International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications

IJSRP, Volume 13, Issue 9, September 2023 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

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Higher yield & quality of NICLOSAMIDE in commercial manufacturing of Veterinary medicine
      Suryadevara Ramakrishna
Abstract: Niclosamide is an anthelmenthic medication used to treat tapeworm infestations,including diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasiss, and taeniasis in animals.Purity and yield are the major deciding factors in commercial production of Niclosamide. Process parameters and compositions of raw materials & solvents play a major role in attaining the desired quality of the drug.

      Brig Peter Limo and Col (Dr) Charles Okongo Imbiakha
Abstract: The world is today than ever before fixated on the subject of development, which is taken as a Change process necessitating modifications in the societies of developing and developed nations. Consequently, the purpose of this research was to examine the role of military diplomacy in the advancement of foreign policy aspirations in Africa using Kenya-South Africa relations as a case study, with a particular emphasis on challenges and prospects. The study employed Institutional theory, which can be traced back to foundational articles discussing how organizational founding and change were influenced less by functional considerations and more by symbolic actions and external influences. International Relations (IR) practitioners, government agencies, diplomats, Kenya Defence Forces, National Intelligence Service, academia, media, journalists, envoys, and other specialists comprised the target audience. The primary data was collected via an open-ended and closed-ended questionnaire, whereas the secondary data was gathered via articles, journals, periodicals, and books. According to this study, the contribution of the military varies from state to state and over time based on a variety of factors.

      Gracia Pricilia, Adi Muradi Muhar, Edwin Saleh Siregar, Aznan Lelo, Suyatno, Iqbal Pahlevi Adeputra Nasution
Abstract: Introduction: Pancreatic cancer is the seventh leading cause of death globally in developing countries. Through the process, elevated serum CA 19-9 levels have become a diagnostic tumour marker frequently used to detect pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that adjusting CA19-9 levels to serum bilirubin levels can improve accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant hepatopancreaticobilier disease.

      Bhanupratap Singh Bhadouria
Abstract: Ethical issues are essential for assuring the proper development and application of AI technologies as artificial intelligence (AI) develops and permeates more facets of society. This research article examines the ethical issues raised by AI, emphasizes the value of ethical considerations, and suggests solutions to these issues. We can encourage trust, fairness, transparency, and accountability in the use of AI technologies by encouraging ethical development practices.

      Guddela Sri Hari
Abstract: Decentralized Finance (DeFi) has emerged as a disruptive force in the financial landscape, leveraging blockchain technology to offer a wide range of financial services without intermediaries. This research paper delves into the extraction of valuable insights from DeFi data using data science techniques. By analyzing transaction data, smart contract interactions, and market trends within the DeFi ecosystem, this paper explores how data-driven approaches can uncover patterns, risks, and opportunities, ultimately contributing to informed decision-making in the rapidly evolving world of decentralized finance

      Ms. Aishwarya Ugran, Mr. Nazeersab Balagar, Ms. Bhagyashree Biradar and Ms. Shreedevi Police Patil
Abstract: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which begins 7-14 days before the onset of menstruation and declines with the onset of menstrual flow, affects women during their reproductive years and is connected with physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe type of premenstrual syndrome that generally becomes problematic during late adolescence and can damage their quality of life. The non-pharmacological method is indicated to lessen the intensity of the symptoms early on without producing adverse effects. Although the origin of PMS is unknown, training women to exercise self-care methods to lessen the intensity of symptoms is a significant focus in therapy, in addition to pharmacological medication.

      Col Alex Kiraguri and Col (Dr) Charles Okongo Imbiakha
Abstract: Implementation of Kenya vision 2030 is ongoing having been launched on 10 June 2008. The regional security situation however remains a major concern and the ability of the internal security apparatus to decisively deal with such threats is limited. The Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) being a key enabler must therefore play a key role in support of the implementation and realization of the vision. However, previous empirical studies have failed to effectively establish the role of KDF in achievement of Kenya Vision 2030.This therefore calls for policy makers to make policy intervention that would lead to strengthening of KDF role in implementation of Kenya’s Vision 2030 projects. The objective was to examine the role of KDF as an enabler to the achievement of Vision 2030.

