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IJSRP, Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2015 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

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      Mansour Hassan Mansour, M. A. Bashir

Abstract: The paper presents a formulation of some of the most basic entities and equations of fluid mechanics, the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in a modern differential geometric language using calculus of differential forms on manifold (exterior calculus).



      Dr. Haren Pandya, Dr. Hiren Patel, Dr. Hitesh S. Dewan, Dr. Bijal C. Bhavsar, Dr. Urvi Shah, Dr. Pankaj I. Hotchandani, Dr. Shaswat R. Diwan

Abstract: Lips help to perform unique actions such a drinking, eating, speech and sound production and blowing by their unique sphincter action. On top of that, they are an important component for facial esthetics. Its functions can be jeopardized by different factors which produce lip defects. Lip tumors that produce lip defects are either congenital such as vascular malformations and hemangiomas or acquired such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia.



      Bushra S.P. Singh, Dr. Meenakshi Malhotra

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating effect of trust in the relationship between perceived organizational support and silence. Data from a cross-sectional study of 268 public and private sector academicians serving in ten educational institutions in North India were analysed. Mediation analysis revealed that trust plays a mediating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational silence. This study is cross-sectional in nature. Further research with longitudinal and experimental studies needs to be carried out to support the results. Data has been collected through self-rating questionnaires. 360 degree feedback could be used in future studies. Top management at organizations must inculcate a supportive culture in the work environment by rewarding employees for their achievements and valuing their efforts. Employees must be involved in decision process through a participative leadership style. The performance management system must be transparent and employees must be prepared for promotions through succession planning and employee development programs.



      Rohit Gorakh, Dinesh Yadav, Om Shanker Chaurasia, Manish Kumar

Abstract: Congenital cardiac diseases are recognized as a major predisposing substrate for infective endocarditis(IE) worldwide, due to wide spread epidemiological changes observed in last decades in children with infective endocarditis(IE), resulting from increased survival rate of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) due to advancement in surgical interventions together with decreasing incidences of Rheumatic valvular heart disease (RHD) in the pediatric age due to involvement of new modified antibiotics policy, surgical management and enhancement of public awareness. Around 70% of cases of infective endocarditis (IE) occur in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), in whom majority of cases are ventricular septal defect (VSD). Here endothelial damage followed by presence of bacteremia are two important determining factors for Infective endocarditis (IE). These children had some form of underlying hemodynamic instability, such as a pressure gradient or turbulent flow between two cardiac chambers or the great vessels that create shear forces of abnormal high-velocity jet.



      Mohd Hamid

Abstract: In this paper, basic principles of agile testing, advantages & disadvantages of agile testing is discussed.



      Sonal Rohilla

Abstract: This paper delineate the most imperative feature of SIM industry; rather all communication industries i.e. SECURE COMMUNICATION. The research done herein is primarilary focused on secure commuicatons between a SIM application often called SIM Applet and the supporting/controlling server. The work done here will assist a SIM applet architect, developer, business solution designer to know how to ensure secure communication between applet & server.



      Appoothy Thulasi, Lyju Jose, V. D. Rajendran and Chandrasekharaiah M.

Abstract: In the present study, twenty-three strains of Piromyces sp. obtained from ruminants and non-ruminants were grown in Medium 10 in the presence of paddy straw as the sole source of fermentable carbon. The activity of extra-cellular fibrolytic enzymes such as avicelase, filter paper cellulase, β 1, 4 endoglucanase, β glucosidase and acetyl esterase were estimated in the various axenic cultures. The activity of the exoglucanase on avicel (avicelase activity) and filter paper was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Piromyces strains isolated from Nilghai, the Indian elephant and the camel. In the four strains of the Piromyces isolated from the domestic ruminants, the activity of the exoglucanase on avicel (avicelase activity) and filter paper was found to be the lowest as compared to all other strains of Piromyces isolated from the wild herbivores, camel/horse (< 4.0 µmoles/mg protein).



      Rowena de los Reyes Laroza, Ed. D

Abstract: The study aimed to determine the validity and effectiveness of the developed modules in the subject Social Orientation(Soc. Or.) or Personality Development and Public Relations (PDPR). This study was conducted at the University of Rizal System-Morong Campus during the First Semester of School Year 2009-2010 with 15 PDPR professors and 30 second year students of Bachelor of Technology major in Hotel and Restaurant Management as the respondent-evaluators in the study. Descriptive-experimental method of research using the questionnaire-checklist and test results in gathering data was used in the conduct of the study. The PDPR professors validated the modules based on the following criteria: objectives, subject matter, organization and presentation, language and style and usefulness of the module. Pretest-post test design was used to determine the performance of the control and experimental group in which the students were equated and divided into two groups. Mean, standard deviation and rank distribution were used as statistical tools in treating the data. T-test was utilized to test the significant difference between the mean performance of the control and experimental group as revealed by the post test results. It was found out that the modules in PDPR were very much valid as an instructional material. This is shown in the high performance of the experimental group as revealed in their pretest and post test results. The modules in PDPR were perceived to be very much effective by students and professors.



      Dr. Sridhar Reddy. P, Dr. B. Rajsiddharth, Dr. B. Karunakar Reddy

Abstract: Pseudo pancreatic cyst is a common complication of pancreatitis. Accurate diagnosis and timely management is important. This study is to know the various etiological factors, relative frequency of occurrence of pseudo pancreatic cyst in relation to age and sex, establish accurate diagnosis by various investigations and to study various modes of management like conservative, percutaneous drainage and surgery. The different modes of treatment and their efficacy will be dealt in detail. This is necessary to know the better treatment of choice.



      Gopal Krishnan, Ankit Thakur, Shankey Garg

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the Single point cutting tool deflection due to cutting forces which were developed because of different parameters like feed, depth of cut, cutting speed and also because of geometrical parameters of cutting tool like side cutting edge angle and side rake angle and further comparing between side rake angle and side cutting edge angle. Firstly the cutting forces were measured using dynamometer which is taken from reference, then finite element method (FEM) was used to obtain the cutting tool deflection which is finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA results were then validated using cantilever beam model results. The predicted results from FEA were very close to the theoretical study. Though the prediction from FEA and the theoretical results are reasonably accurate.



      Esraa M. Samy, Esmat A. Shaaban, Sanaa A. Kenawy, May A. Galal and Walaa H. Salama

Abstract: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation in detoxification of Echis Coloratus snake venom without affecting their immunogenic properties. This was carried out by studying the toxicological, immunological and biological properties of the crude venom. Data revealed that the toxicity of venom after (1.5 and 3 KGy) gamma irradiation was reduced 6.4 and 7.2 times, respectively, compared to the native venom. Immunogenicity was evaluated by performing the double immunodiffusion test; same number of visible lines joined smoothly at the corner was observed with the non-irradiated, as well as, the two dose levels gamma irradiated (1.5 and 3 KGy) snake venom; this result indicating that there was no change in antigenic reactivity.



      Elfatih A. M. Elsiddig, Osman M. Elamin and Mohamed E. Elkashif

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the research farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan, during seasons of 2008 to 2010. Treatments consisted of vernalization periods, which ranged from 30 to 180 days, vernalization temperatures of zero to 14° C and gibberellin concentrations ranging from zero to 600 ppm. Results indicated that vernalization temperatures of 4 to 5° C for 90 days or more was the key factor for the induction of flowering in Texas Early Grano cultivar. Application of GA3 alone, without vernalization, at all concentrations tested failed to induce flowering. However, the highest bolting percentage and seed yield were obtained by a combination of vernalization at 4 to 5° C for 180 days and the application of GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm. It is recommended to vernalize bulbs of “Texas Early Grano” cultivar at 4 to 5° C for 180 days with the application of GA3 at the rate of 600 ppm for seed production under Gezira conditions.



      Dr.S.Amutha, A.Sudha

Abstract: Web-Based Instruction (WBI) brings a number of benefits to individuals requiring a combination of specific learning patterns and program structure. Using Web-based learning to enhance student’s marketing education is inevitable nowadays. Technological development provides many opportunities for ethics education to be interesting, stimulating and effective. It is vital that academics make the time and commitment to prepare meaningful course material and accounting departments need to support such initiatives through appropriate resources. Online learning pedagogy may be superior in its overall effect on student performance. Student interest, in online, web-based courses, may also be improved by providing direct video training modules featuring students who have taken online, web-based courses.



      Saikrithika S., Santhiya.K.R, and Veena Gayathri.K

Abstract: Vermicompost are produced by the breakdown of organic waste which results in rich microbial diversity and it has many nutrients that support the plant growth. Vemicomposting is increasingly popular in diverse aspects including recycling of organic waste, efficient nutrient supplier for plant growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different substrates such as kitchen waste, coir pith and rice straw on the production of vermicompost. These vermicompost were assessed for nutrient values and subjected to studies on the growth of Vinca rosea. The temperature of the composting material ranges from 22° C to 35°C,pH was between 5.5 -9 , moisture content of the composting was recorded as 40% - 56%.The nutrient analysis reported that high amount of Total Organic Carbon(TOC) is in coir pith vermicompost i.e about 0.43% -0.63% ,The total phosphorus and available phosphorus are high in rice straw compost about 0.065 and 0.55% on the 75th day. The total kjedhal nitrogen was about 1.42% in the kitchen waste obtained on the 45th day. The result indicated that vermicompost is a good biofertilizer and showed better growth patterns in Vinca rosea cultivated by the vermicompost prepared using coir pith.



      Dr.S.Amutha, S.John Kennedy

Abstract: Present education system aims at providing the teacher and the learner to be a literate of Technology and hence technology based education is the need of the hour. Exposure to the use of technology in the teaching and learning process makes the teacher and the student to learn things effectively. In this paper an attempt is made by the researcher to explore the awareness of technology based education by the student teachers. Survey method was adopted in this study. 91 student teachers in the B.Ed College have been selected as sample by simple random sampling technique. Among 91 respondents 68 are female and the remaining 23 are male more exposed to the use of technology. The study found that there is no significant difference in intellectual domain of student teachers based on gender. There is significant difference in emotional domain of student teachers based on gender. With regard to the educational qualification (UG and PG) there is no significant difference among student teachers based on intellectual and emotional domains. As far as the type of family (Nuclear and Joint) there is no significant difference among student teachers based on intellectual and emotional domains.



      Ms Kavita Pathak, Dr. Sudhir Agrawal

Abstract: One of the main objectives of a radiation spectroscopy is to have good energy resolution so that the results of the nuclear physics experiments can be interpreted faithfully. Electronic noise introduced by the instrumentation systems put a major constraint on the energy resolution. It has been proved theoretically by many researchers/authors that the signal to noise ratio can be maximized to its best value if the electrical pulse obtained from a nuclear detector can be shaped into an infinite cusp form. Practically a cusp-like pulse of finite length can be obtained by processing the detector signals in digital domain. This paper considers VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) simulation aspect of cusp-like filtering algorithm. Such simulations provide the platform to verify the algorithms for their implementation into a digital hardware such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for real time applications. The simulation considers exponentially decaying sequences as the input to the filter. In radiation spectroscopy applications, such signals are obtained by digitizing the slow decaying exponential pulses derived from radiation detectors.



      Shyam Singh Amrawat

Abstract: When it comes to human trafficking, more than 90% of countries have laws to tackle this but having law only does not prevent, suppress the crime rate. The report published by UNODC mentioned that even when 90% of countries have legislation to criminalize but between 2010 and 2012, some 40 per cent of countries reported less than 10 convictions per year. Some 15 per cent of the 128 countries covered in this report did not record a single conviction.



      Priyanka V Kashyap, Nitin Bansal, Dorchhem Khreme, Alok Kumar, Amit Varma

Abstract: We studied 200 patients of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) diagnosed by EEG criteria in our tertiary care hospital (Sri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical & Health Sciences, Dehradun, UK, India) from June,2012 to May, 2015. 164 (82%) patients were diagnosed IGE. When history and records were checked 30% patients were taking broad spectrum AED, 35% were on specific AED, 51% were on nonspecific AED while 9.5% patients were on combination of AED. 39.21% patients on nonspecific AED were well controlled of seizures and 60.78% were poorly controlled. When we changed the medicine to broad-spectrum AEDs, 50.82% became well controlled.



