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IJSRP, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
August 2014 publication has started and publication will continue till 16th August 2014.
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th August, their paper will publish in August edition latest by 16th August.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th August.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th August 2014.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 16th August and minor corrections are accepted till 18th August 2014.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

   Advanced Search [OARD]   

      Lalin L.Laudis,Amit Kumar Sinha

Abstract: As the world runs fast, its our duty to run with the world compensating its speed. There is an urge to prove everyone unique. Hence time management play a worthless role in the daily work of a person. At morning it is a herculean task to wake up from the bed. “Let me sleep for some more time” is the first slogan of everyone every morning. But feeling guilty for not waking up in the morning is also encountered in several cases. In this paper we propose a novel “Murderer Algorithm” based automatic waking up system that helps to wake up every morning. The uniqueness of the system is to make the person in the bed to wakeup and get away from the bed. The device employs simple capacitive touch sensor to sense the presence of a person and also a brig



      Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba

Abstract: This paper is mainly concerned with the application of countability theory in Finance. The author undertakes to explain countability theory for infinite countables not only in a precise manner but also gives analytical examples to simplify the theory even further. Some of the ways of ascertaining countability of infinite countables as indicated by the author entail: finding a bijection, finding a surjection, through a listing of elements and also through the determination of whether the elements are injective. The paper amalgamates Finance and countability by determining main areas in which the theory of countability is applicable in Finance. The paper explores: countability of Financial Statements constitutes, profit countability, countability of required rate of return, countability of company financing, countability in determination of capital investment decisions, countability in working capital constituents and countability in projection of financial statements’ data.



      M.Padmaja, K.Prasuna

Abstract: Gray level Slicing is to highlight a specific range of gray values. Power Adaptation methods are presented for gray level slicing approaches. Power Adaptation methods aims in optimization of the resulting bit error rate by gray level slicing without preserving background and gray level slicing with background. This paper gives us an achievable increase in the proposed method rather than the conventional method with a better quality and the bit error rate is also optimized in proposed method rather than the former method with acceptable quality.



      P.Paramanantham, Joel Shyam Klinton

Abstract: Burkholderia cepacia is a gram negative bacilli usually isolated from persons with genetic lung diseases such as Cystic fibrosis. It was discovered as a plant pathogen but later researchers have found it to be a notorious pathogen in humans. It is also a nosocomial pathogen which contaminates equipment and even disinfectants. In the other end of the spectrum, research suggests that these organisms maybe used as bio diesel and also as pesticides and fertilizers. This review of literature gives an idea of the organism and the gateway it opens for further research with a special note on the evolution of this genus as a nosocomial infection in Neonates.



      Bindu S, M S Suresh

Abstract: Measurement of bulk resistance/resistivity of conducting polymers is very common and an important requirement. Conducting polymers are semiconductors and four probe measurements are needed to avoid errors due to contact resistance and spreading resistances. However, in a device it is convenient to make two probe measurements rather than four probe measurement. It has been shown here that the bulk resistance of a thick film can be measured in the presence of rectifying contacts, using two probe method by measuring the impedance of the film beyond a critical frequency. The metal-film contact has been modeled as a diode to explain the behavior.



      Divangna Gupta, Rajneesh Kumar Gujral

Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANETs) is an infrastructure – less network which is created by deploying the mobile nodes carrying wireless devices, able to route the data through multi hop fashion. MANETs uses distributed routing approach. In this paper, analysis of different classification of routing protocols such as: Reactive (AODV, DSR) Proactive (DSDV) and Hybrid protocols ZRP (Zone Routing Protocols) has been done using NS2 simulator. The above work analysis has been done on the following QoS parameters such as: Packet Delivery Ratio, Average Throughput, Routing Overhead and Average Delay.



      Joseph Kiran Kumar M

Abstract: Research and Development (R&D) function in the Pharmaceutical organization works towards the discovery of new drugs, development of drugs and repositioning of the drugs. It is very important that all the activities that are carried out in R&D comply with the standards of various regulatory and statutory authorities so that the organizations produce drugs with care and ensure that they are safe for human consumption.



      Dr. Mandip Tilara, Dr. Asha N. Shah, Dr. Sharon Negi, Dr. Jay Dadhania

Abstract: We hereby presenting a case of 30 year old male patient with Dengue fever found to have cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Dengue infection can be either asymptomatic or progress to involve hemorrhagic manifestations with shock. Thrombotic events have not been extensively reported, despite the wide range of procoagulant state during illness.



      Dr. Sharon Negi, Dr. Asha N. Shah, Dr.Mandip Tilara, Dr. Rushit Shah

Abstract: We are presenting a case of 13 year old female , diagnosed as Miller Fischer variant of Guillain Barre syndrome who presented to us with sudden onset of bilateral facial weakness followed by limb weakness.



      Rajni Sharma

Abstract: Agriculture is an economic activity that manifests the complex relationship between natural and human resources. The growth of agriculture is prerequisite for overall development of Indian economy. It contributes significantly to the export earnings and affects the performance of other sectors of the economy through forward and backward linkages. The present paper analysis disparities in agricultural development in Aligarh district at block level during the period of 2011-12. The analysis of the study have been carried out by transforming and combining data related to various variable, (percentage of literate people to total population, percentage of agricultural workers to total workers, percentage of net sown area to total geographical area, fertilizers consumption in kg per hectare, percentage of net irrigated area to net sown area, percentage of canal irrigation to the net irrigated area, percentage of tube well irrigation to the net irrigated area, number of agricultural implements per thousand hectare, cropping intensity) using Z score to get composite score, development of blocks have been categorized into three categories i.e., high, medium and low. The results of the aforesaid analysis the modern technological inputs have reciprocal relationship with agricultural development in the study area.



      Dr. G. Nirmala, S. Prabavathi

Abstract: In this work we illustrate how fuzzy if-then rules can be used for fuzzy Petersen graph. Basic results and its characteristics of fuzzy graphs are introduced. Further we introduced the results based on fuzzy if-then rule which is applied on fuzzy Petersen graph version of classical graph theory.



      Amod Panthee, Hari Prasad Neopane, Bhola Thapa

Abstract: This paper presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Pelton turbine of Khimti Hydropower in Nepal. The purpose of CFD analysis is to determine torque generated by the turbine and pressure distributions in bucket for further work on fatigue analysis. The CFD analysis is carried out on model size Pelton runner reduced at 1:3.5 scale to minimize computational cost and time. The operating conditions for model size runner is selected in accordance with IEC 60193 and IEC 1116. The paper describes the methods used for CFD analysis using ANSYS CFX software. 3 buckets are used to predict the flow behavior of complete Pelton turbine. k-ε and SST turbulence model with interphase transfer method as free surface and mixture model is compared in the paper. The pressure distribution is found maximum at bucket tip and runner Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD). The torque generated by the middle bucket is replicated over time to determine total torque generated by Pelton turbine.



      Umang Supekar, P.K.Singhal

Abstract: In this paper a hexagonal patch microstrip antenna with hexagonal slot behaves as a wide band monopole antenna having great return loss. It is designed for 1.1194-2.7078 GHz frequency band with wide bandwidth of 1.5884 GHz and return loss of -73.63dB. A hexagonal patch with etched ground plane monopole antenna with hexagonal Slot is fabricated on the glass epoxy (FR4 lossy) of dielectric substrate with relative permittivity (εr) of 4.3, thickness of 1.6mm, loss tangent of 0.02 with a ground plane, fed with a 50Ω rectangular microstrip feed line. This prototype antenna having an omnidirectional radiation pattern is measured for frequency range of 0-3 GHz. The novelty of this antenna is that hexagonal patch with hexagonal slot gives it uniqueness in design and also getting a bandwidth approx 1.6 GHz with -73dB Return loss is big achievement in 0-3 GHz frequency Band itself. As the antenna is designed only in 0-3GHz band, having all such properties in one antenna proves its novelty and uniqueness. The measured reflection coefficients are far below of -10dB.The simulated result and experimental results are analyzed and verified after comparison.



      Marian Asantewah NKANSAH, Jonathan Kweku ANSAH

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Cr, Pb, As) in meat at the Kumasi Central Abattoir, Ghana by using a Varian 220 Atom Absorption Spectrophotometer. The levels of toxic metals in meat (cow, pig, sheep, goat, grass cutter, deer) varied in concentration. The concentration of lead was above the tolerance level in all the meat samples with the highest concentration recorded in beef at 1.154 mg/kg and the lowest at 0.037 mg/kg in pork. The amount of mercury, Hg observed in the various meat samples fell within the range of 0.059 mg/kg to 0.012 mg/kg, a little over the tolerable level of 0.05 mg/kg. The highest mercury, Hg concentration was observed in grasscutter meat (0.071 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration in pork, which was observed at 0.012 mg/kg, with the former above the permissible limit and the latter below the permissible limit. The concentrations of As, Cd and Cr were all within the tolerance limit. The meat analyzed may have a potential health risk to consumers.



