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IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 8, August 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version will release latest by 30th August. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th August and minor corrections are accepted till 26th August 2017.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Bibha Das Saikia, Shailin Dora Synrem

Abstract: Attempts have been made is this paper to determine feasibility of Brahmaputra River sand reinforced by Coconut coir mat in terms of CBR values under soaked and unsoaked conditions in the laboratory for road construction purposes. Coir mats were placed at different depths from top of the mould and CBR values were obtained. CBR values are also determined using different mould-plunger ratios to know the effect of lateral confinement. Further settlement pattern of the same is studied by loading and unloading tests for one cycle only.



      Amy Mardhatillah, Yayasan Kita dan Buah Hati

Abstract: This study aims to examine youth exposure toward pornography. 1765 Junior High School and Senior High School students age 12-18 were participated. Data were collected by Kita dan Buah Hati Foundation. The objective of the study is to asses’ pornography addiction among youth. 25 Linker scale of Youth Pornography Addiction Screening test (YPAST) was used to determine whether they are in mild, at risk or fully addict category. Result found that, 58.1 % of respondent in the category of mild exposure to pornography, 34.7 % are at risk category and there are 7.2 % are in the category of fully addict. Result of cross tabulation shows that there are more male students in category of at risk and fully addict than female students. Result of t test also indicated that there is significant different between male and female students in term pornography addiction in which male students score higher than female students. Further analysis on bivariate correlation found that, there are positive correlations between age and pornography addiction score, the older the age the score of pornography addiction are higher. Furthermore, the present study also indicated that YPAST is a valid and reliable measure in Indonesian sample with good validity and reliability. The result of the present study provides empirical evidence on the description of youth exposure to pornography. Result of this study can be used as a framework to implement several preventions and treatments to pornography addiction among children and youth.



      Maidiana Astuti, Syamsurijal, Bemby Soebyakto, Suhel

Abstract: This research is based on theory and previous research on Occupational Change and Earning for hotel’s workers in Palembang Indonesia.



      S.Vidhyalakshmi, S. Aarthy Thangam, G. Dhanalakshmi

Abstract: The non-homogeneous sextic equation with five unknowns represented by the Diophantine equation is analyzed for its patterns of non-zero distinct integral solutions are illustrated. Various interesting relations between the solutions and special numbers namely, polygonal numbers, pyramidal numbers are exhibited.



      Sulaiman Mahmoud Sulaiman Aljaarat and Dr.Sadia Husna Hasan

Abstract: This description is a record of literature review whereby the finder explored previous studies and art objects of research conducted to analyze the negative effects of Arabic language interference to learning English. It discusses the definitions and classification of errors committed by Arabic speakers in using English. The errors are explained on the basis of ‘principles of unassertive dialect language transfer’. It also aims at pinpointing the differences between Arabic and English and how these differences make Arab learners to commit mistakes at different linguistic levels. The writer explains the types of syntactic, lexical, and morphological errors made by the Arab learners of English as quoted from previous literature. A mistake in forming tenses, relative clauses, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, and articles were listed. A batch of object lessons was applied to illustrate these errors.



      A. Vasudeva Rao, S. Bhanu Prakash and Sd. Jilani

Abstract: For standard generalized exponential distribution (GED)Raqab and Ahsanullah [1] have derived the exact forms of means, variances and covariancesof order statistics. Using these expressions they have obtained the necessary coefficients for computing the BLUEs of location and scale parameters of GE distributionfor known shape parameter for complete samples of size up to 10. In this paper, using the formulae given byRaqab and Ahsanullah [1], we have developed R-program for computingthe means of order statistics for samples of size up to 30; and the variances andcovariances of order statistics for samples of size up to 20 for standard GE distribution for Using these means, variances and covariances, we have extended the computation of the BLUEs of the location and scale parameters of GEDfor both complete sample and Type-II censoredsamples of size up to n=20. We have tabulated theBLUE coefficients for all complete samples of size n=11(1)20 for α=1.5(0.5)2.0(1.0)5.0. Further, we have developed R-code for computing the coefficients of the BLUEs of location and scale parameters based on any type II censored sample (including a complete sample) of size up to n=20 and for any choice of shape parameter α in the interval [1.5, 6.0]. Finally, we demonstratethe computation of theBLUEs with two data sets.



      SHAHID MAQBOOL

Abstract: Islamism and electoral politics are,theoretically, placed differently and in fact quite opposite to each other in the religious circles. However, practically, sometimes even the flag holders of Islam imbibe the ‘antagonistic’ electoral methods to achieve their goal of Islamism. The present paper substantiates the same concept with respect toJama’at-i-Islami Jammu and Kashmir. Despite taking a strong confrontation against the modern concepts of democracy, secularism and their constituent element of electoral Politics,Jama’at used electoral politics as a means for attaining the ultimate end i.e., Islamism. Through electoral politics Jama’at not only operated as a strong political pressure group, but also widened its base among people, thus, making its road towards Islamism more secure and guaranteed.



      Pranav Murali

Abstract: Research related to information, retrieval on web has come a long way in influencing today’s techniques to extract data. Application of big data with e-learning has been creating a huge impact in education system. In current trends social media plays a vital role with respect to e-learning system. The effective usage of information totally lies with the way the learners and the learned utilize these data. The paper provides few impact and consequences of Big Data in ELearning.



