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IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
May 2016 publication has started and publication will continue till 22nd May 2016
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th May, their paper will publish in May edition latest by 20th May.
Online print version will release latest by 30th May. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 24th May and minor corrections are accepted till 22nd May 2016.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      P.O. Ebunilo, E.K. Orhorhoro, E.J OVIORUNURAYE and I.B. Owunna

Abstract: This work is aim at the design and development of a low cost groundnut decorticating machine for home and commercial use in Nigeria.4.36Kg of roasted groundnut was fed into the machine; this produces an average mass of 3.43Kg of peeled roasted groundnut seeds, 0.462Kg of unpeeled groundnut seeds,0.399Kg of partially peeled groundnut seed and 0.07Kg of broken groundnut seed. An average time of 488.8seconds and an average peeling efficiency of 78.46% was recorded. It was observed that the higher the mass of the roasted groundnut seeds the longer the time of peeling. The machine is cheap because the parts are locally fabricated. The technology could provide employment and at the same time make available quality roasted groundnut seeds at low cost for domestic and commercial use in Nigeria.



      Aschalew Mulugeta, Sintayehu Fisseha, Wubishet Mengesha

Abstract: The objective of this study was to critically analyze the perception and competency MSEs of the Dire Dawa Administration, Ethiopia, towards business, technical, entrepreneurial and interpersonal skills. The study tried to investigate whether there was statistically significant skill difference between successful and unsuccessful enterprises in the administration. The total 171 sample respondents from 306 MSE’s included in study using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was calculated to determine the perception and competency MSE’s of the administration towards set of skill required for success. T-test was also applied to measures whether is significant difference between the mean scores of the two samples (Successful and Unsuccessful MSES of DDA). The finding of descriptive statistics indicates that among the different set of skills, technical skills were perceived as more important for MSE’s success followed by interpersonal skills, entrepreneurial and business skills. The finding of T-test revels that there is a significant skill differences between successful and unsuccessful enterprises MSE’s in DDA.



      Vandana Prajapati, Uday Panwar

Abstract: In digital world multimedia and DSP based applications will work on some certain clock pulse and as we know, clock signal The clock signal consumes maximum applied power and this is a major drawback in digital synchronous circuit. Clock gating is an important technique of reducing the dynamic power losses in digital circuits. In a typical synchronous circuit such as the general purpose ALU multimedia, only a portion of the operating circuit is active at any given time and other circuit are remain inactive. Hence, by inactive the other circuit, the unnecessary power dissipation can be reduce. By using this approach dynamic power losses can be reduce.The new propose work implements another gated clock technique by using D flip flop and make comparative analysis between various clock gating technique.



      Hosny Abd El Fadil; Abdel Alim F. A; Raslan, Y. A*; Amany M. El-Garhy and Ahmady Y. Kamare

Abstract: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside bactericidal antibiotic used in therapy mainly against Gram negative bacteria. Cefotaxime is a semisynthetic broad spectrum bactericidal cephalosporin antibiotic and used against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Metronidazole is an antimicrobial drug used in treatment of protozoal and anaerobic bacterial infection which may be administered with Gentamicin and/or Cefotaxime in the treatment of mixed infections caused by anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Combination therapy has complementary mechanisms of action.



      Mallikarjun B Kattimani and N C Hemalatha

Abstract: Let be a graph. The two disjoint proper subsets of are said to be roman primary dominating set and auxiliary dominating set of respectively, if every vertex not in is adjacent to at least one vertex in . The domination number is the minimum cardinality of a primary dominating set and the domination number is the minimum cardinality of an auxiliary dominating set. Note that . In this paper, we initiate a study of this new parameter.



      Gurunadh J V, Srinivasalu G, Durga Prasad D

Abstract: “Sheet Metal forming in modern industry deal with complicated shapes and the forming processs consists of several successive operations, until the final shape is formed. The process sequence, die geometry ,perform shape/ blank shape and process parameter at each stage are designed based on past experience and trial and error.



