotiating parties. Dimensions of intercultural differences can influence the negotiation process between representatives of different cultures. There may be different understandings of different symbols or actions in different cultures.

      Salim Kalime Kasim
Abstract: In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis by governments and development practitioners on the active involvement of all stakeholders, particularly the intended beneficiaries, throughout the project cycle to expedite the achievement of development goals and sustain the realized benefits. Diverse strategies have been employed to enhance community participation in the planning, execution, monitoring, and evaluation of community-driven development initiatives. In Kenya, County governments are constitutionally mandated to facilitate peoples engagement in local development and governance.

      Racheal M. Okegbola
Abstract: This study examines the complex dynamics of electoral legitimacy and its effect on gender equality in the electoral systems of Nigeria and India from 2004 to 2015. It emphasises the significant barrier that gender inequality in politics poses, the challenges that female candidates face within political parties, and the implications for the legitimacy of elections in these two democratic systems. In addition, it investigates the barriers to achieving gender representation in the context of electoral legitimacy.

      Harli Hamdardi Yustia, F. X. Kurniawan Tjakrawala
Abstract: This research aims to determine the calculation of the Cost of Goods Manufactured using the Activity-Based Costing method. The Cost of Goods Manufactured is used as the basis for calculating the selling price of the product. Accurate and precise Cost of Goods Manufactured calculation is the key to generating accurate profits, as profit also serves as a reference for decision- making.

      Ahmed Salem Abushaala
Abstract: One of the greatest abilities humans have is this — Language. For so long, people have treated words as mere labels for objects, and languages as different ways to string words together to convey thoughts, feelings, and concepts. But language is more than that. Because of it, we can exchange complex thoughts and ideas with one another, whether it be spoken aloud or written in ink. It’s also through language that we’re able to trigger emotions, imagination, and action. There are more than 7,000 that exist today! And all these languages differ from one another in all kinds of ways; they all have different sounds, vocabularies, and structures. Speaking, writing and reading are integral to everyday life, where language is the primary tool for expression and communication. Studying how people use language - what words and phrases they unconsciously choose and combine - can help us better understand ourselves and why we behave the way we do.

      Zayed Abouhdema Ali Abouhdema
Abstract: "We live in the era of the so-called new economy, in which many things have changed. Instead of a market centered on the seller and goods, we have a market that is subordinate to the customer and his wishes. Since we live in a time when the world is dominated by the knowledge economy, rapid transformations of companies are The main capital of the company is not buildings, but people, experts and their knowledge. New generations are born in the digital world. Education is becoming a knowledge industry, which is a part of libraries. Knowledge is increasingly freed from its material carriers (paper). More and more universities creates consortia for distance education. Instead of alternation between craft and industrial production, we have their coexistence.

      Turabiirwe Lovence, Ben Okalang, Tukundane Adodia
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the Effect of loans on rural famer’s production out put. Objective of the study were; To analyses types of rural loans given to famer’s to boost production, to assess requirements of loan to famers, To examine effects of loans on rural famer’s production out puts. Time scope, This research covered the period of 2021-2022 (post Covid-19 Era) and areas like the total loan and GDP. Moreover, the study is limited to the Uganda n economy. It is equally limited by time and limited source of data. Content of the Scope, This study is organized in five chapters and data analyzed from empirical stand point.

      MUVUNYI Fred, Dr. MUGIRANEZA Faustin
Abstract: English language skills are the main foundation to learning and teaching in a school setting. Target of this study is to assess influence of school administration on English language acquisition in public secondary schools in Rwanda, Gasabo secondary schools. This research was supported with Theory of Jean Piaget child’s language development, Theory of Chomsky on children’s language development, social learning theory and didactic learning theory. The researcher used descriptive research design for data collections.

      Onuoha N.O. and Vincent Ele Asor
Abstract: The behaviour of systems that oscillate is an important area of study in so many fields due to its vast applications. It has a wide range of applications that cross across man-made and natural systems. There are many factors that can affect oscillatory systems. In this research, two factors are considered: nonlinear damping and geometric imperfections (the deviation and incompleteness of a system or components).

      Amina Gobu, Dr. Peary Kilei
Abstract: The primary goal of the research was to examine how socio-cultural factors affect the involvement of Youth and women in the management of Rural Sacco’s in Tana River County. The researchs key objectives are; To identify the activities, the Youth and women in Tana River County engage themselves in management of rural Sacco’s; To determine the social cultural aspects influencing Youth and women connection in the participation and management of rural Sacco’s in Tana River County

      Binod Kafle, Bhrigu Raj Bhattarai, Ajay Acharya
Abstract: The rapidly increasing penetration of renewable energies has introduced severe challenges to power system voltage controls due to the highly intermittent and uncertain power output of renewable energies. If a short-circuit fault occurs in a microgrid while operating at its design limit, often cost-effective system recovery becomes a challenging task. In such situations, predictive analytics can be used to enhance system recovery programs.

      Anik Budiati
Abstract: This article discusses the legibility of letter dimensions, number of lines, number of words on the information panel board on the Variable Message Sign (VMS) in relation to readability, the drivers reading speed. This research aims to obtain the readability distance and reading speed of the driver. In some countries, VMS media is used in an effort to reduce traffic incidents.