      Sunita Kumari, Pratibha Singh and R.N.Kewat

Abstract: The present investigation was carried out at field trail of Main Experimental Station, Vegetable Science N.D.U.A. & T., Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) during 2011-12 to study the performance of turmeric cultivars. Cultivar NDH-7 and NDH-8 was found superior in growth characteristics such as plant height, yield of rhizome/plant. NDH-8 found tallest (111.2 cm) while, yield of rhizome per plant was recorded in NDH-7 (303.00 g). The results showed that moisture, mineral, curcumin and essential oil ranged from 9.4 to 12.2 per cent, 3.39 to 5.30 per cent, 3.7 to 5.9 per cent and 3.32 to 8.19 per cent, respectively. NDH-7, NDH-8 and Prahba were found superior among all cultivars and variety.



      Sunil Kumar Singh and Subhash Chaudhary

Abstract: Density and Ultrasonic velocity Sucrose in 1M NaCl at 298.15K, 303.15K, 308.15K and 313.15K have been measured. Various ultrasonic and solution parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, change and relative change in adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, available volume and free length have been calculated using these data. The present investigation has been used to exploit the possible molecular interactions which are identified and eventually discussed about the behavior of solute (Sucrose) in the solvent 1 M solution of NaCl)



      Akila. V, Jayaraj. P

Abstract: This paper presents an efficient VLSI architecture for a 4x4 64-QAM multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) detector. The augmentation is done by on demand expansion of intermediate nodes of the tree rather than exhaustively, along with pipelined distributed sorters. The proposed architecture has a stable critical path independent of constellation size, scalable to higher number of antennas with efficient distributed sorters. Further, modification will be carried out with the faster multiplication unit to make it scalable to higher number of antennas.



      Zhahid Hassan, Summiya Farooq, Farhat Abbas

Abstract: Addison's disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison's disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison's disease was encountered.



      Neetesh Singh Raghuvanshi, Dr. Alok Singh

Abstract: Cooling tower is an important part of power plant. The efficiency of power plant is directly depends on the effectiveness of cooling tower. In cooling tower scheduled maintenance and shutdown maintenance is a problem which affects its effectiveness and performance of cooling tower. In cooling tower shutdown maintenance required in every 2 to 3 year periods at this period the whole plant will be shutdown, and require 28 to 35 days maintenance so that cooling tower will be in its best working condition. In every cooling tower manufacturer provide the scheduled maintenance check list so that the worker will perform their maintenance as per given instruction. In present work optimization of shutdown maintenance strategy is done so that the time elapsed in maintenance will reduce and the requirement of man power will be reduced.



      Errouagui Abdeltif1, Houda Benrahma1, Hicham Charoute1 , Hamid Barakat1 , Mostafa kandil, Hassan Rouba

Abstract: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is recognized as candidate gene for susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between VDR gene polymorphisms and T2DM in Moroccans patients. Materials and Methods. 176 clinically diagnosed T2DM patients and 177 healthy controls from the Moroccans population were recruited. BsmI(rs1544410), FokI(rs10735810) and ApaI (rs7975232) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) of the VDR gene were determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A Vitamin D level was determined using ELISA. Results. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is significantly higher in patients with T2DM than in the control subjects.



      Aymen . A . Ahmed Imam, Mohammed Ali Bshir, Emad eldeen A . A . Rahim

Abstract: This paper touched the concept of a new system of abstract algebra .Where we relied on a set of semi order, and the stack of elements in the form of a matrix. We proved that this system is a semi-group, after providing the fuzzy system to the system, and access to the algebraic operations determine the significance of any element in the set and reliance on the location element in the set . Identify new methods to resolve the issues of transportation models in Operations Research.



      K. J. Balogun, A. K. Adedeji and I. A. Ladigbolu

Abstract: Primary productivity and selected relevant associated physico-chemical parameters in the euphotic zone of Lagos Harbour, a tropical Harbour was monitored at NIOMR Jetty station (Latitude 6º 25´ 14, 88º N, Longitude 3º 24´ 24, 42º E) on a monthly basis from October, 2012 to March, 2013. Air and surface water temperature ranged from 23.5⁰C to 28⁰C and between 27 ⁰C and 30⁰C respectively. Alkaline pH ranged (7.81 to 8.45). Brackish salinity varied from 6.2 to 35.4PSU while Electrical conductivity minimum and maximum values were 11200 and 53300µS/cm respectively. Moderate dissolved oxygen ranged between 5.0mg/l and 6.4mg/l, slightly lower than 6.8mg/l standard suggested by FEPA. Total dissolved solid ranged from 7504 to 35711mg/l while Low Alkalinity varied between 12 and 20mg/l. Rainfall minimum and maximum values were 8.8 and 229mm respectively. Gross primary production (GPP) varied from 0.22 to 0.46gC/m2/day.



      Dr Harmeet Singh, Rafiq Hussain Andrabi

Abstract: Rapid and extensive modifications of land use /land cover due to accelerated human activities have been a major cause of global environmental change in the past three centuries. During the past 20 years, humans changed these landscapes to meet the growing demand for food, fodder, timber, fiber and fuel more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time. Changes in land use/ land cover have occurred to such an extent that it has significantly affected the functioning of biosphere, being one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss as well as climate change. This change is one of the primary causes of soil degradation and has a major impact on the provision of ecosystem services to people. Although this phenomenon is global in nature and is neither region specific nor country specific. But the nature and magnitude varies from one part of the globe to other, from developed to developing and under developed part of the world. It varies from plains to deserts and mountains. The present study is based on changing land use / land cover analysis with special reference to agroforestry in Pulwama District of Jammu & Kashmir, which is located in the central part of Kashmir Valley and is mostly dominated by agricultural occupation. The study is based mainly of secondary sources. A multi-temporal analysis was carried out in order to analyze the extent as well as direction of change. The study revealed that in Pulwama District, there was a major change in some of land use/ land cover categories. The change was mainly because of shifting to horticulture and agriculture plantation which are economically beneficial and also due to increasing pressure of population resulting in to a lot of residential and commercial developments. Therefore it becomes imperative to develop a sustainable land management strategy that does not cause the degradation of such valuable resources.



      Nachiketa Rout and Arun Banik

Abstract: Phonics skills are considered to be the predictors of reading disability, which is off late viewed as a language based disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare the phonics skills of high and low academic achievers across Bengali and English. A checklist consisting of three parameters was developed in both the languages to assess phonics skills. A total of 42 normally developing bilingual females who attended standard three to standard five in the age range eight to eleven years participated in the study. The participants were classified as high and low academic achiever based upon school performance. Significant differences were found in all the phonics skills in both the languages except vowel sound skill in Bengali and letter name in English. It is concluded that phonics tasks should be provided importance and during classroom curriculum as it distinguishes between high academic achievers from the low academic achievers.



      Fahime Kianian, Amirmehdi Parhamfar, Seyedhamidreza Shahabi Haghighic, Maryam Khojania

Abstract: Bank managements are interested in determining the rate of liquidity based on a strategy for meeting this need. Lack of sufficient liquidity might impose heavy costs and even lead to bankruptcy. On the other hand, surplus liquidity will result in losing investment opportunities and reduction in productivity and profit ability of banks. In this research, efforts are taken to use the most affecting factors by investigation on important factors effective on the liquidity rate. The data used are chosen from 573 real values of banking operations. The variables are NEII , RTGS and clear transaction and the outcome of these variables is bank liquidity. In this research, two methods of ARIMA and multiple regressions are applied for predicting the future liquidity data and two mathematical models are introduced. The model introduced can predict liquidity rate based on two years data effectively. The results showed that the mean deviations between output of model and actual results are about 9% and 2.46% in first and second year respectively. This means the people preferred to use the internet in second year more than first year.



      Aravinthan Arumugam and Abdul A Baharuddin

Abstract: Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process that is widely used in the automotive industries. The parameters that are used to develop a spot weld are the welding current, weld time and electrode force. Electrode force was not used as a control parameter due to the use of pneumatic system to actuate the welding electrode. The pneumatic system does not allow the development of closed loop control system; therefore electrode force was not used to control the growth of the spot weld nugget. This reported work looks into the ability to control electrode force dynamically during welding by using servomechanism. Force profiles were introduced in this work and the electrode force during welding was controlled to follow these force profiles. Based on the findings, the developed controller was able to control the electrode force during welding to follow the given force profiles. Decreasing the electrode force during welding facilitates the initiation of spot weld growth earlier in the weld cycle which in turn produces bigger weld diameter and stronger weld strength. The opposite was noticed when electrode force was increased during the weld cycle. Furthermore decreasing the electrode fore during welding produced a button pull-out failure and increasing the force produced an interfacial weld failure.