      Khubbi Abdillah, Djoko Mursinto

Abstract: This study aims to identify the flypaper effect and the effects of financial balance transfer and Regional Own-source Revenue on regional expenditure of regencies and municipalities in East Java Province. The population of this study consists of regional expenditure data of 29 regencies and 9 municipalities in East Java Province collected by Statistics Indonesia (Biro Pusat Statistik/BPS) from 2005 to 2012. The writer conducted analysis on the data using Eviews 7. The findings of this study indicated that Regional Own-source Revenue, General Allocation Fund, and Specific Allocation Fund significantly affect regional expenditure and the flypaper effect occurs on regional expenditure of regencies and municipalities in East Java Province. This conditionis marked by regional spending as the response against the General Allocation Fund is higher than regional spending as the response against Regional Own-Source Revenue. Therefore, it can be concluded that the dependency level of the regions upon financial balance transferred from central government is still relatively high.



      Hira Mubeen, Shahid Raza

Abstract: Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. TFs play important roles in cellular physiology, developmental processes and responses to environmental stimuli.The importance of promoter analysis relies on how abundantly TFBSs and TFs are integrated into reference databases. The primary components of promoter are cis acting regulatory regions. Various tools and software’s are being used to analyze and predict regulatory motif within promoter region of a gene. PlantPAN serves as a systematic platform for plant promoter analysis and reconstructs transcriptional regulatory networks. In the present study, we identified various motif including: light responsive elements, cis regulatory elements, core promoter elements and transcription factor binding motifs on the enhancer sequences of tubulin gene participating in variety of functions occurring in cellular processes.



      Ayesha Ameen, Jalil Ahmad and Shahid Raza

Abstract: pH and moisture content are important parameters to evaluate maturity of compost prepared by using different type of organic waste. This study was designed to check the effect of pH and moisture content at start and end of composting process. It was concluded from this study that the pH of the compost remained alkaline throughout composting process. The moisture percentage was decreased from 50% with the increase in interval of time. The results showed that the compost is mature enough to be used as bio fertilizer.



      Shahid Raza, Hira Mubeen

Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor which consists of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Several mutations have been resulted due to multiple factors. Patients with EFGR mutations are particularly responsive to the small molecule TKIs. Although it was observed that, the frequency of EGFR mutation is significantly higher in patients who have never smoked. Testing for mutations in EGFR is therefore an important step in the treatment-decision pathway. Several different testing methods offer a more sensitive alternative to direct sequencing for the detection of common EGFR mutations. This study involves, analysis and comparison of EFGR gene variants by using computational biology tools.



      Ayesha Ameen, Jalil Ahmad and Shahid Raza

Abstract: The CEC is the most important chemical parameter to check the stability and maturity of the compost. The higher value of CEC at the end of composting process give the more mature compost without any phytotoxicity and increased germination index. The composting process can be speed up by the addition of some inoculum in it. The present study was designed to find out the CEC of mature compost produced by municipal solid waste, as CEC must be increased with the time interval in composting process. The value of CEC depends on the nature of waste used for composting. It was concluded that the mature compost was formed by using MSW after 3 months of composting process with the addition of commercially available inoculum BST alone and with addition of molasses. The higher value of CEC was given by the windrows treated with BST inoculum without the addition of molasses.



      Mohammed Imran

Abstract: Aerospike nozzles are being considered in the development of the Single Stage to Orbit launching vehicles because of their prominent features and altitude compensating characteristics. The annular nozzle, also sometimes known as the plug or "altitude-compensating" nozzle, is the least employed of those discussed due to its greater complexity. The term "annular" refers to the fact that combustion occurs along a ring, or annulus, around the base of the nozzle. "Plug" refers to the centerbody that blocks the flow from what would be the center portion of a traditional nozzle. As any fluid dynamicist recognizes, the significant disadvantage of the "flat" plug is that a turbulent wake forms aft of the base at high altitudes resulting in high base drag and reduced efficiency "Altitude-compensating" is sometimes used to describe these nozzles since that is their primary advantage, a quality that will be further explored later. . However, this problem can be greatly alleviated in an improved version of the truncated spike that introduces a "base bleed," .This paper presents the aerodynamic features performance characteristics and advantades and disadvantages



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D

Abstract: This study was conducted at the garden area of the Sunrise Residence Hall of Central Mindanao University, University Town, Musuan, Bukidnon, Philippines from December 2013 to March 2014 to evaluate the effect of different varying levels of vermicasts on the growth and yield of radish cv ‘Snow White’ under CMU, Musuan, Bukidnon condition. This study was laid-out in a Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with five (5) treatments and three (3) replications, as follows: T1 (control-5g/plant 14-14-14), T2 (5t/ha vermicast), T3 (10 t/ha vermicast), T4 (15 t/ha vemicast) and T5 (20 t/ha vermicast). Result revealed that plant height, number of leaves, tuber length, tuber diameter and pest resistance were not significantly affected by the applications of varying levels of vermicast and as well as the inorganic fertilizer.



