International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Online print version will release latest by 30th January. Download cover page for this edition.
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      Dr. Vimal P.Parmar, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Searching is the fundamental computing task in computer applications. Storage and data structure has greater impact on retrieval of data. Numbers of implementation are available to efficiently store and manipulate data. The selection of such appropriate structure depends on the nature of the application and the way in which data are manipulated. Key plays a vital role for searching data. In most of the implementation search is performed based on entire key value. Trie structure is a data structure that performs storing and searching based on individual character or digit that composite a key. Trie structure is suitable for many applications where efficient searching is the prime requirement and one such an application is to storage of homophone. This paper implements a trie structure for storage and retrieval of English homophones. Homophone is the term used to describe words which have similar type of pronunciation having different spelling and meaning. Many computer applications require manipulation of homophones. In this research paper an effort has been made to implement trie structure to store and search homophones. The paper describes two implementation algorithms for constructing a trie structure and then searching from the constructed structure. Phonetic algorithms are used to determine phonetic identity of the words but once identified it is required to store them efficiently as well as search them efficiently. The paper is concluded with resultant sample data set.

      Babiker O. Mahgoub, Sara A.E. Ali, Omima A. Mirghani

Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to measure and evaluate the production efficiency of groundnut crop in Gezira Scheme, to investigate the main tenant-specific factors behind tenants’ technical inefficiency in the Gezira scheme. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study purposes .Stochastic frontier production function was estimated using a sample of 150 tenants were collected during season 2011/2012 in the Gezira Scheme. The results show that an average of technical efficiency of 65% for groundnut production is found, implying that scope to increase groundnut yield through the better use of the tenants available resources are exist. Age farmers, education years, sowing date, farm income, irrigation numbers and total labour is the major factors that are associated with changes in groundnut yield. The experience farmers and family size are the appeared to be the most important socio-economic factors determining farmers’ efficiencies in groundnut production in Gezira scheme. The results also showed that 94% of groundnut output deviation from normal is due to differences in farmers’ level of technical efficiencies as opposite to the conventional random variability. The study recommended improving technical efficiency for groundnut production in the Gezira Scheme.

      Nassar Hussain Shah

Abstract: Imam al-Ghazali has been regarded as the mujaddid (the reviver or the Islamic reformer) of the 5th century AH of Islam, and has been credited with various titles, of which the most famous is as Hujjat al-Islam (Proof of Islam). This article investigates the development of al-Ghazali’s thought and spiritual journey through different stages of his life,ie Spiritual Illumination, Al-Ghazzali Praises Sufism, Becomes a Sufi, Sufism The One True Way. Ghazali’s Impact on Sufism .This article basesd how Al-Ghazali renounced his brilliant career and turned to Sufism and radically transformed to become a personal Sufi during the seclusion period, leading to his subsequently becoming an active public Sufi.and contributed in this field

      Rakesh Singh Chauhan

Abstract: Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh is inhabited by number of tribal communities residing in remote villages and forests. These tribal people depend on medicinal plant wealth for the treatment of various human diseases. For present study authors have visited different sites and recorded 24 plant species used by the tribes for various disease controls.

      Shaik Mohammad Yahiya, P. Venkateshwar Reddy, G. Upendra Rao

Abstract: It is confirmed that in internal combustion engines (ICEs), more than 30–40% of fuel energy wastes from the exhaust and just 12–25% of the fuel energy converts to useful work. On the other hand, statistics show that producing amounts of the internal combustion engines growth very fast and the concern of increasing the harmful greenhouse gases (GHG) will be appeared. So, researchers are motivated to search alternative solutions by using conservation ways, recover the heat from the waste sources in engines which not only reduces the demand of fossil fuels, but also reduce the GHG and help in energy saving. On the other hand, because exhaust gas heat recovery using heat exchanger may make a pressure drop and effects on the engine performance hence its design is very important and crucial. To select an appropriate heat exchanger design limitations for each heat exchanger type firstly should be considered. Though production cost is often the primary limitation, several other selection aspects such as temperature ranges, pressure limits, thermal performance, pressure drop, fluid flow capacity, cleanability, maintenance, materials, etc. are important. One of the most effective methods to increase heat transfer is using the fins which are widely used by the researchers across the heat recovery designers. Some of the special HEXs designs to recover the exhaust heat are introduced. This paper aims to model the heat transfer through exhaust gases to a cold fluid with modeling the fins with suitable viscous model to calculate the heat recovery amount. Two cases of previous experimental work are selected and numerical results are compared with experimental outcomes. Also, effect of fins size and engine load and speed on heat recovery is examined graphically.

      Md. Shawkatul Islam Aziz, Mudabber Ahmed

Abstract: Inflation is one of the major problems of the economy of Bangladesh. The study analyzed the key determinants of inflation in Bangladesh using data for the period from 1987 to 2012. To explain the relationships a model is constructed with lagged independent variables and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method has been used. Empirical results show that money supply and unemployment positively and significantly affect inflation. Results also indicate that exchange rate significantly and negatively influences over inflation rate. The explanatory variables accounted for 77 percent of the variation of inflation during the study period. This study suggests that money supply should be controlled to decrease inflation. Exchange rate is also an important tool to control inflation. A depreciation in the exchange rate raises inflation.

      Practices related to foot care among type ll diabetes mellitus patients who attend diabetes clinics in General Hospital Kurunegala, Sri Lanka

Abstract: Introduction: Diabetic foot problems are one of the key areas of attention and if not treated properly can lead to life threatening consequences like amputations. It can be prevented by self-care practices, early diagnosis and proper management. Therefore, patient’s self-practice regarding foot care remains a mainstay of management.

