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IJSRP, Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2012 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version has been released for AUGUST edition.

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      Iman Yaze, Razauden Zulkifli, Asma Chinigarzadeh, Reyhaneh Rahnamai Tajadod

Abstract: Worldwide mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases is being replaced by non infectious chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging which may involve inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine is elevated in many human diseases, or animal models of human disease, which are mentioned above. Compounds derived from botanic sources, such as polyphenolic compounds express anti-inflammatory activity by modulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression. We hypothesized this effect may related to control regulation of VEGF gene promoter. In this study, the VEGF promoter was isolated using nested PCR to define the transcription factors binding sites. The human VEGF promoter region was cloned in DH5 alpha Ecoli for future investigation.



      Allan Zade

Abstract: From its earliest time mankind met gravitation as natural phenomenon. Scientists and scholars from different times gave different explanation about its nature and way of action. But even for today there is not any suitable theory that explains that phenomenon completely. From my point of view that happened because all our experience depends from gravitation field and all our observations for natural phenomena and our experiments has relation to surrounding field of gravitation. That field ever affects all experience of humankind directly or indirectly. To understand gravitation better we need to go out of gravitational field and see which processes exist beyond the limit of gravitation. This essay is dedicated to such analysis and digs deeper some key aspects of the theory that was published recent year (2011) .



      Triumph O. Oni, Olushina Olawale Awe

Abstract: In recent years, corruption has become a notable issue in many countries of the world especially in developing countries where it has serious consequences. In this paper, we research on the effect of corruption on the output growth of various countries using the classical multiple linear regression model. In all analyses, we find that corruption plays a massive role in economic growth and development and it is notably negative; as the regression analysis shows that as an economy increases on the scale of index, the more increase we experience in the GDPca and other economic growth determinants such as investment, because investments (FDI) is positively correlated with cleaner economies such as Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, United States, et al. In contrast, countries with low CPIs experience impediments in their relative economic growth and development as factors such as investment is likely to decline in such countries, these countries include: Afghanistan, Somalia, Nigeria, Ghana, Mali, et al.



      Abu- Saeed Muhammad Buhari, Abu-Saeed Kamaldeen, Hassan Ummu K. M.

Abstract: Porous surfaces such as carpets have been examined as a possible source for the introduction of indoor particle levels. Indoor airborne mold and/or mycotoxin exposure causes many multi-system adverse human health effects. This study is aimed at isolating and identifying fungal flora in the dust samples of various indoor environments in Usmanu Dan Fodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria. Samples were obtained from six (6) carpeted old buildings, two (2) carpeted new buildings, two (2) uncarpeted old building and two (2) uncarpeted new buildings. Samples were inoculated onto Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and identified. Ten (10) fungi species from 12 dust samples involving 12 indoor environments were isolated and identified. Total mean microbial concentration was 1.65x103 cfu /g, average concentration 1.37x 102 cfu/g and standard deviation of 6.73 x 101 cfu/g. The isolates include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Apsergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ustus, Mucor racemosus, Mucor hiemalis, Rhizopus stolonifer, Scopulariopsis spp., Trichoderma spp., Wallemia Spp. A flavus, (100%) and A. Niger (91.7%) had the highest frequency of occurrence while A. ustus (8.3%) had the lowest frequency of occurrence. Conclusively, fungi are present in dust samples including infectious and toxigenic species. Therefore, attention should be given to our indoor air quality.



      Milad Abdelnabi Salem, Dr. Norlena Hasnan, Dr. Nor Hasni Osman

Abstract: Although considerable amount of the literature related to examination the link between environmental protection issues and the performance, different results and mixed outputs have been articulated by these studies, and previous research yet to investigate the relationship between multidimensional approach of corporate environmental activities and environmental performance. The purpose of this study was to disaggregate corporate environmental activities into six dimensions (green competencies, employees’ involvements, environmental management systems, organizational competencies, strategic planning process, and stakeholders’ integration) based on both stakeholders and resource- based view theories, and examine how each dimension would affect environmental performance among manufacturing industries. While all corporate environmental activities were proposed to have positive environmental effects, the results revealed that each dimension has a different effect on corporate environmental performance. Such results may assess the industrial corporation by directing their efforts to specific areas when trying to improve their environmental performance.



      Abu- Saeed Kamaldeen, Abu- Saeed Muhammad Buhari, Parakoyi D. B

Abstract: Girls and boys have the same rights to a quality education. But the ‘gender gap’ becomes painfully evident when looking at who is in the classroom. The need for the girl-child education in the society is not only imperative but it is indispensable for the socio-economic development of Nigeria. Nigerian girls are still disadvantaged in their access to education. The study was therefore conducted to assess the perception, attitude and practices of parents in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State towards girl-child education. It was a descriptive cross sectional study aimed at providing baseline information for subsequent intervention. The sample size was 370 parents with children of school age. Equal number of male and female respondents was sampled and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through interviewer administered questionnaire. The data obtained was analyzed by the computer using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software package, version 15. The study revealed that the perception and attitude of respondents towards girl-child education was good. Over 90% of respondents were aware that education is a child right. Over 90% of them also think that enrolling girl-child in primary school is important. Most of the respondents believed in enrolling their girl-child in primary school between the ages of two and five and about 90% of them thought that female child should be educated up to the tertiary level. There was still a lag in primary school completion among girls with a higher value when compared with the boys. The percentage of female drop out from primary school was 8.2% compared with 2.7% for males. Poverty was the major cause of female children’s school dropout among respondents.



      Santosh Chouhan, Ram Ratan Ahirwal, Yogendra Kumar Jain

Abstract: A major challenge affecting the performance of Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) comes from the unbalanced traffic over different parts of networks. High delay in transmitting information from one node to another is the prime reason behind unbalanced energy consumption .delay has continuous nature; even if two nodes are placed in bounded area, there is an infinite number of possible values for delay between them. A natural solution to reduce the delay is to have the data collector that will collect the information from all the nodes but in large network single data collector would not work efficiently; so we propose solution to this problem is to have multiple mobile data collectors so that the load is distributed evenly among all nodes. We investigate this promising direction for balancing the load and, hence, minimized the delay in the network. We divide the network into multiple clusters and placed a mobile data collector in each cluster. We show, by theoretical analysis and simulations, that our approach has the potential to prolong the lifetime of the network significantly by minimizing the delay as comparisons to other schemes.



      Gaurav Bagga

Abstract: HR Teams globally are being bugged by high attrition rates. Its a mounting challenge with little that hr teams can do in order to control it or to reduce its impact, making attrition a topic of research for companies that are involved in routine talent hunt activities. Careful measures and goal setting is required in order to manage attrition. In order to change the direction of attrition versus time graphs, not only careful observation of potential reasons is necessary but also there is essential requirement of an intro-scope mechanism that helps in reducing the ill-impacts of employees leaving where it is necessary and retain them wherever its possible.



      S Hemadri Reddy, M. Chakravarthi, K N Chandrashekara

Abstract: Micropropagation of Asclepias curassavica L. a medicinal plant valued for its medicinal properties has been carried out using two different plant culture media, Murashige and Skoog (MS) and L2. L2 medium proved to be superior to MS medium in terms of shoot multiplication and shoot length. Nodal explants showed enhanced organogenic response than shoot tip explants. Basal nodal explants produced more number of shoots than terminal nodes for shoot morphogenesis. Among the two different cytokinins tested in MS media, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) proved better than Kinetin (KIN) for improving shoot number and shoot length in combination with different auxins. Among the two different cytokinins tested in L2 media, KIN proved better than BAP for improving shoot number and shoot length either individually or in combination with different auxins. Highest number of shoots was obtained from nodal explants cultured on L2 media containing 3 mg/L KIN in combination with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The microshoots developed through in vitro regeneration were rooted on full and half strength MS media containing IBA alone and in combination with KIN and the highest number of roots was observed on MS medium with Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) 1 mg/L + 0.2 mg/L KIN.



      Kunal Singh, Kundan Lal

Abstract: Low values of viscosity and shear stress of fly ash slurry demands less pumping power in thermal power plants. In this work rheological behavior of fly ash slurry is studied. Study indicates that, additives of different nature (cationic, anionic and non-ionic polymer) help reduce viscosity and shear stress of slurry. Effect of 3 concentrations of additives (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight) on viscosity of 40% fly ash slurry was studied. Viscosity index ‘n’ in each case was calculated using Oswald de Waele rheological model. Comparison is done between 3 additives in terms of effect on drag properties of slurry. Effect on pH of slurry with and without additives was studied.



      R.S. Balamurali , M.G. Sanalkumar

Abstract: Soil isopod Phyloscia javanensis was studied for their reproductive biology in relation to soil nutrients. Isopods were acclimatized to laboratory conditions and reared in different nutrient mediums and their sex ratio, breeding cycle, clutch size and intersexuality were studied. It was found that sex ratio of this isopod depends on the nutrient composition, especially the pH and organic carbon content of the soil. The amount of nitrogen and phosphorous in the media determines the ovigerous females. Low amount of these two factors in the soil reduces egg development. Similarly the incidence of intersex formation also increases with increasing the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil. Thus it was revealed that availability of nutrients in the soil has great influence in the reproductive behavior of soil isopods.