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D. and Barney Avako

Abstract: Mass propagating robusta coffee through shoot cuttings using naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) is an innovative practice to hasten and mass produce planting materials of coffee for commercial production. A study was conducted to determine the performance of Coffea conephora in response to different levels of NAA using shoot cuttings under a rooting chamber condition with five treatments and four replications in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The different treatments were: T0 (Control, 0 ppm NAA), T1 (50 ppm NAA), T2 (100 ppm NAA), T3 (150 ppm NAA) and T4 (200 ppm NAA). Robusta shoot cuttings dipped in 100 ppm NAA (T2) and grown under clonal chamber performed best with the most number of leaves (2.38), most number of shoots (1.65), highest percentage of rooting success (78.56%), least percent mortality (3.5%) and the highest ROI (231.12%). The most number of roots was also obtained in T1 (50 ppm NAA) with 1.13, while the tallest shoot (2.22 cm) and the longest root (15.31 cm) were produced in T3 (150 ppm NAA) with the control treatment (T0) performing poorly. Thus, dipping coffee shoot cuttings between 100 to 150 ppm NAA in the clonal chamber could enhance excellent root and shoot growth of the cuttings as well as the ROI. However, cuttings dipped above 150 ppm NAA had declining shoot and root growth performance. Hence, recommended for mass propagation of Robusta coffee for a short period of time.



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D. and Charlie S. Nacaya

Abstract: Mangoes, papayas and bananas are among the high value fruits where ethephon and storage conditions play a great role on their ripening quality. The study was conducted at Barangay 2, Balingasag, Misamis Oriental from December 6, 2011 to January 21, 2012 to determine the quality and ripening of selected high value fruits in response to varying levels of ethephon applications and packaging materials. It was laid-out in 5x3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated four times. Results revealed that dipping papaya, mango and banana fruits to 10 ml ethephon/liter of water induced their earlier ripening; color index, physical appearance, resistance to pests and diseases, organoliptic test and weight loss. For the TSS, dipping papayas in 7.5 ml ethephon solution and the untreated mangoes gave the sweetest fruits. Dipping bananas with ethephon showed resistance to pests and diseases. For Factor B, the ambient/polyethylene bags ripened banana fruits at earlier time; wrapping in newspapers fastly developed colors, TSS, least weight loss, while at ambient condition showed better pests resistance. Wrapping mangoes and bananas in newspapers showed very firm fruits, pest and diseases resistance, good taste, TSS and least weight loss. On interaction effects, dipping fruits in 10 ml ethephon solution in newspapers gave better results for earlier, quality and uniform ripening and least weight losses of fruits, thus recommended. Although the ambient condition gave sweeter fruits especially among mangoes. Obtaining fruits of equal age of physiological maturity is also recommended to avoid biases in the study.



      Owaka, E.E, Njoku, O.O, Uhuo, C.A, Odikamnoro, O.O

Abstract: The study on the survey of intestinal helminth infections amongst school children in rural communities of Ebonyi State was conducted in a cross section of ten (10) primary schools in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State in 2013 to determine the prevalence of infection amongst the scholar population in public schools. Stool samples were randomly collected from five hundred (500) children and microscopically examined using modified direct smear method. The ages and toilet facilities used by pupils were also considered for risk factors indicators.



      Vijay M. Mayekar, RP Nachane

Abstract: Pilling is a fabric surface defect caused by regular wear-cleaning cycles. Assessment of the pilling on the fabric surface is done in subjective manner visually by experts. This paper presents a method of objective assessment of pilling on the fabric surface, employing a system designed for non-contact capture of the pilling profile on fabric surface. The results obtained from the proposed method are validated by direct measurement of pill parameters on stereo microscope, as correlation studies indicate correlation coefficient value more than 0.90. Five fabric samples with widely different physical properties were used in the pilling study Statistical analysis proves reliability of the pilling measurement by the new method and supportive role it offers to the subjective assessment by experts.