      Dr. C .M Garama ; Proph. Kweri

Abstract: Background: In Kenya the number of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected people eligible for initiation of antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is increasing. The national ART comprehensive care Clinic programmatic success requires that patients who are taking ART remain on treatment and are followed up regularly to ensure they adhere to treatment protocol and to reduce cases of drug resistance and arising toxicities. This study investigated factors associated with being lost to follow-up, in a cohort of patients enrolled in HIV comprehensive care clinic at Kipiripiri of Nyandarua county.

      Khan Muneer Aslam

Abstract: Corruption already existed at the time of the “good old” Olympic Games of the Antique Era. And it continues to exist in modern competitive sport.Corruption plagues all major Indian sports, including cricket, hockey, weightlifting, and athletics.The 2010 IPL franchise bidding process also led to the resignation of Shashi Tharoor, Minister of State for External Affairs, whose friend and current wife, Sunanda Pushkar, was alleged to have received $15 million in ‘sweat equity’ from one of the franchises . Appalled in the June 2010 by the Commonwealth Games corruption scandal, former Indian Olympians launched the Group of Clean Sports India to raise public awareness and fight corruption in sports.Women’s Hockey World Cup( New Delhi) was hit by a financial corruption scandal involving the Federation of International Hockey (FIH), Indian Olympic Association (IOA) and HI.

      Winga Maureen Adhiambo

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether transition and examination pressure affect the lives of form ones and form fours respectively. The objectives of the study were to:- compare coping styles used by form ones and form fours, compare school engagement of form ones and form fours and to compare levels of school burnout between form ones and form fours. The study was guided by Lazarus and Folkman’s Transactional theory, Work Engagement theory and Work Burnout theory. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population consisted of 9000 students. A sample size of 900 was selected based on Nkpa’s formula. Stratified random sampling technique was used. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Reliability was computed using Cronbach’s alpha:- 0.6 for coping style 0.8 for school engagement and 0.8 for school burnout. Face and content validity were ascertained by experts in the Department of Educational Psychology and the author respectively. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics. There were significant differences in both emotion focused coping style and problem focused coping styles. For school engagement there were significant differences in dedication and absorption. For Burnout, there were significant differences in reduced efficacy with form fours reporting higher levels than form ones. The study may be useful to teachers, counselors, administrators and parents who may be able to assist students reduce burnout. This research is also important for policy. The government may enforce school holidays devoid of tuition. It is recommended that programs be developed that enhance school engagement.

      Mohammed Seid Adem

Abstract: In different parts of Ethiopia, even though many studies have been conducted on environment and management of natural resources, the environmental literacy level of farmers is not utterly studied and analyzed. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the environmental knowledge, attitude and awareness of farmers at Chencha Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. Stratified and systematic samplings were applied to select target population. The primary data were gathered from 330 household heads by using standardized questionnaire. The analysis was undertaken by using quantitative methods [ANOVA, Tukey test, eta square, and T-test]. The study revealed that, nearly 50% of the respondents had medium level of environmental knowledge and awareness level. The statistical analysis displayed that educational status, age, & information accessibility had statistically significant influence on environmental knowledge, attitude and awareness of framers. However, respondents’ sex had no influence on their environmental behavior. Insufficient information, lack of organized training centers and poor environmental education provision were some of the constraints in improvement of environmental knowledge and behavior of farmers. Improving farmers’ environmental knowledge, attitude and awareness is vital for conservation of Ethiopia’s remaining natural resources and biodiversity. Therefore, all stakeholders must work jointly to improve the environmental behavior of farmers.

      Bala Isah Abdulkarim

Abstract: Anaerobic Digestion has been used for decades, primarily in rural areas, for the production of biogas for use as a cooking and lighting fuel. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal waste is a relatively new concept that only in the past 20-30 years has found application in pilot and full scale. While anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste is yet to be widely applied in underdeveloped countries, it can said to be well established in industrialised nation most especially Europe. This result is largely due to waste and energy policies in Europe (e.g., The Landfill Directive 1999). In Europe, Investigation reveals that as at the year 2016 there are 224 anaerobic digestion facilities with an accumulative capacity of 7,750,000 tonnes/year treating over 5% of the biodegradable organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Netherland and Switzerland have the largest capacity installed per capita. The current study shows that anaerobic digestion has become a well-established and accepted treatment option for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. It has become a good alternative to incineration or landfill disposal due to its lower environmental impacts.

      Gamachis Garamu

Abstract: Any production unit inspires efficiency, because it leads to profitability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate relative Efficiency and TFP of MSEs operating in three sample Towns in Buno Bedelle and Ilu Aba Bor Zones during the year 2013 and 2014. Three input variables - Plant Asset, intermediate variables and number of employee, and one output variable – Net Sales, were selected. Output-orientation DEA BCC-model was used to measure the relative technical efficiency and DEA-MPI to measure the productivity changes over time. The results revealed the average TE score of 0.492, which implies that the sample MSEs on average technically inefficient. It also indicates that the major source of inefficiency during the study period on average comes from pure technical inefficiency which meant primarily due to managerial inefficiency in selecting optimal selection of resource allocation. The study also reveals that the average TFP change is 0.836 during the year2014 which implies productivity regress. Technical efficiency regress takes the most contributions to the loss of TFP. Regression in Technical efficiency indicates a great potential for the MSEs to increase productivity through effective utilization of resources and filling knowledge dispersion among managers through different capacity building mechanism.