      Bhavana Benakaprasad, Salah Sharabi, and Dr. Khaled Elgaid

Abstract: This paper presents a systematic approach to designing negative-resistance and Colpitts oscillators using p-HEMT transistor. Various models such as, common source and common gate configuration in negative-resistance oscillators, common source series feedback in Colpitts oscillator is selected to analyze the output power and stability presented by the p-HEMT transistor. These oscillators are designed at 2.45 GHz frequency for which we find application in Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. In this paper, these designs are studied and tested, with their results analyzed below. Further, study proved that the Colpitts oscillator designed gave more output power and stability than the negative-resistance oscillators.



      Anupam Chandrayan, Nitin Rathore

Abstract: Clustering technique is the basic technique used in the wireless sensor network to enhance the lifetime of a sensor network by mitigating energy consumption and provide efficiency, scalability, and security. Formerly sensor nodes are considered to be homogeneous in which each node has the same processing capacity, energy and functionality, but to prolong network lifetime researches has been evolved to infuse heterogeneity in wireless sensor network such as to provide different energy level to some nodes. In this paper, we present a survey on basic clustering techniques for Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.



      Adel Ismail Al-Alawi, Ebtisam Ismail Al-Alawi

Abstract: Occupational stress is considered to be a main health problem for both individuals and organizations. This study has investigated the measurement of occupational stress among Management Information Systems (MIS) Users in different banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Furthermore, to identify their high job stressor factors and increase understanding of the impact of individuals differences in occupational stress. A descriptive, cross sectional survey was performed in five banks. Using quota sampling, MIS users’ from different divisions were asked to complete questionnaires- including demographic data, job stress and stressor factors. Six main stress factors were identified among MIS users banker staff: 1) intrinsic work characteristics (job design); 2) work culture and function; 3) managerial role; 4) career development; 5) relationships at work and 6) home-work interface. A total of 250 self-administrated questionnaires were distributed (hand delivery) to the banks divisions. The overall response rate was 80.8% (202/250) and the result suggested that over a third of MIS users in banks reported that their jobs were highly stressful. The bankers are exposed to high job stressors such as job design (overload, long working hours, deadlines and time pressure, repetitive task and lack of variety, and shortages of staff); and career development (under promotion and working at a level below their level of abilities and skills). However, the result of this research can be applied for improving sources of occupational stress and further, precluding severe stress and concern was expressed that such findings should be considered when delivering stress management programs.



      Aravinthan Arumugam and Abdul A Baharuddin

Abstract: Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process that is widely used in the automotive industries. The parameters that are used to develop a spot weld are the welding current, weld time and electrode force. Electrode force was not used as a control parameter due to the use of pneumatic system to actuate the welding electrode. The pneumatic system does not allow the development of closed loop control system; therefore electrode force was not used to control the growth of the spot weld nugget. This reported work looks into the ability to control electrode force dynamically during welding by using servomechanism. Force profiles were introduced in this work and the electrode force during welding was controlled to follow these force profiles. Based on the findings, the developed controller was able to control the electrode force during welding to follow the given force profiles. Decreasing the electrode force during welding facilitates the initiation of spot weld growth earlier in the weld cycle which in turn produces bigger weld diameter and stronger weld strength. The opposite was noticed when electrode force was increased during the weld cycle. Furthermore decreasing the electrode fore during welding produced a button pull-out failure and increasing the force produced an interfacial weld failure.



      Mohammad Shafeeq

Abstract: Cholistan is locally known as Rohi.This famous desert is 30 km from Bahawalpur. East of Bahawalpur is the Cholistan Desert which covers an area of about 15,000 km and extends into the Thar Desert of India. The region was once watered by the Hakra River, known as the Saravati in vedic times. At one time there were 400 forts in the area and archaeological finds around the Derawar Fort, the only place with a perennial waterhole, indicate that it was contemporaneous with the Indus Valley Civilization. The average annual rainfall is only 12 cm, and the area's scant cultivation is made possible by underground wells, drawn up by camels.



      Mohammad Shafeeq

Abstract: The Indus Valley in Pakistan, straddling along the River Indus, from the fertile plains of Punjab to the lower course of Sindh along, was the first cradle of civilization in the subcontinent, emerging in 2000 years BC. The hand basin is divided from that of the Ganges by a desert known as Cholistan in Bahawalpur Division, and Thar in Sindh. It is a part of Great Indian Desert, called Marusthali or Region of Death. Cholistan's rich history dates back to the civilizations that flourished along the banks of the Hakra River. Cholistan has not always been a desert. It is separated from the central region of Bahawalpur Division by a sadness called Hakra, which at one time carried the waters of a large river, which flowed all around its length and breadth. Thus the area was fertile, well cultivated, and well-populated till the early twentieth century, when with the changes in the courses of the river Sutlej and Sindh took place and curved it into a sandy infertile land.



      Arun Kumar Laha, Dr. Soumendu Chatterjee, Kartic Bera

Abstract: Floods are related to several environmental processes. Therefore, its causes are as diverse as its consequences, both of which vary with the nature of the flood prone environment. In the low lying parts of flood plains, atmospheric extremes, especially excessive rainfall- are the primary causes of most of the flood episodes. The river Kaliaghai was originated from the highlands of the Jhargram P.S in the Paschim Medinipur district. The combined flows of the Kaliaghai and kangsabati which meet at Dheubhanga in P.S.-Moyna in the district of Purba Medinipur is known as the river Haldi. The river Kapaleswari and Baghai are two main tributaries of the Kaliaghai. The Kaliaghai- Kapaleswari- Baghai drainage basin covers an area of 2145 Km2. The lower parts of the basin comprising of 1576.25 Km2 of low lying terrain historically suffers from flood and tidal inundation. Therefore it is essential to controlled flood, but practically we can’t control due to climatic condition. Better water management is necessary in order to achieve maximize returns per unit of water and land. Some anthropogenic activity will be restricted for reduce flood vulnerability.



      G.Nirmala and N.Vanitha

Abstract: Multi-attribute analysis is a useful tool in many economical, managerial, constructional, etc., problems. There is usually some uncertainty involved in all multi-attribute model inputs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how simulation can be used to reflect fuzzy inputs, which allows more complete interpretation of model results. A case study is used to demonstrate the concept of general contractor choice of on the basis of multiple attributes of efficiency with fuzzy inputs applying COPRAS method. The work has concluded that the COPRAS method is appropriate to use.



      Dr Anita Puri Singh

Abstract: Development is explain not as an empirical term (Reese and Overton1970) and on occasion as through it is (Kaplan 1983) . Many times as what ever happens across the life span is what constitutes development. The concept of development centers on value based notion of improvement. In life span perspective the development is life long, interactive, multidimensional, culturally historically embedded process, shows plasticity, involves both gain and losses and has multidisciplinary field of study. (Sugarman 2001)



      Dr Yogesh C. Dr Satish K. V.

Abstract: The present study was under taken to know the spectrum of renal histopathology in snake-bite cases autopsied in Victoria hospital mortuary, Bengaluru. To know the haematological and biochemical changes leading to renal pathology in nonfatal snake bite cases admitted to Victoria hospital, Bengaluru.



      Anubhav Tiwari

Abstract: This paper talks about •Why Microsoft Enterprise Library? •How to use Logging Application Block - Microsoft Enterprise Library? •What are advantages of using it?



      Abidi Aymen, Bedhioufi Hafsi & Kumar Serge Rogert

Abstract: The aim of our study was to analysis a sample parents of tennis players in three different clubs situated in Tunisia and to incorporate the related inherent of the socio-economic factors of these issues and adopted the federal efforts to pout popularization of this sport. In our research we were incorporate for the achievement, the questionnaire as an investigative technique. The analysis focuses on a sample of 100 parents of players tennis clubs in three different situated in Greater Tunis. The questionnaire is, in fact, a set of ordered questions used to collect information’s from a population determined in tennis practice. The multiple choice question has a predetermined range of responses. Four variables were adopted; the socioeconomic level, age, level of studying, quality of population. The results indicate after comparing the responses of the experimental group: It should be noted that parents who take their children to practice courts have different social groups; are the managers, those who practice a profession and even retired parents. However, when we say that a group has other lower socioeconomic conditions, we do not give him a strict assertion scientific and strict sense of term. Our experimental show a certain extent, the idea that the practice courts in Tunisia is accessible to all social classes and socioeconomic conditions do not present an obstacle to the middle class to benefit from the virtues of this noble sport.



