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IJSRP, Volume 10, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
December 2020 publication has started and publication will continue till 28th December 2020
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd December, their paper will publish in December edition in next slots i.e. 12th December or 18th December or 28th December.
Online print version will release latest by 30th December. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 28th December and minor corrections are accepted till 28th December 2020.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Arielle Doris Kachie Tetgoum, Zhou Lulin

Abstract: Nurses are key actors in the healthcare sector and their satisfaction is essential for patient care delivery. Assessing their professional satisfaction at the closing of a national health system reform round is therefore vital. This cross-sectional study estimated the relative importance of professional satisfaction components, evaluated the overall level of job satisfaction among nurses, and examined how the components of their perceived satisfaction vary with demographic variables. A total of 276 registered nurses from three (3) county hospitals across Jiangsu Province in China were surveyed using the Index of Work Satisfaction scale. Multiple regression models represented as structural equation models were used to estimate the effects of demographic variables on each dimension of job satisfaction. Nurses appeared to be more satisfied with their pay and professional status but dissatisfied with their task requirements and interactions.



      Mabina Agnes,Awomuti Adeboye, Qinghui Huang

Abstract: The effect and harm done to the marine environment by plastic pollution can never be overemphasized. This research reviews and examined various policies, laws, and regulations that have been put in place to mitigate and control the devastating effects of plastic waste pollution, particular reference was made to the polar region and likely environ. Scientific researches, Journal papers, and various publications on plastic waste pollution in the polar region, also known or interchangeably referred to as the Arctic or Antarctica are also reviewed. Findings show that the threat of plastic waste pollution in the Polar region if not quickly attended to could result in devastating climate and environmental problems.



      PH.APSARA DEVI AND E.J. SINGH

Abstract: Fine root biomass and its nutrient concentration in different soil depths (0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30 cm) were studied in disturbed mixed Pine forest (forest site I) and undisturbed mixed oak forest (forest site II) at Senapati District, Manipur. Fine roots from both the study sites were collected by soil corer. Maximum fine root biomass were found in 1-10 cm (2037.80 gm-2 in forest site I and 2170.63 gm-2 in forest site II) throughout the year in both the study sites. Maximum fine root biomass was found in the month of December (205.65 gm-2 and 223.40 gm-2 in forest site I and site II respectively). The amount of nutrient (NPK) in fine roots varies in different soil depth in both the study sites throughout the year.



      Mayanja Jimmy, Ilukor Geresom

Abstract: Introduction: World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution that ANC is a basic human right and all pregnant women should receive irrespective of age, parity, race, faith of the pregnant women and many interventions have been put in place to ensure that worldwide and nationwide. ANC is a necessary component of maternal health in order to identify complications and danger signs during pregnancy.



      Dr. Blessing Chinyere Elekwa

Abstract: This study focused on revitalizing cooperative programmes activities for active participation of rural women towards enhancing community development. The need for the study arose as a result of less access to education, unemployment, poverty, low income status, burden of child bearing and lack of adequate information on cooperative programmes experienced by rural women in Nigeria. However, these cooperative programmes which includes Agricultural cooperative, thrift and credit cooperative, cooperative education programme, as well as, leadership training activity, will enhance the rural women’s potentials, improve their standard of living and equip them to deal with the dynamism of the modern society. Also, the study focused on the concept of rural women, participation, cooperative programme activities and community development respectively. Furthermore, strategies for revitalizing rural women’s participation in cooperative programmes for active participation of rural women towards enhancing community development, factors that hinder rural women from active participation in cooperative programmes and the way forward, were discussed.



      OGA, Kelechi Charles, EVWIERHURHOMA, Ejiroghene Daniel

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between executive financial compensation and organizational resilience of Deposit Money Banks in Rivers State, Nigeria. The predictor variable is executive financial compensation which was used as a uni-dimensional variable while the criterion variable: organizational resilience has three measures vis-à-vis adaptive capacity, situational awareness and innovation. The study adopted a correlational and cross-sectional research design and uses questionnaire as the research instrument which was distributed to 57 top executives of 19 DMBs operating in Rivers State which comprises of 3 executives from each DMBs.



      OGA, Kelechi Charles , EVWIERHURHOMA, Ejiroghene Daniel

Abstract: To survive, persist and even thrive in the face of unexpected changes represents significant challenges for organizational decision-makers and have resulted in calls for understanding and developing mechanisms of coping with uncertainty. Thus, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility and organizational resilience of oil and gas firms in Rivers State, Nigeria. The predictor variable is corporate social responsibility which was used as a uni-dimensional variable while the criterion variable is organizational resilience which was used without measures.



      Mohd Harridon

Abstract: Helicopters play important roles in transporting people and goods and were extensively used for observation and reconnaissance. The Helicopter Guimbal Cabri G2 is usually used for training and recreational purposes. In November 2020, there was an incident involving Cabri G2 in Malaysia. In fact there were several incidents around the world involving this type of helicopter and this paper delineated those incidents and analyses were performed to gain useful insights with regards to those incidents. This paper however did not cover 8 incidents (including the one in Malaysia) as they were still under investigation by respective authorities.



      Alves A.I, Freitas C, Viveiros A, Ribeiro L, Gonçalves R, Andrade M, Ascensão H, Teles L

Abstract: Introduction: An intensive care unit (ICU) provides patients with advanced life support, where they stay from hours to months to stabilise and survive. Early mobilisation has proven to be a safe and viable technique that provides hemodynamic benefits, avoids the effects of immobility and contributes to the best physical and functional outcomes for patients.



      Agus Erwin Ashari, Fajar Akbar, Fahrul Islam, Ashriady, Abbas Mahmud, Rahmat Haji Saeni

Abstract: Public discipline in enforcing health protocols is the main key in suppressing transmission of COVID-19. The discipline of applying the 3M health protocol, namely wearing masks, maintaining distance, and washing hands with soap. The purpose of this study was to describe the application of health protocols to sanitarian workers in Mamuju district. This research method is an observational study, with a descriptive design, the sample is a Sanitarian who is assigned to a health service facility in Mamuju District. The sampling method is carried out by accidental sampling of 19 people, information is obtained through a questionnaire on google form which is sent via social media WhatsApp.