      Dr Chidanand KJC, Dr Madan Ballal , Dr Siddharth Gupta

Abstract: Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction has become the gold standard for ACL insufficiency in active patients. Hamstring tendon is the most favoured graft choice for ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of a series of 30 patients who underwent Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons with suspensory method of fixation using Endobutton on femur and titanium suture disc on the tibial end, with a follow-up of 2 years.



      Dr. Namrata, Dr. Ruchika Sood, Dr. Mandakini Pradhan, Dr. Piyush Kumar

Abstract: Feticide in multifetal pregnancy is being practised since last two decades for reduction of multifetal pregnancy or selective fetal termination of anomalous twin. Multifetal pregnancy reduction is particularly gaining importance due to rampant use of Assisted Reproductive Technology world over. However, still there are several issues associated with fetal reduction varying from the its actual requirement to different methods of practising it.



      Mahendra R. Pakhale, Dr. Trupti Ramteke, Dr. Arun Tadas

Abstract: This study was designed to find the correlation between changes in lipid profile and liver marker enzymes in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. The study population consisted of 150 subjects, age and sex-matched and divided into three groups [control subjects (n=50), HIV infected (n=50) and AIDS patients (n=50)]. Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were found to be decreased significantly in HIV/AIDS patients when compared with normal counterparts. On the other hand, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) were markedly elevated in HIV/AIDS patients compared to normal subjects. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) observed in HIV/AIDS patients were significantly higher than in the control group. Further, the above mentioned biochemical variables were found to be affected more significantly in AIDS patients when compared with HIV infected subjects. Hence, it may be concluded that lipid profile and liver enzymes can be a good index of disease progression in HIV infection and AIDS patients.



      M.Ravindra Naik and K. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract: The selected microwatershed belongs to Kollegal taluk of Chamarajanagar district. The microwatershed lies 20 km away from Kollegal taluk head quarter. The Micro-watershed is located between 120 6' 34.5" and 120 7' 49.6" N latitude, 770 15' 30.9" and 770 14' 20.2" E longitude, with an average elevation of 775 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL). It occupies a part of the four villages viz., Kannuru, Anapura, Mangala, and Kamgare. Composite soil surface sample in strategic manner to cover all farming systems of the watershed. Upland soils was slightly acidic to neutral, lowlands soil reaction was neutral to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity of all the fertility points was negligible, The organic carbon content vary between low to medium, The cation exchange capacity of the soil varied from low to medium. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were low, low to medium and medium respectively.



      D.G.P.M.Perera, T.O Kumanayaka, S.Walpalage

Abstract: In this research work Zeolite has been incorporated as filler with natural rubber latex (NRL) compounds to enhance the odour adsorption property of NRL foam products. Incorporation of Zeolite into NRL has not been reported in the literature. A methodology was developed to prepare stable colloidal dispersion of Zeolite and incorporate it into NRL compound without affecting the stability of the NRL compound and physical properties of final foam product. It was found that stable Zeolite dispersion with 32% Total Solid Content (TSC) can be prepared and 8% (on dry weight) optimum dosage of Zeolite can be incorporated into NRL compound considering the indentation hardness of foam product, sorption and flame retardant properties.



      PhD.Gezim Bara

Abstract: Introduction:Parents are one of the key actors in the teaching institution and have a huge impact in school, parents are actors interested in the promotion have teaching because they want an education as perfect for their children and create a partnership between parents and school. It would make the learning level was as high and problems with students were as scarce.



      Idongesit Ambrose, Wesley Braid and J. P. Essien

Abstract: Microbial load in air over municipal waste dumpsite and its environ was assessed using sedimentation or settle plate method. The numbers of viable microbial cells extracted from the dumpsite project site atmosphere ranged between 64 cfu/15minutes and 16 cfu/15minutes for bacteria, 39 cfu/15minutes and 1 cfu/15minutes for coliforms and; between 77 cfu/15minutes and 13 cfu/15minutes for fungi. The values remarkably higher than results reported for other human-impacted projects in the tropics. Bacillus sp was 100% prevalence followed by E. coli with 80% prevalence. The fungal genera such as Absidia, Mucor, Penicillium, Aspergillus restrictus and Cladosporium showed 60% prevalence in the study area. The predominant fungi characterized from the old stadium project atmosphere were Absidia, Mucor, Penicillium, Aspergillus restrictus,Candida pseudotropicalis and Cladosporium; while Micrococcus, Bacillus and Staphylococcus species were the predominant bacteria species found in the project environment. Escherichia coli (faecal coliform) and S. aureus as microorganisms do not survive well in aerosols, the two isolates were predominantly detected at the dumpsite and its immediate environment, an indication that the project site and its environ are heavily impacted by humans and animals feces and wastes or that fecal wastes are also wrongly discharged at the open dumpsite.



      Shobhit Gupta

Abstract: The next revolution in IT industry after World Wide Web that we can realize is the introduction of Internet of Things (IoT). Internet of Things is also sometimes referred to as Internet of Everything. In simple terms, we can understand Internet of Things (IoT) as a concept where all day to day objects are connected to the Internet and to one another. The IoT is a concept that can improve our lives to make it easier and smarter.



      Abdullah Nawash Abdallah Alnawaisheh

Abstract: This study attempts to present a clear picture about negation scoops in semantic and syntactic features in the English language. It aims to describe the various aspects of sentential negation by showing how negation operates with different negative particles, and to illustrate the different positions of negations in English language It also attempts to shed light on the classification of the negative particles in English language according to their occurrences in sentences, i.e., verbal and non verbal sentences and according to their semantic and syntactic positions in these sentences.



      P. Vinod, M.G. Sanal Kumar, B. Bini

Abstract: Comparison between the three forest types namely moist deciduous, semi evergreen and evergreen of Achencovil forest in the post monsoon season on the basis of soil edaphic factors like gravel, pH, Organic carbon content (OC), Exchangeable Acid (EA), Exchangeable Base (EB), sand, silt, clay and soil chemical factors like Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium contents. 20 sites from moist deciduous, semi evergreen and Evergreen were randomly selected. Soil samples of 5×5 cm2 area from a depth of 5 cm were collected from these three habitats. Mean with standard deviation were taken. Habitat wise variation was analyzed by using two way ANOVA. The study shows that the evergreen soil has high nitrogen content (3779.8 ppm). Phosphorous content (5.98 ppm), potassium content (242.45 ppm) and calcium content high in moist deciduous and magnesium (74.75ppm) content high in semi evergreen. The Evergreen soil has high organic carbon content (4.72 %).



      Olugbamila Omotayo Ben, Ogunyemi Omotayo F

Abstract: Water is one of the most important factor in the development of a nation and until recently, this essential element of urban liveability-domestic water supply have not received the much needed attention it deserved in promoting good urban living. This paper therefore, examines water supply situation in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources through physical survey, observation, interview and questionnaires administered to targeted residents of the different quarters of the ancient town. The study reveals among others shortage of portable water as well as lack of attention to maintenance and sustainability. Moreover, majority of the respondents get their water supplies from unprotected source thereby making them vulnerable to water borne diseases. The study therefore recommends among others the conduct of awareness campaign to sensitize the local people, provision of good and safe drinking water as well as the repair/maintenance of the existing water facilities in order to achieve the target of the MDG.



      Prof. JJ Kothari, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Speech is the most natural and major form of communication between humans. Since last three decades humans are trying to create computer that can understand and talk like human. Compared to English and other European languages like French, Spanish etc., much research is not done in Indian languages. There is less work done particularly in Gujarati. This paper describes Designing, development and implementation of a concatenate based Text to Speech algorithm for Speech Synthesis in Gujarati language. When the researcher tries to develop certain recognition system, they require certain previously stored data i.e. database for respective recognition system. Concatenative Synthesis described in this paper uses database of prerecorded Gujarati phonemes and concatenates them to produce sound. It also describes concatenative method which boosts up data matching and speech generation process.



      Ghilby Varghese Jaison, Charlse M Varghese

Abstract: Personalized web search (PWS) has showed its effectiveness in improving the quality of search services on the Internet. However, evidences show that users’ fear to disclose their private information during search has become a major barrier for the wide proliferation of PWS. Here we are introducing the concept of Homomorphic encryption to encrypt the server such a way that an eavesdropper nor an untrusty admin could access the search words and the profile. It is less complex and more efficient than the UPS framework.



      Vasudha Kadam and Sanjay Deosthale

Abstract: Painganga forest is a rich store house of medicinal plants. Tribals in Painganga forest have great faith in effectiveness of medicinal plants. The present study was carried out to explore traditional medicinal knowledge of plants of Painganga forest in Yavatmal district. This information were based on exhaustive survey, interviews during the year 2014 -15 in the tribal inhabited area. The present study was carried out to explore traditional medicinal knowledge of plants of Painganga forest of Umarkhed taluka. It was found that 20 different plants belonging to 15 families are used to treat various diseases.



      Dhirendra Pratap Singh

Abstract: There are instances when we want to wish someone on his or her birthday at exact 12:00 am in midnight but due to certain reasons, we forget to do so. Scheduling an Automatic SMS [Short Message Service] can prove handy in such cases.



      Swapnil SINHA

Abstract: As web attacks and security threats are increasing; security teams are now working together with web application development team to mitigate the causes of attacks at its initial stage of development. The paper describes the most critical web based threats that had defaced huge number of websites and also talks about various methodologies that can be followed by developers to build a secure web application. The paper describes certain practices that aids in tackling of web application security through secure web application development.



      Tanuj Joshi

Abstract: Performance!!! This is what everyone expects from others and himself too in every aspect of life. Whether you are playing, studying or doing any activity performance always matters. When it comes to websites, performance is the major factor which decides the efficiency of that website. In this paper, I demonstrate a technique which increases the page performance of any website. A section in performance enhancement has been implemented using jQuery which demonstrates that how the page performance can be increased by reducing the response time for the page.



      M. K. Singh, U. K. Dey

Abstract: In earlier years when mining activities were modest in scale, safety problems too were simple. With the progress in exploitation of minerals, safety of persons employed became matter of concern. Occupational injuries in mines are attributed to many factors. Based on various literature review it may be come at common establishment that there are various factors responsible for work injuries in mines. Statistical tools have been developed in the light of epidemiological principals to see whether there is any role of some personal and impersonal factors in the occurrence of coal miner’s injuries. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the various factors related to work injuries in mines and to estimate the effects on work injuries to mine workers. An accident path model was developed to estimate the pattern and strength of relationship amongst the personal and impersonal variables in accident/injury occurrence.



      Rithin joseph, Daniel raj, Jose fernandez,, Saji kumar, Renju ravi, Prajith, and Remesan

Abstract: The deep sea squid Asperoteuthis acanthoderma (family: Chiroteuthidae) is reported here for the first time from the Arabian Sea of the India. A single specimen was collected while conducting a trial fishing with 49.5m Cosmos mid water trawl onboard FORV Sagar Sampada between latitude 11o 47.767’N and longitude 73o 39.065’E at a depth range of 350 to 400 m during the month of October 2013. The morphometric measurements of the specimen are described and are compared with the same species reported from the North Atlantic Ocean. The female specimen measured 788 mm in standard length, 22.50 mm in mantle length, 89.26 mm fin length and weighed 85.38 gm.



      Pradnya Diggikar, Prasana K Sathpathy, Amar patil, Priyanka Zagade, Deepak Baldania, T Venu Babu

Abstract: Aims and objectives: This study is designed to determine the clinical and immunological aspects of patients with chronic polyarthritis, and assess the different causes of chronic polyarthritis using detailed history of the course of the disease along with clinical examination and immunological tests to support an early recognition of the polyarthritis.