      Manu E., Preko K., Wemegah D.D.

Abstract: Estimation of groundwater table by hydrogeologists in Ghana over the past decades has proven to be difficult due to the dearth of data on piezometric heads from the very few boreholes present to access this data. The importance of this information in infrastructure planning therefore calls for the need to establish a precise geophysical method that can predict the depth to the water table at a relatively lower cost and higher efficiency as compared with prevailing conventional methods. This paper demonstrates how the ground based ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to delineate water table depths and possible ground water flow directions. The MALA GPR equipment with unshielded rough terrain antenna of 25 MHz central frequency in the common offset mode was employed for the data collection. Data was taken along 21 profiles with inter-profile separation of 50 m over the study site of areal extent 1 km2. Water table depths were estimated at an average depth of 21 m in an environment permeated by vertical structures which possibly served as pathways for groundwater infiltration. The general groundwater flow pattern was north-east in the northern and southern parts, and south-west at the central, eastern and western parts of the study area. The contact between the duricrust and the weathered saprolite was found at an average depth of 8 m. GPR-derived groundwater table depths were validated by drilled boreholes which intercepted the groundwater table at an average depth of 20 m within a lithology comprised of sandy clay and granite with varying degrees of weathering. This paper demonstrates the use of GPR as an efficient method for the estimation of groundwater table depth, groundwater flow direction as well as mapping of near surface lithological units; hence, it can serve as a baseline study for future applications.



      Shaunak S. Ganorkar

Abstract: Cloud computing is the apt technology for the decade. It allows user to store large amount of data in cloud storage and use as and when required, from any part of the world, via any terminal equipment. While Cloud services offer flexibility, scalability and economies of scale, there have been commensurate concerns about security. On the similar terms, we have chosen to make use of a combination of authentication technique and key exchange algorithm blended with an encryption algorithm. In this project, we have proposed to make use of 3DES algorithm which is a well-known symmetric cryptosystem and is widely used for secure data transmission, along with that we will blend it with Random Key Generator and Graphical Password to add an extra security measure. This proposed architecture of three way mechanism and the use of symmetric method of encryption make it tough for hackers to crack the security system, thereby protecting data stored in cloud. This Cipher Block Chaining system is to be secure for clients and server. The security architecture of the system is designed by using DES cipher block chaining, which eliminates the fraud that occurs today with stolen data. There is no danger of any data sent within the system being intercepted, and replaced. The system with encryption is acceptably secure, but that the level of encryption has to be stepped up, as computing power increases. Results in order to be secure the system the communication between modules is encrypted using symmetric key



      Demeke GD & Prof. Sandy PT

Abstract: This quantitative descriptive cross sectional study explored factors influencing sexual risk behaviours among youths in senior secondary schools in Ethiopia. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Religious attachment, living with friends, living alone, parental control, level of parental education, peer pressure and number of friends who had experienced sex were some of the factors noted to influence youths to engage in sexual risk behaviours. The findings of this study have implications for both practice and policy development. They will enable healthcare workers to identify youths at risk of engaging in sexual risk behaviours and subsequently motivate them using health promotion strategies to engage in safe sexual practices. Adopting such an approach will prevent or at least minimise risk of youths being infected with sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV/AIDS.



      Fahim Akhtar, Dr.R.K Hans, Er. Sujeet Kumar Singh

Abstract: Phototoxic and photoallergic reactions represent skin reactions to the sun, in the presence of photoactive chemicals applied on the skin or taken systemically. They have a highly polymorphic clinical presentation – photo contact urticaria, eczema on sun-exposed areas sometimes with erythema multiforme, exaggerated sunburn, linear phytophotodermatitis, pseudoporphyria, photoonycholysis, dyschromia, and lupus erythematosus. Also, skin cancers are increasingly associated with exposure to photoactive chemicals. There is a geographical and timely variation in the responsible agents, but they are mostly furocumarins from plants, UV filters in sunscreens and cosmetics, and drugs (NSAIDs, antimicrobials, phenothiazines, amiodarone, etc.) Three drugs like Chloramphenicol, Norflox, and Kucil(Fluorouracil) were tested for Phototoxic effect procured from local market and check the ph and absorption spectra and note and solubility of test drug was tried out through different solvents viz. DW (Distill water), petroleum ether, ethanol, DMSO. The Phototoxic activity was studied against the bacterial culture Escherichia coli (DH5 α).The Results of this study revealed that these drugs seem to be phototoxic effect on Microbial culture.



      Gerald Atampugre

Abstract: This paper assesses the net welfare associated with the adoption of Bench Terraces (BT), Contour Bunds (CB), and Napier Grass Strips (NGS) in the Saba Saba sub-catchment of the Upper Tana catchment in Kenya. An agro-economic survey and informal interviews were conducted in the Saba Saba sub-catchment to elicit farm level quantitative data for the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Financial functions in excel were used to analyze the on-site costs and benefits of adopting the identified SWC technologies on farms with crops such as maize, coffee, and tea. In this research CBA was used as a decision tool after the computation of all cost and benefits were valued in local currency to obtain the Net Present Value (NPV) or net welfare. The results show that investment in SWC measures may not be a feasible short-term option from farmers’ perspective. There is, therefore, a strong case for intervention, especially in the initial years where SWC adoption yields negative returns. Again the maintenance cost was higher for all SWC technologies. This could be attributed to poor construction techniques. Considering the sub-catchment’s erosion risk severity and slope stability, Bench Terrace was found to yield relatively higher on-site net welfare.



      Dr.U.Ganapathy Sankar, Dr.A.Prema

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to refine Gravitational Insecurity (GI) assessment among Indian Children. GI assessment (original version) was examined with 28 children with GI and matched typically developing children. The results revealed that that 9 items (Jumping, height jump, Stand on chair, jumping off chair with eyes closed, forward roll, backward roll, tilt board step, Supine ball-active and supine on ball – passive) were correctly discriminate GI children from typically developing children than the other six items (broad Jump, stick jump, Jump off chair with eyes open, prone on ball, swinging ball, bounced ball catch) . These 9 items were included in revised version of GI assessment. Revised version of GI assessment required 30-40 minutes for administration.



      H. D. W. T. Damayanthi

Abstract: Leadership style is phenomenon which affects the productivity and quality nursing care. There is a lack of research studies in this area in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to examine the nurses’ perception about their nurse managers’ leadership style. The study sample comprised 160 nurses using simple random sampling. The research instruments were Demographic Data Recording Form and the Perceived Leadership Form Questionnaire. The reliability coefficient of the Perceived Leadership Form Questionnaire was 0.86 and the content validity index of was .91. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Nurses perceived their managers’ leadership style as transformational (Mean = 3.35, SD =0.64), and transactional leadership as (Mean = 3.25, SD =0.45). The results of the study showed that nurses perceived their managers’ leadership style as transformational. The study provides the opportunity for nurse managers to look into their nursing staff by examining their own leadership style



      Abanti Cyrus and Nyasengo Caroline

Abstract: This study was conducted with the aim of investigating how access control would secure customer information in Kenya. This study was guided by the set out objectives: first to determine how data control mechanisms enhance security access, secondly to investigate the security issues on access of customer information and thirdly to develop Secure Data Access Control (SEDAC) model. In achieving these objectives a self administered questionnaire was developed and distributed to randomly selected respondents. The findings of the study were analyzed using SPSS. The Security Data Access Control (SEDAC) model was developed for and recommended for adoption by the end users as a guide to enlighten the novice worker who constitutes a large number of the work force.



      T Vardhini Kumari, P Ashok, E Sreenivasa Rao, K Sasikala

Abstract: Genetic improvement to produce seedless watermelon offers high quality fruits. This paper describes about problems related with tetraploid seed germination, various seed treatment to improve tetraploid seed germination and the morphological variations observed between the tetraploid and diploid seeds. Diploid watermelon seeds of three genetic backgrounds were treated with colchicine (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%) and PEG (0.5%) as an adjuvent. Polyploid watermelon seeds have poor germination and low seedling vigor mainly due to thick seed coat and seed coat adherence to emerged cotyledons. In order to enhance the germination, the tetraploid seeds were subjected to five different seed treatments i.e; acid scarification, GA3 treatment, humidification, mechanical scarification and water soaking for 48hrs. Among the various treatments tested, maximum germination was recorded in the seeds subjected to water soaking for 48 hrs in all the three varieties. Tetraploids produce less number of seeds per fruit than those of diploids. Diploid seeds had complete filled cavity with embryo whereas tetraploids developed weak embryo with some empty cavity hence lower seed germination.