      Mahesh Babu Katta, R.Priyakanth, Tejaswini Kunam

Abstract: The precision of the GPS navigation solution is affected by several types of error factors, in which the GPS signal delay by the ionosphere is the greatest after the omission of selective availability. This delay can be approximated by using one of the Ionospheric error correction models i.e. Klobuchar Algorithm, which estimate ionospheric time delay up to 50% or more, on a Root Mean Square (RMS) basis which is crutial to give the appropriate user position for single frequency GPS receivers. By using the Klobuchar algorithm, ionospheric range delay, the ionospheric time delay and Total Electron Content of ionosphere are estimated.In this paper the estimation of different ionospheric delay errors are presented after a systematic study of different parameters involved in this estimation.

      MoatasemW. Man Allh, Riyad A Abed

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of serumindicators of cellular oxidative stress and the antioxidant the relevance with inflammations parameters, establishing the inflammatory profile in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

      S.S.Malaj, S.S.Kamate

Abstract: This Paper proposes a approach for the toll Collection at toll booths which is automatized using RFID & GSM technology in order to reduce the time consumption. RFID Tag will be held in each Vehicle which contains unique identification number assigned. The identification is done with the help of radio frequency. RFID Tag will be held in each Vehicle which contains unique identification number assigned. All basic information & the amount that has been paid in advance will be stored in accordance with the number. The RTO or traffic governing authority will do the assigning process & the reader will be strategically placed at toll collection center. The tax amount will be deducted from the prepaid balance, whenever the vehicle passes the toll booth and the new balance will be updated. SMS messages is sent to the mobile owner regarding the balance information.As vehicles don’t have to stop in a queue, this translates to reduced Traffic congestion at toll plazas and helps in lower fuel consumption. This is very important advantage of this system.

      Abdullahi, S. Ayegba, Shelbut Nandir Elaine, Abegunde Linda Olukemi, Mba Tochukwu William

Abstract: The knowledge of the seasonal variation in global solar radiation reaching a location on the earth is an important information for Agriculturists, water sector personnel, electrical power sector, environmentalists, etc. The objective of this work is to determine how global solar radiation of Lagos state varies with dry seasons.

      Aurang Zeb, Musa Khan, Fazal Wahab, Muhammad Tufail Khan, Asim Nawaz, NeelamFaraz

Abstract: Objective: Identify theKnowledge, Attitude and practice regarding diet and exercise for normal glucose level among diabetic patients.

      AbeyrathnaR.M.R.D., Amaratunga K.S.P., Kariyawasam H.K.P.P.

Abstract: A far infrared continuous type rice flour gelatinizer was developed and tested. At presentrice flour is roasted in batch process using electricity or firewood in industry. The existing batch type conduction heating roasters are labor intensive and energy inefficient. Radiation heating is more effective compared to conduction and convection in food processing.At present, there are no far infrared heating continuous type rice flour roasters for industrial use. An auger was used to mix and move flour in the machine. At the top and the bottom of the auger, far infrared heaters were established to supply radiation heat. The industrial requirement was to get gelatinized rice flour at the rate of 300kg/h. To achieve required rpm, heater height and temperature and retention time were considered.Driving mechanism was developed to rotatethe auger at 28 rpm. Control system was developed using 16F684 microprocessor to control the heaters’ temperature and auger by modulating pulse width to achieve the maximum gelatinization of rice flour while maintaining the required output. One thermocouple and three LM35 sensors were used to automate the system. Styrofoam and wood boards were used to insulate the machine.Rice flour was added from the rice mill at a rate of 300kg/h to the gelatinizer.Maximum input flour temperature from the mill was 75°C and output temperature from the gelatinizer was 90°C. Machine’s inner surface temperature was maintained at 100°C. Outer surface temperature was 66°C. Moisture content at the output was 11.30% wet basis and viscosity was 350Mpa/s.Machine power consumption was 4.8kW/h. Moisture was removed at a rate of 0.24 L/h.

      Hawraa Mehdi Farhan , Hana,a Kadhem Egzar and Eman Hassen Sahap

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate physiochemical properties of dates syrup samples which selected from some middle cities of Iraq. Various physiochemical properties of dates syrup were analyzed and compared tosome producing countries of date syrup (molasses).. Dates syrup quality and determination of Viscosity , Density, Specificgravity , Refraction index, Conductivity and Acidity. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there is no significant difference between results of collected samples and compared the results obtained with some producing countries which implies good quality dates syrup.

      Ghazi El-Khidir Mohamed

Abstract: The weakness of local people’s participation in forestry activities in the White Nile State stays as a major constraint to achieve any progress and development in the area. Poor peasants are strongly tied to their local traditions and beliefs. Participation is a major issue to be discussed and investigated in such communities. This study attempted to point out the most common constraints that influence the locals from adopting any kind of activity aimed at their own benefit.

      Aditi Bhushan

Abstract: The traditional mode of teaching and assessing mathematics in Indian schools has made this subject dull and boring for many students. This disinterest could be easily seen among them while assessments. Students who rely mostly on factual domain of cognitive memory, prefer to memorize the things rather than to understand, apply, analyze and evaluate the knowledge. This weakens the reasoning and analytical memory skills of students. With the help of formative and summative assessments a teacher can always evaluate a learner’s progress. This research study is comparing and drawing the line of inferences between the techniques of e-assessment of a learning management system (LMS) and the traditional approach of assessment. Here I have tried to figure out the impact of e-assessment on students, and how it is beneficial to them. With help of these e-learning methodologies how well a student can cope up with mathematics concepts and how these e-assessment tools become useful for teachers as well as students. This research paper has stressed upon the use of cloud technique of e-assessment. Assessing and storing data at a cloud platform is always preferable than on a standalone desktop application. This is because in presence of data and network connectivity, cloud servers can be assessed anytime at anyplace over any medium like smart phones, tablets, desktops or laptops. We just need to have our login credentials with a WiFi network or LAN connectivity so the learning could never get hamper.