      Oswell Binha

Abstract: Sustainability of platinum Group Metals exploitation in Zimbabwe continues to be a cause for concern due to a number of factors. One therefore takes a look at factors necessary for optimum incremental beneficial mining. Mining business confidence gives better prospects for mining business growth. Prospects of mining profitability, under pinned by an enabling sustained terming of mining costs, stability in investment flows and reduced exports constraints.



      Amarasinghe A. G.

Abstract: Shoreline erosion process regulate by several factors which derive from interior of the earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Gravitational force of the moon is also a considerable factor that determine the shoreline erosion rate. Thus, natural forces, process and dynamism belong to endogenic, exogenic, extraterrestrial along with anthropogenic origin control the recession and accretion level of the shoreline and denudation process of the coast.



      Dr.P Saravana kumar, Gurijala Sai mounika, Konala raja prabhu sujith, Rajulapati Tejaswini

Abstract: Urolithiasis is defined as the multi factorial disorder which involves the process of forming stones anywhere in the urinary tract (kidney, ureter, and bladder).Out of many factors diet plays a major role in forming urolithiasis. If left untreated it can lead to severe complications. Dietary and life style modifications can make a change.



      Laiba Pervez, Aiza Khan and Noor ul Ain

Abstract: Automobiles such as smart cars have become tremendously complex, as they are allowing us to connect our phones to user interfaces of car and connect with external networks as well. Unfortunately, the interconnectivity of cars, embedded processors and systems developed in the vehicles have become targets of cybersecurity attacks making it the biggest challenge with respect to cooperative automotive industry. The real issue is caused when a spoofed message is injected in the internal network of the system compromising the security of the automobile. This paper will aim at providing a solution to secure the private information of each automobile by using cryptographic algorithm for authenticating the message. Upon successful failing of the cyber-attack a notification will be displayed to the User Interface (UI) of the automobile to keep the user aware of the situation.



      Dr. Bulus Kwopnan, Gubak Happy Daniel, Gubam, Dimas Solomon

Abstract: There is high level of youth unemployment in Nigeria with many negative consequences or its attendant challenges such as security challenges or insecurity problem like kidnapping, armed robbery, violence, conflicts, armed banditry, insurgency, militancy and other socio-economic challenges like prostitution, drugs among many others. These myriad challenges have long retarded or inhibited the development of the Nigerian economy.



      Mohammed Wandabwa Chesula, Dr. James M. Kilika (PhD)

Abstract: Many Information Technology (IT) firms in Kenya face the challenges of improving the competitiveness, quantity, quality and reliability of data and voice services. Strategic IT is viewed as a key factor in ensuring these challenges are overcome. However, improving firm competitiveness is not always a guarantee to improving firm performance. It is not elaborate whether strategic IT affects firm performance and if it does affect then what the consequent effects can be.



      JAMSHER ALI, SHI YONG SHENG, ABDUL REHMAN, IMRAN AFZAL. SHOAIB UL HASSAN

Abstract: Prognostic and health management (PHM) verify the working safely and reliably of lithium batteries, PHM system determines the State of Health (SOH) and the Remaining Useful Life (RUL). To avoid severe negative consequences of the system, this paper presents the preliminary development of genetic algorithm, using an extreme learning machine (ELM) method to predict the State of Health (SOH) of the lithium-ion battery. The low prediction accuracy of the State of Health (SOH) of lithium battery, the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm improved by genetic algorithm can improve the prediction accuracy of SOH of lithium battery.



      Ched Nyamanhindi

Abstract: Zimbabwe has a history of many attempts at transitional justice dating back to the 1980s. Healing and reconciliation efforts to address conflicts in Zimbabwe have faced numerous challenges. The Unity According of 1987 mainly addressed the issues of the perpetrator and totally ignored the victim. It was an agreement between leaders of two political parties neglecting to address the majority that had suffered in Matebeleland and Midlands. The Unity accord brought alleviation nation-wide, but in parts of the country where it happened problem remain unsolved and resolved. These include poor health, poverty, practical and legal problems and a deep mistrust of Government.



      Dennis Butto, Hellen Mberia, Julius Bosire

Abstract: Health literacy is a set of individual skills that allow a person to gain and utilize new health information. It incorporates the ability to understand health information from pamphlets, obtain applicable health information during an interview with health experts, and to access and assess health information from other platforms. Patients with inadequate critical health literacy have a poorer understanding of their disease progression, medication regimens, and techniques for dealing with their disease.



      Michael Acquaye, S.O.B Oppong and L. Gyansah

Abstract: This study sought to investigate the harmful effects of the processes of extraction of metals and other parts from used fridges, freezers and air-conditioners. The harmful effects such as the depletion of the ozone layer, pollution of water bodies, poisonous effects of lead, cadmium in infrared detectors, mercury in the thermostats batteries and switches among which are harmful on humans, water bodies and ozone layer.



      Alves A.I, Freitas C, Viveiros A, Ribeiro L, Gomes R, Pereira J, Veríssimo M, Fernandes O

Abstract: Introduction: Chest compression is the basic technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with cardiac arrest. The quality and early performance of CPR is critical to improve the prognosis and chances of restoring spontaneous blood flow. Today we have manual compressions and mechanical chest compression devices. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the importance of the LUCAS system (The Lund University Cardiac Arrest System) in CPR.



      G. Thanganila, S.Murugesan, S. Balamurugan, R.Madhavan

Abstract: The siddha system of medicine uses a fascinating combination of herbs, minerals and metals and to promote good health and longevity. Kiranthi mega chooranam (KMC) is one of the Siddha formulations which are indicated as an effective drug for various diseases. Acute Oral Toxicity study and Long term toxicity study in vivo toxicity studies were carried out on Kiranthi Mega Chooranam (KMC) by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for testing traditional medicines. In Acute toxicity study there was no abnormal signs reported at the dose level of (2000 mg/kg b.wt) within 24-72 hours in wistar albino rats.



      Jentu Giba, Sumpam Tangjang, Tonlong Wangpan, Tapi Taka and Phongam Tesia

Abstract: The present study attempts to isolate and identify the number of endophytic fungal association in three species of bamboo leaves; Dendrocalamus sikkimensis (DS), Bambusa polymorpha (BOP) and Phyllostachys bumbusoides (PB). The endophytic fungi was isolated from the plant tissue following the protocol of Suryanarayanan et al., 1998. A total of 196 endophytic fungi were isolated and identified up to genus level. Among all the fungal isolates, Xylaria and Nigrospora sp. showed highest level of colonization frequency (i.e. 18%). Xylaria sp. was more dominant in BOP, whereas, DS and PB displayed deviation in terms of fungal dominance with sp2 (sterile) and Nigrospora sp. to be dominant respectively. The isolation of endophytic fungi from healthy mature leaves of host plant suggest that the fungi residing inside them is asymptomatic and may be beneficial to their host, as they are found to protect their host against domestic herbivores, pest and pathogens. The study opens the gate for further biological analysis of endophytic fungi associated with bamboo creating a genetic resources for future researchers.