      Dr Arpita Jindal, Dr Deepti Sukheeja, Dr Manojit Midya

Abstract: Clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis depend on the area of lymphatic involvement and the duration of infection. An eight year old child presented with right cervical lymph node. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with 22 Gauge needle from the lymph node revealed multiple coiled larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti in a background of reactive lymphoid cells with eosinophils. Diagnosis of right cervical Bancroftian lymphadenopathy was made. The case was followed by excisional biopsy of the lymph node and hence was confirmed histopathologically. We report this case because cervical lymphadenopathy is a rare presentation of filariasis in children.



      Hetal R. Thaker, Dr. C. K. Kumbharana

Abstract: Wide range of applications and numerous other complexities involved in character recognition (CR) makes it a continuous and open area of research. Feature selection and classification plays major role in achieving higher accuracy for character recognition. In the era of digitization its compelling need to have CR system for regional script. This paper presents analysis of structural features and its classification for consonants of Gujarati script. Each character has certain characteristics which distinguishes it from other characters. Gujarati consonants are analyzed for eight such structural features and on the basis of it characters are categorized into twenty groups. Further Paper proposes decision table to classify characters based on structural features.



      Anita Singh, Amarjit Lal Sharma

Abstract: The field investigation during 2013-14 at Talwandi sabo, Punjab revealed that there are 19 insect pests identified from kharif crops whereas 13 insect pests were recorded from rabi crops. The 5 bio control agents and 2 ant species were recorded from agriculture field. In these Hemiptera and Lepidoptera are having maximum number of insect pests causing major damage to both kharif and rabi crops. Hence the present studies provide good information about different insect pests and its associated insects in agriculture fields.



      Udemezue O.O, Ukoha Ukoha, Ezejindu D N, Okafor J I, Obilor AD

Abstract: Guava leaves have been used to treat cough and pulmonary diseases; they have also served as anti inflammatory and haemostatic agent in china. This work is therefore aimed at investigating the effects of guava leaf extract on the liver enzymes of adult wistar rats. Twenty apparently healthy wistar rats were used for this study. They were allocated into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A served as the control and was orally administered with 0.5ml of distilled water; the experimental groups B, C, & D were orally administered 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 750mg/kg of guava leaf extract respectively for fourteen days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were dissected. Blood for serum preparation were collected through cardiac puncture. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphotase (ALP) were determined using randox kit method. There were no biochemical alterations in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphotase (ALP).



      Madhuri Thinnaluri, Bhaskar, R.N., Mahesh and T.K. Narayanaswamy

Abstract: Tukra is one of the major problem in mulberry growing areas and it is caused by pink mealy bug Maconellicoccus hirsutus which affect both the quality and yield of mulberry leaf. In general the tukra- diseased leaves showed high moisture content compared to normal healthy leaves. A preliminary attempt has been made to know the effect of plant extracts of natural pesticide origin on moisture content, loss and retention capacity of tukra affected mulberry leaves. The seed kernel and leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Madhuca longifolia and only leaf extracts of Lantana camara, Adathoda vasica were directly used as a foliar spray on M-5 mulberry variety under field conditions. The results revealed that the tukra affected leaves showed high moisture content (75.92%) compared to normal healthy leaves (71.32%). The moisture content was more in NSKE @ 4% (73.83%) PSKE @ 4% (73.80%), MSKE @ 4% (73.30%), and lowest was recorded from MSKE @ 2% (71.76%) followed by control (70.66%). The maximum moisture retention capacity in infested leaves of tukra was observed in NSKE @ 4% (80.60%) sprayed leaves and lowest was recorded from PLE @ 8% (78.46%) compare to control (77.80%). The minimum and maximum moisture loss of 26.06 and 28.20 % was observed in NSKE @ 4% and MSKE @ 2% respectively over the control (29.23%). There was no significant difference among the different treatments with respect to moisture content, loss and retention capacity of tukra affected mulberry leaves.



      Sasikala Natarajamani, M.MedSci , Dakshinamoorthy Janani, M.Tech, Mahalakshmi Subramanian, M.Sc., Archana Manikere, B.E

Abstract: To determine the clinical relevance of determining the semen pH during semen analysis as per WHO (World Health Organisation) standard criteria among the infertile couple attending a tertiary ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) Centre in South India.



      Dr N K Raut

Abstract: Let G(V,E) be a connected graph. The sets of vertices and edges of G are denoted by V=V (G) and E=E (G) respectively. In such a molecular graph, vertices represent atoms and edges represent bonds. The number of edges incident on a vi is called the degree d(vi) of vertex vi.The sum of degrees of all vertices in G is twice the number of edges in G [1]. In molecular graph we have many topological indices. In this research, we computing Randic index, Molecular topological index ,Augmented Zagreb index ,Geometric-Arithmetic index ,Atom–bond connectivity index, Harmonic index ,Sum-connectivity index of n-decane ,3,4,4-Trimethyl heptane and 2,4-dimethyl-4-ethyl hexane.



      Mr. Sanjay Raj A *, Yogananda N**

Abstract: In recent years, self-compacting concrete (SCC) has gained wide use for placement in congested reinforced concrete structures with difficult casting conditions. For such applications, the fresh concrete must possess high fluidity and good cohesiveness. In this present study, the effect of replacing the cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate by constant replacement of silica fume, Manufactured sand (JSW) replacement of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and light weight aggregate replacement of 10%, 15%, for internal curing respectively and their combinations of various proportions on the properties of different mixes of M40 grade has been compared with normal self compacting concrete by conventional curing method. In this study fresh property and hardened properties of the different mixes of concrete were determined. From the present study the test result showed that for fresh concrete all the mixes satisfies the EFNORC standard values. For harden concrete both compressive strength and split tensile strength test the M9 (30%relpacement FA and15% LWA) M4 (30% replacement FA and10% LWA) by internally curried concrete at ambient room temperature mixes gave highest values than the normal concrete by conventionally curing method.



      Dr. Papu Singh, Er. Sweta Singh, Dr. B.R .Singh and Er. D.K. Mishra

Abstract: Rice–wheat cropping system is very common in India. It contributes to over 70% of total food grain production in the country with an area of 12 M ha under this cropping system. However, it is estimated that under rice and wheat crops separately the area is 42.31 and 22.98 M ha respectively. Looking to the above facts a study at farmer’s field of Ambedkar Nagar district was under taken to evaluate the performance of zero-till seed cum ferti-drill along with other system of wheat seeding. The zero-tillage technique may be adopted successfully for seeding to grow wheat after rice by using zero-till ferti seed-drill (ZTFDS) developed at GBPUA&T, Pantnagar and now manufactured commercial. Although this method of wheat seeding using zero-till seed cum ferti drill is becoming very popular in Haryana and Punjab states but it is not popular in U. P. particularly in central Uttar Pradesh.



      Geeta, Sarita and Goyal A. K.

Abstract: Capsicum annum L. (Syn: Capsicum frutescens L., family: Solanaceae) is an herbaceous spice plant cultivated in tropical and subtropical conditions in different countries of the world. In India it is commonly known as “Lal Mirch”. The present study deals with response of UV-B radiation on different growth parameters of capsicum crop. Plants were grown in the field and exposed to supplemental UV-B radiation (280-320nm) for 1 hr and 3hr regularly supplied by the sunlamp, 300 watt from sowing till seedling stage. The total UV-B irradiation received by the plants from the lamp was 24.23 Jm-2s-1. The seed germination percentage was significantly decreased by 1 hr and 3 hr UV-B irradiation. The exposure of 1 hr UV-B irradiation showed promotory response on chlorophyll content and biomass of plumule and cotyledons while exposure of 3 hr of UV-B irradiation showed inhibitory effect on growth and chlorophyll content of seedlings. Current findings suggest ways to increase crop yield to cope the adverse effect of abiotic stress.



      Nachiketa Rout, Megha Khanna

Abstract: The study aimed to discover answers pertaining to process of intervention and perception based upon a 36 item questionnaire put forth to 40 parents having children with multiple disabilities. Children were in the mean of 9.9 years and attended NIEPMD for 2.18 years; most frequent (48%) associated conditions were Cerebral Palsy along with mental retardation. The mean age of suspicion by parents was at 24.2months followed by doctor visit by 27.2 months and initiation of rehabilitation by 56.14 months. The core concern for 80% parents was to develop motor and speech skills, although the majority (55%) had neglected speech therapy. Clients preferred a transdisclipinary approach (68%) over the present multidisciplinary approach. Acceptance of the child’s condition is a crucial, 56% parents took an average of 8.03years to accept their child’s disability followed by 28% who were in the bargaining stage. Parents were mostly unaware of the government schemes and hardly availed them.