      Dr Naisargi Patel , Dr Swati Singh,Dr Jayshree Narshetty,Dr B.G. Boricha

Abstract: To assess a case of Edward’s Syndrome (trisomy18). Review of literature shows only few series evaluating such cases stimulating us to publish this case. The data reviewed does not appear to have any adverse effect on the mother or fertility.


Abstract: This study applies financial performance evaluation of Construction companies in India. Indian economy has been hit by various economic crises from last few years and the economic stagnation still continues. Experiences in various countries show that it is vitally important to encourage construction activities in order to get out of stagnation, as construction output directly affects other sectors. Current research introduces a performance evaluation model for construction companies in order to provide a proper tool for a company’s managers, owners, shareholders, and funding agencies to evaluate the performance of construction companies. The model developed helps a company’s management to make the right decisions. Financial, economical, and industrial data are collected from 100 Indian construction companies for five consecutive years (2011-2015).Firstly understand the principles underlying in the analysis of financial statements pertaining to the Indian construction organizations. . Previous research has shown that there are about 21 financial ratios that are important for the construction companies. This, in turn, requires elimination of unrelated data. Factor analysis is a data reduction and classification technique, which can be applied in financial analysis. Factor analysis was thus applied to the financial data collected construction companies for a 5-year period in order to determine the financial indicators that can be used to analyze the financial trend of the industry. Seven independent factors, i.e. liquidity, Activity, profitability, long term solvency, Asset management, Inventory and Efficiency were identified to be sensitive to the economic changes in the country. The final outcome of this research is a performance grade, which provides the performance of a construction company and ranking the companies based of calculated performance grade and finally assessing the risk of bankruptcy by using Z-score model.

      Miss. Renuka Hangarge,Mr. Ashish Waghmare,Mr. Shridhar Patil

Abstract: Construction industry is having biggest role in economy of India. In recent times , if we look at the global economy and growth of population in India, land acquisition has became more difficult. To fulfill the need of shelter of this growing population and increasing industrialization, speedy construction is the necessity of time. Same time, due to inadequacy of land Vertical growth is preferable than Horizontal one. Formwork plays an important role in construction of the buildings. It constitutes 20% cost and 60% time of the total construction. This project does the comparison of the Conventional Formwork, Tunnel Formwork and Aluminum Formwork systems.

      Obute K.C., Agu V.N. 1, Anazia E.A, Okozi S.O., Anih L.U

Abstract: The work presents starting, steady-state modelling and simulation studies of single-phase transfer field reluctance motor operating in the asynchronous mode from which the performance indices could be predicted. The machine is made up of two similar motors that are integrally wound and mechanically coupled together, but with their pole axes 0.5 degree out of phase in space. The transfer field machine in general is a low speed machine operating at half the synchronous speed of a normal induction machine. The equivalent circuit of the machine is derived using d-q-o transformation fundamentals. The speed range of the machine unlike the normal induction machine counterpart with slip range 0 < s < 2, has a corresponding slip range 0.5 < s < 1.5. The simulation results reveal a good similarity in its steady state characteristics with that of the existing normal single phase induction motor counterpart. Obviously, all single phase asynchronous motors are not self starting. They suffer the severe problem of getting the rotor rotate when started. The designed value of capacitor necessary for satisfactory starting performance of the machine is also discussed. Due to its inherent half speed characteristics, the possible areas of application are limited and are also suggested in the work.

      R. Devanathan and Dr. A.K. Ravisankar

Abstract: In India, healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace due to its strengthening coverage, services and increasing expenditure by public as well private players. The practice of public health has been dynamic in India and has witnessed many hurdles in its attempt to affect the lives of the people of this country. Here an attempt is made to analyse the utilisation of public and private health facilities for the hospitalised cases at two different socio-economic statuses of Indian states. Data for the analyses are drawn from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey held in 2014. It is inferred from the study that the people residing at more developed states are believed on private institutions for medical care services whereas the less developed states are partly depend upon private sector services.

      P.G.Karuppanna Raja, M.Rajkumar

Abstract: Corrosion is the destructive attack of a metal and its properties by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. The importance of corrosion studies is threefold includes conservation, improved safety and economic losses. The structural deterioration of all metallic mains is due to the external corrosion which is included by environmental and operation conditions. It is necessary to remember that the choice of material depends on many factors, including corrosion resistance, cost, fabricability, strength. Complete corrosion resistance is almost all media can be achieved by the use of glass, but it is not practical. The corrosion resistance of the material is the most important properties in most engineering applications. In this investigation, FWTPET process has been carried to achieve high-quality leak-proof joints. SA 213 tube and SA 387 tube plate are dissimilar material joined using by FWTPET process of interference fit with backing block. Polarization study and AC impedance spectra have been used to investigate the corrosion parameters of the material system immersed in well water in the absence and presence of the inhibitor Sodium Potassium Tartrate (SPT) and the result shows the increase of corrosion resistance in the materials.