      Dr Mini Khetrapal {MS}
Abstract: Ovarian tumours are more frequently seen in adults, although they are quite uncommon in youngsters. The majority of ovarian masses seen during the premenstrual or infancy phases are benign functioning cysts, which are non- cancerous tumours. Ovarian mass symptoms and clinical indications are typically non-specific. Thus, it might be challenging to get the right diagnosis before surgery, and early care may be required to preserve the patients life and fertility. 8–10% of all ovarian cancers are epithelial tumours, which are histologically categorised as mucinous or serous. Cystadenoma, of which 75% are serous and 25% are mucinous, is the most frequent benign ovarian tumour. On the surface, mucin-filled tumours are distinguished by cysts of various sizes that have not invaded the surrounding tissue. Before being found, they might grow to a large size, although this does not always mean they are cancerous.

      Bader Algahtani, Prof. Adnan Affandi
Abstract: Electronics field open new trends towards making people life safer. One of its fields: protection systems, especially to serve the human being at their houses. This paper provides solution to LPG leakage. This protection will be done by devices when working sequentially together.

      Bader Algahtani, Prof. Adnan Affandi
Abstract: Detecting and tracking an infrared (IR) aerial target in the event of infrared jamming is still challenging. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) based algorithms are proposed for the detection and tracking of aerial targets in the presence of decoy flares. Features including brightness intensity, dominant orientation and complexity were used for the discrimination against decoy flares. SVD characteristics including oriented energy analysis, image energy truncation, and low rank approximation were used to measure these features.

      Dr.Bijaya Shalini
Abstract: Childbirth is a miraculous and complex process, during which a womans body undergoes significant changes to bring a new life into the world. While vaginal delivery is the preferred mode of childbirth, certain complications can arise, posing risks to both the mother and the baby. One such complication is uterine rupture, which refers to the tearing of the uterine wall during pregnancy or labor. In cases of uterine rupture, the subsequent delivery presents a unique set of challenges and requires careful management. This article explores the topic of vaginal delivery following uterine rupture, delving into the causes, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of this complex obstetric scenario.

      Dr. Bijaya Shalini
Abstract: Menopause is one of the most significant events in women’s life and brings in a number of physiological changes that affect the life of a woman permanently. Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting in the loss of ovarian follicle development. The age at menopause appears to be genetically determined and is unaffected by race, socioeconomic status, age at menarche or number of prior ovulations. Factors that are toxic to ovary often result in earlier age of menopause; for e.g, women who smoke experience an earlier menopause, women who have had surgery on their ovaries, or have had a hysterectomy, despite retention of their ovaries, may also experience early menopause.

      Stanley Kiarie Njau, Lucy Kawira Gitonga, Anna Kagure Karani, Henry M. Nyamu
Abstract: Pressure injuries are wounds which occur on bony prominences, following prolonged hours of pressure or shear. Their incidence in community settings could be as high as 80%, but application of basic prevention knowledge can avert this trend. The objectives of the study were to determine the level of pressure injury knowledge after a training intervention, to determine the pressure injury prevention practice after the training intervention, and to examine the relationship between post training knowledge, and pressure injury prevention practice. This was a randomized controlled trial, which was conducted at multiple sites, that is, at Embu Level 5 Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya, and at patients’ homes.

      Nouf Thawab Alshalawi, Nourah Mohammed Almufareh, Norah Saab Alonazi, Ruqayyah Mohammed Aljurayan, Yazia Ashwi Alonazi, Reem Fahad Aldosri, Sharifah Ali Alshogaifi, Alhanouf Ali Alshogaifi, Aeshah Ali
Abstract: This secondary research paper delves into the pivotal role of healthcare integration in the enhancement of patient care quality. Focusing on the context of Prince Salman Hospital, the study investigates how seamless coordination and collaboration among multiple healthcare departments, including radiology, nursing, and laboratories, have significantly improved patient diagnosis, treatment, and overall healthcare experiences.