      Dr. Prahalad Elamarthi, Dr. Donald J Fernandes, Dr.Krishna sharan

Abstract: Background: Globally, colorectal cancer(CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with over 1.2 million new cases and 608,700 deaths estimated to have occurred in 2008. (1)Rates are substantially higher in males than in females. Globally, the incidence of CRC varies over 10-fold. The highest incidence rates are in Australia and New Zealand, Europe and North America, and the lowest rates are found in Africa and South-Central Asia. These geographic differences appear to be attributable to differences in dietary and environmental exposures that are imposed upon a background of genetically determined susceptibility. At our center, where head and neck, breast and cervical cancers predominate, rectal cancers make for a small percentage of malignancies. In between 2009 and 2013, out of a total of 4307 patients treated with radiotherapy, carcinoma rectum accounted for only 97 cases (2.2%).



      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are substantially prevalent in the elderly population. Although some studies find that there is a negative impact of smoking on LUTS. The association between LUTS and smoking is still not quantified in an accurate manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking on LUTS among patients referred to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya for uroflowmetry. LUTS were assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Smoking status and other information was collected using an interview based questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that there is an adverse impact of current and past cigarette smoking on LUTS. Therefore abstinence from smoking is beneficial to reduce the occurrence of LUTS later in life.



      Athige Rajith Neloshan Silva, R.D. Nimantha Karunathilake, Chathuranag.Bhrathee.Ranaweera, Ranjith Pathirana and Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

Abstract: This study examined the antibacterial potential of water extracts of different parts of Morinda citrifolia (Family: Rubiacae) plants which is used/indicated in Sri Lankan traditional and folk medicine to wash old cutaneous wounds, cuts, abrasion, rashes, bruises or burns, and as a throat gargle. This was tested in triplicate, in vitro, using agar disc diffusion bio assay against Gram positive human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Gram negative bacteria , Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218). Concentration of water extracts tested were 500,750 and 1000 µg/disk. Gentamicin (10 µg/disk) was used as the positive control. The results showed that none of the extracts (roots, fruits, flower, stem bark or combination of these parts) was effective against E. coli whilst fruit (diameter of inhibition zone 2.93 ±0.03mm), stem bark (5.1 ±0.03mm) and combined extract (9.46 ± 0.03mm) exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus.



      Indra Thamrin, Rizal Syarief, Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat

Abstract: Tea is one of product wealth of natural resources owned by Indonesia that should be utilized by entrepreneurs to develop their business. One of the players in the industry of ready to drink tea is Your Tea. Your Tea need to have models and business development clear and detailed in order to compete and continue to grow facing the intense market competition. This research is descriptive qualitative with case study approach. The research approach is based on nine elements of the business canvas model. The result of the study showed business model partnershipYour Tea through business canvas model, determine the business canvas model improvements, and develop a strategy and business development programs.



      M.S. Garko, I.B Mohammed and M.S. Fulani

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during 2014 and 2015 rainy season at the Research Farm of Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, (110 52’N, 90 20’E and 430m above sea level) to find out the Performance of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Varieties as Influenced by Weed Control Treatments in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. The experiment consisted of two cowpea varieties (IT97K-499-35 and IT93K-452-1) and weed control treatments (Metolachlor at 2 levels of 1.0 and 2.0kg a.i. /ha, at pre-emergence, or combined with hoe weeding at 14 days after sowing or supplementary hoe weeding at 30 days after sowing while weed free check at 14 and 30 days after sowing and weedy check were included as control). The treatments were factorially combined and laid out using split plot design with variety assigned to the main plot and weed control treatments to the sub plots. The result showed that IT93K-452-1 out yielded IT97K-499-35 and exhibits superior growth and yield components such as canopy spread, number of leaves, pod weight per plant and 100 grain yield. The application of Metolachlor at 1.0 and or 2.0 kg a.i./ha followed by supplementary hoe weeding at 30 days after sowing produced significantly higher number of pods per plant, and grain yield per hactare This weed control treatment recorded superior weed control efficiency and also had low weed dry weight and weed index. Hence this treatment when combined with IT93K-452-1 can be recommended for weed control in cowpea for the study area.