      Gregory Makabila, Mike Iravo, WaitituGichuhi, AssumptahKagiri

Abstract: Despite overwhelming theoretical suggestions that organizational learning is strong positive determinant of competitive advantage, little empirical work exists to this theoretical underpinning. The relative absence of such research does not motivate leaders, managers and employees to adopt learning initiatives. This study examined the role of organizational learning in achieving competitive advantage of State Corporations in Kenya with a focus on organization’s learning culture, learning processes, systems thinking among state corporations. The study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional research designand used both quantitative and qualitative methods to gather data from 198 staff from 35 state corporations comprising of senior managers, middle manager and non-management staff.



      Aideyan D.O

Abstract: This study used wavelet analysis to detect Anomalous Observations (AOs) in non-stationary and non-periodic simulated data while extending it to the parametric method using a developed test statistic. In the three series analysed, it was discovered that Turkey’s method (TM), the Modified Turkey’s method (MTM) and the developed test statistic were found to be very effective and efficient in the detection of these anomalous observations even when the data are compressed, they still retained their statistical properties .



      Dr. E. GAJENDRAN, Dr. J. VIGNESH, Dr. S.R. BOSELIN PRABHU

Abstract: Indian agriculture, even after the Green Revolution, is not as productive as it could potentially be. It calls for a second Green Revolution – one of „precision agriculture‟, where cutting-edge technology is used to maximize production with minimum input costs and resources. In this paper we present a multi-purpose agricultural robot to implement precision irrigation, fertilizer addition and de-weeding, apart from continuous monitoring of crop and soil conditions. This will involve efficient utilization of water resources, intensive plant and soil monitoring, condition based use of fertilizers and the ability to work in unstructured environments. Developed agriculture needs to find new ways to improve efficiency.



      Roopa Bernardiner & Mangala S.M

Abstract: Economic empowerment is a major step towards the goal of equal participation of women in household and community, and to challenge socially unfair stereotype practices through women’s Self Help Groups (SHGs). Economic empowerment of poor women could be achieved through improvement in their ability in accessing and controlling individual household economic resources and assets such as income, savings land, housing, and livestock. To sustain the economic empowerment it is crucial that the process of social empowerment should begin simultaneously by developing a sense of independence, self-confidence among women. Taking either individual and or group actions, to address social issues that are prevailing at household, community and institution levels, will improve capabilities in attaining education, sense of ownership, sense of belonging,leadership and their capacity to seek a better future. Collectively, women are enabled to address challenges and constraints and in the process achieve empowerment. This paper tries to examine the impact of SHGs collective with respect to empowerment of women based on the first-hand information.



      Palmawati Tahir

Abstract: Indonesia is a dominant Moslem country in the world. This condition makes the Sharia Banking growing easily. As a consequence, the education and socialization processes of the Sharia banking system in this country are done intensively. These processes are expected to increase public awareness and interests to use Sharia banks. However, literatures on the development and the legal basis of Sharia banks in Indonesia have been limited. For this reason, this paper aims at discussing the development and the legal basis of Sharia banks in Indonesia. The method used to discuss is by using secondary sources advance in literature with particular concern on both national and Islamic rules and laws concerning with Sharia banking systems. This study found that the large number of Muslim population in Indonesia have not been well-informed about the development of Sharia banking systems, although National rules and laws to support the development of Sharia Banks have been many. In addition, it was also argued that the development of Sharia banks can be one solution to improve the economic development in Indonesia. However, much remain to be done by the Sharia banks to promote their financial activity to public at large in Indonesia.



      Rohaida Ibrahim, SulaimanSarkawi

Abstract: This research aims to study the role of the teacher mentor in the development of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) trainee teachers. A total of 109 trainee teachers from the Degree in Information Technology Education (AT20) Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI) who have completed their 14 weeks teaching practice program were the respondents. This quantitative research used the questionnaire with a validity value of Alpha Cronbach 0.966. The research focussed on four PCK elements: i) communication; ii) knowledge about students and learning; iii) curriculum knowledge; and iv) knowledge on teaching strategy. The research found that all four elements are good. The mean of PCK communication element is 3.05, knowledge about student and learning is 3.25, curriculum knowledge is 2.94, and teaching strategy knowledge is 3.21. The percentage of mentoring proses rated by the trainee teacher is low (44%). A total of 56% of trainee teachers are not satisfied with the mentoring received which is within the range of 20% to 50% only. Further detailed research is needed to measure the role of teacher mentor in developing the PCK of the ICT trainee teachers.



      K.A.ApekshaNirmali, MohdShukriAbYajid, Ali khatibi, S.M.FerdousAzam

Abstract: Internal branding is thought to be a moderately new approach which help organizations to concentrate on the organizational vision and values by on the whole passing on and focusing on one reasonable brand massage in order to improve the corporate brand identity to all partners. Internal branding positively affects attitudinal and behavioral parts of employees. The adequacy of internal branding relies on upon a comprehension of the internal and in addition the external condition of the organization. The purpose behind review is to give a better understand of internal branding concept and to inspect the dimension of internal branding in the area of marketing and human recourses. Researchers followed literature Review as the main methodology to review the existing knowledge to build conceptual content to support for the proposed research directions. In view of the discussion, it proposes the future research bearings in accordance with the empirical knowledge gaps. The review can help future research to contribute to existing knowledge whilst organizationsare benefited with the insights shared on internal branding practices.