      ABDI JELLE OLOW , Prof. Paul M. Kyalo, Dr. Hassan Kinyua, Dr. Mohamed Alio
Abstract: This study assessed the impact of Islamic based programs on rehabilitation of Muslim inmates the case of Shimo La Tewa prisons, Kenya. Observably , although a considerable number of the studies had been carried out on the welfare of inmates in Kenyan prisons, there has been no study to the best of the researchers knowledge that focus on the impact of the faith based program on the lives of the inmates as this study attempted to . The objectives that guided the study were; to trace the historical incorporation of Islamic based rehabilitation programs in Kenya Prisons; to investigate the various Islamic based rehabilitation programs being implemented to rehabilitate Muslims inmates in Shimo La Tewa Prison; to examine the challenges facing the implementation of Islamic based rehabilitation programs in Shimo La Tewa main prison and finally to assess the impact of Islamic based rehabilitation programs on rehabilitation of Muslim inmates in Shimo La Tewa Prison.

      Morisho P. Jenny, Dr. Wanjau Wa kabecha
Abstract: The automotive industry is experiencing a transformative shift to address energy efficiency and reduced emissions. The adoption of lightweight materials, including light alloys, high-strength steel, and composites, emerges as a pivotal strategy to enhance energy efficiency and structural design. This review paper explores the properties, opportunities, challenges, and future prospects of lightweight materials in automotive engineering. Lightweight materials offer advantages such as improved fuel economy, enhanced performance, and recyclability while challenges include energy-intensive production, manufacturing costs, material integration, recycling complexities, and safety considerations.

      Khalid Zaben Aldahmashi, Dr Hussien Meshail Alotaibi, Ali Abdullah Bawazir , Abdulaziz Abdulrhman Almishari, Abdullah Wadi Alanazi
Abstract: This study examines the current state of death directories in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, spotting its shortcomings and suggesting improvements. The study looked into Saudi Arabia death data platform, assessed its accuracy, consistency, and timeliness, and surveyed the potential technological options alongside standardized frameworks. Using a mixed-method technique approach, it engaged key participants including healthcare practitioners, governmental institutions, and research establishments. The proposed strategies were compared to best practices from other countries that have effective death data management systems. Results exhibited that while Saudi Arabia has managed to have high completeness rates in death registration, problems surrounding data accuracy and timeliness persist. Lastly, a proposed framework embracing modern technologies, comprehensive training programs, and increased stakeholder collaboration were highlighted to augment death data handling. The execution of such a system could transform public health outcomes and strategies in Saudi Arabia.

      Ngue E Minoo, Dr. Eddie Simiyu, Dr. Moses Odhiambo Aluoch
Abstract: Liquidity of a manufacturing firm means a lot for it provides a cushion that would enable the company to survive a period of low earnings during which the company might be unable to access capital. Studies, both theoretical and empirical, demonstrate that a firm's financial structure affects the firm's liquidity. However, as a corporation liquidity desires are mainly impacted through the character of its operations, a corporation liquidity call for will range relying on its unique circumstances. Specifically, the look at was looking to; discover the impact of brief time period debt, long time debt capital and equity capital on liquidity of manufacturing corporations indexed in Nairobi Security Exchange, Kenya.The usage of corporation size forms the moderating factor/ variable.

      Christian Mathew, Oluomachi Ejiofor
Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are categorized as functional composites, where the volume fractions of two or more materials change continuously based on position along specific dimensions (mainly through-the -thickness) of the structure to achieve desired functionality. A typical example of FGM is an inhomogeneous composite consisting of distinct phases of material constituents (e.g., ceramics and metals for thermal barrier structures), featuring a strong bending-stretching coupling effect. The overall properties of FGMs are unique and distinguishable from the individual materials comprising them. Mechanical properties exhibit continuous variation across the plate thickness. Variations in constituent volume fractions lead to diverse microstructures. The effective properties of FGM plates are assumed to change along the thickness direction, following power law, sigmoid, and exponential distributions. FGMs are created by altering chemical composition, microstructure, or design features from one end to the other as required. They exhibit high-temperature resistance, efficiently mitigating thermal stresses and moisture impacts. The variation in volume fraction throughout the thickness is computed using different homogenization techniques, namely the rule of mixtures, Mori-Tanaka scheme, and self-consistent method. Several micromechanical models have been developed and utilized to estimate effective properties of these materials in relation to volume fraction distributions. The manipulated variable concerns the concentration of reinforcing particles at various points within the component. This study delves into various methods and theories for modeling and analyzing functionally graded materials, offering a comprehensive exploration of their features. The outcomes and new findings of this analysis are presented.