      Deepa K., Dr.P.Nagarai

Abstract: The God of Small Things is written in a different style. The quality of writing is totally unlike from other Indian writers .Sometimes the reader feel very difficult to understand her style of writings. The novel is not written in a chronological order. The structure of the work is full of fact and reality faced by the characters. Non- sequential narrative style contains two aspects, one is dramatic or scenic presentation of thoughts one after the other without any break. Story telling quality tells about the whole work. Medium of story telling reveals the entire personality of the authors in this novel.



      Kais Kassim Ghaima, Ahmed Isam Mohamed, Mahir Mahmoud Mohamed

Abstract: Optimization the production of extracellular lipase in culture of Bacillus cereus has been investigated. From 10 samples of diesel fuel polluted soil it was found that 3 samples was positive for the presence of B. cereus. Lipase production by B. cereus isolated from diesel fuel polluted soil was investigated and optimized. The enzyme production was increased with increasing time and maximum enzyme activity was obtained after 72 hrs of incubation. Effect of pH and temperature indicated that, the lipase production was maximum at pH 8.0 (60.2 U/ml) and at 35°C (55.25 U/ml). The lipase production was optimized in shake flask experiments. With a selected carbon sources, maltose (65.5 U/mL) and nitrogen source, peptone (66.25 U/mL) was suitable substrates for accelerating lipase production. The present study indicates that the various factors influenced enzyme production by the bacteria, it appears that the nature of the supplements had significantly influenced on the production.



      Dr. Naveed Shibli psa, Ph.D.

Abstract: The occupied, exiled and displaced people of Kashmir are at war for liberation from foreign Indian occupants since the day when ruling non Muslim Monarch of Kashmir sold the 77% Muslim Kashmiri population to India after the subdivision of subcontinent and that is ruling occupied Kashmir with the help of a puppet regime providing a room for the prevalence of ethnocentric bias hypothesis contrary to the findings by (Antonio, Robert 2007) and close to the findings by (SILOVE 1999) suggesting that ‘torture’ and human rights ‘violations’ can effect human being and in the existing mental state of the people of Kashmir ‘conversational analysis’ needs to be based on assumption about the prevalence of ethnocentric hypothesis bias within Kashmiris pro liberation and puppet regime instead of Kashmiris and out groups in case of ‘implicature’’ anthimeria’ ‘hyperbole’ irony’ and other allied linguistic areas.



      Kunal Kumar Kundan, Professor Sonali Rangdale

Abstract: In this paper, we will enlist the process of extracting template from heterogeneous Web Pages. Extracting structured information from semi-structured machine readable web pages automatically plays a major role these days, so some websites are using common templates with contents to populate the data for good productivity, Where WWW is the major resource for extracting the information. The problem here is for machines, the templates in the web pages are considered to be harmful since they degrade the performance of web applications due to irrelevant terms in the Template. As a result, the performance of the entire system degrades. Template Detection technique can be used to improve the performance of search engine as well as for classification of web documents. In this paper, we present algorithms to extract templates from a very large number of web pages that are getting generated from heterogeneous templates. Using the similarity of template structures in the document, we can cluster the web documents so that the template for each cluster will be extracted simultaneously.



      Rohini Krishna M V and M G Sanal Kumar

Abstract: Pampa River is the third longest river in the South Indian state of Kerala. The river is one of the most stressed rivers in Kerala .Water quality of Chengannur segment of Pampa River was determined based on Physical parameters such as TDS,Turbidity,Temperature and Conductivity followed by water quality index. Three study sites were selected. Mean with standard deviation were taken. Two way ANOVA was conducted. The water quality index (WqI) was calculated. The quality index was84 forTDS and 98 forTurbidity during premonsoon and summer . The study shows that water in the Chengannur segment of Pampa river is of moderate quality.



      Maheshkumar Nanda

Abstract: With the advancement in technology, various options to get latest news updates have increased significantly. News updates are easily available on web. So many users have shifted from traditional newspaper to digital news. This poses serious challenges to news providers where they need to make latest news readily available to user at all instants. Our project deals with similar issues and recommends news providers what exclusive news they are missing when compared to their competitors.



      Chhering Tandup

Abstract: The study of man-environment relationship has great importance today. Human beings interact with their environment from the early stage of development to modern lives. In the process of this interaction they modify and transform environment. Environment plays determining role in the early stages of development where society essentially adapts itself to the limits laid down by it. As development proceeds onwards, the subservience to it gets progressively reduced and the process of cooperation and interaction begins. Present paper is based on analysis of secondary data published by different sources. Arc viewGIS 10 has been used to construct various kinds of maps in this paper. The natural environment of Zanskar presents a very harsh and fragile system. This region experiences heavy snowfall during winter caused by the western disturbances. Zanskar Tehsil is an underdeveloped area where existing use of natural resources is limited due to the low level of technology and harsh environment presented by rugged topography and very cold climate.



      Anuj Tiwari, Dr. Kamal Jain

Abstract: A Smart City is the integration of technology into a strategic approach to sustainability. 21st Century has brought with it a new global trend of “sustainable urban development” and this concept adds new dimensions to urbanization which require a quick need to upgrade existing cities. The concept of a smart city is a relatively new one. Throughout the years, with the significant contribution from various technologies like computer science, information technology, remote sensing, advance multimedia world etc, GIS evolved from traditional geographer’s or cartographer’s tool for surveying and planning to a rapidly expanding primary technology for understanding our planet and related geospatial opportunities to foster a sustainable world. This paper describes smart city projects in India and thoroughly explores the existing and extended capability of GIS to include modeling and visualization in order that decision makers will be able to see the state of the resources separately in three pillar of smart development model with the impacts of their decisions and the future state of resources.



      Prof.Alka Mata

Abstract: NANO… one billionth of one and one third of micro ,to be precise 10-9m. Nanotechnology is much discussed these days as a emerging frontier – a realm in which machines operate at scales of billionth a metre. It is actually a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies based upon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization. In the field of nano technologies researchers are enthusiastic about its potential applications in fields such as energy, medicine, electronics, computing and materials. Of late, one of the emerging aspects dealing Nanotechnology in mechanical field is the internal combustion engine on a nano scale, which we have chosen as our area of interest. Heat engines have evolved from external combustion engines to internal combustion engines and the hot off the block is the nano internal combustion engine.



      Muhammad Mufakkar, Muhammad Hammad Khan, Shakeel Ahmad, Faisal Ali, Tahir Mahmood

Abstract: This study was undertaken for the purpose to determine the concentration of caffeine in eight brands of soft drinks with the use of an Ultraviolet spectroscopy. This told us about the best brand among the different brands containing caffeine. The highest concentration of caffeine was found in Sting 500mL (560.29 µg/mL), so it is strongest CNS (central nervous system) stimulant among all samples and it is harmful for health. The lowest concentration of caffeine was found in 7up 500mL (29.71 µg/mL). So it is a weakest stimulant among all samples and can be sold in market.



      K.Rama Theertha, Sri G.Ramesh

Abstract: Even a small transition delays and little faults create major concern in digital circuits. It Produce greater impact on not only for simple memory but also for most of the memory applications. This paper presents an error-detection method for difference-set cyclic codes with majority logic decoding. Majority logic decodable codes are suitable for memory applications due to their capability to correct a large number of errors. However, they require a large decoding time that impacts memory performance. The proposed fault-detection method significantly reduces memory access time when there is no error in the data read. The technique uses the majority logic decoder itself to detect failures, which makes the area overhead minimal and keeps the extra power consumption low. The proposed method detects the occurrences of single error, double error ,triple error in the received code words obtained from the memory system.



      Mr. Anand Christopher, Dr.S.Franklin John & Mr.Clement Sudhahar

Abstract: This article discussing about recently launched Google Android platform, and its online application marketplace for Android smart phones. The project examines the paths to success for third-party developers building applications for Android smart phones by comparing them with application development for the Apple iPhone and factors that influencing mobile brand selection while purchasing new mobiles. Research on related topics shows this mobile ecosystem benefits third-party developers and those application vendors play a critical role in contributing to the success of Android.



      R.A.Roseline, Dr.P.Sumathi

Abstract: Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks has to take into account the limited battery resources of the nodes. Sensor nodes can also be powered by other energy sources like solar energy. This paper provides a review of Environment monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks. The issues related to environment sensor networks is highlighted. The real time applications in environment monitoring is presented with emphasis on energy conservation. Furthermore in this paper we address the problem of scavenging energy using solar powered devices.