      Poonam Rani, Gurjit Singh Rattan and Anita Singh

Abstract: The present studies has been done on investigation of Karnal bunt in wheatproduced in South WesternPunjab.To know the status of wheat seed,340 wheat samples were collected from 17different grain markets belongs to 9 districts of Punjab.The major five Varieties of wheat i.e. HD 2967, HD 3086, HD2733, PBW 502 and PBW 725were collected from selected area. The results shows Karnal Bunt disease infection was ranged from 0 to 14.2% in south western Punjab. The most susceptible wheat varieties were HD 2967and HD 3086, showing 5.0% and 14.2% of infestation respectively. The minimum incidence of Karnal Bunt was observed on the varieties PBW 725 (0.81% infection) and HD 2733 (2.41% infection). Whereas PBW 502 was Karnal Bunt free.It was also found that Karnal Bunt was least in Abohardistrict whereas Fazilka district wastotally disease - free.



      Adhikari BR, Twayana RS, Shrestha S, Vaidya N, Aghrahari M, Ghimire B

Abstract: Metabolic disorders including thyroid dysfunction is increasing problem throughout the world. We aim to observe the pattern of thyroid disorder among people attending one of the hospitals in the central development region of Nepal. An observational study was conducted among 290 individuals who attended the Medical unit of Shree Puspanjali Hospital Pvt. Ltd, Bharatpur-10, Nepal between May 2016 and August 2016. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and laboratory data (from thyroid function test) were collected. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS 20.0 and descriptive and inferential analysis was performed. Of the 290 individuals, 215 (74.23%) had thyroid disorders among which hypothyroidism was the most common disorder (187, 87.0%) followed by hyperthyroidism (24, 11.2%) and subclinical hypothyroidism (4, 1.9%). Majorities (261, 90%) of the participants were female and so were those with thyroid disorders (196, 91.2%). The mean age of the participating individuals was 45.9±1.3 years. Hypertension (49, 16.9%) was the commonest co-morbid condition among the participants (30, 10.3%) but diabetes (p=0.004) and dyslipidemia (p=0.002) were significantly associated with thyroid disorder. In conclusion, hypothyroidism was the most common thyroid disorders and female were at the most vulnerable group. This is a single hospital based study; therefore, it is not sufficient to generalize the thyroid disorder in whole population.



      Mercy Adhiambo Ndiege; Jackim Nyamari; Jasper.K.Imungi

Abstract: Background: Minimally processed fruits (MPF) vended as street foods, despite numerous benefits, can cause food-borne illnesses due to poor hygiene practices and unsanitary conditions. This study sought to assess food hygiene condition in minimally processed fruit vending businesses in Nairobi Central Ward.



      Gregory Makabila, Mike Iravo, WaitituGichuhi, AssumptahKagiri

Abstract: Despite the theoretical underpinning that organizational learning is positively associated with competitive advantage, empirical support for the relationship between organizational learning and competitive advantage is not adequate in strategic management literature. The relative absence of such research does not motivate leaders, managers and employees to adopt learning initiatives.



      Dung Le Quang

Abstract: The present study aims to explore the frequency of Language learning strategy use and examines the Language Learning strategies (LLS) of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) ethnic EFL learners in order to identify whether there is any meaningful relationship between the LLS and the learners’ learning styles. 527 ethnic students at Thai Nguyen University participated in the study. The Language Learning Strategy Questionnaire which is based on the Strategy Inventory Language Learning from Oxford’s (1990) and The Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences Questionnaire were administered to collect data for the present study. The findings from the present investigation, TNU ethnic students were medium strategy users. However, one strategy category, i.e., metacognitive category, was used at a high frequency as the most frequently used strategy category. Memory and cognitive strategies were used as the least frequently used categories by the participants of the study. In addition, learning styles did not have much influence on the learning strategy use.



      Gaurav Kumar Chaudhary,V.S Narain,SK Dwivedi,Rishi Sethi, Sharad Chandra

Abstract: Endothelial dysfunction, an important antecedent event in atherosclerosisdevelopment, has been suggested as the common pathophysiologicalfactor between erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) is frequently used, reliable non invasive marker for endothelial assessment. The present study, we set out to address the relationship of FMD with ED patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. 243 male patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were evaluated by the erectile dysfunction domain of IIEF, a self validated 15 items. There was statistically significant value (P= .0001)between the severe ED patients and extent of CAD. Also the result shows that moderate and severe ED was more in patients with impaired FMD <5.5% as compared to those with normal, FMD > 5.5%. This association was statically significant, P value (<.001). Thus the study finally concludes that functional endothelial abnormality seems to contribute to generalized vascular atherosclerotic process.



      George Felix Masanja

Abstract: Environmental conservation in the world presents a daunting task due to population increase. In Tanzania, environmental degradation has occurred at an alarming rate in specific areas including Tabora. The continued burgeoning of the human population has resulted in changes in land use, increasing demand for resources and excision of forests. This study employed the theory of planned behaviour to predict on-farm tree planting behaviour of farmers. A sample size of 288 farmers drawn from Nzega and Sikonge districts in Tabora region was interviewed to measure standard theory of planned behaviour constructs. The data and hypotheses were examined using structural equation modeling performed in partial least squares algorithms. Results from the maximum likelihood estimation showed that attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural controls were significantly and positively associated with stronger intention and related to farmers’ behaviours in farming decisions. Farmers saw hindrance in tree planting operations being a result of cultural beliefs which yielded negative impacts. However, these were outweighed by perceptions of positive impacts. The drivers of these constructs can be harnessed by policy makers by directing farmers’ intentions and behaviours toward conserving and sustaining fragile eco-environmentally areas against a threatening population growth in the region through agroforestry uptake programs.