      Mercy Fwande Wekesa, Dr. Anthony Osoro
Abstract: The chief impartial was to inaugurate the relationship between adoption of E-mobility and performance of sustainable development in Nairobi, and the specific objectives remained: economic situation, social situation, environmental situation, technological situation on performance of sustainable development in Nairobi. The study was theoretically guided by the endogenous growth theory, sustainable livelihoods approach, resource dependency and technology acceptance model.

      Lucille A. Mbago, Dr. Naomi Njoroge N
Abstract: Strategic planning is a critical process for organizations to achieve their goals, encompassing environmental, economic, and social performance. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) practices play a pivotal role in ensuring the successful implementation of strategic plans by providing oversight and feedback. This paper is a study on the impact of M&E practices on the performance of Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) in Kenya in the implementation of Strategic Plans.

      Ezekiel Mariita, Siphilia Mumenya, John Mwero
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate creep and shrinkage of concrete beams containing tuff aggregates (TA) as a partial replacement of coarse aggregate (CA). This was done at 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % replacement levels. The methods used was characterization of TA, CA and Fine Aggregates (FA), mineralogical characterization of TA, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity of the cast concrete and loading 0.2 x 0.2 x 1.0 m beam specimens with dead weights for 60 days. Four beams of C45 were cast to test creep, whereby two had 0 % replacement and another two had 100 % replacement levels of CA.

      Nova Jerotich Komen, Dr. Anthony Osoro
Abstract: Tenacity: The notable drive of the study was to regulate the relationship amongst supply chain management practices and performance of tea processing firms in North Rift Region, Kenya. The specific objective were: factory systems, factory proximity, factory production and transport scheduling respectively. This study was anchored to different theories: The study used descriptive research design, where equally qualitative and quantitative research was functional.

      Arindam Lahiri, Dr. Rajni Verma
Abstract: The increasing prevalence of one-parent households and the necessity to study the effect of single parenting on children is evident. There have been numerous observable differences between children in single parent and two-parent households and one of most significant impairments is that of self-esteem. Self-esteem refers to an individual’s perception of self, their capabilities and worth. Divorce, separation, and widowhood disturb the family structure and during the fragile period of adolescence, the impacts are particularly severe.

      S Brundha, Kishan L, Gowtham M, Shobhith K, Eshwar Shashidhar
Abstract: The rapid advancement of technology has revolu- tionized the way we navigate and explore our surroundings. Traditional map-based navigation systems have been effective for outdoor spaces, but they often fall short when it comes to navigating complex indoor environments such as shopping malls, airports, and museums. Additionally, relying on visual interfaces can be challenging for individuals with visual im- pairments or those who prefer a hands-free approach to navi- gation.

      Rufinah Chelimo Korinyang, Dr. Anthony Osoro
Abstract: Purpose: The core drive of the study was to regulate the relationship amongst sustainable procurement and organization performance of West Pokot County Kenya. The study was directed by the next research objectives; policy commitments management, financial spending management, procurement risks management and stakeholder expectations management correspondingly.

      Mohammed Rahama Hassan, Fengting Li, Yongji Zhang, Kamati Salmi
Abstract: The Blue Nile (Ethiopia) and White Nile (South Sudan) upstream catchments had significant rains that dramatically raised the Nile’s water levels, flooding parts of the capital Khartoum. Sudan faces a serious flood problem since Khartoum, the country’s capital, frequently experiences flooding. The review begins by categorizing the various floods that occur in Sudan, considering regional variations and each one’s distinct characteristics.