      Atego Chrispine Odhiambo, Dr.Fridah Simba Theuri

Abstract: The general objective of this study was to analyze the effects of public procurement processes on organization performance.It determined and analyzed the gaps in public procurement in county assemblies using county assembly of Mombasa as a case study. This was guided by three specific objectives: to establish the effects of human resource skill level in the procurement department, to identify the influence of stakeholder integration on the performance of the organization and to determine the effects of supplier management on the performance of the organization. There are numerous cases of exaggerated prices, and behind the schedule projects which is contrary to the public procurement and disposal Act 2005.



      Anne Wangui Muya, Dr. Fred Mugambi

Abstract: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays a crucial role to speed up the development and economic growth of a country. In particular, developing countries rely heavily on FDI to promote their economy as they face capital shortage for their development process. FDI not only brings in capitals and technology, but also skills into developing countries. And this end is to help the countries grow faster by satisfying the country’s needs. The main aim of this study is to explore and determine the factors affecting foreign direct investment decisions among International companies investing in Kenya, find ways in which (FDI) foreign direct investment contributes to the development of Kenyan economy and finally to determine the strategies to attract and retain foreign direct investments in Kenya. The study analysed critically both the theoretical and empirical reviews of the available data before conducting the study to ensure the viability of the study.



      Odongo Melen Sophia, Datche Owuor

Abstract: This study’s main objective was to determine the effects of strategic planning activities on organizational growth. Issues had been raised by employees that the planning process tended to be inflexible and rigid since it operated in changing environment and poor adaptation to changing environment usually affected organization adversely. They perceived strategic planning process being unrealistic separated with actions which hindered growth, thus strategies not linked with actions. The Researcher in the study therefore sought to analyze the effects of strategic planning on organization growth. The specific objectives of the study was to establish the effect of setting objectives on organization growth ,to assess the effect of budgetary allocations on organization growth, to determine the effect of organization structure on organization growth and lastly to analyze the effect of performance review on organization growth. Descriptive research design was used which included questionnaires to be distributed and filled with various top managers, heads of department, middle level managers and general staff members of KEMRI. Target population in this research was Kenya Medical and Research Institute Management. The target population was divided into various management groups including Heads of departments, middle level managers and general staff members. Stratified random sampling method was used. The target population was two hundred employees. Stratified sampling method was used to draw the Sample size of 50 employees and data analyzed by use of Spss.



      Ryan T. Sarimong

Abstract: The need to maximize farm productivity through efficient use of light energy and soil resource is necessary in attempts to increase food production and mitigate climate change. This study evaluated the productivity of traditional upland rice and legume intercrops planted singly and in combinations under a coconut-based farming system. A split-plot design composed of two factors with three replications was used. The main plots were traditional upland rice varieties (Kalutak, Malido, Mansanaya, San Pedro, and PSB Rc 10 as check variety) while sub-plots were legume intercrops (peanut, mungbean, soybean, and no intercrop as control). Growth and yield of crops and return on investment (ROI) were gathered to determine productivity. Results revealed that Malido with no intercrop produced the tallest plant, while most tillers were from plots without intercrop. Highest dry grain yield of rice (1.42 t ha-1) was taken from plots grown to San Pedro with no intercrop. Highest dry grain yield of legumes was from plots with Mansanaya + soybean (0.94 t ha-1) and PSB Rc 10 + mungbean (0.92 t ha-1). Highest ROI (344.40%) was from plots with PSB Rc 10 + mungbean.



      M. Reni Sagayaraj, P. Manoharan

Abstract: In this paper, we present some results for vector-valued fractional difference equations. We are successful to completely characterize the maximal regularity of solutions for the problem in Lebesgue vector-valued spaces defined on the set Z+. Our approach use as main ingredients Blunck’s operator valued multiplier theorem, and the introduction of a special sequence of bounded operators, that we called α-resolvent families, which will play a central role in the representation of the solution of the problem by means of a kind of discrete variation of parameters formula.



      Sharvari Sane, Dr. Swati Sharma, Devendra Nagal

Abstract: Electric Traction in Mumbai has successfully completed the conversion of overhead power supply system from 1500 Volt D.C. to 25KV A.C. June 2015. This is nothing short of an achievement considering the fact that engineers did it without disturbing current services and creating trouble for the 42 lakh commuters in their day-to-day travelling. Electric Traction is oldest (1925) and largest mode of transportation in Mumbai city, connecting various suburban to commercial center. This paper studied the harmonics due to this A.C.Electric Traction in supply grid, at Thane Traction substation in Mumbai. High reliability and reduced maintenance of AC motor has also enabled Railway boards to increase the number of train. This paper compares the voltage and current patterns and harmonic presence in AC supply at Traction substation.



      Dr. Shipra Awasthi

Abstract: The present study focused on the articles published in library trends journal from the year 2008-2014. The references cited in the articles have also been studied. Various parameters have been identified to study the journal articles and the references like Year wise publications, authorship pattern etc.



      Dr. Baby Nagapriya Vellalacheruvu, Dr. Ragini Bekur, Dr. Harika Mapakshi

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of global burden almost 1/3rd of population are affected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. approximately 9 million each year are newly affected and 2 million die from the disease. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is emerging as an epidemic which increases the risk of development of TB by 3 times. DM will increase the infective forms (sputum positive) of TB there by increasing the no. of patients infected by a source case.



      S. S. Charan & Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sharma & Rajni

Abstract: Society, religion and sanskritization are complementary to and are internally linked with one another. A society successfully and ethically exists only when religion governs it, and religion often leads to sanskritization. Religion ideally serves several functions. It gives meaning and purpose to life, reinforces social unity and stability, serves as an agent of social control, promotes psychological and physical well-being, motivates people to work for positive social change through sanskritization, promotes traditional views about gender roles, and engender intolerance towards people whose religious faith differs from one’s own.



      Karunarathne A.C.I.D

Abstract: Hospitality industry underscores a high inequality in women’s’ empowerment and career advancements in most of the countries. The issue is more critical in the developing countries like Sri Lanka where as they face many challenges, often concentrated in low status, low paid and unsecure jobs in the hotel industry. With the increased number of women workforce who enrolled with higher education in the past few decades, a proportional incensement for women employees has not been rooted in the higher managerial positions in most of the Sri Lankan hotels. As concerns tourism presents a wide range of prospects for an individual in the international arena, most of the hotels still do not recruit, promote or assist women workers.



      Sherette S. Godfrey, Kashenya M. Gurley, Malcolm M. Moses, Brianna L. Arrington, and Checo J. Rorie

Abstract: The Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) subtype accounts for 15 percent of all breast cancers and is characterized by the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2/Neu receptors. The objective of this study is to compare and contrast microRNA expression level profiles from triple-negative breast cancer versus normal breast cell lines. MicroRNA was extracted from normal (AG11132) and TNBC (HCC1806, HCC70, and MB157) cell lines and subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that a number of microRNAs (miR-21, 34a, and let-7 family miRNAs) were shown to be differentially expressed in TNBC versus the normal breast cell lines. It was shown that TNBC cells have a differential microRNA expression profile when compared to normal cells. Microarray analysis revealed that microRNA expression profiles cluster the TNBC cells separately from the normal cells. The findings suggest that microRNAs could potentially be used as biomarkers to diagnose TNBC, and could potentially be used as drug-targeted therapies in the future.



      V. M. Dharanguttikar, R. W. Bharud, V.H.Borkar

Abstract: Thirty chickpea genotypes were evaluated for moisture stress tolerance imposing by PEG-6000 in growth chamber, at Phytotron facility, Department of Botany, MPKV, Rahuri during Rabi-2013. The germination test and seedling growth under control and moisture stress were recorded to study the genotypic variation for moisture stress tolerance. Ten seeds were sown in germination paper and water stress treatments (0, -0.4 and -0.6 bar solution) create by Polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). PEG-6000 (Distilled water, 178 and 223 mg) dissolving in 1 L of half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution separately to create water stress treatments of control , -0.4 and -0.6 bar, respectively. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with two replications for each experimental unit. The observations on germination count at every 2 days interval upto 8 days and seedling length and dry matter after 8 days were taken. The genotypic variation was statistically significant for all the parameters. On the basis of stress parameters, the genotypes, NBeG 47-1, PBC-161 and BBG-2 for germination, GJG-1010 and PBC-161 for seedling growth and NBeG 47-1 and PBC-161 for higher dry matter production were found to be moisture stress tolerance.



      Shafaat Hussain, Sumaiya Sajid

Abstract: Although there have always been controversies around the importance of two levels of phonology (segmental and suprasegmental) in language teaching history, today there is a general consensus that both of these should be taken into consideration to reach the goals of pronunciation instruction. However, time shortage is a factor that forces the teachers to set priorities and be selective of materials that have more crucial role in understanding and being understood than others both in segmental and suprasegmental level. The touchstone of this review is to examine the degree to which suprasegmentals affect comprehensibility. This work concludes that suprasegmentals play an important and crucial role in pronunciation teaching.



      Kamal Nabh Tripathi, Mr. Imran Ahmad, Mr. Yusuf Jamal

Abstract: Industrial processes create a variety of wastewater pollutants; which are difficult and costly to treat. The present study is under taken to assess the level of physiochemical parameters of the distillery spent wash. These parameters will compare with Bureau of Indian Standards. Untreated effluent is found to have high contents of BOD, and low contents of DO. According to the permissible limit suggested the Bureau of Indian Standards the untreated effluents is toxic to plant so it is not permissible for irrigation. The results reflect that the treated effluents are not highly polluted and they satisfy the Bureau of Indian Standards values and therefore can be used for irrigation purposes.It is one of the most complex, and strongest organic industrial effluent, having extremely high BOD values. Because of the high concentration of organic load. The paper reviews the status of BOD, DO and pH values before and after treatment of the distillery wastewater.



      Chikere, Cornell C and Nwoka, Jude

Abstract: This paper examines the systems theory of management in modern day organizations with an highlight on an indigenous company based in Port Harcourt. In this work, an introductory perspective was captured to show an understanding of what the systems theory is all about, revealing the input-output model. The paper categorizes the systems theory into two thought areas: the cybernetic and closed systems on one side and the biology and open systems on the other side, and differentiations made. Systems theory focuses on the relations between the parts, rather than reducing an entity into its parts or elements. The organization is considered as a system having integrated parts that must be coordinated for efficiency and effectiveness. The null hypothesis of no relationship between application of system theory of management and organizational success was rejected. The study found that the organization under study adopts systems approach. The study recommends that modern organizations should adapt systems approach to enhance corporate growth and profitability.



      Md. Azharul Islam, Salvia Rahman, Faizul Haque

Abstract: Abrasion resistance is used to quantify the service life of the textile material in normal use. The aim of this study is to measure the deterioration of three thread fleece knit fabric due to abrasion. To conduct these work three different types of three thread fleece (all cotton, cvc/poly/cotton, all PC) fabrics were selected. The test was carried out in the technical back side of the fabric because of the presence of loose and course fleecy yarn where the possibility of fibre loss is higher than technical face side. The weight loss percentage of the fabric both in grey and finished state were measured at every 500 cycles interval on Martindale instrument according to ISO 12947-3:1998. The result showed that the rate of weight loss percentage was raised with increment of the cycle, and a measurable effect found in the weight loss percentage of polyester based three thread fleece fabric yarn after 500 cycles than the others. It was also observed that for all cotton based fleece fabric variation in loss of weight in grey to finished state was not so remarkable, but the weight loss percentage was found higher in all CVC, polyester, cotton based fleece fabric.



      Manan Trivedi

Abstract: Background and purpose: Use of Radiotherapy in head and neck cancer is widely accepted and it is becoming standard treatment for head and neck cancer. In addition to some advantages of radiotherapy, patients experience various side effects. The aim of the study was to analyze acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapy in cancer of head and neck. Learning of these side effects will help doctors to plan treatment for patients and may help better ways to treat cancer.