      Anantha Padmanabha A G, S Y Pattar

Abstract: The proposed research work is to perform textural analysis of the brain tumor on MRI images and this process aims by giving correct decisions towards medication and providing tools for automated extraction of the most discerning features of regions of interest in human brain. The detection of tumor in human brain (MRI) is performed through segmentation and for region characterization we use texture information. Based on extracted information the textural analysis of tumor is done. For the selection of region of interest we use FCM and Level set segmentation. After selecting region of interest we extract GLCM features from the segmented brain tumor image. The textural information is captured from the region of interest using Haralick textural descriptor features. To train and classify the tumor into benign or malignant we use SVM classifier. The ultimate aim is to develop an automated classification of region into one of the classes as benign or malignant. The digital medical imaging and clinical data associating on daily data are witnessed by the hospitals all over the world. The expertise will be able to analyze, inspect quickly the images.



      Dr.G.Mannepalli, Eden Goitam

Abstract: Eritrea is an independent African state which is found in the horn Africa. Eritrea is located in very strategic position that attracted foreign colonizers.. Red sea long distance helps to have good trade relations with other neighbors, European and Asian countries through the red sea, since ancient times. Italian rule lasted till 1941. After the defeat of the Italians by the allied powers in World War II British military administration hold the territory that lasted from 1941 up to 1952. Afterwards the United Nations decided Eritrea to be federate with Ethiopia as concession between Ethiopian claims for annexation and Eritrea demand for independence. Finally the Ethiopian emperor,HaileSellasie ended Eritrean autonomy in 1962and Eritrea become Ethiopian fourteenth province.



      Rajni Dhingra, Kirti Singh Chauhan

Abstract: Life-skills can be best understood as the abilities for positive and adaptive behaviour, which enable individuals to deal effectively with day to day needs and challenges. Major life skills include problem solving, decision making, creative and critical thinking, effective communication, interpersonal skills, empathy, and self-awareness, coping with stress and emotions. These Life-skills have further been clustered as; Thinking skills, Social skills, and Emotional skills. Adolescence is the period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, from ages 10 to19. It represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is marked by a tremendous pace of physical and psychological human development. Recognizing the importance of life-skills, in the lives of Adolescents the present research was undertaken with the following objectives: To assess the life-skills of the selected adolescents and to determine the variation in their life-skills with their SES and education of parents. School going boys and girls (14-16 years) of classes VII, IX & X were randomly selected from randomly selected schools of five Zones of Delhi Municipal council. SES scale by Tiwari et.al (2010) and Life-Skills Assessment Scale by Subasree and Nair (2010) were used for collection of data. On statistical analysis it was found that Sample adolescents had average level of life skills. Dimension wise analysis revealed that they scored least in the dimension of coping with stress, pointing to the need for more emphasis on acquisition of this skill to deal with the ever demanding requirements of everyday life. A highly significant correlation found between parental education and levels of life-skills of adolescents, further fortify the notion that education plays a crucial role in making parents aware of the needs of their children.



      Dr. Pallavi Tiwari, Dr. V.K. Singh

Abstract: Quantitative structure-activity Relationship QSAR model is based on changes in molecular structure that would reflect changes in observed biological activity or physicochemical property. In the present work QSAR studies have been performed on 18 compounds of mono and Bis-Thiazolium salts and valuable correlations are obtained. Three new series of 24 novel cationic choline analogues and consisting of mono or bis (N-Or C-5 duplicated) thiazolium salts. Thiazolium salts showed potent antimalarial activity (Much Superior to monothiazoliums). Various QSAR models have been developed by using multiple linear regression analysis methodology. Randic index have been calculated for analysis. Valuable correlation equations showed the relation between physicochemical parameters (specially with Parachor and Vander Walls Volume) and antimalarial activity. This model has been validated by calculating R and R2 Value. Various models were developed based on different combinations of descriptors to analysis which contribute best in predicting good antimalarial activity. The best model for n = 18 shows Value for R = .071. When electron donation group taken as outlier the QSAR model improved. Presence of (-CH2O) group enhances the antimalarial activity.



      Gregory Makabila, Mike Iravo, Waititu Gichuhi, Assumptah Kagiri

Abstract: Despite overwhelming theoretical propositions that organizational learning is strong positive determinant of competitive advantage, little empirical work exists to substantiate these theoretical suggestions.The few empirical studies available have not shown the role that learning performance plays in the attainment of competitive advantage. The relative absence of empirical research does not persuade leaders, managers and employees to adopt learning initiatives or measure learning performance.This study examined the mediating role of learning performance learning in the relationship between learning processes and competitive advantage amongstate corporations in Kenya.The study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional research designand used both quantitative and qualitative methods to gather data from 198 staff from 35 state corporations comprising of senior managers, middle manager and non-management staff.



      Asma Akter, Md. Ashadujjaman

Abstract: Child marriage is one of the vital problems for the socioeconomic development of Bangladesh. This problem was in the past and is still there. At present Bangladesh is the fifth highest rate of child marriage in the world while 18 percent of girls are married before age of 15 and 52 percent before age of 18. Bangladesh child marriage restraint act setup the minimum age of marriage is 18 years for women and 21 years for men. According to the present act, child marriage is illegal in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh government took several initiatives against child marriage, the rate of child marriage has not been decreased at the satisfactory level. Now child marriage is significantly affecting the different socioeconomic aspects and hampering the national development of Bangladesh.



      Shipra Bhatia

Abstract: Steel is one of the most important raw materials in the modern world and forms the backbone of every industrial economy. India being one of the fastest growing economies in the world cannot deny the strategic importance of the steel sector. Steel finds its extensive application right from construction, infrastructure, and power, aerospace and industrial machinery to consumer products. The Indian steel sector has grown exponentially over the past few years to be the third largest producer of steel in the world. However, the steel sector is currently going throughtough times with domestic supply greater than demand and yet India largely being a net importer of steel for last couple of years. The steel producers are also facing challenging financial times, reflected in negative profit growth rates. As of March 2017, the steel industry accounts for almost 22 per cent of the total debt under CDR cases in India.