      Jihad Basuni, Prof. Adnan Affandi
Abstract: Three different versions of hybrid ring couplers are proposed in this paper. The first one is an improved version of an old distributed coupler. The other two couplers are broadband lumped-distributed hybrid ring couplers. Theoretical analyses, simulations, and practical measurements are covered in this paper. Moreover, the theoretical results are almost matching with the practical results, so these couplers are almost fully corresponded with the theoretical results. All designs and simulations are implemented by the Advance Design System (ADS) software.

      Divaachamba Byambadorj
Abstract: This original research and commentary article provides a comprehensive comparative study of the trademark legal systems of China and Mongolia. The analysis covers various aspects of the trademark laws of both countries, including their historical development, main characteristics, and the acquisition and protection of trademark rights. The article also emphasizes the differences and similarities between these two legal frameworks, revealing the impact of each system on the other.

      Jihad Basuni, Prof. Adnan Affandi
Abstract: A variable lumped-distributed branch line coupler with three selected coupling levels is designed and proposed in this paper. This variable coupler combines three separate couplers. Each coupler has its own coupling level and bandwidth. The first coupler is a distributed, and the second and third couplers are lumped-distributed. A comparison between simulated and practical results is covered in this study. Minor and ignorable differences between the simulated and practical results are found, so this coupler closely aligns with the theoretical results. Moreover, 3D designs and fabrications are executed and included in this paper. Circuit designs and their simulations are implemented using the Advance Design System (ADS) software.

      Joseph Omondi Shihonga & Dr. Anthony Osoro (Ph.D.)
Abstract: Drive: The chief purpose of this study was to institute the affiliation amongst supply chain management practices and performance of motor vehicle selling agents in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The specific objectives were: stockyard proximity, vehicles location, transport systems and information and communication technology correspondingly. This reading was attached to diverse theories. The study rummage-sale descriptive research design, where both qualitative and quantitative research was applied.

      Mukwekwe Kasyoki And Dr. Anthony Osoro (Ph.D.)
Abstract: Tenacity: Consequently the sought to explore the relationship amongst tendering practices and performance of level four county referral Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study was steered by the subsequent specific objectives: tender advertisement, tender budgeting, tender evaluation and tender Information Technology adoption on performance of level four Hospital in Kiambu Kenya.

      Almar S. Bantolo M.D, Kutch V. Yasa, M.D, Lucille P. Detoyato, M.D
Abstract: To determine the incidence of Orthopedic Trauma cases during the pre-Covid versus Covid period in tertiary hospitals in Western Visayas and its effect on each orthopedic training programs in the region.

      Mary Wangeci Kanyottu, Dr. Jane Karonjo & Prof. Anna Karani
Abstract: Partograph is graphical tool presentation of key data during the progress of labor. The observations of the mother are interpreted by a midwife or an obstetrician to make conclusions to whether the condition of the mother and fetus is fine. A woman from developing world is 100 times more probable to die during pregnancy or child birth than a woman from a developed country. The purpose of the study is to develop a model to promote partograph utilization by midwives during management of mothers in labour in selected hospitals in Kenya so as to reduce Maternal Mortality rate related to delivery.

      Dr Ranjeeta Gupta ( D.G.O)
Abstract: The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy is 4- to 5 times higher than it is in the non- pregnant condition. [1, 2] Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are the two signs of VTE (PE). While most publications claim that VTE can happen at any stage of pregnancy, research indicates that the first half of pregnancy is when it happens most frequently. Complications including pulmonary hypertension, post-thrombotic syndrome, and venous insufficiency are examples of DVT and PE sequelae.

      Dr Ranjeeta Gupta
Abstract: Placenta accreta is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that occurs during pregnancy. It is characterized by abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to various complications during delivery. This retrospective case study aims to analyze the clinical presentation, management strategies, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with placenta accreta over a 30-year period. By examining this condition in depth, we hope to shed light on its complexities and contribute to the existing knowledge in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.