      Dr. Rohini Chandrica Widyalankara

Abstract: The Lumber Room by Saki has undergone multiple analyses as a short story. This study firstly examines its socio-pedagogic suitability for a target population of fifteen year old students who are embarking on the path of appreciating literature in Sri Lanka as the short story is contained in their anthology. It is rich in analytical excellence. The tightness of plot, multiple themes, dramatic dialogue, economy and dexterity in the use of language make it an ideal artifact for analysis of the short story genre. There is an omnipresence of humour, especially satire and wit. Secondly this study utilizes the short story as an analytical cameo on development psychology of a child and adult-child relationships. Its autobiographical nuances enhance the realistic value in this context. At present within the institution of family in the Sri Lankan society a transition from the traditional extended family structure to an accelerated creation of nuclear families is witnessed. The short story generates awareness on the need in a child for strong emotional attachments with positive reinforcement from care givers who unlike in the past very often is restricted to the two parents at present. Additionally it affirms the right of children to engage in and experience creativity. Thus the thematic multiplicity of the short story targets a reader population of children who are given an occasion to evaluate the relationship they have with their own parents.



      Hansen Sallipadang, Nurhayati Abbas, Badriyah Rifai, Slamet Sampurno Suwondo

Abstract: This study aims to provide an overview of the concept of a legal settlement to errors in medical practice. This research was conducted by using research methods Normative, by abstracting of legal materials both primary, secondary and tertiary qualitative approach. Results of this study concluded that the concept of a legal settlement to errors in medical practice subject to all positive law justice system in both criminal law, civil law, the law of the State administration, consumer protection, code of conduct and discipline of medicine, thus potentially cause legal uncertainty for the medical profession as well as optimizing the impact on inhibition of improving the quality of public health services in general.



      Zulkarnain Umar, Rakhmat, H. Thahir Haning, Badu Ahmad

Abstract: This study in the wake of irregular installation of billboards in the city of Makassar is caused due to the absence of regulation or regulations on spatial planning billboards in the city of Makassar, resulting in the installation of billboards in arbitrary locations / places anywhere can be mounted billboard, by him Makassar City Government really needs to make a policy that is the regulation of billboard space arrangement so as not to spoil the aesthetics and beauty of the city of Makassar. Assuming the theory of George C. Edward III. This study aims to explain and describe the location of the billboard space arrangement in order to become a leading Makassar city of the world and not “rangtassa”, hence the need for the installation of billboards is not on indiscriminate place / location.



      Dr. Charan Teja Koganti, Dr. Shobhana Mittal, Dr. Safeekh A T, Dr. Pavithra Rao, Dr. Chandini

Abstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is common in people with Alcohol use disorders. Individuals who engage in deliberate self-harm (DSH) report using problematic coping mechanisms one of which is alcohol consumption. An observational, cross-sectional, clinical study was carried out to study the prevalence and methods of deliberate self-harm in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome.



      Singh J, Kapoor K, Kaur A, Kochhar S & Huria A

Abstract: Background: Anencephaly is a neural tube defect (NTD) which is due to defective closure of cranial neuropore. This NTD is associated with other congenital anomalies in most of the cases. This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of anencephaly among congenital malformations seen at autopsy. The study aims to identify the risk factors associated with anencephaly in our population. Attempt was made to correlate the incidence with associated systemic anomalies, maternal age, birth order and sex of the fetus.



      Kaksha Thakare, R.D.Patane

Abstract: Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources.



      Reuben Nguyo Wachiuri

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which relative advantage of Assistive Technology affect effective teaching and learning of integrated English among the visually impaired learners. The research design was descriptive research design. The target population was 4 principals, 48teachers and 480 students while the sample size was 4 principals, 218 students and 48 teachers. The sampling techniques were simple random sampling and purposive sampling. The data was collected using questionnaires, observation schedule and focus group interview.



      B. Khadgi, L. Shrestha, S. Shrestha

Abstract: Postnatal stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is an important social and hygienic health problem affecting between 3% and 24% of adult women. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of antenatal exercise on postpartum women who were identified with SUI during their third trimester pregnancy. Among 103 women attending antenatal clinic of Dhulikhel Hospital, 34 women were identified with SUI during their third trimester pregnancy. They were treated by physiotherapist with antenatal exercise including education and home exercises. After 6 months, a telephone survey was conducted to find out the results of the treatment given during the antenatal period. Only 27 respondents answered the telephone survey. From these respondents, only 37% women had continued exercises where as 63 % of the women did not continue to do exercises even after identifying the problem. All women who continued the recommended exercises were found to have no SUI whereas SUI had reoccurred in 70% women who discontinued exercises. A very significant (p=0.00) association was found between antenatal pelvic floor muscle exercise, prevention and treatment of SUI indicating that pelvic floor exercise helps prevent SUI during antenatal period. Awareness of the importance of Pelvic floor exercise should be promoted especially in developing countries like Nepal which offers a cost effective management and improve the quality of life.



      Pathak Jeny, Pokharel Nabaraj

Abstract: Background: Multi drug resistant(MDR) and Extended Spectrum beta-lactamase(ESBL) producing strain are tremendously increasing and becoming worldwide problem. Therefore, detection of ESBL producing multidrug resistant pathogens has a great importance. This study was carried out with an objective to determine the status of MDR isolates and underlying ESBL from different clinical samples.



      ISAAC RENSON AYOYI, DR.ROBERT ODUNGA MUKOSWA

Abstract: In the past decades, the public procurement system in Kenya has undergone significant developments. From being a system with no regulations in the 1960s, and a system regulated by Treasury Circulars in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, the introduction of the Public Procurement and Disposal Act (PPDA) of 2005 and the Procurement Regulations of 2006 has introduced new standards for public procurement in Kenya. As a result, ethical supply chain management is becoming a mainstream business practice in public sector in Kenya. Ethics in Public procurement provide advice and guidance to buying organizations on how to develop ethical purchasing practices in their supply chains (Arkingstall 1994). Although intended primarily for buyers, this guidance applies equally to anyone who has responsibility for managing the supply of goods or services from an external source. It has become essential for public organizations to have an ethical policy or code of conduct in procurement functions (Amstrong and Sweeney 2004). The Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS) believes that public entities should universally apply the practice set out (as laws, regulations, policies and procedures) and should encourage all cadre of organizations to include good ethical business practices in all areas of their work. In this case, organizations should also involve all stakeholders in this process. It is vital that organization’s management visibly endorses procurement ethical policy.



      Julista Mustamu, Syamsul Bahri, Muh Yunus Wahid, Aminuddin Ilmar

Abstract: Freedom acting in the administration of government affairs known two kinds namely freedom of discretion and freedom of interpretation. freedom of discretion or freedom to decide independently occur in the case of a norm of giving freedom to the agency or official of the state administration to take an action according to the considerations to do or not do something that is stated in the basic rules. While freedom of interpretation is more focused on the formulation of norms which disguised (vage norm), in which case the entity or state administrative official has the freedom to interpret the intent (meaning) of the norm vage. Forms of discretion in the administration of government affairs, according Kreveld like; beleidslijnen (stripes wisdom), het beleid (wisdom), voorschriften (regulations), richtlijnen (guidelines), regelingen (instructions), circulaires (surat circulars), resoluties (resolutions), aanschrijvingen (instructions), beleidsnotas (memorandum of wisdom), reglemen (ministriele) (ministerial regulations),beschikkingen (decisions), en bekenmakingen (announcements). Based a nalisis freedom of action (discretionary power) and its implementation as an object of corruption to Decision Number 2420.K / Special Crimes / 2013 Case Special Criminal Appeal and analysis of the reasons a weld Type of Cassation, it was concluded that: 1) The act of law committed by the defendant is corruption, 2) Measure the abuse of authority in the in casu let by basing on the principles of specialties in budget management.



      G.M.Saljaba, S.A.Osemeahon and J.T Baminas

Abstract: This paper studies the swelling behaviour of Stereospermum kunthianum plant parts (stem-bark, leaves, root, and seed) at various parameters (kinetics, temperature, pH and ionic strength).The plant parts were prepared by entrapping bio-sorbent with in a polymeric matrix of calcium alginate to produce immobilized bio-sorbents. Result shows that, in water, percentage water uptake increase with increase in time. The water absorbency for the immobilized plant samples in various salt solutions decrease with increasing ionic strength and temperature. The percentage water uptake for the plant parts were 363.6%, 330.6%, 263.6% and 240% for stem-bark, leaves, roots and seed respectively. The plant stem-bark and leaves has the highest percentage water uptake. These observations indicate that these plant samples have potentials in metal ions sorption from aqueous solution because in bioremediation process, the higher the water uptake by the sorbent, the higher metal ions it can remove from the aqueous medium.



      Dr. Anoop Kumar Singh

Abstract: No doubt, commercial banks and co-operative banks have achieved a great success in the area of financing during the post independence period, but there exists a wide gap between demand and supply of rural credit. In order to bridge this gap a new a set of banks namely regional rural banks were introduced in banking sector of India. Their scope of rural financing has been expanding in terms of network of their branches as well as volume of financial transaction. Micro finance has tremendous strides in India over the last few years and it has become a house hold name in a view of multi prolonged benefits receivables from micro finance services by the poor in our country. Through this paper an attempt has been made to assess the role of RRBs in last few years focusing on their contribution in the field of micro financing. At the same time, the paper argues that in the economy as vast and varied as India, there is scope for diverse micro finance approach to co-exist in future.



      Manoj Kumar, Manisha Yadav and Anu Choudhary

Abstract: Fluoride is highly toxic and corrosive gas, light yellow-green in colour and with a pungent smell. The excess fluoride intake is responsible for dental and skeletal fluorosis in cattle. The symptoms of excessive fluoride ingestion include lesions in the developing dentition, skeletal lesion and lameness. The immature animals are reported to be most susceptible to dental fluorosis. The milk production is indirectly affected by fluoride toxicosis . The excessive fluoride reduces the conception rates of cattles.



      Madhavi Kaulgi

Abstract: Music is an inseparable part from our lives. Who doesn’t like music? We hear some or the other kind of music everyday in our daily life. It’s rare to find a person who doesn’t like music. The music may vary from person to person. The genre may vary, but we are hard wired to music. It can be from the ocean of variety, various forms of music like classical, light music e.g. this etc, folk or regional music, western music forms like RAP,Pop,Jazz etc.



      Sanjay Singh Chauhan and Avinash Tiwari

Abstract: The present paper deals with the phytosociologicaldiversity of Madhav National Park. During study 65 species, 59 genera belonging to 41 families were recorded. The results showed that Leguminaceae was the dominant family.Trees were dominant (50%) followed by shrubs (22.72%), Herbs (21.53%), Climbers (4.54%) respectively. Most of the plant species had flowering and fruiting in rainy season, followed by summer season and very few species in winter season. During the month of May maximum species showed no phenological activity while in the month of September maximum number of species showed phenological activity.



      Susan Peter Teru, Dr Daw Tin Hla

Abstract: The advancement in technology has enabled companies to generate and use accounting information systems. The qualitative characteristic of any Accounting Information System can be maintained if there is a sound internal control system. Internal control is run to ensure the achievement of operational goals and performance. When organizations adjust their computerized techniques of internal control mechanism according to accounting information systems they will be able to ensure the reliability of financial information processing.



      Nehal A. Salahuddin, Maged El-Kemary, Ebtisam M. Ibrahim

Abstract: Zinc oxide nanotubes were prepared by a hydrothermal method using zinc nitrate as a precursor. The synthesized nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and their optical properties were characterized using UV -visible spectroscopy. The XRD analysis confirmed that the ZnO nanotubes have the hexagonal wurtzite structure. UV-vis absorption spectrum showed a typical spectrum of pure ZnO nanotubes. According to TEM analysis, the mean length and average outer diameter of the ZnO NTs were about 2.4 μm and 200 nm, respectively.



      Archana Pandey

Abstract: Web Accessibility is about making web accessible to users with impairments. More specifically, users with disabilities can understand and commune with web. Web page is accessible if it can be used efficaciously by users with and without disability.