      Poulomi Ghosh, Abhisek Maiti

Abstract: Power consumption is an important area which has various applications. However, in most cases, the amount of electricity consumed by an applicance is not readily apparent. Many devices are equipped with an information tag with states the power consumption ,but this is typically an average or maximum, and does not allow straightforward monitoring of such devices such as solid state TVs which often draw power even when "off”. The idea behind this is to measure & to monitor power consumption in household, an industry, particular locality at any certain time constant. The total power is obtained by multiplying by instantaneous voltage of the load from voltage sensor by instantaneous current of load from hall sensor and summing the results of multiple phases. The total power is calibrated to the full scale of power meter for display to the operator.



      Awsi Jan, Er.Dorcus Masih

Abstract: Juice pineapple (Ananas comosus), carrot(Drocus carota), and orange(Citrus sinensis) were optimised to a blended beverage which was stored for 21 days in pet bottles (400 ml capacity) at refrigerated temperature. Physic-chemical and sensory analysis were evaluated. Marginal changes in pH, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C and beta-carotene were observed. The beta carotene content of juice was found (1583µg) to be increased with increasing the proportion of carrot juice. Estimation of vitamin C content of sample (19.50mg) showed high improvement in nutritional value of pineapple juice incorporated with carrot and orange juice. The acidity increased (0.97-1.83) and pH of the juice decreased progressively during the storage period. This may be due to the excessive fermentation and presence of lactic acid reducing micro- organism. The mean overall acceptability scores of more than 8 for juice samples up to 30% orange juice incorporation indicated the commercial scope for manufacturing good and nutritious pineapple juice blended with carrot and orange juice, which will also be helpful in providing dietry requirement of beta carotene to the consumer. Heat pasteurisation (900C for 25 sec) was more effective for inactivating the microbial flora. However the shelf life of juice was established within 21 days. The product is recommended children, youth and elderly persons to be used within 21 days.



      Gurpreet Makker, Dr. Ashok Kr. Singh, Dr. Taraknath Pramanik

Abstract: In the field of competitive sport, training of athletes is incomplete without psychological training of the competition. Psychological readiness plays a decisive role as to determine whether or not an athlete or not an athlete in competition and in training responds to their optimum potentials, keeping in mind the research scholar selected to Study the Relationship between mental skills and level of Anxiety between the Successful and Unsuccessful team of men Cricket at Delhi Inter College. 16 players of the college team who represented in Delhi inter college and got the 1st, 2nd position and the last two positions were taken as the subjects of the study i.e. 16 x 4 = 64. The teams who got the1st and 2nd position in Cricket Delhi inter college were considered as the successful team and the last two teams were considered as the unsuccessful one. The variables selected for the study were Mental Skills and Anxiety.



      Devajani Boruah

Abstract: The interactions of transition metals cobalt(II) and nickel(II) ions with the amino acids L-threonine(L-thr), L-proline(L-pro) and L-lysine(L-lys) in aqueous solution have been studied by using visible spectroscopic method. On addition of amino acids to the aqueous solution of the metal ions, a change in the visible spectra is observed due to the replacement of the water molecules from the coordination sphere of the aquo-complex [M(H2O)6]2+ by the amino acid molecules.



      Jelin Ilayaraja. J, Dhanarajan. M.S, Mariappan.V

Abstract: The present study deals on factors and parameters influencing composting. The temperature , pH, ash, moisture, carbon and nitrogen content estimated at every 15 days interval states that composting is high during thermophilic phase than mesophilic phase. The microbial loads of bacteria were estimated by SPC method in PBYG medium. charecterization was done by biochemical analysis, thermotolerance assay and by molecular methods. Amplification of 16s rRNA gene sequence and universal eubacterial primers 27F and 1492 R to give a product of approximately 1500 bp in length was amplified by PCR. Sequencing software windows VQ2, gene codes were used to assemble the fragment. The sequence data was analyzed by comparing in gene bank database using Basic local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST 2.2.1.6) in a nucleotide to nucleotide search of 16s rRNA gene sequence from type strain and species were identified as thermophilic Bacillus pumilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri showing 93% and 98% homology respectively.



      Debnath D., Barthakur N. K., Baruah R.S. , Goswami P. K.

Abstract: Optics is the branch of Physics which deals with study of nature, propagation and properties of light. Light is a form of energy and moves in all directions in the form of waves. The challenges lie in developing an appropriate learning environment with theory as well as practical knowledge in the field. It is here that an assessment is required regarding the effectiveness of textbooks, the needs of school children and science teacher and the reforms that are needed to make optics an enjoyable learning subject. The main aim of research study was – To teach optics in simplest way by experiments, using modern tools available in schools and at home. As far as our study is concerned, we observed that most of the students of higher classes ignore or give less importance to the branch ‘optics’. Therefore it is required to motivate and create interest in this subject in children from school onwards. In this case we think the experimental tools can help in a big way. In order to fulfill the objectives a field study was conducted in 7 Schools of Batadrava Block of Nagaon district. The research tools included the use of questionnaires where school students made respondents. Science teachers as well as Head of the institution were also made respondents. The key findings of the field work are depicted in the form diagrams and tables where required. The study aims to suggest how to teach optics in simplest way. Also it focuses on the needs and competence of students and teachers.



      Iftikhar Hussain Lone

Abstract: Perhaps there is no subject more exciting than sexual Jealousy rising to the pitch of passion; and there can hardly be any spectacle at once so engrossing and so painfull as that of a great nature suffering the forment of this passion. William Shakespeare knew it as being a master of reading and presenting human natures. So, he projects a character absolutely evil unified with supreme intellectually power. Driven by an over powering lust for evil rivaled only by Satan, Iago is titled as worst Shakespearian Villain hands-down.



      Dr. A.H.M. Vijaya Laxmi, Dr. Manjula Kadapatti

Abstract: The present study was aimed to analyze the adolescents’ perceived mode of parenting styles and to find out its relationship if any on their interpersonal relationship. The specific objective of the study was to study the perceived mode of parenting style and to assess the kind of Interpersonal relationship of selected adolescent respondents. And to determine relationship between each perceived mode of parenting style & the kind of Interpersonal relationship of the respondents. A total of 200 adolescents(both boys and girls ) in the age group 13-16 were considered for the study. Bhardwaj et al., parenting scale (1998) and Neera J.B interpersonal scale (2009) were used to elicit the information regarding trends in parenting styles and interpersonal relationship of adolescents. Student t test and ‘P’ test Co-efficient of correlation were used to analyse the data. The study concludes that boys and girls have different perception towards parenting styles and the difference between the gender was also statistically significant. Male and female respondents don’t differ in their interpersonal relationship. The rejection Vs acceptance, neglect Vs Indulgence, faculty role Vs expectation, parenting style of both the parents were positively co-related to interpersonal relationship. The Pearson correlation for utopian Vs realism, freedom Vs discipline, parenting style of both the parents was negatively correlated to interpersonal relationship of the male and female respondents. There is no significant correlation between perceived mode of parenting styles and interpersonal relationship among the respondents.



      Lata Bisht, Sandhana Shanker

Abstract: In this Paper, we have defined birecurrence and symmetry of different kinds in Hsu-structure manifold. Some theorem establishing relationship between different kinds of Birecurrent Hsu-structure manifold have been stated and proved Furthermore , Theorems on different kinds of Birecurrent and symmetric Hsu-structure manifold involving equivalent conditions with respect to various curvature tensors have been discussed. Birecurrence parameter have also been studied.



      Susmita Das, Ayan Chakraborty, Jayanta Kumar Ray, Soumyendu Bhattacharjee, Dr. Biswarup Neogi

Abstract: This paper is based on PID tuning approach using traditional Ziegler-Nichols tuning method with the help of simulation aspects. The most important reason behind this PID tuning approach is due to its simple control structure and satisfactory results. Nowadays there are various optimization techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO),Bacterial Forging Optimization(BFO),Genetic Algorithm(GA) etc used for distributed optimization and tuning of various systems. For PID tuning software tools are also used somewhere in which programming has been done previously. But here Z-N tuning rule is chosen as it is the mother of all the globally accepted modern Optimization Algorithms and easy to implement during MATLAB simulation. In this tuning approach Z-N’s First Method is used which is efficient in tuning stable systems. The Algorithm and Flowchart study of the Z-N tuning rule is also incorporated. The flowchart defines the sequential statements and functions executed during simulation and also show the transfer of function calls. The algorithm makes the coding efficient and prevents runtime error. The coding is completely done using MATLAB and for its execution minimum requirement version is’ MATLAB R2010a’. The MATLAB coding consists of two parts i.e. Routh-Hurwitz coding to determine whether the system is stable or unstable and the code of Z-N tuning rule that performs the tuning of the systems provided by the user. The tuning code runs with the help of two functions, Ziegler( ) and WRITEPID( ). This tuning approach would be advantageous for the future industries as PID is used for industry related work and projects.