      G.M.D.C.Disanayaka, E.H.K.E.Bandara

Abstract: Proper people management drives to the success of an organization. In order to having Optimum employee performance within the organization Job design is crucial. In Sri Lankan context apparel industry plays significant role in relate to enhancing the GDP, employment rate and foreign exchange. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of job design on managerial employees’ performance in apparel sector in Matale district.



      Lenie Marlinae, Syamsul Arifin, Agung Waskito, Laily Khairiyati, Anugrah Nur Rahmat, Dian Rosadi, Winda Saukina Syarifatul Jannah, Ammara Ulfa Azizah, Raudatul Jinan, Taufik, Andre Yusufa Febriandy, M

Abstract: Wasting is a malnourished group, directly caused by inadequate nutrition and poor sanitation. The results of the Riskesdas 2018 states that the prevalence of very thin children under five years of age in 2018 is still quite high, namely 3.5 percent, there is a decrease compared to 2013 (5.3%) and 2007 (6.2%). Banjarbaru City is one of the areas that has experienced an increase in cases of very thin and wasting nutrition for three consecutive years. According to the Banjarbaru City Health Office, the highest cases were in the Liang Anggang Health Care area, which was 35 percent, of which 33 percent were in the underweight category and 2 percent for the very thin category.



      Husaini, Agung Biworo, Agung Waskito, Lenie Marlinae, Laily Khairiyati, Anugrah Nur Rahmat, Noor Ahda Fadillah, Dian Rosadi, Andre Yusufa Febriandy, Taufik, Eritrhima Mayasa Putri

Abstract: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is one of the major public health problems around the world. Malaria is still endemic in certain areas, especially in tropical countries such as Asia and Africa. This disease is also one of the biggest killers, 86% of deaths occurred in groups with high risk factors such as infants, children under five and pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to assess environmental management of the incidence of DHF in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan.



      Dian Rosadi, Lenie Marlinae, Syamsul Arifin, Laily Khairiyati, Agung Waskito, Noor Ahda Fadillah, Anugrah Nur Rahmat, Raudatul Jinan, Ammara Ulfa Azizah, Winda Saukina S.J

Abstract: Covid-19 prevention and controling with the behavior of wearing masks continuously during activities outside of home and reinforced by healthy living behavior (PHBS) before and after activities outside of home. This activity has started in early April 2020 until now. With 262,719 population of Banjarbaru, It is estimated that the volume of mask waste every day is 44,072,745 kg / day. While in every month is 1,322,182.35 kg / month. Then another problem is the use of hand washing soap with 1 to 2 ml, that usage of that about 6 ml every day, and daily is 25,823,874 ml. The strategy used in this program is the ABG community approach (Advocacy, Community Development and Community Movement). Activities through the Whatsapp Group containing participants of the Kemuning Village, Banjarbaru. The media used in socialization are booklets and leaflets that are delivered to participants. The pre-post test results of 20 people had an increase in knowledge which increased from 5.45 to 8.55.



      Eric Cobbinah, GodfredNiiTackie-Otoo, Samuel Benjamin Ayensu

Abstract: Purpose–Though extensive research work has been done by organizational researchers about organizational culture and job performance in general, there is huge theoretical and empirical research gap about the specific cultural orientation that affects performance within Ghana’s rural banking framework. This paper addresses the gap in literature by using the Competing Value Framework (CVF) organizational cultural typology to identify which cultural orientation influence job performance in Ghana’s Rural Banking Sector as well as the mediating role of organizational commitment within the organizational culture and job performance relationship.



      Win Win Nwe, Zin Mar Aye, Naung Naung Oo, Myo Nandar Myint

Abstract: Green mussel, Perna viridis samples which inhabit in the subtidal bed of Ye Estuary were monthly collected from March 2016 to February 2017 to estimate the population parameters using length-frequency data based analysis of FiSAT II software. Asymptotic length (L∞), growth coefficient (K) and growth performance index (Φ) were calculated as 162.75 mm, 0.87 year−1 and 4.363 respectively. Total mortality (Z), natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) were estimated at 1.86 year−1, 0.81 year−1 and 1.05year−1. The calculated exploitation level (E) of the population was 0.44 and it (< 0.50) suggests that the stock of P. viridis shows the potential for exploitation in Ye Estuary. More exploitation is possible and could be an option for the livelihood of the coastal communities of the area. The recruitment pattern was continuous with one major peak in the months of June-July. The present results could serve as a baseline information for the management of mussel population in Ye Estuary.



      Nadeeja Dodamgoda, Charini Anthony

Abstract: Leadership styles, particularly demonstrated by the CEOs of the private sector apparel manufacturing industry in Sri Lanka is a sparsely explored phenomena. Therefore, the objective of the researcher in undertaking the current study is to determine the impact of leadership styles adopted by the CEOs of private sector apparel manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka on the performance of these respective organizations.



      Senadheera Pathirannahalage Gayan Madusanka Abeyrathna

Abstract: Objective of this study is to investigate the determinants which motivate the government employees in Sri Lanka for moonlighting. For this purpose, 925 government employees who dwelt in Kegalle district were randomly selected during the period of 2019. Moonlighting is the dependent variable which takes a value of 1 when an individual holds more than one job and 0 if an individual is engaged in only one job.



      Wassila Niwemahoro, Sammy Nyabera and Dr Shukla Jaya

Abstract: Flexible Work Arrangement has recently seen the attention of both academicians as well as practitioners as a tool to improve organizational performance. However there is a lack of research as how FWA can be helpful to the increase productivity of organization specifically in the banking sector where customer satisfaction and customer service being the pertinent work.



      Sajith de Mel, Ph.D.