      Dr. Anyonje Florence Muteheli

Abstract: Use of instructional media in teaching and learning is of paramount importance. The purpose of this study was to find out the different types of instructional media that teachers use to teach oral literature in in secondary schools in Bungoma South Sub-County. The main objective was to find out teachers’ use of instructional media during oral literature lessons and students’ response when they are taught using media. The study was based on Piaget’s Theory of cognitive development which stresses that children through their experiences in the environment develop mental constructs. These stimulate their thinking and knowledge acquisition. Using purposive and simple random sampling techniques, a sample of 242 respondents was selected to participate in this study. Data was collected using self-developed questionnaires, classroom observation and interview schedule and analysed using frequencies and percentages. The study established that there are different types of media in schools but teachers mostly used textbooks and chalkboard. During lessons taught using media students were found to be motivated, active and interested in the lesson proceedings. Hence this study recommends that teachers should be encouraged to plan lessons that incorporate media and teach using different types of media in order to make learning more meaningful and interesting to students.



      Rozina Khatun

Abstract: Water is life for all but this water is polluting day by day in severe condition. So it can be said that our life (water) is not safe now. We are in crisis period. Water pollution is a major serious problem for all over the world. It affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. It consequently harms the health and wellbeing of human life and the natural environment. The present study is tried to discuss basically what water pollution is and focused on different causes of water pollution, effects of this pollution on Earth, special reference from Murshidabad district and finding possible solutions and preventive methods of this problem, role of WBPHED for quality treatment of water and supply.



      WaggasGalibAtshan, Ali Hussein Battor, and Amal Mohammed Darweesh

Abstract: New classes of multivalently functions with a linear operator are introduced . We give sufficient coefficient bounds for f(z)∈KM_p (K,β,q) and then we show that these sufficient coefficient conditions are also necessary for f(z)∈AM_p (K,β,q). Furthermore, we determine extreme points, convex combination, convolution property and integral operator for these functions. Also we obtain new results in this paper.



      LaliseKumera, EmnetNegash and ChalchisaAmentie

Abstract: Entrepreneurship has been discovered to be indispensable part of economy and it is prevailing driver of economy in the entire planet. To this end; the study had the objective to assess the obstacles and motivators for post graduate students for entering into entrepreneurship activities. Research design for the study was descriptive research design. Data were collected from 146 Business and Economics college postgraduate students in three purposely selected Ethiopian universities. After the data has been collected, it was analyzed by using Descriptive Statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation), and the result was presented using tables.



      Abang, Paul A Ezeilo, Chiegboka J

Abstract: A distributed localization algorithm for determining the position ofnodes in a structured wireless sensor network is proposed. Detailsregarding the implementation of such algorithm are also discussed.Experiments were performed in a testbed area containing anchorand blind nodes deployed in it to characterize the pathlossexponent and to determine the localization error of the algorithm.The algorithm is shown to have localization error of 0.74m which isbetter than4.73m shown by centroid algorithm for three anchornodes.



      Paul C. Oguike and Stanislaus NdifrekeUdo

Abstract: Soils derived from different parent materials (PM) exhibit variations in their properties. In AbiaState, soils formed from four contrasting PM were studied to provide information on the variations in their physico-chemical properties. The parent materials were shale (SH), alluvium (AL), coastal plain sands (CPS) and sandstone (SS). From each PM location, eight soil auger samples were randomly collected at 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths totaling 32 soil auger samples from all four PM. Standard procedurewas used in the laboratory analysis. SPSS version 20 package was used for statistical analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for a randomized complete block design was performed to evaluate the influence of PM on soil properties. Correlation analysis was used to determine relationship among soil properties.



      D.M.S.P Bandara, K.S.P Amarathunga, T.M.R Dissanayake, C.R Gunawardana

Abstract: To study the Evaporative Water Cooling (EWC) grinding, a model was developed by the use of different required equipment such as commercially available Disk mill type grinder, Dehumidifier, water atomizer, vibratory Feeder along with the different transducers for investigating as the novelty of spice grinding industry.The water atomizing unit is a cooling device designed of other sub parts, namely water pressure pump and knapsack nozzle which are capable of producing atomized water spray in to the grinding system. The function of the water atomizing unit of EWC grinding system is to absorb the heat, which is led by the size reduction process during grinding. In this experiment, comparative study in between the conventional grinding and EWC grinding with four different water rates was done for obtaining results in terms of retention capsaicin content, final moisture content, temperature increase/decrease during grinding, water activity of final product, final product color and specific energy consumption. The tests conducted based on the MI-2 chili variety revealed that it could be successfully ground at a feed rate of 30 kg/hr, reducing the temperature by 120C±1.53 under the water spray rate of 2.1kg/hr. The maximum Capsaicin recovery was yield by 15% higher than the conventional grinding. The water activity in all the EWC samples are within the allowable range and specific energy consumption is also non-significant among the EWC grinding and the conventional grinding.



      Rojacques Mompremier, Oscar Arturo Fuentes Mariles, Jessica Rodríguez Ruiz

Abstract: The main objective of this research was to study the factors that influenced the variation of the wall decay constant (kw) in water distribution network. Experiments were carried out in a simulated water distribution network constructed with four sets of independent polyvinyl chloride (PVC), steel galvanized (SG), polypropylene (PP) and high-density polyethylene (HDP) loop pipes of 50 mm diameter and 12 m in length each, located at the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Engineering Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Sampling campaign was conducted at two (2) hours intervals over 8-hours period. Water samples were taken to laboratory for analysis of pH, turbidity and COD while chlorine concentration and temperature were measured during the experiments. Results of this research showed that initial chlorine concentration, the presence of high level of Natural Organic Matter (N.O.M) and characteristic of pipe material should be considered as the main factors which modified the wall decay constant.