      Nikhil Gupta , Praveen Pachauri

Abstract: An experimental and computational study of EN-31 steel Compact Tension specimen was performed. Compact Tension specimen was considered in the experimental portion of the study. Stress intensity factor, Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) & J integral were main parameter found by the experimental analysis. Load vs CMOD graph are used to get the important parameter. The same parameters also investigated by the Finite element method for CT specimen. A comparison with a Experimental Vs Computational investigation on an EN-31 compact Tension specimen suggests similarities concerning the interaction between material nonlinearity and specimen response nonlinearity.



      G. L. Meena, D. K. Jain

Abstract: This study covered 75 cooperative member milk producers and 75 non-member milk producers which were post-stratified into small, medium and large herd size categories. Per day net maintenance cost was found to be higher for member group than that of non-member group. It was found to be higher in case of buffalo than that of cow and also observed more in the summer season. Per litre cost of buffalo and cow milk production was observed to be higher for the non-member as compared to member group. Per litre cost of buffalo milk production decreased with increase in herd size categories across different seasons while same trend was not observed in case of cow milk production. Further, it was found higher in summer season. Daily net return was found relatively higher in member group as compared to non-member group and also found higher in winter season. Overall average daily milk production, consumption and marketed surplus of milk were found higher on the member group as compared to non-member group. The corresponding figures were recorded highest in the winter season in both the member and non-member group.



      Firoj High Sarwar

Abstract: The paper describes a distinctive style of colonial state-building that has tended to lie buried under later notions of the British civilization mission. In the second half of the 18th and the first half of the 19th century, theories of empire often justified British Rule in India by reference to enlightenment ideas about stage of civilization. An attempt of critical study is being made here to expose how the European ideas like Laissez-faire, Orientalism, Evangelicalism, Utilitarianism, and Humanism were simultaneously manipulated for both the notions of imperial colony-construction and social reform mission towards India.



      Bazilla Gayas, Rama Nath Shukla, Beena Munaza Khan

Abstract: The present study was conducted on preparation and quality evaluation of carrot pomace powder enriched defatted soy flour fortified biscuits using different level of carrot pomace powder. The quality of biscuits was determined on the basis on physico -chemical characteristics namely: Moisture content, Ash content, Fat content, Protein content, β-carotene content, and Crude Fiber content and sensory analysis including sensory attributes namely colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability .The moisture content of biscuits was found to be increased with increase in proportion of carrot pomace powder. Estimation of crude fiber content of sample showed high improvement in nutritional value of carrot pomace powder incorporated biscuits, the highest value was observed in 10% Carrot pomace powder incorporated biscuit sample i.e 2.92%. There was linear increase in β-carotene content from 0.10 to 2.49 mg due to increase in the level of carrot pomace powder .The mean overall sensory acceptability scores of more than 8.50 for biscuit samples upto 5% carrot pomace powder indicated the commercial scope for manufacturing good quality vegetarian biscuits with carrot pomace powder and defatted soyflour, which will also be helpful in providing daily dietary requirement of β-carotene to the consumer .



      Atul Aggarwal, Shelej Khera

Abstract: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), an open standard link-state dynamic routing protocol, is the most commonly used Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) in IP networking worldwide. Wide spread deployment and years of experience running the protocol have motivated continuous improvements to make it more manageable, scalable and cost effective by configuring Stub Areas, Totally-Stubby Areas and Route Summarization to accommodate routers having limited resources using OPNET Modeler®14.5.



      B. V. Charlotte, E. K. Simon, Gibies George, Suguna Yesodharan, R.D. Ruchith

Abstract: When illustratively went through the NE rainfall pattern of southern peninsular India enclosed within latitudes of 8˚N and 13˚N, longitudes 75˚E and 82˚E for last 5 decades demonstrated no long term trend in it. At the same time there is a prominent inter-annual variation in the seasonal mean rainfall as well as its sub seasonal distribution, which cannot be correlated to anything in a simple style.



      Beena Munaza, S.G.M.Prasad, Bazilla Gayas

Abstract: The present study was carried out with the objective to prepare whey protein enriched biscuits by supplementing wheat flour with whey protein concentrate at different levels of substitution, to assess the nutritional quality and storage stability of the product. The product was further analysed for cost. Control and three experimental treatments were prepared with varying proportions of whey protein concentrate - 4%, 7% and 10%. Each treatment was replicated three times. Sensory evaluation of the biscuits was carried out using 9 point hedonic scale. The data obtained during the study was analysed statistically using analysis of variance and critical difference techniques. On the basis of results it was concluded that treatment T3 containing 10% WPC was best regarding sensory characteristics – colour and appearance, taste and flavour, body and texture and overall acceptability of the product. All the experimental treatments and control were also analysed chemically using AACC and AOAC procedures. Chemical analysis showed that the moisture content of the biscuits varied from 1.24 – 2.13 and the highest moisture content was found in T3 which contained highest amount of WPC, the moisture content also increased with the storage time. Estimation of protein content of sample showed high improvement in nutritional value of whey protein enriched biscuits with a maximum value of 21.86%. There was linear increase in ash content of the product from 0.30 – 1.11.



      Mushir Ali

Abstract: Homeless is the condition of the people who are unwilling to maintain regular and adequate housing in both developed and developing countries. Present work was attempted with the objectives to address socio-economic conditions of the homeless people and identify the problem with respect to the homelessness at Mekelle city. On basis of random sampling four sub-cities were selected where by using purposive sampling 120 homeless households were sampled. Findings reveal that homeless population is a result of international and internal migration, 72% homeless population is either illiterate or poor in education. Casual/daily labour (64.7%), transportation (64.3%), pity trades (52%) are their main occupations, while restaurant workers, housemaids are among the females. They live rented houses, slums and under open sky where insufficient amenities are common.



      Irfan A Gulbarga, Dr.Soma.V.Chetty, Dr.Jagadeesh.P.Ganjigatti, Suniel Prakash

Abstract: The unprecedented expansion of technical education sector in India in recent years has brought many questions about the quality of education imparted. A technical education is relevant for the graduate if it meets the needs of the industry. A core set of such needs must be identified and to implement this concept in technical institutions, a number of studies were being carried out; models and strategies have been developed based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a proven concept which is practiced in industry to establish standards to ensure the quality of products and services reach the end user. TQM is continuous improvement in quality. TQM should be led by the management and followed by entire institution to create learning ability, immovability and sustainability campuses.



      T. Saranya, S. Kumari, M.Dilli Babu

Abstract: A peer-to-peer (P2P) system is composed of peer computers which are interconnected in overlay networks. Here, each peer computer can play both the roles of server and client. The P2P system is fully distributed and there is no centralized coordinator. The power consumption of each peer will vary accordingly. Here, the calculation of CPU utilization time is addressed. In the existing system, a reducing power consumption of web application is considered. A client peer issues a request to a set of server peers. On the receipt of a request, a server peer performs the request and sends the web pages to the client. An algorithm is developed to calculate the power consumption of each server peer. The minimum power consumed by the server peer is selected by the client. The proposed work is to consider the file transfer protocol (FTP) application. In the existing system, minimum power consumption is identified in the web applications. Here, the power consumption is measured in multi-CPU servers by using an algorithm and by comparing with an existing algorithm.



      Dr. Yogesh A. Jogsan

Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to find out a family environment and depression among drug users and non-users. The 30 drug users and 30 non-users were taken as a sample. The research tool for family environment was measured by Joshi and Vyas (1987). While the tool for depression Back depression inventary (1961) was used. Here t test was applied to check the significance of family environment and depression in drug users and non-users. Results revealed that significant difference in factors of family environment and depression with respect to both drug user and non-user.



      Revati R. Dudhatra, Dr. Yogesh A Jogsan

Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between working and non-working women in mental health and depression. The total sample consisted 80 women were taken. The research tool for mental health was measured by Dr. D.J. Bhatt and Gita R. Geeda (1992). While the tool for depression were used which made by Beck (1961). Here t test was applied to check the significance of mental health and depression in working and non-working women to check the correlation method is sued. Results revealed that significant difference in mental health and depression with respect to both working and non-working women on mental health and depression. While the correlation between mental health and depression reveals 0.71% high positive correlation.



      Dhara R. Doshi, Dr. Yogesh A. Jogsan

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of ten days Yoga practice on self-control in obese women. A sample of 13 (n = 13) women with average age 39 years was selected for this study from Yoga Shibir held at LIFE, Rajkot, organized by Saurashtra Medical & Educational Charitable Trust. We have performed pre-test and post-test scale to measure change, before and after Yoga practice. This scale is made by Arun Kumar Singh and Alpana Sen Gupta in English version and we have used its Gujarati version made by Dr. Yogesh A. Jogsan, Department of Psychology, Sautashtra University, Rajkot. Post observation was made on the last day intervention of Yogic Practices included Omkar, Asanas, Pranayama, Kriyas, Dhyana etc. The computed t-value was 0.20. It showed a non significant improvement at the parameter, but at the mean it showed better impact of Yoga on self-control. Weight-reduction through Yoga was a part of the study. It showed a satisfactory decrease of 1.3 kgs. (mean) in weight.