      Perera ADP, Ariyasinghe AS

Abstract: As a rower requires optimum physical fitness and adequate technical skills for maximum performance the aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness of Sri Lankan rowers, in view to improve performance and prevent injury in the future. The sample consisted of 46 rowers of the Sri Lanka army sports unit. Health related physical fitness components were assessed using standard tests and equipment. Performance was assessed by 2000m rowing ergometer test, cardiovascular endurance and vertical jump. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain information of injury patterns. The mean values for rowing ergometer time for male and female rowers were 7.07 and 8.36 minutes respectively. Rowing ergometer time negatively correlated with anaerobic fitness, lean body mass and flexibility in male rowers while it was not significant in females. Aerobic fitness negatively correlated with fat mass in both male and female rowers while anaerobic fitness did not correlate with any fitness components. The injury prevalence was 68.8% and 57.1% in male and female rowers respectively. Therefore, although the Sri Lankan rower’s physical fitness characteristics for flexibility and body composition correlated well with performance, most of the other physical fitness characteristics were not comparable to international standards in rowing.



      Ibearugbulem, Owus M., Ibearugbulem, C. N, Habib Momoh and Asomugha, U.C

Abstract: This paper presents an split-deflection method of classical rectangular plate analysis. In this method, the deflection was split into x and y components of deflection. It was assumed that the deflection of the rectangular plate is the product of these two components. With this assumption, total potential energy functional was derived from principles of theory of elasticity. By direct variation of the potential energy functional, direct governing equation was obtained. Polynomial deflection and trigonometric deflection were respectively used for the x and y components of the deflection for ssss plate. This deflection components were substituted into this direct governing equation and the coefficient of the deflection was obtained to be 0.0132629qa4/D. With this coefficient, the maximum central deflection of the plate was obtained to be 0.0041446qa4/D. This was compared with the maximum central deflection of Navier’s (0.00416qa4/D) and Levi’s(0.00406qa4/D) plates. It was observed that the value from the present study makes lower bound and upper bound differences of 0.37% and 2.08% with the values from Navier and Levi respectively. This shows that this present method is reliable.



      Mula Nazar Khan, Sufyan Rasheed,Fahad Islam, Hafiz Ishtiaq Ahmed,Muhammad Rizwan

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of corporate branding on brand loyalty with the mediating effect of emotional attachment in the luxury fashion market. Cross-sectional data were collected from 132 customers who purchased luxury brands. Regression was used to test the hypotheses of the framework developed for the study and correlation matrix used to see the relationship among the variables. Finding shows that functional and symbolic benefits have significant impact on brand loyalty, whereas other variables are found not to be significant. This study offers new empirical support for the proposition that corporate branding efforts have a role, thought limited, in building customer emotional attachment and loyalty towards luxury brands. As such, findings from this study can provide managers with a guide to managing their branding strategies so that customer emotional attachment and brand loyalty can be built in the most cost-effective manner.



      Eric Sullivan

Abstract: Planetary orbits are ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. The semi major axis of each planetary orbital was used in part with each planets eccentricity to calculate the semi minor axis and the location of the foci. Equations in standard ellipse form were created for each of the planets. In the first model, the sun is placed at (0,0). With this set-up, the equations can be completely derived. Once the equations have been derived, the location of the sun was shifted to the positive (c,0) value. The distances for perihelion and aphelion were calculated by an adapted version of the standard distance equation. After this the accepted value for perihelion and aphelion for each planet was compared to the value measured. The percent error was then calculated.