Abstract: This paper examines the impact of trade on employment and wages in the manufacturing industry in Sri Lanka. The study models the effects of trade on employment and wages in the manufacturing industry in a labour demand and a wages framework on an integrated panel dataset of trade, labour and manufacturing industries. The impact of trade on manufacturing employment and wages is empirically examined following the predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin trade theorem. Empirical findings on the labour demand model suggest a positive and statistically significant impact of exports on manufacturing employment, confirming the Heckscher-Ohlin predictions.



      N.S Kamath, Bhat R

Abstract: There has been an association between serum Magnesium levels and presence of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, BMI and severity of coronary artery disease. In this study we measured the serum Magnesium levels in patients having Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia and angiographically proven coronary heart disease and studied the trend of Magnesium levels in these individuals.



      Niloufar Vafaei Soleiman Darabi

Abstract: This research is conducted to investigate the association between online game to aggression and ADHD, known as the psychological characteristics associated with the risk of online game addiction among the population. The findings of this research have revealed an intriguing profile that shows that some psychological features such as aggression and ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) can predispose certain people to becoming addiction to online gaming.



      Kwasi Baah Gyam, Kwame Owusu Bempah

Abstract: The Hill cipher algorithm only encrypts messages in the form of document and can only decrypts the same message provided the matrix used as key is non-singular. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for decryption of documents to be possible for both singular and non -singular matrices as invo- lutary key alongside giving practical examples by using two by two and three by three involutary keys for singular and non singular matrices to illustrate our result when encrypting and decrypting documents.



      Dabugat Felicia, Gubak, Happy Daniel

Abstract: The Communist Manifesto is one of the influential political documents in history. It was written in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Furthermore, it was commissioned by the Communist League and was first published in London as Manifesto of the Communist Party. The manifesto is divided into four chapters or parts namely: Bourgeois and Proletarians, Proletarians and Communists, Socialist and Communist Literature and Position of the Communist in relation to the various existing opposition parties.



      Monica Njeri Gachunga, Dr. Patrick Ngugi Karanja, Dr. Allan Njogu Kihara

Abstract: TVET institutions have been recognized as key economic drivers in both developing and developed countries across the globe. The institutions have highly contributed to growth of industries especially the manufacturing sector through provision of the required skills. In Kenya, TVET institutions are yet to gain the required attention based on the fact that they are regarded as the last running point for academic failures. It is on this merit that the study sought to establish the influence of leadership commitment on competitiveness of TVET institutions in Kenya.



      Neelabh Kashyap

Abstract: Research is vital to higher education. Higher education is being promoted, and consequently, there certainly is an increase in student enrolments and an elevation in the number of teachers required by universities and other higher educational institutions. Even though the ‘system’ of higher education is expanding, awareness about some important concepts related to academic research and research publication is still low.



      C.J.K. Somaratne, Prof. D.J.S. Fernando

Abstract: The Consultant led specialist clinics are the main stay of treatment for patients referred by General Practitioners (GPs), on outpatient basis. NHS England has implemented a standard to reduce waiting time for those patients who are being referred for specialist clinics. 18 Week Maximum Waiting Time from Referral to Treatment means to patient as a right under the NHS Constitution to access services within maximum waiting time, unless choose to wait longer or it is clinically appropriate to wait longer. The NHS will take all reasonable steps to offer a range of alternative providers if this is not possible. Deviation from the set time on the clock may lead to additional cost to the provider organization by way of penalties.



      Alzayed Amal

Abstract: In order to accomplish, the objectives of the study and applies a variety of methods in the context of the existing research. I have perceived that qualitative research is the appropriate approach, as it enables me (as a researcher) to obtain a deeper understanding of the topic and thereby offers me a chance to explore the matters from the viewpoints of teachers and students; to discuss their interpretations and reflect on Problem Based Learning (PBL) in teaching and learning; as Flick (2009) argued that enhancing perceptions and the academics’ reflects on their studies as part of the procedure of data construction. In the same light of the thoughts of Siegel (2002:1), confirms that the data in qualitative research does not approach by specific questions to answer or hypotheses to test but through ‘’ understanding behaviour from the subject’s own frame of reference’’.



      Dr Shiva Prasad Mohanty, Dr Kshirabdhi Tanaya Rautaray

Abstract: Sri Nrusinghanath Temple, Odisha is an International tourist place for its religious importance along with diverse flora with hills, numerous waterfalls and springs. This area is covered by Gandhamardan forest range, the iconic medicinal plant forest mentioned in The Ramayana. Due to its unique biodiversity, government of Odisha has halted the exploration and mining activities in this place, which is otherwise one of the richest sources of Bauxite in Asia. Few studies were conducted previously to map the floras of Gandhamardan Hill forest range but none have attempted to map the floras around the temple. The present study is considered to assess the threat level to plants found around the famous Nrusinghanath Temple, Bargarh Odisha and its Ethnomedicinal use among the locals.



      Dr. Niyati Chaudhary

Abstract: Unemployment is a major problem in India. There are various factors that are the causes for this problem. The Government has taken various steps with regard to curb this problem. But then also this is increasing day by day. The present research has shown the status of unemployment in India, its comparison with USA, the status of educational unemployment, the rate of unemployment prevailing in various states and union territories of India, the growth of population and various types of unemployment prevailing in India. The paper has also tried to give some suggestions to fight with this problem. Continuous efforts are needed to get rid of this problem.



      Fareena Ruzaik

Abstract: Indoor and outdoor air pollution have become a public health challenge in Sri Lanka, majorly with the introduction of open economic policy in 1978. The emissions from motor vehicles (55%), industries (25%) and domestic sources (20%) collectively contributed to air pollution (Ministry of Environment, 2012). Sri Lanka produced over 90% of power demand from hydroelectricity two decades before and it was gradually reduced to 40-50% approx. as of now, due to the usage of thermal and coal power plants to produce electricity.



      Poonam Tripathy

Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of electric propulsion systems and their working. Novel systems and designs for electric propulsion is classified as electrothermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic and even hybrid systems which can be two or more types combined. The various types described here include DC heated Resistojets, Arcjets, Field emission electric propulsion thrusters, magneto-plasma dynamic thrusters, Hall Effect thruster, Colloid and Electrospray thrusters, High efficiency multistage plasma thruster, Pulsed plasma thruster, Electrode-less thrusters, VASIMR, and the gridded and radio frequency ion engines. Each thruster system can be used on the basis of the mission characteristics and determining factors may include cargo weight, thrust required, power budgets, simplicity etcetera. Choice of propellant can also be varied according availability. This paper hopes to provide a basic knowledge of these systems and their properties.