      Charles Micallef

Abstract: An internet search on the use of Blu-Tack®, a flexible tacky polymer, as a possible transmission oil stop leak for defective or old gearboxes, showed that there was no evidence to support this hypothesis. Ten preliminary tests involved heating a piece of Blu-Tack attached to a stainless steel kettle for not less than 30 minutes at around 100°C each time. As the Blu-Tack retained the same rubbery and sticky properties it was then decided to investigate whether it can stop gearbox oil leaks on two cars: a relatively new car and an old one. A reasonable piece of Blu-Tack was worked into a long cylindrical strip and pressed firmly using the fingers onto the trouble area so as to form a flat strip approximately 1 cm wide thus covering completely the defective rubber seal or gasket. After ten months and more than 3,000 km of road testing, the putty remained intact and no oil smears were detected. On the much older car with cardboard gaskets, the same procedure was applied and Blu-Tack was again an effective, exterior stop leak. This study provides a platform for further scientific experiments on the use of Blu-Tack for stopping transmission fluid leaks. It is also recommended to investigation whether Blu-Tack can stop engine oil leaks.

      Ziming Liu

Abstract: This research investigates the current situation of videogames in China by analyzing the effects of playing computer games on academic achievement and social skills, as well as attitudes toward playing games from the perspective of both parents and children.Paper and online questionnaires were used to collect data, and Chi-Squaredand Logistic Regression analyseswere done to evaluate the significance of findings using R and Excel.

      Geetha .T and Sangeetha.B

Abstract: New parameters can be introduced to expand families of distributions for added flexibility or to construct covariate models. Introduction of scale parameter usually leads to the accelerated life model, and taking powers of the survival function introduces a parameter that leads to the proportional hazard model of Morgenstern gumbel bivariate distribution was applied to find the diurnal rhythm of leptin depends on energy, or carbohydrate, availability, not intake, and exercise has no suppressive effect on the diurnal rhythm of leptin beyond the impact of its energy cost on energy availability.

      Lawrence, Ethelbert Okey

Abstract: Nigerian is confronted with an array of challenges which threaten its survival. One of these is corruption, especially within the legislature, given the fact that this arm of government is the lamp of the society, any calculated action, or omission from it, has significant impact on the general outlook of the country. Corruption is viral as such combating it is persistently proving difficult. However, laudable achievements have been recorded by the legislature but regrettably, the ugly incidences of corruption in the system is grossly beclouding these strides. Generally, corruption brings about economic backwardness, political instability, social insecurity, infrastructural decay, negation of the principle of law, etc. Based largely on secondary data, findings reveal that the consequences of corruption on the legislature in Nigeria includes bills that are not entirely beneficial to Nigerians have been passed into law in order to please the executive, political patronage, partisanship, and primordial sentiments characterise legislative activities; negating the principle of check and balance between the three arms of government. It is recommended among others that corrupt individuals should not be part of the legislature; the emolument of political office holders at all tiers of government should be made public; effective laws to check the excesses of legislators and all political office-holders in Nigeria be put in place as a matter of urgency; The Nigerian federation be restructured in order to deal with the psychology of national cake sharing which breeds corruption in governance and holding forth honesty and integrity in the discharge of legislative constitutional responsibilities.

      Marieska Lupikawaty, Didik Susetyo, Rosmiyati C. Saleh, Bambang B. Soebyakto

Abstract: This research is based on theory and previous research on the labor supply for married women in particular in support of early childhood care. Working mothers who have children can still work involving the care of the child to the grandparents or other relatives (noncare) or to institute a professional child care (daycare). The aim of research is to see a tendency of working mothers in demand of childcare which raises cost of childcare. It was concluded that the mother worked in four cities in the province of South Sumatera prefer use the type of noncare, which is a type childcare with or without nurse in supervised by grandparents or other relatives. Demand in noncare type raises a greater cost than daycare type. This is due to leave their children on grandparents with or without nurse at home causing non-economic costs of providing care to the grandparents as a form to be thankful to them while mother work at the office. So these findings is the difference from previous research that the type of childcare costs at noncare type is larger and the amount of cost noncare is not fixed per month.

      Yudhi Firmansyah, Musa Hubeis, Hari Wijayanto

Abstract: Employee engagement is represented by the commitment, decision, and dedication of employee to contribute to the organization. This research aims to analyze the employee engagement of supporting staff of Andalas University (UNAND). This research utilizes the descriptive quantitative methods. The data are gathered through questionnaire for respondents with the total of 224 samplesdetermined based on Slovin sampling method. The questionnaire statements in this research make use of the Gallup method and are combined with X-model questionnaire developed by BlessingWhite. The questionnaire contains statements regarding satisfaction and contribution. The contribution value is also obtained by combining the value from Civil Servant Works Targets 2015 with contribution value from the questionnaire. The result of this research shows that Faculty of Economy has The Engaged criteria with 16.67% which is higher than any other working units in Andalas University.

      Kavita Tiwari, Surendra Kumar, Pooja Singh

Abstract: Paramedical services plays vital role in case of pre-hospital medical emergency services. The outstanding paramedical services also improve the Social Perception and subsequently help in the Brand Building. In this paper, a study has been done to identify the effect of paramedical services on the Social Perception and Brand Building of the hospital. In this study, a relevant questionnaire has been filled by 200 respondents including paramedical staff in 9 hospitals at Lucknow. Five case studies are performed in this study to know the relation among Social Perception, Brand Building, Fund Management and Role Performance.

      Jaswinder Kaur

Abstract: This document is based on character recognition which include handwritten and machine written texts. The basic aim of this research is to differentiate between printed or machine text and hand written text. In current work the optical character reader (OCR) for Punjabi Gurumukhi text is performed. Process of research is follow image acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification &recognition, post processing.