      V.Ravichandran, Dr.G.K.D.Prasanna Venkatesan

Abstract: NoC(network On Chip) is an efficient approach to design the communication subsystem between IP Cores in SoC(System On Chip). In this paper a communication infrastructure design using CDMA (Code division multiple access) based shared bus architecture for core-to-core communication in NoC is presented. CDMA has been proposed as an alternative way for interconnect of IP cores in a SoC design, or as a solution for interconnecting modules within a system realized in several PCBs. Compared to conventional TDMA-based bus this paper present how a multiprocessor system can benefit from the use of concurrent data transfers.The simulation of the system using VHDL code is carried out. The performance of the system is evaluated.



      Ramendra Nath Majumdar

Abstract: Coulomb dissociation reaction crosssection of 22Chas been obtained when it is incident on 181T a target at various incident energies. The large value of the crosssection is mainly responsible of the neutron halo of the nucleus. The present theoretical findings have been compared with the most recent experimental data on this nucleus.



      Dr. Thriveni , Shailesh Raj Urs G. B

Abstract: Communication plays a significant role in bringing public welfare and development. Selection of media is crucial to further the cause of bringing awareness among the subjects of the society. Communication strategies in matters related to public health percolate from interpersonal to mass communication. This paper focuses on the health communication strategies of Princely Mysore State of twentieth century.



      Dr. Thriveni

Abstract: There was a serious shortage of medical personal and medical facilities in India and especially in Mysore State. To provide more medical facilities both in rural and urban areas, certain efforts were made by the rulers of Mysore by establishing the Public Health Department which played an important role in disease prevention.



      Satakshi Singh

Abstract: This paper discusses the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) a member of the FACTS family. UPFC is able to control both transmitted real and reactive power independently, at the sending and receiving ends of the transmission line. Also, the paper discusses UPFC modelling within the context of optimal power flow (OPF) solutions. The UPFC model is very flexible; it allows the control of active and reactive powers and voltage magnitude simultaneously. It can also be set to control one or more of these parameters in any combination or to control none of them. Considerable progress has been achieved in UPFC modelling intended for conventional load flow studies but here more complex issue of UPFC modelling intended for OPF solution is addressed.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: Model bestows its priority and preferential attention in the construction of a terra firma for wave function, probability wave distribution, Bremsstrahlung, Gamma ray Photons so that experimental Physicists could use it for prediction and prognostication purposes. In essence the continuation of the first model, the Model highlights and showcases the most important systemic properties. Relativistic study of the parameters is another dernier resort used for inclusion of relativistic effects on the parameters, which makes model to give conducive response, fortuitous and felicitous reciprocation towards relativistic calculations at the subatomic scales at Planck’s length



      Hari Krishna Bandi, Shravya Keerthi G, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N, Sharan B Singh M, Chandrasekar M

Abstract: Clinical interest in HRV was sparked by the 1973 report of Wheeler and Watking, who first drew attention to cardiac vagal innervations as the mediation of HRV and its potential value as a clinical test of cardiovascular function HRV varies with age, gender, cardiac diseases, nutritional status with different drugs and in response to a number of other factors, such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In addition gender has a strong influence on mechanism on HRV. However the influence of gender and the underlying mechanisms has not yet been determined, till date no work has been conducted to understand the role of gender on HRV. This is a cross sectional study conducted in Jan – March 2010 with a sample size of 86 (43 male, 43 Female) was calculated based on the results of a study done on similar subjects. The temperature of the laboratory was kept between 25o c - 28o c and lights subdued. The subjects were asked to void urine before testing and made to sit in the lab comfortably to accustom to the new environment. ECG electrodes were connected for lead II. Baseline Heart Rate and Blood Pressure were recorded. Then at supine rest with the eyes closed and relaxed position, lead II ECG was acquired at the rate of 200 samples/second for 10minutes with the normal breath rate of 12 – 18/min using RMS Polyrite D hardware, INDIA, which is the data acquisition system. There was no significant difference in time domain measures of HRV in between male and females. But in frequency domain analysis Higher LF power, TP, LF/HF ratio and Lower LF values is seen in females.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: Ising model with $h eq 0$, where the relation with gauge theory is used to discuss the phenomenon of confinements is firmly established on terra firma. It has been concluded by many Physicists that quantum spin diffusion in one dimensional chains and a presentation of the chiral potts model which illustrates the physical effects that can occur when the Euclidean and Minkowski regions and they are not connected by an analytic continuation. We state that when Euclidian and Minkowski regions are combined together many interesting results that could have wide ranging amplitudinal ramifications with perceptual field and perceiving object could be studied and thrown light upon.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: Collisional Gate array and entanglement oscillations form the principal frontier and diurnal dynamics of many multiparticles systems. We analyse the system with respect to Kondo resonances and Coulomb interactions and obtain results in so far as the essential predications, interfacial interference, disembodied resemblances of the system with respect to Quantum dots. Systemic properties are analysed in detail.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: In quantum physics, in order to quantize a gauge theory, like for example Yang-Mills theory, Chern-Simons or BF model, one method is to perform a gauge fixing. This is done in the BRST and Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation. Another is to factor out the symmetry by dispensing with vector potentials altogether (they are not physically observable anyway) and work directly with Wilson loops, Wilson lines contracted with other charged fields at its endpoints and spin networks.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: We study a consolidated system of event; cause and n Qubit register which makes computation with n Qubits. Model extensively dilates upon systemic properties and analyses the systemic behaviour of the equations together with other concomitant properties. Inclusion of event and cause ,we feel enhances the Quantum ness of the system holistically and brings out a relevance in the Quantum Computation on par with the classical system, in so far as the analysis is concerned. Additional VARIABLES OF Space Time provide bastion for the quantum space time studies



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI, PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: We study a consolidated system of event; cause and n Qubit register which makes computation with n Qubits. Model extensively dilates upon systemic properties and analyses the systemic behaviour of the equations together with other concomitant properties. Inclusion of event and cause ,we feel enhances the “Quantum ness” of the system holistically and brings out a relevance in the Quantum Computation on par with the classical system, in so far as the analysis is concerned. Additional VARIABLES OF Space Time provide bastion for the quantum space time studies.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: : Consciousness could be thought of as the problem to which propositions belong and concomitantly correspond as they indicate particular responses ,signify instances of general solutions, with its essential configurations, rational representations conferential extrinsicness, interfacial interference, syncopated justices, heterogeneous variations testimonies,apodeictic knowledge of ideological tergiversation,sauccesful reality,sleaty sciolisms,tiurated vaticinations,anchorite aperitif anamensial alienisms and manifest subjective acts of resolution .



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI , PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: In quantum physics, in order to quantize a gauge theory, like for example Yang-Mills theory, Chern-Simons or BF model, one method is to perform a gauge fixing. This is done in the BRST and Batalin-Vilkovisky formulation. Another is to factor out the symmetry by dispensing with vector potentials altogether (they are not physically observable anyway) and work directly with Wilson loops, Wilson lines contracted with other charged fields at its endpoints and spin networks.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI, PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: What stands out as a verkrampte reactionary with unsettled malleability is the tendentious testament of the experimentation wherein infrared magneto transmission experiments have been performed in magnetic fields up to 32 T on a series of multilayer epitaxial graphene samples. Inharmonious key notes have been struck with many experiments as many have found enthusiastic confidence with the experimenters. Theoretical aspect of the field is not given much important and this work is intended to fill the gap not wholly or in full measure but very substantially Changes in the spectral features and broadening of the main cyclotron transition when the incoming photon energy is in resonance with the lowest Landau level separation and the energy of a K point optical phonon, have been detected We develop a theory encompassing various variables like scalable Quantum computation, optical transmission against spectral diffusion, gated control to single nv centres etc.



      DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI, PROF C S BAGEWADI

Abstract: There exists differential relations, contiguous similarities; in compassable anti generalities, pre suppositional resemblances, dialectic transformation, portmanteau incompatibilities between different structures of stellar nucleosynthesis that occurs in stars, positrons, and Eulerian kinematic description thereof, calls for the attention of both simulation and Quantum coherence, Quantum Gravity and Objective reality. Despite the crying need for the same, and lack of comprehensive envelope of expression, there seems to be contential staticity and presciential dynamism in so far as these aspects are considered. Atrophied asseveration in stellar nucleosynthesis and environmental decoherence are probably most endearing attributions that call for both rational Leibneizism and Socratic subjectivity and of course discourse relativity. An evolutionist model is expounded with configurational entropy and morphological entity for these variables and we look at the system dispassionately without being disturbed by the state of the system. There is no clamor for participatory seriotological sermonisations or an orientation towards pedagogical pontification. We just state the facts and leave the rest to others to do the divergential affirmation, disjunctive synthesis,. While we do resort to concept formulation, related phenomenological methodologies, transformational minimal conditions we neither resort to glorification or mortification of the thesis. Warts et al are presented without any hesitation, reservation, compunction or contrition, which probably is the testimony for the fact that human knowledge is limited and all the needs to be explored stretches in front like an ocean with all its cacophonous mendacious moorings and thromboses unbenedictory singularities with splashed contours and stigmatized boundaries.