      Elly Rasmikayati, Rani Andriani Budi Kusumo, Gema Wibawa Mukti, Bobby Rachmat Saefudin

Abstract: The processing of fresh mangoes into processed mango products is very important to bring added value so that it has the potential to increase family income. This study aims to identify, compare and analyze the differences of willingness to process fresh mangoes into processed mango products between mango farmers in Majalengka Regency and Kuningan Regency.



      Maina J. Kamau

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to establish the influence of information, education and communication on the success of human rights education school programmes in Kenya. Human rights education has been upheld as one of the key measures set to enhance the human rights among the communities. Through Human Rights Education, awareness on human rights is created as well as ensuring every individual is at the forefront of observing, respecting, and advocating for the human rights. In the past two to three decades, there has been an emergence of human rights organizations at both international and local contexts.



      Dr. Sariev Sanatjon Matchanbaevich

Abstract: This article deals with the Uyghur manuscript of the epic "Kholdorkhan". The focus is on the work of world scholars who have studied the epic scientifically. The Uyghur version of the epic "Kholdorkhan" is subjected to a comparative analysis of the manuscript with oral versions, and the peculiarities of the manuscript are revealed. The article also compares the Uyghur manuscript and oral versions with the manuscript and oral versions of the Uzbek epic Gorogly. It should be noted that the Uzbek epics "Gorogly" played a special role in the formation of oral and manuscript copies of Uyghur epics "Gorogly". The role of the epic in the work of folk singers is highlighted. The analysis will also focus on the Caucasian and Central Asian versions and other versions of the Turkic peoples.



      Kovintharajah Thanushan, F. B .Kennedy

Abstract: The study investigates the impact of brand equity on brand loyalty with the mediation of customer satisfaction in X Company and Y Company in Batticaloa city branch. The study uses five dimension of brand equity, which include perceived quality, perceived value of cost, brand identification, trust and lifestyle congruence. Questionnaire has been used to collect the data from the customers in using X Company and Y Company in Batticaloa city branch. The data has been collected from 267 respondents and analyzed through SPSS.



      Okeke Francis Ifeanyi, Ibrahim Adesina Adekunle, Echeonwu Emmanuel Chinyere

Abstract: This work entails identifying areas of all coal pits in and around a part of Lower Benue trough where coal exploitation had taken place in the past, using random forest machine learning technique with out-of-bag (OOB) estimate of generalization error. Training sites were selected from the Landsat image covering the area of interest using QGIS image processing software. Two well-known exploited sites were selected as coal training sites while few other ones also identified were reserved for validation. Some other areas known to be different than coal sites were selected and classed as non-coal areas.



      Sebabrata Bhattacharjee

Abstract: This paper is oriented to study the efforts made for promotion of Sanskrit language and Sanskritic culture in India in its post independent and post- liberal period. Sanskrit language, which had a glory in ancient time has gradually come to a status of medium of chanting mantras and worshiping language in India. There are initiatives by governmental and non-governmental organisations, and even some people who work independently for reviving the past glory of Sanskrit. It needs to gauge the extent of such initiative and its success. This paper tries to see the different initiatives taken by people and government to promote Sanskrit culture and education.



      Dr. Shamini Srivastava, Dr. Arvind Singh

Abstract: The use of internet is very common and has become an interesting behavioral addiction type among young people is assumed to have an influence on psychological well-being. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between different dimension of mental health and internet dependency. Present study has a significant contribution in the planning and implementation of preventive psychological counseling services and sustains the psychological well-being of adolescents. 200 adolescents studying in various colleges of Raebareli and Lucknow completed the Young’s Internet addiction test and mental health questionnaire (MH38).



      Tejas Bhalla

Abstract: This paper is an exploratory study on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India in terms of the nature of their CSR-related practices and disclosures. For analysis, the SME sample was taken to be the SMEs listed on the BSE SME and NSE EMERGE. The official website and annual report 2018-19 of the listed SMEs were searched for mentions of CSR-related information.



      Quinzy Varira Tartusi, Nia Kurniawan, Amir Hamidy

Abstract: Siebenrockiella crassicollis is one of the most demanded freshwater turtle in the international market. Being indexed in Appendix II CITES and categorized as Vulnerable by IUCN, the trade of this species is regulated by the authorities in Indonesia. Being also traded in marketplace in Indonesia, it is important to monitor the online trade of this native species to achieve the legal, traceable, and sustainable wildlife trade. The result showed that S. crassicollis was traded in Five marketplaces. These shops were distributed in several province in Sumatra and Java, with the most number of shops found in DKI Jakarta. The size of turtle traded were vary, and the most various price found in shops located in DKI Jakarta. The trade os S. crassicollis on the marketplace seems to still not fulfill the three trading principles. Some recommendations are proposed based on the findings in this research.



      Kailash Mehra, Dr, Navneet Gaur, Prateek Singh, Gautam Kumar

Abstract: Refractive error (RE) is one of the most common ocular conditions affecting all age groups, areas, economic status group and sex. The uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of treatable visual impairment and blindness. More than 40% of the population needs refractive correction and the need for eyeglasses, contact or surgeries is growing continuously.



      P. Sulochana Devi and K.Bhuvaneswari

Abstract: In this paper we introduce and study new class of maps, namely Nano regular generalized irresolute maps, strongly Nano regular generalized continuous maps and perfectly Nano regular generalized continuous maps in Nano topological spaces. We define and analyze some of the properties of these mappings in terms of Nano rg-closed map, Nano rg-open map.



      Muthoni, Jane Gitahi, Kiprotich Isaac Naibei, Kipyego, Livingstone

Abstract: Management of receivables is a key aspect of working capital management. This paper seeks to establish the relationship between management of accounts receivable on financial performance of manufacturing firms listed in NSE. The study used descriptive research design where data was collected in order to establish the current status of the population. The population of the study comprised of 147 finance and accounts staff of all the manufacturing firms listed in NSE for period of Six (6) months from April to October 2016.



      Andi Annisar Dzati Iffah, Herawati Haruna, Dewi Yanuarita, Alfa Nelwan

Abstract: Carcharhinus melanopterus has been designated by the IUCN Red List as a near threatened species because the level of utilization is quite high. This study aims to analyze the condition of the Carcharhinus melanopterus shark resources through an ecosystem approach (EAFM) that focusing on the dimensions of fish resources (SDI).