      Rialdy Fasha, Idqan Fahmi, Agus Maulana

Abstract: Motul relies on retailers’ in selling its lubricant product instead of marketing directly to the end customer is this strategy effective or not because the focus of this study. The purpose of this study is to analyse the affect of retailers’ perceptions on marketing mix toward buying decisions as and to formulate strategies to increase sales of Motul products. This study uses primary data obtained from interviews using a questionnaire to retailers. The number of respondents was 125 respondents. The result is that the product, distribution and promotion have a significant positive effect on buying decision, with distribution as the most dominant variable. The retailers’ perception of the marketing mix and buying decision of Motul products is good, but the sales strangely continue to decline. This may due to either the retailers’ perception toward competitor products is even better than Motul products, or the end consumers of lubricant may not follow the recommendations of retailers.



      Thet Mon Soe, San Yu Khaing

Abstract: CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation is the main research method for assessing the wind environment around building complexes. In this paper, a comparison of different turbulence models in simulating wind environment around building complexes is conducted to discuss their precision of simulation. Present work used a three dimensional scale down model of buildings where steady flow analysis has been done. It has been implemented through ANSYS Fluent 17.0 using SIMPLE algorithm as solver. The turbulence models used as the RANS based model: the standard k-epsilon model, RNG k-epsilon model and Realizable k- ɛ model. Firstly, the CFD simulation results for single high rise building showed good agreement of approximately 99% in Cp compared to the experimental results obtained from Tokyo Polytechnic University "New frontier of Education and Research in Wind Engineering". Secondly, the CFD simulation results for the surrounding effect of building are investigated. The effects of the surroundings significantly reduce the surface pressure coefficients. Thirdly, For the existing cluster of building in Mandalay, Wind pressure coefficients are compared with the three different turbulence models in Fluent. The Standard k-ɛ model and Realizable k-ɛ model appear to produce exactly prediction wake recirculation zone. The RNG k-ɛ model greatly over predicts the size of the recirculation zone and a strong wake flow among buildings. The standard k-ε, RNG k-ε, realizable k-ε models produce similarly shaped contour map of pressure but with significant differences in magnitude.



      Nay Yee Kyaw, San Yu Khaing

Abstract: Inadequate attention during design and construction of some of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings has been raised questions about the performance levels of these existing buildings under future earthquakes. This study aims to improve seismic design of existing RC buildings under various deficiencies. Total of twelve existing RC buildings in major seismicity zone, Mandalay city, are targeted as case study buildings. Two possible improvement solutions such as steel bracings and RC shear walls are defined as proposed systems in this study. Linear static analysis is carried out for structural stability checking of existing structures based on UBC 97 code. According to the checking results, deficiencies of P-∆ effect are found in three existing pinned based buildings and deficiencies of torsional irregularity are also found in two existing buildings. Firstly, structural improvements under linear static analysis are performed to correct these deficiencies. Then, nonlinear static (pushover) analysis is carried out for performance evaluation of existing structures. Seismic performance enhancement of the proposed existing buildings is evaluated to achieve basis safety objective performance level described in FEMA 356. Results show that RC shear wall is more appropriate not as economic solution for more deficient buildings (Model 8, 10, 11 and 12) whereas steel bracing is effective solution for less deficient buildings (Model 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9).



      Prachi K. Shinde and Dr. Krishnakant T. Waghamode

Abstract: Various substituted 2-aminobenzothiazoles have been synthesized cyclocondensation of various substituted anilines with ammonium thiocyanate in presence of bromine. The title product 5-[(1E)-N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)ethanimidoyl]-4-(furan-2-yl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-thione is synthesized by using 2-aminobenzothiazole. The structure of the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their spectral data. All micro-wave synthesized compounds results into good yield as compared to conventional method. Synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities.



      Mohammad Syafril Bahar, HayatiHabibah Abdul Talib, Nurhidayah Bahar

Abstract: This paper explore organizational commitment relationship towards job satisfaction among staffs in an oil and gas company in Sarawak, Malaysia. Participants included 70 staffs from the engineering department of the company where they responded to a set of questionnaire containing 7 demographic questions, 62 survey items (instruments: Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, Job Satisfaction Survey, and two pre-determined answer questions) hosted by the researcher. Results indicated that only affective commitment was significant and positively related on all aspects of job satisfaction, while normative commitment was only negatively related on one aspects (operating conditions) and continuance commitment on three aspects (operating conditions, promotion, and nature of work) of job satisfaction. The most rewarding aspect of job satisfaction as a staffs in the company was “Pay” (47 responses), and the most frustrating aspect was “operating conditions” (16 responses). A highest number of the respondents were between 26 to 30 years old, Malay, Male, and worked in the company for less than 6 years. Gender was the only demographic variable to have a possible mitigating effect on organizational commitment and job satisfaction.



      Dwi Andayani Bs and Mia Hadiati

Abstract: Mediation is an Indonesian philosophy that has been stated in the fourth pillar of Pancasila. This fourth pillar specifically states that democracy should be led by the great wisdom and representation. Any dispute resolution should be reconciled based on consensus deliberation. This principle is the highest value stated in the 1945 National Constitution as well as in many other laws. The principle of consensus deliberation is the base value used by the disputing parties in seeking dispute resolution outside the court. This study aims at discussing mediation method as one way to settle dispute. The data and information used in this study is by reviewing relevant materials advanced in the literature, laws and regulation issued in Indonesia as well as other sources.