      Dhuha S. Zaiter, Kais J. Al-Jumaily

Abstract: Two fundamental wind systems in dynamical meteorology are the gradient wind that extends the geostrophic wind to curved trajectories and the thermal wind that describes the vertical change in the geostrophic wind in a baroclinic atmosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate the characteristics of thermal wind over Iraq and surrounding regions. NCEP long term monthly data of potential temperature at 850 hPa pressure level and meridinal wind component at 925 hPa and 700 hPa pressure levels for the northern hemisphere were used for calculating the LHS and RHS of the thermal wind equation. Quantities were averaged between the longitude limits of 30 to 50 oE within which Iraq is located. Analysis of the thermal wind equation suggests that thermal wind balance exists during all the time of the year for regions north of 45 oN latitude. In the mid-latitude region (between 20 and 45 oN) the balance holds only during winter time. A case study of heavy rain storm over southern Iraq was used to investigate the situation of thermal wind association with rainstorm. The results indicated a thermal wind situation could lead to a rapid convection that can help in forming a deep convective cloud. In such case, a heavy rain is likely to be expected at the ground surface. The results also showed that a strong south easterly wind existed on the southern part of Iraq, where the rain storm occurred. This wind pattern was caused by the occurrence of a deep low pressure system over northern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, just west of the core of rain region. As a result, more moist air was transported to the region which helped in producing the heavy rain event.



      Col(Retd) JP Singh, Dr. Deepika Tiwary, Dr. Ajeya Jha, Brig (Dr) SN Mishra

Abstract: A real leader must be an agent for change, an inspirer and developer who is able to show the way forward,integrate people and ideas and be prepared to instigate rapidly the most effective option. Particularly, in times of tension or war, an effective leader will have to be able to bring both colleagues and subordinates along in a way that is at once identified as pragmatic, meaningful and militarily cost-effective.



      F.O. Ibhaze

Abstract: Since the commencement of the implementation of the National Policy on Education in Nigeria which seeks to ensure an optimal and qualitative Early Childhood Education (ECE), stream of concerns have been raised by stakeholders in respect of the quality of education in ECE and its actual implementation. Despite all measures put in place by the Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria, there are still some lapses in the implementation and non-implementation of this programme. There is no doubt that the implementation of ECE requires the collaborative effort/input of all stakeholders, including the government, parents/guardians, and school authorities. However, the trust of this paper is on issues and challenges of implementation of ECE in Nigeria. The paper gives input on the benefits derivable from ECE, the paper equally points out the recommendations that will lead to effective implementation ECE. This includes employment of more ECE specialist teachers, training/retraining of caregivers/teachers, effective quality monitoring by Ministries of Education, provision of logistic support to ensure that minimum standards are maintained in both public and private preprimary institutions in Nigeria among others.



      Dr. Ir. ASTUTI, M.P

Abstract: The research is aimed at isolating, characterizing, and identifying lactic acid bacteria which have the potential as probiotic agent obtainedfrom the chyme of 34 days-old strain patriot broiler chicken intestine.



      A. A. Adebamowo and M. O. Alatise

Abstract: Proper analysis of precipitation data gives birth to knowledgeable statistical information which is the backbone for proper planning of hydrological hazards. A 44 year rainfall data (1964 to 2008) was collected from the Nigerian Metrological Institute Oshodi, Lagos State. The precipitation data were analyzed while the return periods were calculated using the Empirical formulae which include Weibull, Californian, Hazen, Grintogen and Cunane. A graph of precipitation was plotted against Return period. This graph helps forecast the probability of a recurrence of precipitation.



      R. Okwabi, S. Agyemang, P. Nyanor

Abstract: Poor practices of safety are common in the informal garages in Ghana. Despite advance in technology and easy access to personal protective equipment (PPE), the issue of poor knowledge on the usefulness of personal protective equipment (PPE) still proliferates in most of the informal garages, particular in Odorna garages. The study was to access the basic knowledge on personal safety of three different trade area; automotive mechanics, welders, and autobody sprayers. A total of 13 garages were administered with 50 questionnaires, coupling with interview and observation, data was collected for analysis. Although, majority of the apprentices received basic training from their master craftsmen on the usefulness of personal protective equipment (PPE), only few uses them. Lack of law enforcement of safety practices at the garages has also led to low usage and knowledge of the personal protective equipment since over 90% of workers responded that there is no strict supervision on the use of PPE. Apparently no mechanism is set up to ensure or enforce the observance of safety rules and regulation in the garages. It is recommended that, there should be a mandatory training on personal safety on the usefulness of personal protective equipment (PPE) to master craftsmen and apprentices.