      R.M.M.C. Rajapaksha, H.M.R.D. Kularathne

Abstract: Human activities have become more complex and rush in today’s world. Therefore, human activities and organizational activities are changing too much faster. As the result of that the word “stress” has become a frequently used word in today. Occupational stress is one of the most common topics which is taken in to consideration when discussing about any organizational context. Hospitality industry is continually challenged in coping with stress due to the nature of the industry. According to many evidences, occupational stress has a significant occurrence in Sri Lankan hotel sector which is covered a major area of hospitality industry.



      Oswell Binha, Kudzanai Mwakurudza

Abstract: Africa, like any other continent, has embraced continental integration, to create continental economies of scale in pursuit of sustainable economic growth and development. The notion of resource pooling, collective capacity development, complementary management of resource endowments and indeed creation of internal markets will provide opportunity for creation of a robust African economy, capable of overcoming poverty, unemployment and social distress.



      Peiris M.D.P.T , Shaminda M.B.D , Senarathne H.K , Dr. Gayana Fernando

Abstract: Crimes are one of the major threats to society and also for civilization. The traditional crime solving techniques are unable to live up to the requirement of existing crime scenarios. Crime analysis is one of the most important activities of the majority of the intelligent and law enforcement organizations all over the world. The purpose of this study is to build a solution to support the criminal investigation process by providing a technological analysis in justifying criminal cases. This study gives guidelines to crime pattern detection, crime predictions and crime judgement suggestion processes.



      Fidelis Kamaayi, Kennedy Ameyaw Baah, Frank Owusu Ansah

Abstract: Plantains and Bananas (Musa spp.) are grown in more than 120 countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Ghana, plantain is used like a starchy food similar to yams. Plantain (Musa paradisica) is found to contain some phenolic compounds. Polyphenols are a large group of non-nutrient compounds that are found in plants and they have antioxidant properties. Consumers have developed interest in organic foods that have this property due to their perceived health benefits. Three cultivars, Apantu, Oniaba and Apem at three stages of ripeness; unripe, firm ripe and fully ripe were used. Phenolic compounds were extracted with 70% Ethanol. Standard methods were employed in determining the PPO (Polyphenol Oxidase) activity.



      Syafnan, Kadri Nowsky, Amran Juniardi, Parlindungan, Fitriadi Lubis

Abstract: Poverty alleviation is carried out in a sustainable, on target, comprehensive, coordinative, systematic, integrated manner. Various programs have been carried out by the local government of South Tapanuli District to alleviate population poverty. However, this program has not been optimal in increasing and economically independent of the poor. This is due to the unavailability of data on the poor that is more comprehensive, detailed, accurate, and up to date. The availability of data on the poor can be used for control, monitoring, and evaluation of population poverty policies that are right on target and sustainable.



      I Made Sumertajaya, Muhammad Nur Aidi, Winda Nurpadilah

Abstract: Geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) is a method used when there is spatial and temporal diversity in an observation. GTWR model just consider the local influences of spatial-temporal independent variables on dependent variable. In some cases, the model is not only about local influences but there are the global influences of spatial-temporal variables too, so that mixed geographically and temporally weighted regression (MGTWR) model is more suitable to use. The smaller the regional approach used, the better the resulting solution.



      Dr Saima Nisar, Dr. Safa Akmal, Hamza Hussain, Qurat ul ain Ainy, Syed Nawazish Ali

Abstract: Social media has strong impact on all ages but adolescent are more vulnerable to its effect, as this is the changing phase from childhood to adolescent .To analyze the effect of social media on general health of adolescent the questioner study was designed and by using simple sampling of 100 students were selected from different schools from Karachi Pakistan .By the result we analyzed that social media play a vital impact on health of adolescent.



      Abid Sultan, Muhammad Azhar Mushtaq, Muhammad Faheem Nazir, Munaza Saleem, Javeed Altaf, Muhammad Junaid

Abstract: With the advancement in internet technologies, data communication via the internet has been increasing day by day. Everybody, who is on the global network, may anguish about the safety of there sensitive data, information security, and privacy. Therefore, security threat has become the global complication in the world and this complication is increased continuously. The previous researcher proposed algorithm was not much efficient and time saving that’s why we proposed a time saving a little bit more reliable algorithm. Cryptography is the component of information security that is used for message authentication, privacy, and certification. In this paper, we have described a new symmetric technique using shuffling, High-frequency latter, forward &backward function, and also old methods of cryptography which are already defined. The combination of all these makes the algorithm efficient and also time-saving



      Ojika.H.O and Achebo .J.I

Abstract: The liquidus temperature factor is a very important parameter considered to determine the quality and strength of a welded joint, this study employs the cooks distance approach to optimize the temperature at which the weld joint is completely liquid. Twenty experimental runs was generated, which guided as an experimental layout , 10 mm thickness of low carbon steel was selected for the experiment which was welded with the TIG welding process.



      Vytautas Petrauskas, Gyte Damuleviciene, Algirdas Dobrovolskis, Juozas Dovydaitis, Audrone Janaviciute, Raimundas Jasinevicius, Egidijus Kazanavicius, Jurgita Knasiene, Vita Lesauskaite, Agnius Liutke

Abstract: The paper presents a model of the geriatric medical diagnostic support system (MDSS) developed in the context of artificial intelligence (AI) using elements of the explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) paradigm, such as computing with words (CWW), fuzzy SWOT analysis maps (FSM), possibility of verbal evaluation of sixteen symptoms, and estimates of the four interacting syndromes and their verbal interpretations. The functional organization of the model is presented mathematically using a vector description method and fuzzy reasoning operations. The viability and proper functioning of the implemented software model are confirmed by a pilot advisory practice in a geriatrics clinic. The paper concludes with a list of future further research.



      Mekala Fernando, Janaki Vidanapathirana

Abstract: Key populations are identified as the groups having the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV due to their behaviour. They face high level of stigma and discrimination as a result of belonging to a key population group.