      Md. Abdur Razzak, Shaikh Shahinur Rahman, Md. Ayub Ali, Md. Salah Uddin, Farha Matin Juliana and Md. Sabir Hossain

Abstract: Mention Nutritional knowledge, personal hygiene and immunization awareness can be gained through nutrition education. In this study, five hundred adolescent girls between ten to nineteen years were selected as samples. In baseline study the participants were randomly assigned to a control and an intervention group and both group had the same number of adolescent girls. In end line, 241 adolescent girls from intervention group and 236 from control group were finally interviewed. This study showed that adolescents who took TT vaccine and who did not take TT vaccine were either normal or malnourished (67.24 vs. 56.77). Adolescent girls were significantly (p<0.05) increased whereas moderate and severe thinness girls were almost less than those who did not take TT vaccine. TT Immunization increased through nutrition education counseling and played a significant role in reducing the thinness among the adolescent girls. In compare with those did not take TT vaccine, nutrition education also appreciably contributed on vaccination coverage between control and intervention group (28.8 to 44.0; p<0.001). This TT immunization awareness can be grown up through nutritional education.

      Rahul Hanumanth Rao

Abstract: In this current generation, technology is at its best. Many improved technologies are more facile than they have been before. WI-FI, which stands for wireless-fidelity, is a wireless way to handle networking. This functionality allows computers, smartphones, or other contrivances to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area. This paper explicates information about different communication modules such as Bluetooth, RF, and Zig bee in industrial applications. In this paper, an overall comparison of these three modules are made, which are predicated upon their industrial applications and characteristics such as standards, bandwidth, battery life, data rate, maximum transmission range, etc.

      Raju Sarkar

Abstract: Women's education and employment are indeed likely to play an important role in the empowerment of women through the collective efforts of women with favorable institutional support that can promote the empowerment process. The study points to the correlation between literacy and gender ratios in West Bengal in 2011 and finally look into the socio-demographic covariables of women's employment and their impact on women's empowerment in the state of West Bengal, based on secondary sources of data like, Census of India and NFHS-3. The literacy rate in West Bengal has always been higher than the all-India average, and West Bengal ranks sixth among the major states in this regard. It is observed that there is a fairly low and negative level Correlation, that is, r = -0.16 between the literacy rate and sex ratio in West Bengal. The main finding is that employment has a positive impact on active participation in the decision-making process at home. Thus, the results show that in general 38.1 percent of women have generally participated in household decisions, in the rural area 34.26 percent, but the urban area improved a lot, such as 47, 5 percent. It is also found that Muslim women are not a good contributor to household decisions compared to Hindu women. In the case of age at marriage, among non-working women 12-17 age groups considered at an early age in marriage, but working women delayed marriage, especially those who marry later compensate for their delay in marriage. Reproductive reproduction more abundant after marriage.

      Andi Sofyan

Abstract: As the spearhead of law enforcement, the position of judge is very significant and prestigious, because based on the consideration and decision, the law is upheld and justice is given to the litigants. In his authority, the justice seekers entrust their fate to judge and therefore the quality of judges becomes crucial to their existence in shaping and enforcing the authority of law. One of judge assignments in performing his judicial function is to decide cases that have been filed upon him. Judge must not refuse to examine and hear as well decide the case presented to him with unclear law reasons or law provision has not been set. The limited scope possible to be accommodated by rule of written law against any concrete events encountered by society who then confronted the judge to examine, hear and decide, has given rise to consequences for the judge to perform rechtsvinding in spacious sense. There are three (3) stages must be conducted by judge in deciding a case, namely ascertain facts, qualify the incident and constituted legal events. Rechtsvinding is an obligation of judges, this is caused by several factors, as follows: First; as stated beforehand, that almost all of the events is not completely depicted within concrete law precisely in legislation. Second; provisions of a legislation, or sometimes conflict with other provisions, thus it requires clarity to be implemented appropriately, correctly and fairly; Third: due to the dynamics of society, there is a variety of new legal events that are not depicted in the legislation; Fourth obligation to rechtsvinding also arises because there is a variety of new law events that is not depicted in the legislation, there is a variety of events that has not depicted yet in the legislation; Fifth: obligation to rechtsvinding also arises due to provisions or the legal principle that prohibits judges to reject a case with unclear law reason or law provisions has not been set.

      Mieso Keweti Shengu, Yacob Alemayehu Ademe

Abstract: An important aspect for improved crop variety is putting seeds at a desired depth with use of optimum fertilizer. These increase the likelihood of germination, emergence thereby improved productivity. The study was conducted with the objective of evaluating response of soybean varieties to planting depth and phosphorus application. A combination of 2 x 3 x 4 factorial experimental design was replicated three times in RCBD. Awassa 04 and Awassa 95 soybean varieties with 3 sowing depth (3.5, 5.5 and 7.5 cm) and 4 phosphorus fertilizers (0, 23. 46 and 46 kg per ha) were used at Dilla university. There were significant depth x phosphorus x variety for leaf number, number of pod plant-1 and thousand seed weights. The highest grain yield of 1273.67 and 1270.00 (t/ha) were obtained from 5.5 cm depth x 46 kg phosphorus ha-1 while the lowest grain yield of 1046 and 1040.33 were obtained from 3.5 cm depth x 69 kg of phosphorus ha-1 for Awassa 04 and Awassa 95, respectively. The maximum number of leaf plant-1 was recorded from 5.5 cm x 46 kg while plant height and branch number (43.11 cm and 5.56) were collected from 7.5 cm x 0 kg; and 7.5 cm x 0 kg ha-1 respectively. The highest means were recorded from 3.5 cm x 23 kg (9.63) and 5.5 x 23 kg (23.00), respectively. Maximum number of pod plant-1 (97.33) was recorded from 5.5 cm x 0 kg. Highest thousand seed weight (2803.33 gram) was obtained from 3.5 cm x 0 kg. The optimum standard germination was recorded from 5.5 cm x 46 kg ha-1. Planting depth 5.5 cm x 46 kg ha-1phosphorus is recommended to be used to increase soybean productivity. In general, further investigation is required to confirm the current investigation.