      Dr. Manjari Kishore, Dr. Geetha V, Dr. Ranjini Kudva, Dr. Vandana Mohan

Abstract: Endometrial Carcinoma is one of the most common malignancy of female genital tract and third most common worldwide. No widely accepted screening test for endometrial carcinoma exists. However, cervical cytology has been found to be useful in detecting endometrial disease. The 2001 Bethesda system recommends the reporting of endometrial cells in women of 40 years and more, regardless of menstrual status or clinical history.



      Harish Mugutkar, D Swetha

Abstract: The designed engine cover in this paper is made of different plastic materials, today’s ever increasing demand for newer, lighter materials with higher strength, greater stiffness, and better reliability has led to wide research on development of thermo plastic materials. These materials offer a combination of strength and modulus that are either comparable to or better than many traditional materials such as metals. However, with the development need for materials with superior properties from the private sector, composites are now making their way into more common applications. However study on the static and dynamic mechanical behaviour, long term durability, and environmental stability of these materials are limited. Under-the-bonnet applications came later with the more widespread availability of high-performance thermoplastics (referred to as ‘engineering plastics’) and contributed significantly to cost and weight reduction in the engine compartment.



      Dr. M. Habibur Rahman, Sayeed Ahmed Siddiqui

Abstract: The Ready Made Garments (RMG) of Bangladesh started in the late 1970 and became an important pioneer in the economy (contributes 80% of total export earnings of Bangladesh) and in terms of foreign currency earnings Bangladesh is the second largest garments exporter next to china. In 2013-2014 about 4 million people, working in around 4222 (Source: BGMEA) garments factories and approximately 80% people of them are female. In FY (fiscal year) 2013-2014 Bangladesh reached the export value 24.59b (billion) USD and in July‘2014-feb’2015 it reaches 16,551.49m USD that is 81.49% share of national export in this time (by export promotion bureau of Bangladesh). RMG sector has set a target to earn 30b USD by 2015 and 50b USD by 2021. Total amount of employment in RMG sector is 4 million where 3.2 million female are doing work on an average 11.12 hours/day in the garment factory/industry. In this regards, we took the study for the contribution of female worker in RMG as well as the contribution to the national economy of female garment workers in Bangladesh.



      Suhad Hassan Allawi , Abdulmajid Abdulaziz

Abstract: The study was conducted on ten types of plants belonging to sub family Papilionoideae which belong to the Legumenosae family ,the aim of the study is to know the numbers of the chromosomes representing each the types under study , also to know the length of these chromosomes and their types depending on the location of the t central piece then studying the dimensions of the cells of the elongation zone of the types under the study .



      Abdullah Mohammed Rashid, Nor’ashikin Ali

Abstract: A distributed database system is a combination of sub-database separated over many sites communicated through a network. Deadlock is one of the most common problems that occur in distributed database implementation. Deadlock occurs when a multiple transaction locks the same data sources and every transaction waits for other to release. Deadlock detection and resolution is not easy in a distributed database system, because such system is composed of more than one site communicated to central database. The main objective of this study is to analyze several proposed algorithms to detect and resolve the deadlock in distributed database and propose a new technique to avoid the drawbacks of previous algorithms, besides enhancing the efficiency of detection and resolving the deadlock in distributed database.



      Ali Ahmed Osman Zakaria

Abstract: The study probes into Sudanese EFL university learners communication habits to explore the nature of the problem they experience when communicating. To achieve the aim of the study, the researcher employed the analytic descriptive approach. The subjects of the study consisted of 70 Sudanese EFL students drawn from Faculty of Arts at Alneelain University. Two tools were employed for data collection: a questionnaire and an audio-recorded interview with the students. Results showed that the students knew what effective communication entails; proper negotiation of meaning through well constructed message. Result also showed that the students could understand the message addressed to them but they experienced difficulties responding properly. The students reported that the problem they faced in this respect was due to their limited knowledge about the target language and lack of confidence. Furthermore, result proved that the environment in which the students learn and practise English did not encourage the students to develop their communicative abilities. English does not have any communicative functions in the students’ community. That is why the students have very poor communication strategies and in turn they fail to express their thoughts clearly and concisely.



      Echereme, Chidi B., Mbaekwe, Ebenezer I. and Ekwealor, Kenneth U

Abstract: Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological events in plant and animal world, especially with regard to seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors. Phenological study of Delonix regia (Boj.) Raf. occurring in Onitsha with a tropical dry deciduous vegetation was carried out to collect information about the different phenological phases of the tree. The early to late stages of four phenophases, leafing, flowering, fruiting and ripening were observed and recorded once in every two weeks for a yearly cycle. Two-digit codes were used for inclusion of the principal growth stages and the secondary growth stages, and these defined the phenological phases observed. The results showed that changes in the prevailing seasons influenced the leafing and flowering phenology in D. regia. Flowering phenology started soon after the tree had resumed leafing with the early rains in the rainy season. Leafing, flowering and fruiting phenology started at different time periods and peaked synchronously. Also, the result showed that deciduousness in D. regia started with the onset of dry season in November and ended shortly before the rains in February. In addition, the study has provided baseline information on the phenology of D. regia, and this will, in the future, serve as a correlation between phenology and climate change in the area. Thus, it is suggested that functional and effective meteorological station be established in the area for integration of climatic records.



      Echereme Chidi B., Mbaekwe Ebenezer I. and Ekwealor Kenneth U

Abstract: Crown architecture of trees is the manner in which the foliage parts of trees are positioned in various microenvironments. Trees tend to attain a characteristic shape when grown alone in the open due to inherited developmental programme. This developmental programme usually implies the reiterative addition of a series of structurally equivalent subunits (branches, axes, shoots, leaves), which confer trees a modular nature. The developmental programme is the result of plant evolution under some general biomechanical constraints. The functional implications of the modular nature and the biomechanical constraints of shape, which in addition to the environment where the tree grows determine the tree crown architecture. Plant performance has a crucial link between its phenotype and its ecological success, and the crown architecture becomes ecologically and evolutionary relevant when it affects performance. Crown architecture is crucial for light capture and for the distribution of light to each particular photosynthetic unit of the crown. Tree crown architecture can be represented with ‘models’ which delineate the basic growth strategies that determine the successive architectural phases. More growth ‘models’ have been identified for the tropical trees than in the temperate trees. The forms and morphogenesis of trees are far more variable in the tropics than in the temperate regions.



      Miss.J.M. Phate, Prof.A.V.Kulkarni, Dr.R.S.Jahagirdar

Abstract: As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel instead of diesel has been increasingly fueled to study its effects on engine performances and emissions in the recent 10 years. But these studies have been rarely reviewed to favor understanding and popularization for biodiesel so far. In this work, reports about biodiesel engine performances published by highly rated journals in scientific indexes, were cited preferentially since 2000 year. From these reports, the effect of biodiesel on engine power, economy, durability and the corresponding effect factors are surveyed and analyzed in detail. The use of biodiesel leads to the imperceptible power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and increase in break thermal efficiency in conventional diesel engines with no or fewer modification. And it favors to reduce carbon deposit and wear of the key engine parts. Therefore, the blends of biodiesel with small content in place of petroleum diesel can help in controlling air pollution and easing the pressure on scarce resources without significantly sacrificing engine power and economy. However, many further researches about optimization and modification on engine, low temperature performances of engine, new instrumentation and methodology for measurements, etc., should be performed when petroleum diesel is substituted completely by biodiesel.



      Neha parve, Madhuri Kulkarni, Hemangini Sarambekar

Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Study Static Anthropometric Measurements of and Body Somatotypes of Women” was undertaken by conducting survey among 200 selected women from Parbhani city. The data regarding anthropometrtic measurements, body mass index, were assessed by using questionnaire, scientific equipment and observations. Statistical analysis such as standard deviation, analysis of variance and correlation co-efficient test was applied to find out the difference between selected parameters of women with different body types and correlation between selected independent and dependent variables. Findings of the study indicated that there was wide variation in static anthropometric measurements of selected women except for palm length. Major group of selected women was mesomorphic in body type having medium hand grip strength. Thus it can be said that to remain healthy and more productive it is better to maintain ectomorphic body somatotype.



      Manjunisha Baby Chouhan, Bhawani pratap rathore, Vikash Yadav

Abstract: This paper builds about the analysis of electricity board efforts to providing electricity each required places and to maintaining all the complications. To reduce a complication about meter reading, implement a transmitter into that meter which can be able to provide instant reading of that meter to a specified location/substation.



      Gogu Venkateswarlu, Ravirala Sharada, Mamidi Bhagvanth Rao

Abstract: In the present work, a systematic study on the effect of different fillers namely; glass (f), granite, graphite, garnet, antimony trisulphide, alumina, carbon, marble, mica, sand, porcelain, bronze, tixolex-25, china clay and wollastonite on di-electric strength property of virgin PTFE and different filled PTFE composites (filler content 5-50%) were made with an idea to arrive at optimum filler content for achieving maximum properties. 5% marble filled PTFE shows the highest di-electric strength value than other filled grades and the lowest di-electric strength shown is 20% in case of graphite filled PTFE as graphite itself is a conductive material.



      Pallavi Bharambe, Prof. Sanjivani Deokar

Abstract: The rise of Social Media such as E- Commerce and social networks has interest in sentiment analysis. With the rapid increase of reviews, ratings, recommendations and other forms of online expression, online opinion is nothing but virtual currency for businesses looking to market their products, identify new opportunities and manage their reputations. Opinions of product express the ideas, interests and emotions about particular product for the world. With the increasing use of internet sources for all needs of life and peoples choices on how to send their life around computers new organizations on the web such as online networks, forums important source of and blogs are the new meeting point for the people. The difficulty comes out by the personalized design and the size of the blogosphere; every blog has a different structure which prevents us to find the information or related data with several tracking from one to another the Aim of this paper is to create an analysis framework using web mining principles on opinion mining application to grab people’s opinions and emotions about recent mobile from contents of website addition to this, we also introduce an architecture, implementation, and evaluation of a web mining application called the Opinion mining, which will extracts classifies people's opinions & emotions about mobile reviews.



      D. Nath and T. Dasgupta

Abstract: Variation in spermoderm features along with macro-morphological characters of eighteen wild and cultivated genotypes of Vigna were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the basis of wax deposition, seed surface type is grouped in four groups. It is observed that though there were differences in seed coat colour and seed size in the wild progenitors of Vigna but the pattern of wax deposition on the seed coat is similar type.



      Hamizah Mokhtar, Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin

Abstract: The work describes is primarily concerned with the fabrication and testing of flat sheet membrane. The aim of this research is to investigate the morphology of flat sheet membrane that uses silica from sugarcane bagasse as an additive. Six flat sheet membranes were then fabricated by varying the dope formulation. Membrane surface and cross-section area were analyse by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of SEM shows that the addition of silica from sugarcane bagasse changed the surface structure of the membrane especially at top layer and sub layer. The performance of flat sheet membrane were determine based on flux of pure water permeate, rejection sodium chloride solution and molecular weight cut off. The results indicate that the addition of 3% of silica give the best rejection and highest flux where successfully do rejection of 75.35 % and 42.65 L/m2hr water flux. The molecular weight cut off results shows that the membrane having solute rejection beyond 70% and categorized on their nominal molecular weight cut off.



      Obasi, P.N, Akudinobi, B.E.B

Abstract: Geological and Hydrochemical investigation of Okposi and Uburu Saline spring Areas of Ohaozara and Environs of Ebonyi State has been carried out. The study area is underlain by shales which vary from light to dark grey in colour, fine grained sandstone and mudstone which belong to the Asu River Group and the Ezeaku Shale, (Albian and Turonian respectively). Results of hydrochemical analysis revealed that Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Na+ (cations), Cl- , SO42-, NO3-, HCO3- (anions) and Br- , Mn2+ , F- , I-, Al3+, Mo2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Cr3+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Ag+ and Mn2+ are the main geochemical constituents. Water facie evolution shows three water types namely, the calcium bicarbonate facies in the northern parts and sodium chloride facies with sodium/potassium bicarbonate facies in the southern parts. Groundwater flow pattern reveals predominance of recharge and discharge at the northern and southern parts respectively.