      Manisha Patil

Abstract: Present case study was conducted on CUK Gulbarga: site, formed in 2011, a branch of Unity Infraprojects Ltd. Work engagement survey was done on 11 employees out of 50 (including mesons) employees of project. Schaufeli, Salanova, et al. (2002) defined work engagement as “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption”. Individual interview was conducted on Senior Project manager on quality work life and Assistant manager on job crafting. Lau et al, (2001) described QWL as the favorable working environment that supports and promotes satisfaction by providing employees with rewards, job security, and career growth opportunities. Job crafting is Self- initiated change behaviors that employees engage in with the aim to align their jobs with their own preferences, motives, and passions’ (Tims et al., 2012, p. 173). Employees showed more resilient working and willingness to invest effort in work. Overall results showed employees moderately enthusiastic, energetic and committed to their work. And both interviewee’s showed overall satisfaction towards work life.



      Akpobire Oghenekome and Osiobe Franklin Ovie

Abstract: With the increasing car wash businesses in urban areas and cities in Nigeria, there is an increase in the volume of wastewater generated from these carwash sites. These wastewaters contribute to environmental pollution as they often found themselves flowing into the environment without any control or modifications. This study aimed to develop a simple and efficient treatment process for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using natural coagulants namely Carica papaya dried seeds and Aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO4)3,18H2O) in addition to a natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from different carwash sites located at Asaba, Delta State Nigeria. The management of the wastewater samples was planned prototype incorporating four phases namely: aeration, coagulation plus flocculation, sedimentation and filtration.



      Osman, J. Adow

Abstract: Relations between levels of government continue to pose threat to the goals of decentralization the world over. This study sought to determine the role of Alternative Dispute Resolution on intergovernmental relations between national government and Nairobi City County in Kenya. A structured and semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 83 stratified randomly sampled respondents. The descriptive and inferential findings presented in tables and charts demonstrated ADR process not being cost-effective, inflexible and dissatisfactory verdict. To that end, the study recommended the study recommends ADR process streamlining to be cost-effective, flexible and satisfactory resolution.



      Abdolrab Malekraeisi

Abstract: Drug delivery is an advanced approach in which patients are distributed narcotics in a targeted order, increasing the concentration of the medicament delivered only for the targeted body portion of their concern such as tissues and cells, which increases treatment effectiveness by minimizing administered medications side effects. The intrinsic value of this procedure means that the necessary medication with its decreased dosage has been given and its side effect has been reduced. This fundamental benefit of the smart drug delivery system is also the foundation of the therapeutics and diagnostics research and advancement in the clinical and pharmaceutical sectors. In essence, targeted/smart drug delivery is to help the drug molecule enter the intended site ideally.



      Rameshor Singh Atom, Kishorjit Singh Maharabam, Warjeet Singh Laitonjam, Rashmi Joshi, Bheeshma Pratap Singh, Raghumani Singh Ningthoujam, E. J Singh

Abstract: Curcuma leucorrhiza Roxb. is a flowering plant and belongs to the zingiberaceae or ginger family having enormous medicinal properties such as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antacid, antifungal and carminative.Contents of major and trace elements in the medicinal plants also contribute to various therapeutic roles.



      Jabed Al Faysal, Md. Anisur Rahman, Rokebul Anam

Abstract: Mining of association rules from frequent patterns has recently been a large field of interest in data mining studies. In addition to that, the demand of mining association rules from large web log data is increasing rapidly. When we discover hidden information from large web log data is known as web data mining. The main objective behind this mining is obtaining information regarding navigational behavior of the web users that can be used for system improvement, advertising purpose, e-commerce or business application as well as understanding user reaction, network communication etc. In this paper, we have tried to introduce a new algorithm which mines association rules from a web log dataset in which access of the users to different pages are given in some sequence of page visits. The analysis is performed over the server log dataset to generate the required association rules. Experiments have been done with our algorithm using large web log data and considerable improvement has been found.



      Saodat Mengbayevna Abdullaeva, Uguloy Nabiyevna Sultonova

Abstract: The article discusses the use of the MathCad system in the educational process of students of engineering specialties in the study of disciplines for the development of modern computer technologies and software. Using the MathCad system plays a huge role in solving traditional engineering problems, as well as mathematical programming problems.



      Baghirov Elshad

Abstract: The present article is devoted to the problems of Persian miniatures painting. Research is a traditional sense considering its specific chronological segment in its style evolution a genre approach is applied in this case. The main purpose is to examine the material of battle scenes in miniatures, covering the history of the Persian and Azerbaijani schools as well as their mutual influence due to a change in the rule of the Turkic dynasties in Iran in the era of the XIV and XVI centuries. In tandem, each of the stages in the evolution of the battle genre is given a comparative parallel to the existing other styles of miniature painting.



      Namiz Musafer

Abstract: Nearly 69% of Sri Lankan household depend on biomass to meet their energy needs, while biomass meets 36% of country’s energy supply. The users of biomass can be classified as households, institutions, industries, and power generation. There is a slow shift away from using biomass as a cooking fuel in the household sector adhering to the fuel stacking phenomena, as they tend to retain the practice of using biomass for cooking irrespective of using modern modes. Biomass use in industries is increasing and becoming more formalized and organized. Biomass based power generation is very minimal. The national policy related to biomass is encouraging.



      Enok Sumarsih, Ronnie S. Natawidjaja, Asep Harisman

Abstract: Indonesia is the country with the fourth largest population in the world, each year experiencing an increase in population at an increasing rate. The increase in population has always had an impact on increasing the number of food needs. In order to keep face with the rate of population growth, an increase in agricultural production and productivity is a must for Indonesia. The irony is that the population continues to grow, but agricultural land is decreasing due to land conversion, and land damages due to environmental pollution which results in decreasing productivity and in a decrease in income especially of small farmers in the countryside. Various efforts have been made to increase food production, preserve the environment and improve food security, one of which is through "Rice-Fish Farming System (RFFS)" program.



      Vunganai Chivore

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to debate what is meant by the phrase, “leadership is everyone’s business”-can this not be true. In debating this phrase, we shall define the term leadership. Various scholars have defined leadership in different terms and this paper shall attempt to look at the different leadership theories, types of leadership and their implications on the topic under debate. This purpose shall among others look at the following theories and types of leadership, situational leadership, transactional leadership, adaptive leadership and the path goal theory among others. The paper shall also look at the difference between leadership and management, leadership and followership, the various myths about leadership together with the various stages of leadership. This will all be in attempt to establish the meaning of the phrase, “leadership is everyone’s business” in full context. The topic under debate has wide reading material to such an extent that there are a lot of books with the same title under debate. The conclusion that appears to be in most of the literature is that everyone is a leader in their own spheres of influence; hence leadership is a duty for everyone, both the discerning and non-discerning individuals at whatever stage of the organization one is in.