      Ashutosh Gupta, Mr. Jaikaran Singh, Mr.Sanjay Rathore

Abstract: This paper presents an improved design of voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) utilizing the three differential cell CMOS inverters for forming the ring oscillator. The differential cell reduces the power supply fluctuations impact on the oscillator jitter while the negative feedback from frequency to voltage converter reduces the jitter at high frequencies. Finally the proposed model is designed using CMOS 0.18um foundry technologyand simulated using P-Spice software. The result shows that the proposed design improves the jitter attenuation at different offset frequencies up to 40dB.



      Okon, O. G., and James, U. S.

Abstract: This research work was carried out to investigate the proximate and mineral composition of some traditional vegetables in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. These vegetables include: Talinum triangulare, Hensia crinita, Cucurbita maxima and Lasianthera africana. The vegetables were washed in potable water to remove unwanted matters and were analyzed for proximate and mineral content. All analyses were carried out in three replicates and the mean data were presented on tables using the spread sheet Microsoft Excel. Talinum triangulare had the highest protein content (56.72%) and moisture content (80.11%) but had the lowest content of ash (6.31%), crude fibre (2.96%) and carbohydrate (6.91%). Ash and crude fibre were present in low quantities in Talinum triangulare, Hensia crinita, and Lasianthera africana, except Cucurbita maxima which had the highest composition of ash (14.06%) and crude fibre (9.37%). Mineral composition (Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Phosphorus (P)) was generally high in the samples although Talinum triangulare and Lasianthera africana had the lowest composition of Phosphorus. This research work has showned that these four (4) traditional vegetables are rich sources of nutrients and can contribute significantly to the nutrient requirements and health conditions of humans.



      Javid Y Patel

Abstract: The study on patient satisfaction at priyadarshini dental college and hospital are conducted to measure the level of satisfaction as well quality of dental care provided .the total 100 randomly patients were surveyed .a questionnaire of 22 question were used to collect the information from the patients, most of patients were satisfied with the quality of care they received but some were dissatisfied due to the unable to understand explanation of treatment option provided by dental students and the long waiting time for the treatment, patient satisfaction is key determinant of quality of care.



      Kilari Murali krishna Teja

Abstract: One of the most important and promising branches of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is Machine Learning (ML),which strive to make a machine intelligent by “learning” from the data. Information Retrieval is also a popular and predominant technique having as one of its application, the ubiquitous Search Engine. Search Engine optimization (SEO) has seen remarkable advancements during the recent years. The objective of this paper is to optimize the existing predictive search mechanism by incorporating pattern based Machine Learning techniques, the association with a Semantic Database, Natural Language Processing of search query to produce more relevant predictions to the user. The main intention is to provide diversified but apt, intelligent predictions for both the diversified set of users whose domain of search queries is not constrained, as well as for the dedicated researchers whose domain will be confined, coupled with an optimal balance between the Response times, Relevancy of predictions.



      Adekunle Adefemi Adeyemi, Adejuyigbe Sam B, and Faluyi Olufemi

Abstract: A crankshaft contains two or more centrally-located coaxial cylindrical ("main") journals and one or more offset cylindrical crankpin ("rod") journals. The design of the Crankshaft considers the dynamic loading and the optimization an lead to a shaft diameter satisfying the requirements of Automobile’s specifications with cost and size effectiveness.



      S. Daya Murali, C.V.R.N. Aswin Kumar, T.R.V.M. Pavan Kumar, S. Prasanth, K. Varun Chowdary

Abstract: With the advancements in optical and satellite communications for high speed long range data transmissions, serrated antennas plays a vital role. In this work we have designed a Edge Serrated Microstrip Patch antenna used for these applications has been modeled on FR4 substrate as a dielectric medium which has a relative permittivity value of 4.4. The proposed antenna was resonating at two different frequencies in L & S band Microwave frequency ranges. This antenna was fed with coaxial feeding and was designed in a software HFSS.



      Anshu Rajput, Divyanshu Pandey

Abstract: The pre-engineered steel building system construction has great advantages to the single storey buildings, practical and efficient alternative to conventional buildings, the System representing one central model within multiple disciplines. Pre-engineered building creates and maintains in real time multidimensional, data rich views through a project support is currently being implemented by Staad pro software packages for design and engineering.



      K.Santosh, Sri G.Ramesh

Abstract: This paper presents an enhanced 32-bit carry look-ahead(CLA) adder implementing using the constant delay (CD) logic, targeting at full-custom high-speed applications. The CD characteristic of this logic style regardless of the logic type makes it suitable in implementing complicated logic expressions such as addition. CD logic exhibits a unique characteristic where the output is pre-evaluated before the inputs from the preceding stage is ready. This feature offers performance advantage over static and dynamic domino logic styles in a single-cycle multistage circuit block. Several design considerations including timing window width adjustment and clock distribution are discussed. Using 65-nm general-purpose CMOS technology, the proposed logic demonstrates an average speed up of 94% and 56% over static and dynamic domino logic, respectively, in five different logic gates. Simulation results of 8-bit ripple carry adders show that CD logic is 39% and 23% faster than the static and dynamic-based adders, respectively. CD logic also demonstrates 39% speedup and 64%(22%) energy-delay product (EDP) reduction from static logic at 100% (10%) data activity in 32-bit carry look ahead adders. For 8-bit Wallace tree multiplier, CD logic achieves a similar speedup with at least 50% EDP reduction across all data activities.



      Heni Voni Rerey, Alimin Maidin, Asiah Hamzah, and Mappeaty Nyorong

Abstract: Values and norms that develop in people of Papua tend to discriminate women which can affect the woman health status and may lead to a high rates of maternal and child deaths of Biak tribe in Biak Numfor Regency, Papua Province. This study aims to develop concepts and propositions on women's reproductive health (pregnancy health, healthcare delivery and post-partum health) on Biak tribal culture in Biak Numfor. The research design is qualitative with the ethnometodology approach, symbolic interaction, and Kasper models analogy. Sources of data obtained from informants by interview, observation and documentation. Informants consisted of (1) the macro level, the tribal chief / head of customs, (2) the meso level, the community leaders / traditional leaders, and (3) a micro level, the head of the family / in-laws / parents, informants pregnant women, maternity women informans and informants during childbirth.



      V.D.Dodia, N.H.Kelawala, D.N.Suthar and Prajwalita Sutaria

Abstract: Cattle suffering with plastic foreign body syndrome were treated surgically by rumenotomy. The pre-operative and 12th day post operative blood and serum biochemical were recorded and compared with normal healthy cattle. Pre-operatively decrease in haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte count was observed which was gradually increased and came to near normal state on 12th post-operative day. There was leucocytosis, neutrophilia and corresponding lymphopenia observed in animals during pre-operative phase. The glucose, serum creatinine, serum albumin and calcium levels were found to be at lower level and total proteins, blood urea nitrogen and phosphorus at higher level in pre-operative period when compared to normal cattle. This may be due to low intake of food and water and also inflammatory condition in body due to presence of plastic foreign body.



      Basou Saxena, Ayush Kumar Srivastava, Anu Srivastava

Abstract: In the present energy scenario the rate of depletion of fossil fuel sources is increasing day after day and their combustion products are causing global environmental problems. So it is inevitable to shift towards the use of renewable energy resources which in turn will reduce pollution and save fossil fuels.



      Nidhi Sharma, M. Benjamin Sagayaraj

Abstract: A low birth weight baby is a clinical and diagnostic challenge. The neonatologists are faced with numerous neonatal intensive care unit protocols. This study was designed to review the policies of management of neonatal jaundice, sepsis, anemia, hypoglycemia, jaundice and hypoxic encephalopathy in a low birth weight newborn.



      Seema Maitrey, C.K. Jha

Abstract: Data mining is the process of extracting interesting, useful and previously unknown information or patterns from large information repositories such as: relational database, data warehouses, XML repository, etc. There are various types of data mining techniques such as association rules, classifications and clustering. Association rule mining is one of the most important and well researched techniques of data mining. Among sets of items in the transaction databases or other data repositories, it seeks interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures. Association Rule Mining is a very potential technique which has the aim to find interesting and useful patterns from the transactional database. It is mainly used in market basket analysis that help to identify patterns of all those items that are purchased together. To denote association with itemsets and their quantities, the Quantitative association mining is used. In this, we partition each item into equi-spaced bins with each bin representing a quantity range. It assumes each bin as a separate bin as we proceed with mining and we also take care to reduce redundancies and rules between different bins of the same item. Here, we make use of Association Rule Mining Technique to create a platform which helps in grouping similar objects together in a transaction process.