      Dr K N Prasanna Kumar, Prof B S Kiranagi, Prof C S Bagewadi

Abstract: Essentially GUT and Vacuum Field are related to Quantum field where Quantum entanglement takes place. Mass energy equivalence and its relationship with Quantum Computing are discussed in various papers by the author. Here we finalize a paper on the relationship of GUT on one hand and space-time, mass-energy, Quantum Gravity and Vacuum field with Quantum Field. In fact, noise, discordant notes also are all related to subjective theory of Quantum Mechanics which is related to Quantum Entanglement and Quantum computing.



      Dr K N Prasanna Kumar, Prof B S Kiranagi, Prof C S Bagewadi

Abstract: We provide a series of Models for the problems that arise in Yang Mills Theory. No claim is made that the problem is solved. We do factorize the Yang Mills Theory and give a Model for the values of LHS and RHS of the Yang Mills theory. We hope these forms the stepping stone for further factorizations and solutions to the subatomic denominations at Planck’s scale. Work also throws light on some important factors like mass acquisition by symmetry breaking, relation between strong interaction and weak interaction, Lagrangian Invariance despite transformations, Gauge field, Noncommutative symmetry group of Gauge Theory and Yang Mills Theory itself. What happens when Yang Mills theory provides a proper explanation of the Physics of nuclei and nuclear constituents, and incorporate this premise in the 36 storey Model built and see what the ramifications on the other variables are. We, feel more erudite scholars would be able to given better physical interpretation which can effectively solve some problems not wholly or in full measure but very substantially.



      Reetesh V. Golhar, Mahendra A. Gaikwad, Vrushali G. Nasre

Abstract: This paper presents a high performance Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) that combines two linearization techniques, and one gain enhancement technique. The two linearization technique are adaptive biasing of differential pairs and resistive source degeneration. The gain enhancement technique is Comman mode feedback Amplifier. The Operational Transconductance Amplifier has ±0.9v power supply. Operational Transconductance Amplifier has been simulated with TANNER 0.18μm CMOS technology in Tspice. The simulated third order harmonic distortion (HD3) with applying a 300mvP-P differential input, remains below -60dB at 3MHz frequency, also the simulation result gives Transconductance gain(gm) 5.247mA/V for 10mV(p-p) input voltage.



      Kirti Tiwari, Alpika Tripathi, Shipra Sharma, Vandana Dubey

Abstract: In this paper we present an approach that combines the DFD with the UML diagrams. DFD is a structured approach which provides the functional view of the system whereas UML is an object oriented approach provides the structural view of the embedded system. Structured methods are very commonly used by the developers and if there is need to expand the functionality of the systems then object oriented approach is used which is very useful. So the combination of both approaches will be beneficial for the developers. For this we merge Data Flow Diagrams (Major tool of Structured Approach) with Unified Modeling Language diagrams (Use-Case & Class Diagrams).



      Leila Riahinezhad, Ehsan Samavatian, Abdolaziz Yousefi, Mehrsa Hashemi, Mohammadreza Aghaei

Abstract: The objectives of this research are to determine the correlation of social networks with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the rate of user satisfaction and loyalty in social networks, An Investigation concerning the effects of Information Technology (IT) in this field will lead to development in services that all social networks prepare for users and eventually cause to enhance rate of user friendliness in social networks. For this purpose we explore relations between effects of ICT on social networks and customer satisfaction with the use of interview with different users in terms of age, literacy, nationality and gender. This paper attempts to show that ICT and IT created great evolution in social network, moreover innovation and creativity play significant role to provide appropriate services for users. Findings show that impact of ICT and rate of user satisfaction is very direct in social networking websites.



      Patil V.P

Abstract: Communication takes place by routing protocols in effective and efficient manner in wireless network. Efficient protocols are used to forward data packets without much packet loss. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices, a self configured, multi-hop network. Simulating Tool NS-2 is an outstanding network simulating tool among all the others. Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) is one among the effective Reactive Routing Protocol in MANET. The main causes for link break are mobility between nodes such as node failure and node power off. Quality of Service (QoS) is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is extremely a challenging task. The objective of this paper is to enhance the network performance of AODV, when frequent link failure in network due to mobility of the nodes in the network. The performance analysis and simulation are carried out to evaluate network performance using Network Simulator (NS-2), based on the quantitative metrics packet delivery ratio and average end to end delay. The simulated result helps to understand the behavior of the protocol AODV in the distributed network environment under mobility and to show its ability to adapt in real world networks. This paper proposed a new protocol Enhanced AODV (E-AODV) which is a modified version of AODV with enhanced packet delivery ratio and minimized end to end delay.



      K.Tamil Selvi, Dr.S.Ramachandran

Abstract: In general, in each society there are socio-cultural norms and prescriptions regarding the knowledge, attitude, preference, behaviour of people, etc. In Hindu culture, menstruation (a reproductive health element) is considered religiously impure and ceremonially unclean. There are many socio-cultural taboos being practiced by females during menstruation. Apart from validity, these taboos help the women maintain menstrual hygiene as a prerequisite to avoid reproductive health problems. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine such practices in the study area and the factors influencing the practice of social taboos.



      Surve V V, Patil M U, Dharmadhikari S M

Abstract: Halophilic microorganisms present in the hypersaline environments of solar salterns present a potential source of industrial and biotechnological applications .The Rapid identification of these microorganisms which are accurate and cost effective is a necessity in applied microbiology. There have been several systems developed in the past few years for rapid microbial identification. In the present study, GC FAME( Gas chromatography- Fatty acid methyl esters) analysis and 16s rDNA sequencing were compared for identification of four halophilic bacteria. Four halophilic bacterial isolates obtained from solar saltern sediment were analyzed . The isolates were identified with 16srDNA sequencing as Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus atrophaeus, Corynebacterium diphtheria and ,Idiomarina Zobellii .However in FAME analysis , the RTBSA 6 library did not confirm any matches for Idiomarina Zobellii. Comparative analysis, indicated that the FAME analysis results correlates to genotypic sequencing results. However,a halophilic bacterial FAME library should be established to enhance the accurate , rapid and cost effective investigation of halophilic microorganisms.



      Padma Priya K , Reddy Sagar A.C.

Abstract: Smart archetypes and expert systems have garnered profound interest from both analysts and steganographers in the last several years. After years of compelling research into wide- area networks, we confirm the visualization of object-oriented languages, which embodies the private principles of complexity theory. In order to fix this obstacle, we propose a system for the look aside buffer (MOULT), which we use to disconfirm that the little-known smart algorithm for the synthesis of hierarchical databases that would make improving cache coherence a real possibility by X. Li runs in Θ(n!) time.



      Deepti Sahu, Shipra Sharma, Vandana Dubey, Alpika Tripathi

Abstract: Cloud computing is emerging as one of the most important branch for providing seamless applications on mobile devices. In this paper, cloud computing is introduced as a new and speedily growing and accepted way of providing better and efficient applications for mobile devices. It provides mobile users with data storage and processing services on a cloud computing platform.



      Varsha Wankhade, Narendra Manwar , Ashish Malu

Abstract: Lakes are sometimes subjected to wastewater discharges originating from different sources. Chemicals such as nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in certain concentrations might distort and disrupt aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to assess water quality of Sawanga (Vithoba) lake. Sawanga Lake is located in district Amravati Maharashtra. This study began in Feb 2011 and was carried out for 12 months by taking monthly water samples from five different stations of the lake. Water quality parameters like pH, Temperature, Total dissolved solids, Total Alkalinity, Total hardness, Phosphorus, Nitrate, Turbidity, Fluoride, chloride, Dissolved Oxygen, Ammonia, Iron, Turbidity and Conductivity analysis were done. This study indicates that Sawanga Lake has not reached the polluted stage yet.



      Sujayita Bhattacharjee

Abstract: Man-elephant conflict is a crucial problem concerning the north-eastern part of India. It has assumed a severe character due to increasing human population, diminishing forests and consequent habitat loss of the elephants. Likewise is the case in Hoollongapar Gibbon Wildlife of Assam. This wildlife sanctuary is a home to the endangered Asian elephants and the increasing man-elephant conflict in this region is posing serious threat to the elephants of the sanctuary. Moreover, the local inhabitants are also suffering a lot due to the increasing conflicts with the elephants. This paper is prepared in the light of the situation gravity, which demands proper study on it, so that the causes of the problem can be identified and necessary suggestion can be forwarded for its solution.



      Abhishek Gautam

Abstract: In our electronic world, since the discovery of electron by J J Thomson in 1897, scientists have been working strenuously to build the Digital World that we enjoy today. To satisfy a common man need, researchers have been scratching the very basis of electronics – Electron. All that we are using today is the flow of a bundle of electrons to determine the electronic outcome instead of the basic property of electron, which is to Spin. They started exploiting this property leading to the rise of a new technology – Spintronics. Spintronics came into lime light in 1988 when French and German physicists Albert Fert et al (in Paris) and Peter Grunberg et al (in Jullich) independently discovered the Giant Magneto Resistance (GMR). This discovery is considered to be the birth of spintronics. The two physicists have earned a number of prestigious prizes and awards for their discovery and contribution in the field of spintronics, including the 2007 Noble Prize in Physics.