      Selim Mahmod Sagar

Abstract: The aim of the study is to highlight the growth indicators of the public universities in Bangladesh. The study has used basically secondary data as well as primary data which were collected over the phone from the country’s various scholars. Bangladesh government is trying to make more available higher education for majority of the students towards vision 2021, SDG 2030, vision 2041 and delta plan 2100.



      Yaseer Suhaimi Mohd, Wan Zaliha Wan Sembok

Abstract: Ginger or Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been cultivated for use as a spice and a medicinal herb. Irrigation frequency and volume are cultivation practices that influence the plant yield. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation frequency and nutrient solution volume on ginger plant growth and rhizomes yields soilless culture system. The experiment treatments included three irrigation frequencies (two, four and six times a day applications) and three volumes of nutrient solution (300 mL, 600 mL and 1200 mL).



      Dr Sangita Pal, Dr Parul Gupta, Dr Nirupma Lal, Dr Kshama Tiwari, Dr Sumaiya Irfan

Abstract: Pancreatic heterotopia is a rare pathologic entity, previously reported in the stomach, duodenum & jejunum .The placement of ectopic pancreatic tissue in an organ outside the pancreas known as heterotopic pancreas. It is an embryological abnormality. Pancreatic heterotopia is discovered incidentally in 2% of autopsies .The etiology of ectopic pancreatic tissue is not yet clear. It is mostly asymptomatic & rarely gives rise to complications. Histologically identified outside the normal tissue without any anatomical, vascular or neural connection with the gland. Ectopic pancreatic tissue is most commonly seen in the stomach & duodenum, GB is a very rare location. We report here, a case of pancreatic heterotopia of the GB in an 45year old female, suffering with right upper quadrant abdominal pain with a clinical diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis.



      Dineesha Liyanage

Abstract: This study examines the discourse analysis of advertisements and the nature of its impact on consumer engagement. Nowadays it is not wrong to identify advertising as a huge flow of information that happens endlessly. Support for marketing is the main purpose of an advertisements, but current advertisements support this purpose with themes of fantastic story concepts. By studying most of the advertisements, you can identify the various design effects that they contain.



      Gregory Wafula Nalianya, Prof. Jacob W. Wakhungu, Dr. Nicodemus O. Nyandiko

Abstract: Climate change is becoming one of the most serious challenges to Kenyas achievement of its development goals as described under Vision 2030. Kenya is already highly susceptible to climate-related hazards, and in many areas, extreme events and variability of weather are now the norm; rainfall is irregular and unpredictable; while droughts have become more frequent during the long rainy season and severe floods during the short rains. Dairy farming is highly sensitive to climate change and variability, and rain-fed agriculture systems, in particular, are especially susceptible to unpredictable weather.



      Murshida Khatoon, Debdulal Dutta Roy

Abstract: Metamemory (i.e. knowledge and beliefs about memory) of adolescents is assumed to influence performance of cognitive tasks requiring memory hence possibly impacting their classroom performance. This necessitates the availability of appropriate tools for assessing metamemory among adolescent population. Due to the dearth of appropriate self-report measures assessing metamemory among adolescents, the current study aimed at developing such a measure.



      ABDUL-KARIM ABUBAKARI, JANET GROSS

Abstract: Despite the non-contraceptive benefits hormonal contraceptives offer to women with haemoglobin SS, the utilization of hormonal contraceptives is on the decrease. The study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and barriers to the use of hormonal contraceptives among women with SCD in the Kumasi metropolis. The study used questionnaires to collect primary data from 378 women with haemoglobin SS within their reproductive ages. The results of the study showed that knowledge was not significantly associated with the use of contraceptives among women with SCD.



      Akpobire oghenekome and Owhwoudue Eriyonja Roland

Abstract: This study examines the awareness and perceptions of biological and chemical safety in laboratories among Polytechnic students at the Delta State Polytechnics at Ozoro and Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria. The research design employed was cross-sectional survey. The study population comprises science laboratory students the Polytechnics in Delta state. A random sample size of 240 students from the Department of science laboratory Technology was selected.



      Abdul Halik, A. F, Fouzul Kareema, M. I & Mohammed Arsath, M.A

Abstract: Several English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language learners around the globe confront difficulties in using present perfect tense according to appropriate context. This study was conducted with the aim of overcoming the difficulties encountered by grade 10 students of T/Mu/Al Hilal Central College, Mutur, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka in using present perfect tense. In this study, 30 students in grade 10 were systematically selected for data collection, and quantitative method was used for data collection.



      A.Mallikarjuna, Prof G.Anjan Babu

Abstract: Electronic commerce is the phenomenon of buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet system. Apart from buying and selling, so many people are using Internet as a source of information look at the latest products on offer or to compare prices before to buy. The E-commerce systems are usually estimated as the prominent resources that give user’s experience, feelings, and interest to purchase items by using Consumers’ views. This type of data involves consumers’ views on products that can show interest, sentiments, and expressions. The different research ideas have shown that people are more likely to trust each other with the same attitude toward similar things.



      Henry Marcus Garba

Abstract: The approach of the Nigerian government concerning the COVID-19 pandemic has drawn public criticism by the citizens, especially in the media. The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic has brought a diverse, responsive approach among different nations. Since the disease outbreak, measures have been taken to curb the spread of the virus by government and private organizations in Nigeria.



      Trevor Mohlala

Abstract: Nuclear enhancement is the continuous annihilation of mass until a level is reached where mass cannot interfere with the opposing weight of the universal system. Continuous nuclear enhancement is driven by the process of beta decay, beta minus decay is responsible for the expansion and beta plus decay is responsible for stability of the nucleus. Mass is an element of dark matter driven by a force that makes it to continuously gravitate towards itself.



      Trevor Mohlala

Abstract: Nuclear enhancement is the continuous annihilation of mass until a level is reached where mass cannot interfere with the opposing weight of the universal system. Continuous nuclear enhancement is driven by the process of beta decay, beta minus decay is responsible for the expansion and beta plus decay is responsible for stability of the nucleus. Mass is an element of dark matter driven by a force that makes it to continuously gravitate towards itself.

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