      C.Jagatheesh M.E., C.Jenila M.E.

Abstract: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes. It's caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light sensitive tissue at the back of the retina. The success rate of its curability solemnly depends on the early stage diagnosis or else it will lead to blindness. DR lesions are detected using Bag Of Visual Words (BoVW) model. Features are extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF).K-Means clustering is used for creating visual dictionary. Fisher vector encoding and Max pooling technique is used for creating Bag of Visual Words (BOVW). Finally SVM is used for lesion classification.



      Sumayya Sikandari* Md Liyaqat Ahmed, Pratima Mathad

Abstract: The effect of aqueous extracts of dried seeds powder of Butea Monosperma plant and Nigella Sativa plant against Ethylene glycol induced renal calculi in albino wistar rats has been studied in this research. A renal calculus was induced in rats by ingesting 0.75% Ethylene glycol in drinking water for one month. Ethylene glycol treated rats showed significant high increase in the level of promoters such as calcium, phosphorous, Potassium, BUN and low concentration of inhibitors such as magnesium and citrate contents in the urine samples. Histopathological studies also confirmed the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Separate oral administration of Butea Monosperma aqueous suspension to one group of Ethylene glycol induced urolithic rats and Nigella Sativa aqueous suspension to another group of Ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rats (2g/kg body wt/day upto one month) had reduced the concentration of calcium, oxalate, BUN, Creatinine, Phosphorous, and diminished the crystals deposition in the kidneys. The result of the present study confirmed that Butea Monosperma aqueous extracts and Nigella Sativa aqueous extracts can be used as curative agent for urolithiasis.



      V. Pal Singh, M. Singh

Abstract: Using the hydrodynamic model of semiconductor plasmas, a detailed analytical investigation is made to study both the steady-state and the transient Brillouin gain in narrow band gap magnetized one-component centrosymmetric semiconductor viz. n-InSb under off-resonant laser irradiation. Using the fact that origin of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) lies in the third-order (Brillouin) susceptibility ( ) of the medium, we obtained an expression of the threshold pump electric field ( ), the resultant gain coefficients (steady-state as well as transient ) and optimum pulse duration ( ) for the onset of SBS. The application of a strong magnetic field not only lowers but also enhances . The carrier heating by the intense pump modifies the electron collision frequency and hence the nonlinearity of the medium which in turn enhances significantly. The Brillouin gain is found to be maximizing when the generated acoustic wave suffers no dispersion in the medium. The enhanced can be greatly used in the compression of scattered pulses.



      Kusay H. Al-Salami, Zaid Taha Sawadi, Ibraheem A. Saadi

Abstract: Telecommunication companies in Iraq are experiencing a huge competition in the market nowadays. Each company is striving to attract more customers through providing satisfactory and competitive services. In this study, Game Theory, which is one of the operational research modeling techniques is selected then used to evaluate performance of a number of telecommunication companies in Iraq after reconstruction. This research is set out to analyze the competition models of two leading telecommunication companies using Game Theory. Two local telecommunication companies based in Iraq; Asia Cell and Korek is used as a case study.



      Rahmawati, Muhammad Ali, Syamsu Alam, CEPI Pahlavi

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze and understand the effect of firm size, tangibility of assets, liquidity, profitability, growth companies, the average value of the industry, risk, tax, financial limits and the influence of factors related to macroeconomic against the company's capital structure and to analyze and understand the influence the company's capital structure on firm value. This study uses secondary data, ie data collected from Indonesian Capital Market Directory 2013 (ICMD 2013) which includes data from 2007 to 2011 for the fundamental data of the company. The population of companies used in this study include consumer goods companies that have gone public and there BEI seen in this study met the criteria, namely: (a) shares of listed issuers and listed on the Stock Exchange during the period 2007 to 2011 and (b) Issuing financial statements during the period 2007 to 2011. Data were analyzed using Classical Linear Regression Model (CLRM), or often also called the Ordinary Least Square (OLS).



      M. S. El-Bages , M. A. Abd-Allah , T. Elyan and Sh. Hussein

Abstract: Frequent Switching of arc furnace in steel company causes a great effect on the insulation of arc furnace transformer winding which in turn may causes a shutdown of production for long periods of time. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the causes of these outages and design an adequate protective device. In this paper the transient overvoltage resulted from vacuum circuit breaker switching arc furnaces of El-Delta for metal and steel company connected to the Egyptian distribution network is presented and discussed. The resulted overvoltage at the circuit breaker contacts can be as high as 3.0 p.u. While at the transformer terminals, the overvoltage reaches a high value, which can be as high as 2.44 p.u. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is used to analyze the overvoltage transients to determine the critical frequencies which must eliminated by the protective devices.



      Dr. M.K. Sharma, Ms. Deepika Kaurani

Abstract: The Indian Business Process Management (BPM) industry has grown exponentially in size and has been holding the supreme position in the global BPM outsourcing arena for more than a decade now. However, talent-erosion is an area of paramount concern for the industry. The present study attempted to identify and explore causal agents of ‘talent erosion’ in the BPM industry by collecting data from junior and middle level employees of prominent BPM companies in Rajasthan. Using sequential steps of Exploratory Factor Analysis, thirteen selected latent variables of ‘Talent Erosion’ have been reduced to five major factors viz., Substandard Nature of Job, Hostile Organisational Culture, Perceptual Factors, Unfavourable Work Conditions, Personal Factors. The BPM industry should strategically focus on effective management of these causal agents in order to keep growing at an impressive pace.



      Charisma Kunhi Khannan, Dr Ramesh Bhat M

Abstract: Background: Immunobullous disorders are a group of disorders characterized by autoantibodies directed against various skin autoantigens resulting in blister formation. These disorders maybe further classified as intraepidermal and subepidermal depending on the level of bulla. In cases where clinical and histopathological diagnosis could be very challenging, direct immunofluorescence will help at arriving with an accurate diagnosis. Immunofluorescence techniques help in better understanding and classification of the various immunobullous disorders.



      Shery Fernandez & Souriar Sebastian

Abstract: Representation theory (G-module theory) has had its origin in the 20thcentury. In the 19th century, groups were generally regarded as subsets of some permutation set, or of the set GL(V) of automorphisms of a vector space V, closed under composition and inverse. Here we consider , the periodic arithmetical functions (mod r), define a fuzzy G-module on it and verify the quasi injective property of its summands.



      Ms. K.Sivagami

Abstract: Spinning is the process of converting cotton or manmade fibre into yarn. India enjoys a strong production base of wide range of fibres from natural fibres like cotton, jute, silk and wool to synthetic, man-made fibres like polyster, viscose, nylon and acrylic. No other country except China has such a diverse base in textile fibres. Small scale, non-integrated spinning, weaving, finishing and apparel making enterprises comprise the major part of the Indian textile industry. Tamilnadu is one of the few States that adopts the strategy of industrial growth with emphasis on small scale industries. The small scale industries form the backbone of textile industry, so any measure taken by the Government to strengthen the textile industry should focus on the capacity building of these small scale industries.



      Ass. Prof. Dr. Sinan M. Abdul Satar, Ass. Prof. Mohammed Jalal Abdul-Razzak, Mr. Mohammed Naiam Abdul-kareem

Abstract: Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system with dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) was analyzed to reach high data rates of 1.60 Tb/s over 4500 km single mode fiber (SMF). 1.60Tb/s signal was generated by multiplexing 16 OFDM signals with 100 Gb/s for each signal. The system performance has been studied by measuring optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of each WDM channel, bit error rate (BER) and signal to noise ratio (SNR). It was found that as the BER decreased both OSNR and SNR was increased.



      Dr. M. Habibur Rahman, Sayeed Ahmed Siddiqui

Abstract: The southern Asian country of Bangladesh, bordered by India and Myanmar, has a population of approximately 164 million people. The Bangladesh economy has grown an average of six percent a year over the last 6 years and almost 12% of Bangladeshi GDP in 2009 and 2010 and employs approximately four million people. The export-oriented Bangladeshi garment manufacturing industry has boomed into a $22 billion dollar a year. The Bangladeshi textile and garment manufacturing sector is fuelled by young, urbanizing, workers many of whom are women. With the majority of production destined for U.S. and European markets, Bangladesh’s ready-made garment industry now accounts for approximately 78% of total exports, second only to China as the world’s largest apparel exporter. Ready-Made Garment (RMG) industry has provided enormous opportunities to Bangladeshi women to work outside the home for wages. It is opined in the literature that this change has contributed and increased emphasis on poverty reduction through employment. The development of Garments Industry is considered as the priority area in the development policy in Bangladesh. The young entrepreneurs are engaged in varied form of small and medium scale garments industry which comprises of products. This study is conducted to analyze the contribution and prospects of Readymade Garments Industry in Bangladesh. The findings of this paper show that Bangladesh has a great opportunity to earn a great foreign currency through developing readymade garments industry and contribute economic development.



      Juliet Yayra Tengey

Abstract: The very first day we enter school, through our secondary to tertiary institutions we would have to answer one question or another by speaking in class or through making presentations. How many students really are intelligent and have knowledge in their subjects but do not have the confidence to articulate them? School counsellors are particularly trained to undertake guidance and counselling in schools due to their specific knowledge, awareness and skills that other school professionals may not have to help students recognize their inherent social and emotional competencies. School counsellors are therefore to devote time and attention towards nurturing students’ self and social emotional needs to help students gain the needed confidence to articulate themselves in school and in public.



      Lefayet Sultan Lipol

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to find out the necessity of the QR in business, QR implementation [QRI], the relationship between QR and the supply chain, advantages and disadvantages of QR .This is a summary of the paper based on the book, Quick response- Managing the supply chain to meet the consumer Demand, by Bob Lowson, Russel king and Alan Hunter and some other articles. This article will try to find out the correct path and strategy to success in the production sector. We should gather more knowledge after the further study of different articles and this is the primary process. The article shows the advantages from which manufacturing could achieve: for instance-to improve planning, reduce stockholdings, increase production and improved communication. The producer needs to get the instant supply of the products in order to meet the customer new demand. This is the reason why one must have a good relationship and communication system with the whole production and delivery system. As well as he must have to concern about the transport system.



      Monika Kohli, Harmeet Kaur

Abstract: E-Governance facilities are used in number of Government projects to benefit the society, making government activities transparent and involvement of general public for acceptable decision in the country. The use of mobile make e-governance far easier as it is a handy tool and mobile technology is growing at a rapid speed, thus making e-governance easier. It is an innovative approach to implement e-governance. The paper introduces the features, technologies and design of the Android mobile device application, m_businfoapp GPS mobile app to allow the commuter to know the exact location of the bus by feeding the required information like selecting a particular bus no. from the provided list of buses of that route. By estimating the arrival time of the bus, reduce the waiting time of the commuter at the bus stop. It will reduce the traffic which creates chaos especially at the peak time. This service will result in good revenue too. The proposed mobile app will give exact location of the bus at any instant and thus help the commuters to get ready with the information related to the bus on the mobile device which is a handy tool and available all time and at all places.



      Etukudo, Mbosowo M, Halmilton-Amachree, A, Roberts, Eneni, M. I

Abstract: Assessment of mineral nutrient and proximate contents of Gongronema latifolia Benth was conducted in the derived savanna and rainforest zones of Nigeria. Ogoja, in Cross River State, and Abak, in Akwa Ibom State were choosen to represent the derived savanna and rainforest zones, respectively. Five (5) sampling units were choosen for collection of samples in each experimental site. Soil and leaf (G. latifolia) samples were collected from the study area. The contents of N, Na, Mg, and K in soils of rainforest zone were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the derived savanna zone. The contents of K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, and Zn in leaf samples of the test crop in rainforest zone were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the derived savanna zone. Similarly, the moisture, crude fat, ash and carbohydrate content in leaf of the test crop were comparatively (P < 0.05) higher than those of the derived savanna zones. This study suggests that the nutritional potentials of this species is influenced by ecological factors, hence, can be enhanced by using appropriate cultural practices and environmental conditions for its growth and development.