      Mr.Rahul.R.Joshi, Prof.G.R.Naik

Abstract: Perfection is not attainable. But if we chase perfection, we can catch Excellence. To stand up in todays Globalization world, Manufacturers need to find ways to reduce Production time and cost in order to improve operating performance and Product quality. It is normally possible to greatly reduce the setup times. Fantastic results are possible through better teamwork, good order, Planning and simple modifications. The main objective of this paper to reduce cycle time of a operation by using Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED). This Study is carried out in one of the automotive industry. The SMED system proved a track record in many types of industries. The results Shows that the this study has achieved more than 30% of Cost reduction, 97sec can be reduced which increases the productivity. Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) is the approach to increase output and reduce quality losses



      G. M. Sayeed Ahmed, P. Ravinder Reddy, P. Ravinder Reddy

Abstract: An end milling process is widely used in fabrication of complex contours and shape parts at high spindle speeds. Many researchers try to investigate one of important aspect, which come across during machining is the self exited chatter vibration which causes severe damage of the tool and quality of the machined surface. The present work is focused on the Magneto-Rheological Damping effect on stability of chatter in an end milling process during machining. The end mill cutter was modeled as a rotating Euler Beam with an attached MR Damper as bar element and its first five modes of vibrations are considered. The stability analysis has been carried out by considering the two degrees of freedom of the model.



      Nayan Jyoti Khound, Parag Phukon, Krishna G Bhattacharyya

Abstract: The present study has been undertaken to establish the spatial and seasonal variation patterns in the surface water quality of the Jia- Bharali river basin, Assam, India with respect to the concentrations of dissolved trace metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). The monitoring was done during wet and dry seasons for a period of 3 years from three types of sources – ponds, rivers and streams on both banks of the Jia - Bharali River. The surface water has As content (0.10 – 6.18 µg/L). 20.1 % of the samples in the rainy season and 34.4 % in the dry season show Cd content higher then the desirable limit of 0.005 mg/L. 54.4 % of the surface water samples also have Pb above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/L during the rainy season while in the dry season, 85.8% surface water sources show Pb above the limit. Similarly, 60.1 % water samples during the wet season and 80.1 % water samples during the dry season show Ni content above the permissible limit of 0.02 mg/L. Zn content of the surface water sources are however very low throughout the year. The results are correlated to the dominant geological features, local environmental setting, and differences in water utilization by the people, variations in runoff volume, etc.



      H. Ghanashyam Shenoy, Soma V. Chetty, Sudheer Premkumar

Abstract: The Mechanical properties of Al-Si-Mg (Al 6061) based hybrid composites containing mica particulates of 200 microns and short e-glass fibres of 2-3 cm length in different compositions are studied with stretching/straining and aging. Vortex type of stir casting was employed in which preheated reinforcements were introduced. The test specimens were machined to ASTM standards and were subjected to solution heat treatment and artificial ageing. Double aging was carried out on the specimens with strain and without strain. The properties like Specific wear rate and Hardness are studied and results are presented. A degree of improvement in both Specific wear rate and Hardness was observe in double aged casting with strain over double aged without stress, single aged and as-cast condition. The microstructures of the composites were studied to know the dispersion of the mica and e-glass fibre in matrix. It has been observed that addition of reinforcements significantly improves Wear rate along with Hardness properties as compared with that of unreinforced matrix.



      C.M.Bhaskar Reddy, G.V.Subba Reddy, N. Ananda Kumar Reddy

Abstract: A new simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and precise spectrophotometric method for the determination of trifluoperazine hydrochloride in bulk and capsule dosage form .pharmaceutical formulations is described. The method is based on the simple solubility of trifluoperazine hydrochloride in methanol. The absorbance maximum of trifluoperazine hydrochloride measured at wave length 265 nm. The drug obeys Beer’s Law in the concentration range 2-45 μg/ml employed for this method. Accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies. The method is easily be employed in the laboratory for the routine estimation of drug and it’s extended to the analysis of trifluoperazine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.



      Arvind Arya, Sandeep Kumar, M.S. Kasana

Abstract: Anti-inflammatory activities of methanolic extract of callus and intact plant part of Stevia rebaudiana(Bert.) Bertoni was studied for the first time. Acute inflammation model, carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema model was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity. The methanolic extract from fresh callus cultures of Stevia rebaudianacultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with BAP (2.0 µM) and α- NAA(1.0 µM) for 2 - 12 weeks was studied and compared with intact plant extract. Results from the anti-inflammatory activity testing indicated that the callus extract showed a less significant inhibition in the edema as compared to extract of intact plant. It was also revealed that there is an increase in the accumulation of secondary metabolites in callus cultures of sixth week of incubation. The methanolic extract of callus culture and intact plant part exhibited significant, dose-dependent activity on the tested experimental animal models and produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- induced paw edema in rat. The study suggests that the plant Stevia rebaudianais also a potent source for phytomedicine development in future



      Prachi Tripathi

Abstract: The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance image data in order to store the image in less memory space and to improve the transfer time of the image. Without compression, file size is significantly larger, usually several megabytes, but with compression it is possible to reduce file size to 10 percent from the original without noticeable loss in quality. Even though there are so many compressions technique already presents a better technique which is faster and memory efficient. In this paper the Lossless method of Image Compression using Bipolar Coding Technique with LM algorithm in Artificial Neural Network is proposed by the author. The proposed technique is efficient, simple and suitable in implementation and requires less memory space. An algorithm based on the proposed technique has been developed and implemented in MATLAB platform to compress the input image.



      Dr. G.Nirmala, K.Uma

Abstract: In computer science , there are many algorithm that finds a minimum spanning tree for a connected weighted undirected fuzzy graph. This means it finds a subset of the edge-set that forms a fuzzy spanning tree that includes every vertex, where the total weight of all the edges in the fuzzy tree is minimized. Generally algorithm has many applications, such as landline (intercom) phone connection to a particular college in order to minimize the shortest distance, which applies Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, Sorted Edges Algorithm, Kruskal’s Algorithm to a randomly weighted fuzzy graph. In this paper, we find the solution for the problem, that A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College, (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur District, South India need to connect updated intercom lines connecting all the departments using fuzzy shortest route algorithm. The problem is to minimize the amount of new line using Kruskal’s Algorithm with fuzzy graph. These algorithm continuously increases the size of a fuzzy tree, one edge at a time, starting with a fuzzy tree consisting of a single vertex, until it spans all vertices of the fuzzy graph.



      Abbas Saeedipour

Abstract: Some say that the scriptural Vedic Manu is the Noah of, or the Adam of, India. This interpretive comparison, whatever loose it may be demonstrated, is not appropriately explained and it is not logically approached. Multi-dimensional drama of Manu, who is the first mythical and mortal creature, the first mythical man or father of the Rig Veda Aryans should mostly and contextually seem to be compared and paralleled with the homogeneously scriptural one, that is Avestan Gayomart or at last with Jam, Jamshid, the first king in Iranian mythical history. The contextual and mythical points of similitude of the Rig Vedic Manu and the Avestan Gayomart and Jam are verifiably recognizable, realizable, and positively understandable. Otherwise, the extent of discourse and logic of explanation would be diverted.



      Wakchaure M.R. , Sagade A.V., Auti V. A.

Abstract: Use of castellated beam for various structures rapidly gaining appeal. This is due to increased depth of section without any additional weight, high strength to weight ratio, their lower maintenance and painting cost. The principle advantage of castellated beam is increase in vertical bending stiffness, ease of service provision and attractive appearance. However one consequence of presence of web opening is the development of various local effects. In this paper a steel section is selected, castellated beams are fabricated with increase in depth of web openings. Experimental testing is carried out on beam with two point load and simply supported condition. The deflection at centre of beam and various failure patterns are studied. The beams with increase in depth are then compared with each other and with parent section for various parameters and for serviceability criteria. The widespread use of castellated steel beam as a structural member has prompted several investigation in their structural behavior. Castellated beams have proved to be efficient for moderately loaded longer spans where the design is controlled by deflection.



      Deepali Bharti, Alka Agrawal, Nitin Shrivastava, Bhupendra Koshti

Abstract: Experimental work was conducted to evaluate the effect of using n-butanol (normal butanol) in conventional diesel fuel biodiesel blends on the engine performance parameter of a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine with the engine working at different three engine loads. A blend of biodiesel and diesel fuel known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel in volume) was prepared, and then n-butanol was added to B20 at a volume percent of 5%,10%,15% and 20% (denoted as B5,B10,B15 and B20, respectively). The performance parameters evaluated include thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Results were compared with the neat diesel. The blended biodiesel is being injected to cylinder and tested up to 20% blended biodiesel. The experiment ensures that up to 20% biodiesel blended with diesel can be used without any modification in the diesel engine and enhancement of combustion, FC, BSFC, efficiency and the over all performance of the engine.