      Mieso Keweti Shengu

Abstract: The current study was initiated to find out the nature and magnitude of genetic variability for different traits in 12 maize genotypes using randomized complete block designs in humid tropics of Ethiopia in 2015. Analysis of variance showed that the mean squares due to genotype were significant at (p<0.01) for maturity traits, plant and ear height, number of row per ear, thousand kernel weights and grain yield per hectare, indicating the existence of sufficient genetic variability and the potential for selection and improvement of the traits. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations were obtained from number of ear per plant, ear diameter, grain yield per hectare, number of row per ear and ear length, indicating less environmental influence on the traits. High heritability estimates were obtained from all traits except anthesis-silking interval depicting the traits respond positively due to selection. Estimates of genetic advances as percent of mean at 5% selection intensity ranged from 4.68% for 1000-kernel weights to 78.95% for number of ear per plant.

      Esraa A. Khalied, MSc, Hala S. Abdullwahid, PhD

Abstract: Objective(s):The present study aims at evaluating the deliverymaternal and child health services provided by staff nurses in Baghdad city's primary health care centers.

      Dr.RashmiRani Agnihotri H.R, Prof.Dr.K.S.Malipatil,Mr.Mahesh Urukundappa

Abstract: The World Bank has suggested that empowerment of women should be the key aspect of Social Development Programmes (World Bank, 2001). India has also ratified various international convention committed to securing equal rights to women. The National Policy for the empowerment of women (2001) states that “The women’s movement and a wide spread network of NGOs which have strong grass roots presence and deep in right into women’s concerns have contributed in inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of women”. However, the policy also speaks of “a wide gap between the goals enunciated in the constitution, legislative policies, plans, programmes, and the related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, on the other…… gender equality manifests itself in various forms, the most obvious being the trend of continuously declining female reaction in the population in the last few decades. Socio strangling and violence at the democratic and societal levels are some of the other manifestations”.

      Philip Samuel Kongoley-MIH

Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate the factors that inhibit the development of tourism in Sierra Leone after the rebel war. Various studies have been done on the economic contributions of tourism to a country and little attention has been paid to this topic and particularly Sierra Leone. A tremendous effort has been made by both the public and private sectors after the ten year rebel war towards the development of tourism. Despite remarkable progress in this respect, the tourism sector in the country has been constrained by both internal and external factors such as human resource capacity, inadequate fund, implementations of tourism policy, poor marketing strategies etc. A survey was conducted among Ministries and Agencies who are directly and indirectly associated with tourism activities. One hundred (100) respondents were selected by a simple random method.Questionnaire, face to face interviews, discussions and external sources were the main research instruments. The Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analysis the relevant data. It is recommended that the highlighted problems are to be addressed by the appropriate authorities in the country.

      Muhammed Zakir Hossain, Mayesha Tasnim, Fabiha Enam

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the quality efforts made by Toyota and suggests appropriate strategic options to face global challenges and improve its problems. In order to do this a description of the quality theories used by automobile industry, such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), Kaizen, Just-in-Time (JIT), etc. has been discussed. The business world today is a very vast one and the management of many companies is looking out for ways in which it can make business more consumer oriented, secure a steady market outlet and steady supply of raw materials, increase consumer confidence, improve financial results, improve the working environment and emerge as superiors by designing and producing products and services over their competitors. Consumers today do not only want the right amount of a product or service but also look out for the right quality. Mindful of the above and a lot more, in this paper recommended some strategy to improve the quality problem of the Toyota keep in mind the quality tools and efforts has been used previously.

      Renu Thomas, C. Janaki

Abstract: In the present paper, we introduce and the concept of (1,2)*-R*-Ti-space (for i = ½, 0, 1, 2) and we discuss some of their basic properties.

      Maha Salah Razzaq, Shukriyia Shadhan Chyad Al- Ogaili

Abstract: Background: Violence against health care workers (HCWs) or workplace violence in general is a major problem affecting health and productivity of HCWs.

      Motasim Hyder Abdelwahab

Abstract: The experiment was conducted in two-successive seasons (August 2008- March 2009, August 2009- March 2010). The intensity of wind erosion (IWE) was measured monthly in four directions, namely West (W), North West (NW), North (N), and North East (NE), using vertical (IWEv) and horizontal soil traps(IWEh) in a bare and a Lucerne-cultivated land. In the first season, IWEh in the bare land ranged from183.3 (W) to 200 (NE) with a mean of 192.9 tons/ha/day, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4%. Furthermore, IWEh ranged from 123.3 (Oct.) to 262 (Aug.) with a CV of 33.2%. The overall mean IWEh and IWEv in the first season were 1.3 and 1.4 fold those in the second season, respectively. In bare lands, the overall mean IWEh was 1.77 and 1.88 fold the corresponding IWEv values in the first and second seasons, respectively. In the cultivated fields the reverse trend was found in the first season, the overall mean of IWEv yielded significantly much higher than that produced by IWEh but in the second season result was inverse with very meager increasing in the overall mean value of IWEh. The ratio IWEv/ IWEh of the overall mean values was 1.4 and 0.85 in the first and second seasons, respectively. The IWEh in the bare lands were 47.0 and 45.7 fold that of the cultivated fields in the two successive seasons.