      Jude C Obi

Abstract: This study is a follow-up to earlier publications on the relationship of least squares regression to FDA. In particular, we focus on the paper; On the Regression Discriminant Analysis (RDA), and its Identical Relationship to the Fisher’s Discriminant Analysis, and argue that since ˆb is a vector of coefficients for the least squares regression, given that y 2 (+1,􀀀1), then a substitution of ˆb with either ˆb ridge or ˆblasso gives a regression discriminant analysis variant.



      Mercy Adhiambo Ndiege; Jackim Nyamari; Jasper.K.Imungi

Abstract: Background: Minimally processed fruits (MPF) vended as street foods, despite numerous benefits, can cause food-borne illnesses due to poor hygiene practices and unsanitary conditions. This study sought to assess food hygiene condition in minimally processed fruit vending businesses in Nairobi Central Ward.



      Vanaja Prabhakar Shetty, Dhananjaya Saranath, Anju Rajaram Dighe, Shubhada Pandya,Vivek Vasudev Pai

Abstract: Background: At a stage where concerted effort is being made to control leprosy through multidrug therapy (MDT), reports of bacterial resistance to constituents of MDT demand vigilance.



      EC Jeyaseelan, Jenifer Jesuthasan, CJ Tharmila, PTJ Jashothan, J Nandakumar and JP Jeyadevan

Abstract: Several medicinal plants have been used in traditional health care systems to heal wounds. Wound infecting bacteria are one of the major factors that delays or prevent wound healing. In the present study, three medicinal plants those have been widely used in Siddha medicine to treat wounds namely, Erythrina variegata, Tamarindus indica and Datura metel were tested for their antibacterial activity against standard bacterial isolates which isolated from different sources including wounds, viz. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC® 29213™), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC® 25668™), Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC® 29212™).



      Anyonje Florence Muteheli

Abstract: Distance education is an important mode of education delivery. In the 21st century the importance of education cannot be underscored. Therefore, any methodology that can provide access to education for all (EFA) should be embraced. The current surge of interest in distance education has been brought about by contemporary technology that facilitates communication between the instructor and learner. Objectives of distance education have a high output especially improving skills, cost effectiveness, efficiency and improved content delivery by use of technology. In Kenya some students have relied on this mode of study to access education. Institutions of higher learning have embraced this mode though faced with several challenges. Despite this, distance education should be made accessible and designed to meet the needs of different types of students. With support from the government, the national goals of education can be met, hence a recommendation by this research that distance education be embraced alongside the conventional teaching mode.



      Dr. Mohammad Mujaheed Hassan, Prof. Dr. Aldrin Abdullah

Abstract: Community Oriented Policing (COP) is a bridge that enables community and law enforcement agencies to communicate, collaborate and work together to build safer, more caring community. COP comes with its unique set of challenges. It should not be presented to the community as a simple solution, and residents should understand from the outset that it will not put an end to crime. COP has a more preventive orientation. It reduces crime by engaging the public as a partner in the fight against crime rather than relying on aggressive law enforcement as the only solution to community problems.It is a philosophy; a belief that by working together with the police, the community can accomplish what neither can be accomplished alone. It involves a rethinking of the role of the police and the restructuring of the police force.The purpose of this paper is: (a) to investigate community perceptionon COP development &implementation; (b) to investigate community expectation on COP development &implementation.



      Zakiyyu Muhammad, U. S. Jahun

Abstract: This article examined Article 38 (1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice 1945 as a source of international law, the article found out that it is obvious from the establishment of the Statute of the International Law Commission in 1947 (shortly after the establishment of the International Court of Justice) to the various opinions of international law experts, it is without any doubt that there is need for the review and redrafting of the provisions of Article 38 (1).



      Shaimaa Mohammed Hussein, Shukriyia Shadhan Chyad Al- Ogaili

Abstract: Objective: this study aimed to identify risk factors associated with spontaneous abortion and To find out relationship between abortion and other variables such as Demographic variables, such as ( Age, level of education) and Reproductive variables such as (gravida , parity).



      Khadija K. Jabber, Kafi M. Nasir

Abstract: Objectives:To assess the effectiveness of educational program on nurse's knowledge about management of children with nephrotic syndrome at Nephrology units.



      Smita Kadam, Pushpraj Singh and R. M. Patel

Abstract: In the present investigation the effort was made to develop an efficient protocol for rooting and acclimatization of in vitro raised plantlets of guava cv. Allahabad safeda. In vitro plantlets were generated through nodal segment explant using 1.0 mg/l BA + 0.25 mg/l GA3 in MS medium. Maximum rooting (83.4%) and length of root/shoot (7.5 cm) and minimum days to root initiation (8.0 day) was observed in full strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/l IBA. While, maximum length of shoots (8.1 cm) and maximum number of roots (5.52) were observed in treatment (Full MS + 0.2 mg/l IBA) followed by treatment ½ MS + 0.2 mg/l IBA. The plantlets grown in potting mixture containing vermicompost + soil (1:1v/v) showed better survival of plantlet (90.00 %). Survival of plantlets and growth of plantlets were significant influenced by different climate conditions. Maximum survival of plantlets (86.79 %) and length of shoot was maximum (9.33 cm) was reported in net house condition.