      Etukudo, Mbosowo. M, Hamilton-Amachree, A, Uwem, Ifiok N

Abstract: Studies were conducted to examine the elemental and proximate contents of Amaranthus hybridus L. in soil supplemented with cassava peel of varied time treatment. Compost were prepared by mixing sectioned cassava peels with 2kg of sandy-loam soil and maintained for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks alongside a control (0) containing 2kg of sandy loam soil without cassava peel. The contents of Ca, P, K, Na, and Mg significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increase in composting time of cassava peel. Similarly, higher contents of Ca, P, K, Na and Mg were recorded in leaf of A. hybridus in treatment with higher composting time of cassava peel compared to treatments with lower composting time and the control. The leaf proximate contents in A. hybridus significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increase in the composting time of cassava peel. This result suggests that a longer duration of composting time is necessary for optimum biodegradation, increased nutrients contents and reduced inhibitory substances in cassava peel manure.



      Dr. Chandrima Chakravarty

Abstract: Petroleum industry has important role in the process of industrialisation of Assam. There are four oil refineries in the state-Digboi Refinery, Guwahati Refinery, Bongaigaon Refinery and Numaligarh Refinery Limited. Bongaigaon Refinery, the third refinery in Assam was set up as public sector limited company in January 1972 and was commissioned in 1974 with headquarter at Dhaligaon in the old Bongaigaon district of Assam. The objective of the study is to analyse the production behaviour of Bongaigaon refinery using two production functions- Cobb-Douglas (C-D) production function and Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function.



      Nisar Ahmad, Maryam Sarfraz, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Arfan-ul-Haq, Muhammad Zaighum Mushtaq and Muhammad Azhar Ali

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of potassium and its time of application on yield and quality of tomato variety, Nagina. Treatments included three potassium levels i.e. 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 and two application timings: at transplanting as single dose, and half at transplanting + half at 40 days after transplanting in two splits, were applied along with a control (0 kg ha-1 K). Potassium application @ 60 kg ha-1 either applied in single or in two splits, significantly increased the yield and improved the quality parameters of tomato over control while higher levels of K (90 and 120 kg ha-1) did not show further significant increase in the yield and quality subsequently. Ascorbic acid remained unaffected. Results revealed that time of application/splitting of K did not affect the yield and quality. The highest yield (23.3 t ha-1), firmness (8.32 kg), fruit weight (83.24 g fruit-1 ), total invert sugars (4.11 % ), dry matter (6.33 %) and mineral matter (1.95 %) were recorded with the application of 120 kg ha-1 potassium at transplanting while the highest values of acidity (0.81%) , TSS (7.03 %) and ascorbic acid (30.33 mg 100 g-1) were observed in treatment where potassium was applied @ 60 kg ha-1 in two splits. Minimum yield (17.2 t ha-1), firmness (6.35 kg), fruit weight (68.11 g/fruit), mineral matter (1.80 %), dry matter (5.26 %), acidity (0.61 %), ascorbic acid (21.79 mg 100g-1), TSS (6.60 %) and total invert sugars (3.85 %) were found in control.



      Shruti Handa and Rahul Jadhav

Abstract: The Chlorophyceae is a large and diverse group of freshwater algae. They include members which are ecologically as well as scientifically important. They are also known to tolerate a wide range of environmental changes. The group usually occurs with a wide variety of other groups of algae in their natural habitat. A total of 18 genera have been observed during the study. The members of the group were found to be more in number in the post monsoon period as compared to the pre monsoon period.



      Anand Patel, Divyesh Patel, Sadanand Namjoshi

Abstract: The depletion of fuel sources leads to energy crisis is serious and burning issue. The alternative energy is always better option and out of available resources like solar energy, wind energy and biomass; but compare to wind energy and bio mass solar energy is always better option because solar energy is the easiest source to extract useful energy in terms of availability in ample amount. The objective of present work is to develop spiral solar air heater and performance will be check using K type thermocouple.



      Dr Samatha M Swamy, Dr Ramesh Bhat M

Abstract: Background: Cutaneous vasculitis has varied clinical manifestations. Skin is involved in both small vessel vasculitis and medium vessel vasculitis. Skin biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cutaneous vasculitis. Based on histology, vasculitis can be classified on the size of vessels affected and the dominant immune cell mediating the inflammation. Along with histopathology, other investigations like complete hemogram and serology are needed to make an etiological diagnosis.



      Magboul. M. Sulieman, Ibrahim. S. Ibrahim, Jamal Elfaki

Abstract: This study focused on genesis, classification, land suitability and land suitability evaluation for agriculture under irrigation and crop suitability of some soils of the River Nile terraces at Khartoum North, Sudan. Three river terraces comprising nine profiles were selected to cover the physiographic positions. Qualitative evaluation was carried out by means of parametric method. The capability index (Ci) was calculated by a weighted average for the upper 100 cm of the soil profile for slope class, texture, soil depth, calcium carbonate status, salinity/alkalinity, and drainage. The results revealed that the soil of the physiographic unit 1(first terrace) was suitable for agriculture (S2) due to limitations of soil texture and moderately drainage, while the unit 2 and 3(second and third terraces respectively) were slightly suitable (S3) due to limitations of poorly drainage (low infiltration rate) and texture (clay). The slope, soil depth, CaCO3 and salinity and alkalinity were not considered as limiting factors in all study area.



      M. Usman, M.G. Nangere And I. Musa

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi to determine the effect of three levels of NPK fertilizer on growth parameters and yield of maize-soybean intercrop. The experimental design consisted of two factors: cropping system at two levels (sole and intercrops) and NPK fertilizer at three levels (0, 150 and 300 kg/ha of NPK 20:10:10). The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a split plot arrangement and replicated three times. The cropping systems were assigned to the main plots while the fertilizer levels were in the sub plots. A composite soil sample was obtained from a plough layer (0-15 cm) at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and analyzed for particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable cations [Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+] as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC). Data collected for the yield and growth parameters of maize and soybean were subjected to the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) after which significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at p<0.05. From the results, application of fertilizer significantly (p<0.05) increased the growth parameters and yield of the component crops in both seasons. Increasing the quantity of NPK fertilizer resulted in significant increase in the yield and growth parameters of maize and soybean in both years. Intercropping resulted in yield advantage in 2013 and 2014 showing 35 % and 26 % land saved respectively. Also, from the results and productivity advantage obtained from the intercropping, the effect of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize and soybean intercrop deserve further investigation using higher fertilizer rates.



      Hala F. Zaki, Ghada M. Shafey, N.E. Amin, Amina S. Attia & Mona A.El-Ghazaly

Abstract: Exposure to γ-radiation and/or lead causes numerous malfunctions in the brain. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effect of ginkgo biloba extract in ameliorating the biochemical changes induced in brain of rats by single exposure to 6Gy whole body γ-radiation and/or i.p. administration of lead acetate (25 mg/kg) daily for seven days. Ginkgo was orally administered in two dose levels 50 and 100 mg/kg for 7 successive days. Animals were classified into 10 groups: control, 6Gy irradiated, lead-treated, irradiated lead-treated, irradiated treated by ginkgo extract in both dose levels, lead-treated receiving ginkgo in both dose levels and irradiated lead-treated receiving ginkgo in both dose levels. Radiation and/or lead acetate increased brain oxidative stress biomarkers manifested by increased brain contents of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide parallel to depletion of reduced glutathione. In addition, brain dopamine (DA) content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity increased; whereas cholinesterase (ChE) activity decreased. Furthermore, both toxicants increased brain contents of calcium and zinc; meanwhile iron content was decreased. Administration of ginkgo biloba, in both dose levels effectively alleviated radiation- and lead-induced brain oxidative stress and restored the activities of LDH and ChE enzymes. In addition, ginkgo corrected the metabolic disturbances induced in brain by radiation and lead as reflected by lowering of DA, calcium and zinc contents parallel to increased iron content. In conclusion, ginkgo biloba extract can protect the brain against the hazards of exposure to γ-radiation and/or lead.



      Rosel Luna Dionio

Abstract: The study was conducted to design and develop a prototype intranet-based instant messenger at Capiz State University, Poblacion Mambusao Campus, Mambusao, Capiz, Philippines and to determine its acceptability in terms of necessity, practicability and reliability. The software was designed as client-server application for the use of the students and employees to send, receive and check messages and to do chat. The users are allowed only to use the application that performs chatting, sending and checking of messages.



      Lillibeth G. Leonor

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the pH value of cooked pork barbeque samples from selected cooked pork barbeque stands in Mambusao, Capiz, Philippines.



      Julie Villa Dalida

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the type of problem solving approaches used and the mathematical ability of the college freshmen of CapSU Mambusao in solving word problems. Specifically, it sought to determine the mathematical ability of the respondents and the difference in their mathematical ability when they are grouped according to gender, type of school graduated from, parent’s educational attainment and course pursued. It further sought to determine the problem solving approach used by the respondents in solving mathematical problems and the effectiveness of the approach used. Likewise, it sought to find out if type of problem solving approach is related to students’ mathematical ability.



      Lucille Lavalle Marquez

Abstract: This study was conducted in order to make an assessment of the instructions at the different campuses of Capiz State University (CapSU), Capiz, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to determine the background characteristics of respondents in terms of CapSU campus and classification and to assess the Instruction at CapSU in terms of (a) Curriculum and Program Studies; (b) Instructional Process, Methodologies and Learning Opportunities; and (c) Classroom Management and overall. Respondents of the study included the five-hundred nineteen respondents from the ten CapSU campuses. They included the administrators, faculty members, students, alumni and community members where the campuses were situated. Data gathering instrument used was a questionnaire and analysis of data employed the use of both descriptive and inferential statistical tools with the help of the SPSS Program for Windows version 15.0. Level of significance was set at 0.05.



      Dr Madhura TK

Abstract: Hypertension is a chronic and end stage disease . The biomolecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis can be interrupted for improving therapeutic approach and prognosis. identifying the risk factors and causes of hypertension is essential to categorize into idiopathic and secondary hypertension. Garlic used since ancient time has drawn attention for deeper research towards its contribution to various health benefits. Its vital component allicin has played key role in beneficial effects of garlic.



      Aparajita Sophia Dsouza, Garima Gupta, S.Godwin Sandeep, Francis Sridhar Katumalla, Sunita Goyal

Abstract: Objective: To determine the frequency, causes and outcome of liver disease in pregnant women



      Venkata arunavalli, Imamuddin syed, Anand Bollepogu

Abstract: We report a case of a 42 year old female patient who presented with a large femoral pseudoaneurysm 18 days after femoral catheterization, for percutaneous coronary intervention, with life threatening bleeding. Diagnosis of the condition was made by ultra sound examination and CT angiogram of femoral vessels. The method of management for pseudoaneurysm is local ultrasound guided compression if the neck is amenable to compression, minimally invasive percutaneous treatment and surgical repair if the other methods fail.



      Nwaogaranya, U. P. and E. I. Mbaekwe

Abstract: Studies were carried out in a screen house, in a compound off Arthur Eze Avenue, Awka, Anambra State, using germinated seeds in five polythene bags to determine the life cycle characteristics, and the seeding potential of Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. Results of the vegetative growth studies showed that V. cinerea had a mean height of 103.8 ± 34.4 cm, the mean number of leaves per plant was 301 ± 133, the mean number of branches of stem was 19 ± 3 and the mean life cycle duration was 28 ± 2 weeks. Results of the studies on the reproductive potential of V. cinerea showed that the mean number of buds per plant was 1,050 ± 883, the mean number of seeds per capitulum was approximately 21 ± 0.6, and the mean number of seeds per plant was 21,774 ± 18,740. The phenological observations of V. cinerea showed that the vegetative phase lasted for 8 weeks before the appearance of the flower buds which marked the beginning of the reproductive phase, while the reproductive phase of V. cinerea lasted for 20 weeks, from the appearance of flower buds to the time the plant withered. It is concluded from the result that V. cinerea has the ability to flower and fruit within a period of 5 months, with life cycle duration of approximately 7 months. And that the high seed production potential of V. cinerea will help it survive competition in areas where it occurs.