      Ahmed I. Hanafy

Abstract: Copper (II) complexes of Diphenyl (2-hydroxyphenyl)(phenylamino) methylphos- phonate (DHPP) and Diphenyl (4-aminophenylamino)(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl phosphonate (DAHP) were prepared and characterized by different tools such as elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, UV/Vis spectra and thermal studies. The IR spectral data showed that the phosphonate compounds behave as bidentate ligands coordinating to the copper ion through the P=O and NH groups. The geometry around copper ion was found to be a distorted octahedral. The activity of the phosphonate ligands and their copper (II) complexes towards DNA cleavage were investigated. The phosphonate ligands showed no activity, while the copper complexes showed DNA cleavage activity. The copper complex of Diphenyl (4-aminophenylamino)(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl phosphonate showed strong activity towards DNA cleavage.

      Haryo Tri Bintoro, Rina Oktaviani Rizal Syarief

Abstract: The digital era has influenced the business environment in the world for becoming more dynamic, the growth of digital technology encouraged the textbook publishing industry for keeping society needs. The growth of digital era makes the society demands of textbook publishing product become increasing, both from the quality, price, accessibility, and other aspects. The study of textbook publishing industry strategy to face the digital era in Indonesia is done by some purposes which is: mapping the textbook publishing industry nationally, formalizing the national textbook publishing industry to face the digital era, giving the recommendation strategy for national textbook publishing industry. The analysis methods that is used in this study is SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats), to simplify and accelerate the process of decision-making by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and BOS (Blue Ocean Strategy). The results of this study is expected to give benefits for stakeholder such as publishing company, publishing industry, government, society, as well as: (1) become a basic reference and input for textbook publishing industry in formulating strategies to face the digital era, (2) get the proper formulating strategies for the growth of textbook publishing industry in the digital era, (3) improving and developing the national textbook publishing industry in the digital era. (4) preparing the textbook publishing industry to face the digital era, (5) giving contribution to government in determining the regulations in national textbook publishing industry.

      Ajah, Obiageri .F, Osuji, Julian .O and Anoliefo, Geoffrey .O

Abstract: The morphological assessment of five accessions of Colocasia esculenta (NCe 001, NCe 002, NCe 003, NCe 004 and NCe 005) and three accessions of Xanthosoma maffafa (NXs 001, NXs 002 and NXs 003) exposed to different concentrations of sodium azide and potassium chromate was carried out using 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mg/kg and unpolluted soil as the control. Results showed that accessions treated with sodium azide had higher mean height, mean leaf area and mean yield when compared to the accessions treated with potassium chromate. However, the differences in height, leaf area and girth between treatments were not significant at 5 % but these differences between accessions were significant at 5 %. Albeit, the difference in yield between treatments was significant at P=0.05 but the difference in yield between accessions was not significant at P=0.05. Malformed leaves, chlorosis, change in stem colour including plant deaths were some of the variations observed in the accessions treated with these chemicals. Further studies were encouraged for a clearer understanding of the potentials of these chemicals in crop mutation breeding programs.

      Gamal Eldin Eltayeb Abd-Elrahim and Mohamed Salih Osman

Abstract: This study was conducted at private nursery, Khartoum North, Sudan, during the season 2004 – 2009, to produce a new variety of rose can be used as cut flower, landscaping and adapted to warm climate. The Parent was selected from the commercial varieties, the first parent (P1) belonging to the floribunda roses group and the second parent (P2) belonging to the hybrid tea roses group. Hybridization was applied between the two parents to produce the hybrid (F1). The best hybrid were selected and sown to produce mothers of plants. After one year, cuttings were taken from the hybrid and parents and planted to produce mother plants. After six month from planting, hybrid and its parents were evaluated based on plant height, number of branches, number of buds, number of flowers, carrying capacity of flowers, number of petals , flower diameter and length of flower stalk. The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the hybrid and parents in the characters under study. The hybrid recorded the highest number of branches (31.8), number of buds (61.6), number of leaves (175.4), number of flowers (71.8 flower/ plant) and flowers clusters.

      Dr. Daswati, M.Si

Abstract: The establishment of Regional Cooperation so called the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will certainly have many implications to both economic as well as non-economic well-being of the people in Indonesia. Of these implications, higher education systems will no doubt be affected by the establishment of the AEC. As a consequence, leadership at higher educational level becomes important to minimize negative impacts of the AEC on the higher education systems. This is partly because higher education is the key to national development particularly in producing a high quality human resources and qualified professionals. These conditions will further increase the nation's competitiveness and productivity of the economy. This paper aims at examining the role of leadership in achieving high quality of higher education in facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Data and information collected were heavily based on secondary data and government regulation advanced in the literatures. The study argued that the leadership factor plays significant role in achieving high quality of higher education al institution. Therefore, leadership of higher education or universities needs to be improved as it can improve the quality of universities.

      Abdul Talib Bon and A. M. Shire

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to identify the levels of affective commitment in a telecommunication organisation and to investigate the relationships between job demands, job resources and affective commitment. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The total available population of employees (N = 95) in the organisation participated in this study. The Job Demands-Resources Scale and the affective commitment Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results showed that the average affective commitment level of employees was above the Somaliland norm. Job resources, such as skill variety, task significance and task identity, were related to affective commitment of individuals. Job demands did not play a significant role in the affective commitment of employees.

      Sk. Rizvana, Dr. M. Sri Rama Murthy, D. SatyaNarayana , A. S. Ganapathi

Abstract: In four wheelers, heavy weight trucks, railways automobiles the leaf spring is one of the main components and it provides a good suspension and it plays a vital role in automobile application. It carries lateral loads, brake torque, driving torque in addition to shock absorbing. The leaf spring assembly serves to absorb and store energy, and then to release. Leaf springs are made out of flat plates usually of semi-elliptical shape.

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