      Y.Amar Babu, Dr. S. Adinarayana, Md. Yousuf Ali

Abstract: The interaction between a semi- rigid structure and the surrounding fluid environmentis a sober issue in the stability investigation of different foil availabilities and design ofaircraft blade machinery. To Study about these types of phenomena, it requires the modelingof both fluid and structural domains. The two methods available to calculate the Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) effects in the time domain are the strongly coupled or partiallycoupled governing equations.In the fully coupled model, the flow field and structure respond simultaneously byexchanging the aerodynamic forces and structural displacement. Logically, the fully coupledmodel is rigorous in the physical sense, because the structural displacement respondsinstantly to the forces imposed by the fluid. In this algorithm, the fluid and structural analysisequations are combined together to form a unified set of equations. Then it is solved andintegrated simultaneously in time domain to update all the variables including those at thefluid–structure interface. This implies solving the complete system in one step; hence there isno information transfer in fully-coupled method. The fully coupled algorithm usually requiresan almost complete rewrite of the CFD and CSD codes into one single coupled code.In this project, the modeling is done in Creo Parametric 2.0 and Computational fluiddynamics analysis and fluid structure interaction (FSI) is done in ANSYS 15.0 solver. TheStatic structural analysis is carried out initially. The flow analysis of various angle of attacksare carried out and FSI is done for the respective models. The later and the former arecompared for pressure distributions and velocity magnitudes for various angles of attack. Thepressure coefficients and velocity magnitudes are comparably good for Fluid structureInteraction.



      Dr. Afifa Radha Aziz, Murtadha Abbas Abdul-Hamza

Abstract: Objectives: To assess nurses' knowledge toward The Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Machine in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Al-Diwanyia City Hospitals and to find out the relationships between the nurses' knowledge concerning The Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Machine in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and socio-demographic information.



      Dr. Afifa Radha Aziz, Murtadha Abbas Abdul-Hamza

Abstract: Objectives:To assess nurses' knowledge toward The Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Machine in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Al-Diwanyia City Hospitals and to find out the relationships between the nurses' knowledge concerning The Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Machine in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and socio-demographic information.



      Dr. Scholastica Omondi, Jennifer Wairimu, Kamau Jan

Abstract: It is now acceptable globally that gender discrimination and inequality are major stumbling blocks to women’s rights advancement. Historical injustices continue in some parts of the world without serious efforts to address them. This paper is a desk review on various article on the situational analysis of gender inequality and discrimination in Kenya. It is presented in the following format; Introduction; Historical practices that favor inequality and discrimination against women in Kenya; Current practicesthat favor inequality and discrimination against women; Legislative framework for the protection of women against inequality and discrimination; Achieving gender equality and non discrimination. The paper concludes that, with substantial progress underway a lot still has to be done. The social and cultural circumstances hinder women’s rights advancement, but with legislation, no efforts should be spared in the fight against inequality and discrimination of women.



      R. K. Kolhe, B. B. Bhosale

Abstract: Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity of binary liquid mixtures of Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 volume percent) in 2-Propanol have been measured at various temperatures. The acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (), acoustic impedance (Z), free length (Lf), relaxation time (), free volume (Vf), available volume (Va), internal pressure (i), Gibbs free energy (G), Molar sound velocity or Rao’s constant (R), absorption coefficient (α/f2) and enthalpy (H) have been obtained from the experimental data of the liquid mixtures with a view to investigate the exact nature of the molecular interactions. The Excess values of adiabatic compressibility (E), acoustic impedance (ZE), free length (LfE), free volume (VfE), available volume (VaE) and internal pressure (πiE) have also been calculated and found to be useful in estimating the strength of molecular interactions in the mixture.



      Manisha Rajput

Abstract: Content based image retrieval is the task of retrieving the images from the large collection of database on the basis of their own visual content. In this paper, first I presented overview of geometric and statistical distance metrics used in CBIR along with the comparative analysis of these measures on color and texture features. Color features extracted by computing color histograms in HSV space and texture features by wavelet decompositions. Geometrical distances such as Euclidean, standard Euclidean statistical distance metrics such as spearman, minkowski, Mahalanobis were analyzed for feature similarity. Correlation and relative deviation is also found in it. I gave certain conclusions on the performance of all these distance metrics in terms of Precision and Recall graphs.



      Dr. Santosh Agnihotri and Kanchan Tamrakar

Abstract: Santalum album commonly known as Sandalwood is used traditionally for health and wellness. It is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree and has a long history in Indian religious rituals and traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study we were investigated the antibacterial activity of leaf and fruit extract of Santalum album. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract leaf and fruit of Santalum album was performed against gram negative and gram positive bacteria.



      Manasseh E. Bassey

Abstract: Efforts geared at repositioning the international system to ensure peaceful coexistence among states have greatly been undermined by terrorist activities across the globe. Thus, while commerce and technology have brought the planet together in ways unimaginable, advances in communication, transportation and weaponry by nations now give room for unavoidable avenue for terrorist exploitation. This paper examined the impact of international terrorism in the international system. The paper utilized data drawn from the secondary sources which were analyzed within the context of Frustration/Aggression theory. The article revealed that frustration on the part of the terrorists about their perceived plights especially the United States support for Israel against the Palestinians is responsible for the prolonged terrorist attacks against the United States of America and Israel. Similarly, the article also found out that military interventionist foreign policies by the major powers aggravate and intensify terrorist attacks across the globe. Consequently, the article recommended among others, that Palestinians should be provided with some reliefs from their current stateless condition; efforts should be intensified in improving living conditions in less prosperous countries by providing disadvantaged people with employment and other opportunities for a better life as this will help to deter some potential terrorists.


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