      G. N. Purohit, Urmila

Abstract: Despite being currently one of the main internet application.P2Pfile sharing has been hampered by content pollution attack. To tackle this problem, we introduce a novel pollution control strategy that consisting in adjusting the rate in which content disseminated, according to content version reputation. The proposed strategy is modeled and evaluated using simplifying assumptions. Then inspired by classic distributed design, we propose a pollution control mechanism that implement such a strategy .The mechanism is evaluated in terms of the delay imposed on non polluted version dissemination when the version is polluted and the negative impact that collusion attack can impose on the reputation system upon which our mechanism is built.



      Puja Devi Rana, Anita Singhrova, Suman Deswal

Abstract: Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique which is used to hide the information and data in images. In this technique the decryption process is done without any complex cryptographic computation. The encrypted data is decrypted using Human Visual System (HVS). This is the benefit of the visual secret sharing scheme. The encryption technique requires a cryptographic computation to divide the image into a number of parts or we can call it shares. We divide the image into n number of shares. In this paper we have proposed a new k-n secret sharing visual cryptographic scheme for black and white images in which encryption of the image is done by using Random Number generator. This k-n secret sharing scheme uses at least a group of k shares out of n shares to reveal the secret information and less of it will not reveal any information.



      K. Venkatesh, P. Veera Raju, T. Jayananda Kumar

Abstract: Design of a component usually involves optimizing its dimensions to meet the operational requirements without failure during the design life. If the operational loads are constant and the operating temperature is not high, a component can be designed for infinite life. However, if the operational loads are fluctuating, they cause fatigue in the component. In addition, if the component operates at high temperatures for very long periods, it may experience creep damage. With the increase of steam turbines steam parameter and the participation in peak-load adjustment of power grid more and more frequently, the stress of the turbine rotor is becoming increasingly complex, and the variable thermal stress has became the major factor reducing its life. We used a 60MW supercritical steam turbine rotor and analyzed the variation of thermal stress in the warm starting-up and cold shutdown process. In this project the analysis based on the operating data measured from actual operation and calculated the variations of the temperature field and stress field during the process of warm starting-up and cold shutdown over a period of 400 minutes with the method of thermal-structure direct interaction analysis by ANSYS.



      M. KhataJabor, AsnulDaharMinghat, SadaAdamuMaigari, YahyaBuntat

Abstract: Leadership has become a key component of an organization, management and administration of educational organizations and systems, and this development is reflected in both academic and educational policy statements throughout the English-speaking countries and world over. Governments are investing substantial sums in leadership development because they believe that it will produce better leaders and more effective schools’ system. Individuals are also contributing their own professional development because they think that it will enhance their career prospects and make them better leaders. Without leadership, things will be very difficult and we would have not been here today. Technical and vocational education is one of the organizations that have been enjoying leadership of different types. The paper is a library based research work; the data were collected using textbooks, journal articles and internet search. But yet, the information is authentic and reliable and can serve the purpose for which it intends to serve. The paper is design to look into the impact of leadership on technical and vocational education and training (TVET) as the topic implies. It will also touch models of educational leadership, factors for assessing educational leaders as well as the principles of sustainable leadership. The importance of leadership in technical and vocational education cannot be overemphasizing, because without proper leadership in TVET programs, the goals which are to prepare people to be self-reliance will not be possible. Therefore, the need for good and perfect leadership has become imperative in TVET development. Effective school leadership has become a dominant theme in contemporary educational reform. Effective leaders are needed to sustain innovation and are the heart of capacity building for school improvement most especially in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) programs that need sustainability for its development.



      Dr. OmkareshwarManappa

Abstract: With multiple technologies to choose from in the Mobile applications space, it is hard to clearly determine what tool is best for the job. One particular technology that is growing to meet the needs of enterprise users worldwide is SMS / MMS. With the growing popularity worldwide of text messaging, many companies have begun to look at the possibilities of the use of plain & multimedia text messages for both internal and external communication purposes, as well as alternatives to mobile applications to either provide a method to interact with end users in a device-agnostic fashion or gather / provide information such as promotions, or account information. This paper helps in explore some of the facts & figures about text messaging, textual revolution & business opportunities, how is text messaging being used by business, marketing & advertising, text message marketing revolution, mobile internet revolution & how small business can benefit, growing popularity of text messaging & scammers of it, business benefits of text messaging, pros and cons of text messaging , this medium as well as some potential use cases for where SMS / MMS has proven to be useful.



      Preeti, Dr. Narendra Singh Beniwal

Abstract: Several industrial processes have the “dead-time effect ” produced due to measurement delay or due to the approximation of higher order dynamics of the process by a simple transfer function model. This delay causes the unstabilty of the whole system. In this paper the designing of Fuzzy controller is done for the system having higher order and high dead time. Performance table shows the affects of the proposed Fuzzy Logic Controllers as compared to the ZN tuned Conventional Controllers.



      Bhagyaleena.P. , R. Gopalan

Abstract: Palakkad is is a district in kerala which contain 10500 ponds ( as per the Gazateer of Palakkad district). Ponds are not merely the water storage areas, they contain numerous plants also. Some are used as food and some are economically important also. Now a days the number of ponds are decreasing rapidly due to anthropological activities like uncontrolled construction works, filling of ponds by soil, converting the ponds into agricultural areas etc., thus by destroying the aquatic ecosystems. If the present situation continues it will lead to the end of the pond ecosystem. Most of the people are more conscious about the conservation of forests. Pond plants are more or less neglected. The present work is to give importance to pond plants and to their conservation. Selected ponds are rich in plants,and are having economic importance also.Since the wetland ecosystem is playing a major role in the ecosystem it is the time to take steps in conserving ponds and pond plants.



      Krishna H. Hingrajiya, Ravindra Kumar Gupta, Gajendra Singh Chandel

Abstract: Ant colony optimization (ACO) has been widely used for different combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we investigate ACO algorithms with respect to their runtime behavior for the traveling salesperson (TSP) problem. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a heuristic algorithm which has been proven a successful technique and applied to a number of combinatorial optimization (CO) problems. The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the most important combinatorial problems. There are several reasons for the choice of the TSP as the problem to explain the working of ACO algorithms it is easily understandable, so that the algorithm behavior is not obscured by too many technicalities; and it is a standard test bed for new algorithmic ideas as a good performance on the TSP is often taken as a proof of their usefulness.



      Dr. Mona Sharma, Dr. Renu Dhingra, Prof. Rani Kumar

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy occuring after midgestation with clinical manifestations of hypertension and proteinuria and has been linked with fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Maternal inflammatory syndrome has been associated with preeclampsia. The pathogenetic mechanism proposed behind this syndrome is the maternal endothelial dysfunction caused by atleast of subset of various placental derived factors released into maternal circulation. These are syncytiotrphoblastic microparticles (STBM) or syncytial knots, exosomes or the soluble endoglins. The STBM or the syncytial knots are the end products of trophoblastic life cycle which have been proposed to be altered in the disorder of preeclampsia. So, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare the apoptosis of trophoblastic cells and the syncytial knots in the preeclamptic (20 placentas) and normal (20 placentas) by using TUNEL assay and M30 immunostaining. We also aim to compare various obstetric and clinical parameters affected in preeclampsia (blood pressure, urinary protein, gestational age, birth wt of the babies) between the two groups. In our study, TUNEL Assay as well as M30 immunostaining shows higher trophoblastic as well as syncytial knot apoptotic indices in preeclamptic placentas as compared to normal placentas. The results of our study also show that the clinical parameters (blood pressure, urinary protein) were higher whereas obstetric parameters (gestational age, birth wt of the babies) were lower in preeclamptic patients as compared to controls.



      Kiran Kumari, S. P. Tiwari, Subhankar Nanda, M.J.Saxena, K. Ravikanth, Shivi Maini

Abstract: An experiment was conducted on commercial Ven cob broiler chickens to investigate the effect of supplementing herbal methionine (methiorep) that replaced synthetic DL methionine (DLM) in the diets of broilers. One hundred and twenty day-old, commercial broiler chicks (Ven Cobb) were randomly divided into two experimental groups, each of which comprised four replicates. Each replicate consisted of 15 birds. Groups were group I - Diet with synthetic DL-methionine at 2 kg ton-1 of feed and group II - Diet with Methiorep (herbal-methionine) at 1 kg ton-1 of feed & DL-methionine at 1 kg ton-1 of feed. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Diets were iso nitrogenous in control and treatment groups and based on corn soy-bean meal. The experiment was designed to investigate comparative efficacy of herbal methiorep and synthetic DL methionine on growth performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and carcass quality traits of broilers. The replacement of 0.1% DLM by 0.1% Methiorep significantly improved live weight gain (P>0.05) and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05). The nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention was significantly higher in group II as compared to group I. Dressing % among groups did not differ significantly suggesting that combination of 0.1% herbal methiorep & 0.1% DLM could efficiently replaced 0.2% synthetic DL methionine. Combination of Methiorep & DLM supplemented group was found to elicit humoral as well as cell mediated immune response at par to the group supplemented DLM alone. Group I has also been observed to exert a superior hypocholesterolemic effect than 0.2% synthetic methionine. Methiorep & DLM supplemented group was found to produce higher serum globulins and serum proteins than DLM alone. Considering growth performance, economics and other attributes it could be recommended to replace 0.1% synthetic methionine by 0.1% herbal Methiorep in the diet of broiler chickens.