      Nwaogaranya, U. P. and E. I. Mbaekwe

Abstract: This study was carried out to assess how the presence of Vernonia cinerea (Linn.) Less. impacts on plant biodiversity wherever it occurs, and to determine the species diversity in the plots where V. cinerea was present and those in which the plant was absent. Abundance measures of V. cinerea and other associated species in its natural environment and species diversity (using Shannon-Wiener Index) were determined using the quadrat method. Four different plots were chosen for the study: two plots were chosen from sites where V. cinerea was present and the other two plots were chosen from sites where V. cinerea was absent. Results from the species abundance of V. cinerea and other associated species in plots where V. cinerea was present showed that V. cinerea had low density, frequency and importance value; implying that, V. cinerea had very low species abundance. While the observations from the diversity of species showed that although, the plots where V. cinerea was present and absent had high species diversity, plots where V. cinerea was present had a higher number of species and these species were more evenly distributed. It is concluded from the results that the presence of V. cinerea did not have any observable impact on the plant biodiversity in areas where it occurred and V. cinerea is, therefore, not an invasive species.



      Anienye Prince N, Nwambu Nnamdi, Nwankwo James Obiorah, Idubor Davidson

Abstract: Assessment of the effect of kerosene spill on microbial properties of soil ten years after the spill at Maikunkele, Niger State was carried out. The counts of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) ranged from 1.1x106cfu/g to 1.9x106cfu/g of soil in the kerosene polluted soil (KPS) as compared to 1.3x106cfu/g - 2.1x106cfu/g of soil in the kerosene free soil (KFS). However, the spill promoted the growth of kerosene utilizing bacteria (KUB) in the soil. The population of KUB in the KPS ranged from 1.1x105cfu/g to 1.7x105cfu/g as compared to 1.0x105cfu/g-1.6x105cfu/g in the KFS. The results obtained also revealed that the counts of fungi were higher in KFS (1.3x103cfu/g-2.1x103cfu/g) than in KPS (1.1x103cfu/g-1.6x103cfu/g). The kerosene utilizing microorganisms were identified as species of Bacillus, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor and Penicillium. The amount of carbon dioxide evolved by Bacillus subtilis strains (KUB07 and KUB04) was relatively higher compared to the amount of carbon dioxide evolved by other strains and mixed culture after 16 days, meaning that there may be no special benefit in using mixed culture in the bioremediation of kerosene pollute environment. Thus Bacillus strains KUB04 and KUB07 can be used in reclaiming the kerosene polluted soil.



      Tapas Das, Dr. Sutapa Roy

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is now considered as a serious public health problem, rising at an alarming rate in developed and developing countries of the world. It is estimated that 20-25% of the world adult population is suffering from this disorder. People with metabolic syndrome have five times greater risk of developing Type II diabetes. Diabetes is considered as fourth or fifth leading causes of death in the developed world and Cardiovascular Diseases represents the first leading cause of death in the world in men and women. Modern urban diet and physical inactivity are underlying key factor to develop metabolic dysfunction of our body. Yoga, the ancient Vedic science was developed in India for improving spiritual health and wellbeing. In recent times yoga is widely used to improve health and to prevent and cure disorders. Yoga asana or specific posture, pranayama or controlled breathing and dhyana or meditation practice has its own specific and overall benefits. Yoga asana uses various postures to improve physical strength, flexibility, balance, co-ordination and endurance. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out the effect of yoga therapy in metabolic syndrome.



      Dr. Namita V

Abstract: The significance of non-aviation revenues, especially from retail outlets, has grown greatly. For many airports today non-aviation revenue has become as important as traditional aviation earnings. Then the natural question is “how to organize retail operations to satisfy the airport’s targets?” This research specifies this question as follows: “If the retail revenue is taken as a measure of performance, which airport retail management structure performs better?” Thereby the aim of this study is to find out the character of a relationship between different structures of airport retail management organization and the level of retail revenues. The additional task is to distinguish these relationships between airports of different size and capacity.



      Vimal P.Parmar, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Neural network architecture is widely used in computer science for solving complex problems arise in various research applications. One of the popular applications of neural network is pattern recognition. Neural network can be used to solve real world complex problems that can be solved by human being among which some require less effort while others require tremendous efforts. If neural network is incorporated with phonetic algorithms that recognize whether the given two words are phonetically similar or not yields improved outcome. The integrated approach discussed here results in performance improvement over any single algorithm implementation. Different phonetic algorithms are developed to identify phonetic similarity with different set of rules and different set of output after processing English words. Homophones are the English words having similar pronunciation but different spelling and meaning. The number of such phonetic algorithms are studied and discussed briefly here and then another algorithm with phonetic rules is built. Each algorithm has different level of performance. The performance word used here is in the context of identifying the homophones but not the processing performance of algorithm performed by a computer system. Each algorithm has advantages and limitations but by incorporating these algorithms in neural network results in improvement compared to any single algorithm implementation. Neural networks are commonly used for solving pattern recognition problems and so the efforts are being made here to recognize similar English words pattern found in pronunciation of the English words.



      Mahmood Aamir, Ma Yu

Abstract: Brand of para-aramid fiber, patented by DuPont called Kevlar. According to Mulkern and Raftenberg, “This material has a high strength (several times stronger than steel)” (2002, 13). For the first time Kevlar was obtained in 1964 by the research team Stephanie Kwolek (Hancox, 1993, 312). A production technology has been finalized a year later. However, commercial production of Kevlar began only in 1970 (Chaos.org.uk, 2015). The high strength and good thermal properties are the two most important qualities that are characteristic for Kevlar fibres (Brody, 1994, 113). The study of synthetic fiber’s features such as Kevlar is a very important practice today. Therefore, this work has relevance to modern scientific base.



      Shruti N. Pardeshi, Vaishali Chourey

Abstract: The existing testing approaches for web application testing can takes long time to generate test suites. So that the User Session Based Testing has introduced which is depends on capturing and replaying user sessions of a website. It is an effective testing methodology for web applications. Previous studies have exposed that the testing suites generated by user session based testing frequently find the faults neglected by other testing approaches. This paper addresses the problem and discussing different techniques and methodologies have been proposed for taking care of their issues. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one such form of evolutionary algorithms which is the area of research. In this paper we discuss the algorithms based on genetic algorithm and in future we will try to resolve its problem.



      Christine Wawira Swaleh, Dr Kepha Ombui, Dr Asumpta Kagiri

Abstract: Despite the public complaints on the services being delivered at the British High Commission (BHC) there has been reluctance in addressing the concerns raised from the public. This study investigated the influence of service delivery strategies on customer satisfaction at the British High Commission (BHC) in Kenya. The specific objectives that were studied are the effect of back office, front office services and virtual office services on customer satisfaction; and the influence of customer service expectations on customer satisfaction at the BHC. The researcher used assimilation, contrast and negativity theories as some of the theories for customer satisfaction. Exploratory design was used alongside descriptive research. Closed ended questionnaires were used in the study.



      Nnenna K. Uka

Abstract: Goals can easily be set, but attainment has been a great problem. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals set to be achieved by 2015.That corresponds to the world’s main development challenges which are meant to improve people’s lives. The attainment of MDGs has been a serious concern all over the world. This study looks into how empowerment of women mathematically could serve as a required tool to the attainment of the goals. The paper considers: the concept of women empowerment, mathematics and women empowerment, how women can be empowered mathematically, mathematics, women empowerment and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Conclusion was reached.



      Aladejebi, Oluwafemi John, Adeyeye, Adeleke Joseph and Olatunji, Esther Olayemi

Abstract: This paper assessed the existing solid waste management in Ife North Local Government Area in Osun state, Nigeria. The study adopted Stratified random sampling as the research purposively divided the study population into three residential areas namely: Ipetumodu, Moro and Edunabon. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were sampled with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was majorly used to analyse data provided for the study. The descriptive statistics shows that house refuse/organic thrash has the largest source with 70.0% while hospital waste (90.2%) is least generated sources in ths study area. 60.0% of the respondents agreed that agency was involved in the collection/disposal of solid wastes while 29.3% supported sanitary land fills disposal system. Majority (88.9%) of the respondents claimed that involvement of solid waste management result in considerable reduction in solid waste and 40.0% of the agency worker supported that landfills are unable to control leachate, 58.0% of the citizens in the study area are educated on waste disposal. The study concludes that assessment of solid waste management in the study area revealed house refuse, street garbage, farm waste and human waste are the most common waste in study area and that landfills are unable to control leachate. The study therefore recommends the need for monitoring and evaluation of the waste management process which would help to identify problematic areas thereby proffering necessary solutions.



      Shifare Berhe, Dejene Ayele, Abi Tadesse, Abrha Mulu

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of Ethiopian coffee husk (husk of coffee Arabica) to adsorb Pb(II) from industrial effluents using batch experiment. During the batch experiment effects of some parameters such as pH, dose of coffee husk, contact time, initial concentration(Pb(II)), and agitation speed were evaluated and the results indicate that optimum condition for Pb (II) adsorption were pH, 5; contact time, 90 minutes; dose of coffee husk, 2 g; initial concentration, 50 mg/L and agitation speed, 200 rpm. The coffee husk yielded a maximum adsorption efficiency of 95.14%. The residual metallic ion concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Surface properties of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer. The linear form of langmuire and Freudlich models were applied to represent adsorption data. The calculated equilibrium data of Pb(II) were well fitted to both Langmuir and Freudlich isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity (qmax ) of 50 mg/g. Two kinetic models were used to determine the adsorption mechanism and the kinetic data were correlated (R2 =0.99) well with the pseudo second order kinetic model for the adsorption study of Pb(II) which implies that adsorption follows second order kinetics. To evaluate the practical applicability of the coffee husk, adsorption study was also carried out using real samples collected from waste water generated auto-garage and battery charging workshop.



      B. Khadgi, A. Shrestha, R.Acharya

Abstract: Pregnancy and motherhood is the most joyful and happiest moment of women’s life. Culturally, Nepalese women are habituated to perform daily chores more in a squatting position which they continue even during pregnancy and immediately after giving birth. In Nepal, unlike other developed countries, antenatal and postnatal exercises are not practiced commonly due to lack of awareness among general population and medical professionals. Regular exercise performed during antenatal and postnatal periods reduces the risk of incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and other complications which ultimately results in improving quality of life of women. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiotherapy services provided to postnatal women admitted at the obstetric and gynecology ward of Dhulikhel Hospital (DH) to prevent POP. A retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Physiotherapy at Dhulikhel hospital which documented all the cases treated by physiotherapists in the obstetric & gynecology ward. Out of the 2072 deliveries conducted in DH in year 2013 only 1078 women were provided physiotherapy services (only 52%). The requirements and need of physiotherapy management for postnatal care among the health professionals and the general population still need to be considered. This leading to less number of physiotherapist working in this field causing the low manpower for the management of all the cases.



      Afsanehsadat Omidiani, SeyedMohsen HashemiHezaveh

Abstract: There are various factors such as negative impacts on environment, increasing in fossil fuels prices, limitation of fossil fuel resources which have made many energy and environment experts and politicians move toward the development of a modern structure to secure supply of energy, environment protection. Therefore, most countries have begun to realize that the need for sustainability in energy production and consumption is significantly vital. Therefore, tracking the progress of sustainability is essential.



      Ramanathan Mohan, Tharini Ramanathan, Ganesh Rajendran, Dr.N.MohanRaj

Abstract: Middleware becomes a strong research area. The reason is the ability of middleware technologies to solve all the integration problems in an enterprise. This technology combined with other technologies can solve pressing problems for mankind.


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