Abstract: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization in Morocco and worldwide. It is most often secondary to an aggression of the organism or a lack of insulin supply. We report here on a rare etiology of acid-ketotic decompensation: acute intestinal intussusception. Treatment is surgical with disinvagination, rehydration, insulin therapy and potassium supplementation.

Abstract: Tuberculosis miliaria is a disseminated form of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, most often via the hematogenous or lymphatic route. Depending on its degree of extension, it can lead to severe organ failure, which may explain its high mortality rate. Cardiac involvement during tuberculosis miliaria worsens the prognosis of these patients.

      Sneha Thange, Jayesh Dange, Vivek Karjule, Janhavi Sase
Abstract: In todays digital era, the ever-expanding volume of textual data, abundant on the internet and across various repositories, poses a formidable challenge for manual processing. This paper delves into the fascinating realm of text summarization, a process that distills lengthy content into shorter, more manageable versions. Its like a shortcut for understanding lengthy documents without reading every word. Text summarization refers to creating shorter versions or summaries of lengthy text while maintaining its core idea. This system finds diverse applications, from generating search engine snippets to condensing news headlines, facilitating lawsuit abstraction, and summarizing complex biomedical and clinical texts.

      Rudi Fakhriadi, Noor Ahda Fadillah
Abstract: Diarrhea disease is a disease characterized by changes in the shape and consistency of soft to liquid stools and an increase in the frequency of more than three times a day. Until now, Diarrhea disease is still a global health problem, especially in developing countries.

      Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Indika Sujith Priyantha, Weligamage Dedunu Chandrananda Udeni Dias, Wathsala Dilini Kumari Wijesinghe, Lalith poddalgoda
Abstract: Excellent external customer services heavily depend on satisfied internal customers (staff). Studies on internal customer care practices in Sri Lankan governmental healthcare institutions are limited.

      Wathsala Dilini Kumari Wijesinghe, Wijewardane Abeywickrama Nishshanka
Abstract: Introduction: PSSP was designed by Sri Lankan health experts, professionals, and citizens with a new vision to strengthen the primary healthcare system in the country and to prepare the nation to meet future health challenges.

      Wathsala Dilini Kumari Wijesinghe, Wijewardane Abeywickrama Nishshanka , Eresha Fernando
Abstract: Introduction: Nursing is an inherently demanding profession that requires both clinical expertise and emotional resilience. The challenging nature of nursing, involving long hours, high-pressure situations, and constant exposure to suffering, often results in significant stress among professionals. This stress not only impacts the mental and physical health of nurses but also has implications for patient care and healthcare system efficacy. This study explores factors contributing to occupational stress among nursing professionals and emphasizes its far-reaching consequences.

      Amira A. E. Satti
Abstract: Three samples of of Acacia nilotica var. nilotica gum was subjected to comparison study of salt tolerance and stiffness parameter with chitosan nitrate and chitosan chlorhydrate. The results showed that two of samples have semi-stiff backbone with lower persistence length; the third sample has stiff backbone with higher persistence length.

      Weleh I. Ikechuwu (PhD), Siyeofori Dede (MBBS), Onoja, W. Joy (MBBS), Achinike, P. Nyenwuna
Abstract: Eliozu dumpsite is one of the biggest dumpsite in Port Harcourt metropolis. Wastes are dumped untreated, and thus may pose serious environmental risks to inhabitants in the area. The present study focuses on the assessment of the histopathology of the spleen; platelet counts exposed to Eliozu dumpsite leachate using wistar rats as model. Twenty five (25) male wistar rats were divided into five groups of five animals each; the leachate was collected from the dumpsite and water from near-by borehole also collected. Group 1 which served as control group received 1ml of commercial bottle water, group 2 received 1ml of borehole water 1kilometer from the dumpsite, groups 3, 4 and 5 received different concentration of the leachate in 10%, 50% and 100% for (40) days, the animals were sacrificed after being anesthetized with chloroform vapor, the bloods and spleens were collected for Platelet counts were analyzed using Auto-analyzer (Auto-analyzer, Mayamed, England. 2018 model) and histological studies using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), special stain Mason Trichrome.

Abstract: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems play a pivotal role in ensuring the success of global projects undertaken by private and non-governmental organizations. The utilization of M&E systems is vital for project accomplishment and the adherence to predefined scopes. Nevertheless, organizations frequently encounter challenges in this regard, as exemplified by the case of Plan International Kenya. This organization faced issues related to stakeholder engagement and project implementation costs due to initial shortcomings in their M&E systems. This study aims to address the existing research gaps, particularly concerning key variables such as competency levels within M&E systems, stakeholder participation, and the costs associated with monitoring and evaluation. This research delves into the intricate relationships between monitoring resources, the competence levels associated with M&E systems, stakeholder involvement, and the overall performance of Plan International health projects in Nairobi County. The theoretical underpinnings of this study draw upon the Theory of Change, the Resource-Based View Theory, and the Results Theory. The research methodology incorporated a purposive sampling approach, targeting a population of 45 staff members actively engaged in Plan International health projects within Nairobi County. Data collection methods included both questionnaires and interviews, each subjected to rigorous reliability assessments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24, with results being presented through descriptive statistical methods. Qualitative data was thematically analyzed, aligning with the study defined objectives and thematic areas.
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