      Anothai Dibakanaka, Kulaporn Hiranburana

Abstract: The issue of competition in airlines industry business and the image of the organizations have an extraordinary effect on the competencies of the employees. This article proposes the use of a competency-based approach, and an instructional design for developing an e-Learning English course module for chief flight attendants (CFAs) to enhance their English oral communication. The study was descriptive and experimental research. The objectives of the study were, firstly, to investigate the English language needs of the CFAs, to develop an e-Learning competency-based English course module for CFAs, to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed course and, lastly, to examine the opinions of learners toward the course module. The study consisted of two phases: course development and course evaluation. First, needs analysis was conducted by interviewing 35 key informants, a questionnaire survey with 266 CFAs, and site observations on nine different flights. The results disclosed the five competencies needed for CFAs which became the objectives of the developed course. The e-Learning course module was validated by the experts and was piloted with a group of learners having the similar characteristics as the subjects in the main study. The course evaluation was conducted based on both quantitative and qualitative data. The instruments of the experiment included the oral/speaking pretest and posttest and the end-of-course evaluation form. The instrument for collecting qualitative data was the end-of-course semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that the mean scores of the posttest of the learners were significant higher than those of the pretest scores (p<.05). The overall learners had positive opinions toward the course module.



      Dr.R.Kavitha

Abstract: Now a days healthcare is very important to each and every people because they have to live without any illness. It is indispensable to prevent the people from being affected by any disease and to give treatment to patients in case of emergency. In case of any disease, hospitals are able to diagnose the disease and give treatment to the patients. The quality of health care delivered by hospitals is a major area of concern. Quality inputs can only deliver quality outputs. The first and foremost task of hospitals is to deliver quality services to patients and also to improve the quality of services where the situation is found very critical. Moreover this study deals with healthcare position in India and the steps are taken by government to improve the healthcare.



      Ram Ratan Singh, P K S Nain

Abstract: We has presented a methodology for the application of genetic algorithm technique to pipeline network optimization. The GA codes the pipe sizes available for selection as binary strings. We have used a simple three-operator genetic algorithm namely reproduction, crossover, and mutation. Results represented to show that the genetic algorithm techniques are very effective in finding near-optimal or optimal solutions for a case study network in relatively few evaluations. The GA technique generates a whole class of alternatives solutions close to optimum. One of these alternative solutions may actually be preferred to the optimum solution based on non quantifiable measures. This is a major benefit of genetic algorithm method. The genetic algorithms technique is infancy, and further development should provide improvements in these search method for practical problem.



      Saranya L., T.Parameswaran

Abstract: Wireless ad-hoc networks emerged as a promising technology that offers low-cost high-bandwidth community wireless services. A WAN consists of a set of stationary wireless routers that form a multi hop backbone, and a set of mobile clients that communicate via the wireless backbone. Many applications can benefit from the service provided by multicast routing protocols. In a typical high-throughput multicast protocol, nodes periodically send probes to their neighbours to measure the quality of their adjacent links. During route discovery, a node estimates the cost of the path by combining its own measured metric of adjacent links with the path cost accumulated on the route discovery packet. The path with the best metric is then selected. ODMRP, as it is a ad-hoc based protocol, which has the potential to be more attack resilient. We focus on the SPP metric based on the well known ETX unicast metric. We identify a class of severe attacks against multicast protocols that exploit the use of high-throughput metrics, including local metric manipulation (LMM) and global metric manipulation (GMM). We propose a secure high-throughput multicast protocol S-ODMRP that incorporates a novel defense scheme Rate Guard. Rate Guard combines measurement-based detection and accusation-based reaction techniques to address the metric manipulation and packet dropping attaciks.Sybil attack detection, Detection Algorithm is used to detect the Sybil attack. And individual nodes that wish to detect Sybil attackers monitor all transmissions We receive over many time intervals. These intervals are chosen long enough to capture behaviour from all the Sybil identities of an attacker, including data transmissions, HELLO and keep-alive messages, and routing requests and replies. The node keeps track of the different identities heard during the interval. Having made many observations, the node analyzes the data to find identities that appear together often and that appear apart rarely. These identiti



      Dr. Rakesh Rai, Mrs.Anita Rai

Abstract: This paper addresses the issue value education for technical teachers and its response to the demand for value education in the Higher Education. Defining value education as education itself, the author advocates the need for the preparation of a teacher as an agent for social change, to equip him or her to deliver the quality of values as per the situation and explore the process by which children develop values essential for living in the society. in this study researcher used Teacher Value Inventory by Dr. Dr Ahluwalia for the collection data and interpretation result .This study was confined to two groups of T First Technical Teacher working Government Universities and Technical teachers working in Private universities .total sample consisted 130 Technical teachers out of 150 . It was found that there was no difference among technical teachers in relation to Theoretical, Social, and Religious values. But the Government and Private technical teachers have some differences in the respect of Aesthetic, Political and Economic The basic purpose of education is to create skill and knowledge and awareness of our glorious national heritage and the achievements of human civilization, possessing a basic scientific outlook and commitment to the ideals of patriotism, democracy, secularism and peace, and the principles enunciated in the Preamble to our constitution. Value education theoretical and practical ideas, socio- emotional development and education to different professional fields, implementing and assessing educational programs. . in this paper I have discussed many aspect of values for technical Teachers and find that Value should be incorporate with content , Environment , teachers and family also.



      Dr. Amar Jayanthi. A, Dr. M.A. Elezy

Abstract: Many variations of upper limb muscles are known. Biceps brachii is a double headed muscle in the human body. Most common variation is the third head, but four, five or more heads have been reported. The purpose of this study is to observe the frequency of variations of biceps brachii muscle with respect to accessory heads of origin in a population of central kerala.



      Roshan Singh Thakur, Khyati Chourasia, Bhupendra Singh

Abstract: As mobile devices grow in popularity and ubiquity in everyday life, they are often involved in digital crimes and digital investigation as well. Cell phones, for instance, are becoming a media or tool in criminal cases and corporate investigation. Cellular phone forensics is therefore important for law enforcement and private investigators. Cell phone forensics aims at acquiring and analyzing data in the cellular phone, which is similar to computer forensics. However, the forensic tools for cell phones are quite different from those for personal computers. This paper briefly explains the basics of the GSM system. Evidence items that can be obtained from the Mobile Equipment, the SIM and the core network are explored. Tools to extract such evidence from the components of the system exist, but there is a need to develop more sound forensic procedures and tools for extracting such evidence.



      Prof. Dora Thompson , Prof. Manish Tongo

Abstract: The lopsided growth of India has resulted into economic opportunities for a few at the cost of economic deprivation of many. For ambitious target of inclusive growth it is essential that India capitalizes on her demographic dividend effectively on a sustainable basis. Demographic dividend as it stands today for India shall turn out to be a nightmare if Human capital of India is not harnessed sensitively. This research paper elucidates and finds out as to how phenomenon of inclusive growth and demographic dividend of India are complementary to each other.



      Dr.D.Srinivas, Dr.B.Venu Gopal, Dr T.Venkata Krishnan

Abstract: A case of Motor Neuron Disease (MND) with wasting confined to distal part of one upper limb and signs of Upper Motor Neuron (UMN) disease but for normal tone in all four limbs and preserved Deep tendon reflex (DTR).



      A.Nagarathna, M.S. Reddy

Abstract: Karnataka is blessed with a variety of bee flora and different types of agro climatic zones. Beekeeping is becoming an important component of present strategies for sustainable agriculture and integrated rural development programme. The indigenous flora available in the different ecological habitat is of great importance to the apiculture industry in terms of honey and crop production. Insect pollinators are more sensitive to floral rewards and forage only on these flowers from which they can maximize the energy gains. India is a vast country, the climatic and floristic conditions therefore vary from tropical and sub-tropical to temperate conditions. The foraging efficiency of honeybees depends on the bee forage, conditions of the colony and foraging range of worker bees. Study on the foraging activity of bees in exploiting the bee forage in a locality depends on the climatic conditions which is highly variable from place to place. Change in the availability of bee flora as a result of weather and pollution probably affects the beekeeping. This paper discusses the pollen diversity in A.mellifera and its quantification in different habitats of Karnataka.



      ZubiaVeqar, M EjazHussain

Abstract: Changing times and advancements in technology have taken a toll on human health. Poor sleep quality is rampant in every age group thus an apharmacological cure is slowly becoming a necessity of the times. Exercises/physical activities are a strong contender in the race. But still a lot work has to be done to finally conclude about its efficacy as the treatment. This article aims at reviewing the relation between sleep quality and exercise. This article reviews the experimental and epidemiological work done on the topic along with the reviews published on the same. The emphasis here is on the studies done and the possible mechanisms underlying the relationship. The article also talks about the lacunae in research and future directions for research.


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