      Dr. Ranjeeta Gupta
Abstract: Unsafe abortion refers to an abortion that is unclean or unhealthy, conducted by an incompetent or untrained birth attendant using improper procedures. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2011), an unsafe abortion is the termination of an unplanned pregnancy by incompetent personnel or in an atmosphere devoid of minimal medical standards, or both. [1] Many social, physical, and biological factors contribute to unsafe abortions and their related problems. A botched abortion may result in life-threatening consequences.

      Charles Otieno. P. Ochieng, Frank Khachina Matanga, Chrispinous Iteyo
Abstract: Election of leaders by the people is the aim of democratic procedures. An electoral system is designed to make sure that the results are uncontested in any way and that they reflect the choices of the majority of voters, giving elected officials legitimacy. This study objective was to assess the nation electoral process. Consociationalism, voting, and rational choice theories served as the foundation for this investigation. The researcher adopted a descriptive study design and employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The research was carried out from July 2022 to December 2022. Political parties, political analysts, IEBC members, legislators, and voters made up the study target population. The researcher employed the stratified random sampling technique. The strata were created by the target demographic, and a random sample was drawn from each stratum. The researcher used interview guide techniques to collect data, using items that were developed from the study objectives and research questions. Questionnaires and interviews were the two main ways that data were gathered. Voters were handed questionnaires, and interview guidelines were provided for political experts, electoral experts, and IEBC officials. The information gathered through the use of questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics. According to the results, Kenya electoral system is based on the plurality/majority system known as the First Past the Post concept. It is based on the Kenyan Constitution of 2010 and includes a wide range of actors, each of whom has a specific duty outlined in the Constitution. The IEBC is a key player among these parties. The report recommends, among other things, looking at alternative choices including mixed member and proportional representation models since they are more inclusive and produce fair representation as a remedy for the existing polarizing plurality voting system.

      Ronald Amuliodo Luganji, Julius Bichanga Miroga
Abstract: This research sought to determine how capital structure affected the financial performance of Kenyan listed energy and petroleum industry firms. The study main objectives were to determine how debt financing affected the financial performance of listed energy and petroleum sector companies in Kenya and how equity financing affected financial performance of listed energy and petroleum sector firms in Kenya. The theories that served as a guide for the study were: Pecking order theory and trade-off theory. This study adopted a correlational research design while dealing with the research objectives. A census method was adopted for purposes of analyzing the audited financial statements that were downloaded from the firm websites in arriving at detailed and well informed conclusions by employing Multiple regression, Correlation and Analysis of Variances techniques using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 26 to establish the existence (or lack of it) of the study link between the dependent and independent variables. The study conclusions showed that the independent variables had a statistically significant effect on the financial performance of Kenyan listed energy and petroleum companies. The model correctly predicted the association between the variables based as depicted by the F-test. Recommendations on the variables were made for management consideration for future decision making where the study majorly recommended that the firms should use more internal equity to grow profitability as it does not involve costs of acquisition compared with external equity and debt finance and that in cases where external financing is required, management should base decisions on the finance option with the lowest investment risk and proportional costs.

      Isaac M. Macharia & Dr. Nelson Lambaino
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between supply chain integration and performance of humanitarian organizations in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The reading was steered by the subsequent specific objectives: information integration, internal integration supplier integration, customer integration on performance of humanitarian organizations in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The reading was attached on theories pertinent to specific objectives. The reading espoused descriptive research design.

      Mohamed Hussein Mohammed & Dr. Anthony Osoro
Abstract: Universally, many nations including Kenya have started procurement restructurings culminating into depiction of procurement laws and regulations. In Kenya, notwithstanding the animation of the procurement law, there is squat level of compliance by the county governments to this law. The determination of this study is to examine the relationship amongst compliance of public procurement law and performance of County government of Isiolo in Kenya. Specifically, the scholarship sought to inaugurate the relationship amongst procurement regulations, procurement procedures, procurement personnel and procurement records and performance of County Government of Isiolo.
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