      Jyothi R L, Gimy Joy

Abstract: Rail inspection is an important task in railway maintenance. The speed and loads of trains have been increasing greatly in recent years, and these factors inevitably raise the risk of producing rail defects. Mainly the discrete surface defects impact the riding quality and safety of a railway system. However, it is a challenge to inspect such defects in a vision system because of illumination inequality and the variation of reflection property of rail surfaces. This project presents a real-time VIS for discrete surface defects of rail heads. VIS comprises the Image Acquisition Subsystem (IAS) and the image analysis subsystem. IAS acquires gray rail images for the surface of a rail head, and the latter processes rail images and detects possible defects. This paper propose the Local Normalization(LN) method to enhance the distinction between defects and background in a rail image, considering illumination inequality and the variation of reflection property of rail surfaces. VIS first acquires a rail image by the image acquisition system, and then, it cuts the sub image of rail. Track by the track extraction algorithm. Then, VIS enhances the contrast of the rail image .At last, VIS detects defects using the defect localization based on projection profile (DLBP), which identifies possible defects using the projection profile of the mean intensity over each longitudinal (or transversal) line. This is robust to noise and very fast. The proposed LN method and DLBP algorithm are better than the related well-established approaches. The distance of the crack can also be found based on certain assumption.



      Bengao, AC T and Cababat, RA. P

Abstract: The researchers sought to determine the effect of mine tailings on the growth ornamental plants. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of mine tailings o n the numbers of seed germinated, number of leaves, length of seedlings and length of primary roots; assess the effects of the various percentages of mine tailings; determine the interaction effect of the various percentages of mine tailings with fertile soil and organic fertilizers; and establish the best kind of percentages of mine tailings on the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings. Experiments were performed to determine the germination and growth of petunia seeds. Selections of plant candidate from varieties of seeds were considered. The ideal candidate is petunia seeds since it can sprout at a minimum period of seven days. Generally, there is significant effect of mine tailing concentration in primary root growth . Findings show that primary roots in 25%, 50% and 75% mine tailings media are significantly shorter than the pure soil media. The data revealed that addition of fertilizer to the media increased plant growth in the three ( 3) media. There is significant increased in root lengths when fertilizer is added. It is also noted that there is significant decrease in root length as the amount of mine tailing is increased. The findings proved that the further development of plant organs are affected or are influenced by soil mineral concentrations. In this case , the mine tailings at any rate affect the leaves formation.



      Dr.T.Abdul Razak, R.Rajakumar, M.Rameeja

Abstract: Well-organized big data get together in the densely distributed sensor networks is, therefore, a challenging research area. One of the most effective solutions to address this challenge is to utilize the sink node’s mobility to facilitate the data gathering. While this technique can reduce energy consumption of the sensor nodes, the use of mobile sink presents additional Challenges such as determining the sink node’s trajectory and cluster formation prior to data collection. In this paper, we propose a new mobile sink routing and data gathering method through network clustering based on modified Expectation-Maximization (EM) technique. In addition, we derive an optimal number of clusters to minimize the energy consumption. The effectiveness of our proposal is verified through numerical results.



      ENGR OGBONNA EKWE (M.Eng), ANORUE ESTHER N, ENGR C.K OKORO

Abstract: In Communication system, the system capacity and performance are adversely affected and degraded by interference. Hence, power control plays a prominent role in an interference-limited system, which increases the efficiency by mitigating the adjacent and co-Channel interference in the system.



      Gilbert Roland,RN

Abstract: One of the major concerns in intensive care units is caring. There was no universally accepted definition of the phenomenon, instead of decades of research in this field.



      AWODUN, Adebisi O, ONI, Samuel A. & ALADEJANA, Alaba L

Abstract: The Students’ Variables as Predictor of Secondary School Students’ Performance in Physics in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The study adopted a survey research design of the ex-post facto type. The sample comprised 120 senior secondary school II Physics students drawn from the six secondary schools in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti state. The instruments used for the study was questionnaire and past academic performance in Physics of the students involved in the study. Two research hypotheses were generated and analysed in the study using Pearson’s Moment Correlation and Multiple regression statistical analysis. Among others, the study revealed that: students‘ variables (study habit, attitude to and interest of students in Physics) are better predictors of students’ performance in Physics, while student gender has no influence on students academic performance (is a poor predictor). The results also revealed the individual contribution of students’ variables to students performance in term of beta weight 0.222 (22.2%), 0.196 (19.6%), 0.142 (0.14.2%) and 0.020 (2%) for students attitude to Physics, study habit, students interest and gender of the students respectively. Conclusion and recommendations were also made in this paper.



      Ogunjemilua Abiodun A., Adegboye Ademola A.

Abstract: It is an undisputable fact that no education style can rise above the quality of its teachers. Teacher education advancement will determine the position of the country in the comity of nations. Hence, the nation’s development can only be enhanced by the quality of education given to her citizens. This paper therefore, discusses the meaning of teacher education, historical development of teacher education in Nigeria, present position of teacher education, relevance of teacher education, aims of teacher education, problems militating against teacher education in the country and various strategies taken by the government to promote the growth and development of teacher education in Nigeria examined.



      IGBINEDION, Victor (Ph.D), ENIJUNI, Anthony Tola

Abstract: The major purpose of this study is to find out the extent to which previous knowledge of Book-keeping will predict students’ academic performance in Principles of Accounts 1 (BED 111) at the NCE 100 level in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study employed an ex-post facto research design with a sample of 371 selected from a population of 708. Three research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant using T-test, Standard deviation, Multiple regression and Analysis of variance. A finding from the study reveals that previous knowledge of Book-keeping significantly contributes to the prediction of academic performance of students in Principles of Accounts 1 (BED 111) among others. It was concluded that the influence of previous knowledge in teaching/learning process provides the background to framework upon which new learning will be placed. It is recommended that Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) should properly streamline their admission requirements to ensure that only students with O’level result in Book-keeping and Accounts are qualified to apply for NCE Business Education programme.



      Srinivasamurthy, R. and Dayamani, K.J.

Abstract: Most agronomic soils contain large reserves of total phosphorus [P], but the fixation and precipitation of P cause P deficiency, and in turn, restrict the growth of crops severely. Phosphorus replenishment, especially in sustainable production systems, remains a major challenge as it is mainly fertilizer-dependent. Though the use of chemical P fertilizers is obviously the best means to circumvent P deficiency in different agro-ecosystems, their use is always limited due to its spiralling cost. A greater interest has, therefore, been generated to find an alternative yet inexpensive technology that could provide sufficient P to plants while reducing the dependence on expensive chemical P fertilizers. Among the heterogeneous and naturally abundant microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere, the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) including bacteria have provided an alternative biotechnological solution in sustainable agriculture to meet the P demands of plants. These organisms in addition to providing P to plants also facilitate plant growth by other mechanisms. Despite their different ecological niches and multiple functional properties, P-solubilizing bacteria have yet to fulfill their promise as commercial bio-inoculants. Current developments in our understanding of the functional diversity, rhizosphere colonizing ability, mode of actions and judicious application are likely to facilitate their use as reliable components in the management of sustainable agricultural systems.



      Srinivasamurthy, R. and Dayamani, K.J.

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted in glass house conditions for 120 days to study the effects of phosphorus solubilizing Gram-positive bacteria on plant growth, nutrient uptake and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguculata). Among all twelve bacterial treatments, the strain Bacillus spp (B3) has shown the greatest shoot length 67.70 cm, root length 60.5 cm and total dry weight 4.57 g plant-1 after 45 days of sowing. Similarly, in the same treatment the shoot length, root length and total dry weight were found 162.36 cm, 60.5 cm and 128.49 g plant-1, respectively at harvesting and total yield was obtained 23.34 g plant-1, which was significantly greater than all other treatments and uninoculated control treatments containing single super phosphate (SSP) and rock phosphate (RP) as phosphorus sources (7.93 g plant-1 and 3.81 g plant-1 respectively). The strains Bacillus thurengensis (T1 and T6) also have indicated a significant increase in above parameters i.e root length, shoot length, total dry weight and yield. In Bacillus thurengensis (T1 and T6) the total yield was observed 19.50 g plant-1 and 18.03 g plant-1 respectively. Besides these above strains a significant increase in growth and yield of cowpea plants was observed in all the Gram–positive phosphorus solubilizing bacteria inoculation compared to uninoculated control.



      Majed M. Isa and Osama I. El-Sabbagh

Abstract: This article is a demonstrative study about the problem and size of addiction in western area especially Taif city in Saudi Arabia through applying of international questionnaires guidelines. These questionnaires were used to assess tobacco, alcohol, and narcotics addiction. They were performed on secondary school male students in Taif ,Saudi Arabia, in addition to Roshd and Kafa and population as well. The total sample size for the present study is equal to 2514.


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