      M.Vanitha, Glory Mathew, K.S.Divya, R.Vignesh

Abstract: Diabetes milletus is disquieting human lives. The key health issues such as cardiovascular diseases, damage of blood vessels, stroke, blindness, chronic kidney damage, nervous system diseases, amputation of foot due to ulceration and early deaths are caused by poor management of diabetes . The reason behind all these are negligence in continuous monitoring. Regular monitoring of blood glucose is important to avoid complication of diabetes. Commonly used glucose measurement means are offensive which generally involves finger puncturing. These methods are painful and frequent pricking cause lumps on the skin and have risk of spreading infectious diseases.



      Ms.PRIYA.J, Mr.A.ALAD MANOJ PETER M.E

Abstract: Now a day the security is very important in our daily life. The pattern of the human body is well suited to be applied to access control and provides security in biometric person identification technique. For following two basic purposes security system is used: to verify or identify users. In this paper focus on a powerful methodology for Capturing, matching and verifying for human recognition with feature extraction from iris and palm print of single person. These features of an input image are compared with those of a database image to obtain matching scores. Based on the accuracy during matching process the result is given as the person is authorized or not.It is desirable to develop a feature analysis method which is ideally both discriminating and robust for iris and palm print biometrics.



      Manuela Mece

Abstract: Informal employment in its diverse forms is gaining increasing attention within global and national development agendas. Informality is difficult to measure, particularly in rural areas, where labour statistics and data are often not collected. From this point of view, the study aims to reconsider existing national and international research regarding informal employment, with a particular focus on the rural areas with the intent of having a clear understanding of the working age population outside the labour force in the rural areas, as well as those that are underemployed, and/or informally employed. Moreover, it aims to highlight institutional arrangements as they relate to employment services and the social and health insurance schemes, considering the difficulties / implications posed by the systems themselves as well as the related procedures in terms of registration as unemployed job-seekers. The author brought together in group discussions with stakeholders to gain a better understanding of the employment challenges faced in rural areas. The proposed methodology was developed through Desktop Research and direct interviews with focus groups.



      Taiwo T. Ajiboye, Edward D. Jatau and, Helen I. Inabo

Abstract: Background of the study: Since Helicobacter pylori was first cultured by Warren and Marshall in 1983, much has been learned about its clinical aspects and its epidemiology. Knowledge of the epidemiology of this infection comes mainly from prevalence studies. In this research work, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was studied among patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia in the Out-Patients Department of four selected hospitals in Zaria, Kaduna State, to assess the risk factors associated with the infection.



      Nishtha Bharti, Neha Bharti, Divya Tiwari, Farheen Fatima, Pushpraj Singh

Abstract: In this paper, a fault diagnosis system is presented for analog circuit testing based on the Simulation before Test approach. The circuit under test is subjected to a frequency response analysis, from which parameters are extracted such that they give unique values for every configuration of the circuit. This uniqueness makes them ideally suitable to characterize the state of the circuit. Software implementation has been done using MATLAB. Due to manufacturing tolerances, component failures, temperature drifts and ageing, the actual values of network parameters can be different from the nominal ones and these variations may have significant effect on the circuit performances. To overcome this problem testing of the components of the circuit has been done before implementation. This work consists of analyzing the Butterworth fourth order low pass filter at different test frequencies of 89, 142 and 272 radians/second using Sheshu Waxman algorithm. to identify the fault. Further the filter parameters CDF, PDF, Normalized function are observed to analyze filter behavior using Monte Carlo Algorithm. The efficient testing and an initial fault dictionary are also developed using MATLAB software.



      Rapee Pongpanich, Ke-Chung Peng

Abstract: Agricultural product always has variability of its price at any time, because there is imbalance between supply and demand of agricultural product in Thailand. Thus, Thai government aims to solve this problem by augmenting agricultural cooperative to every province. This research assesse the data set of operational efficiency in agricultural cooperatives by using Super-SBM DEA approach. Super-SBM DEA approach has been integrated two approaches by combining super-efficiency DEA and SBM DEA. This approach is used to measure and compare the operation in term of efficiency and inefficiency of Decision Making Unites (DMUs) under variable return to scale (VRS). The findings of this research show that more than 80 percent all of Thai agricultural cooperatives have operational inefficiency and there are less than 20 percent have operational efficiency. Therefore, the empirical results can differentiate some problems and benchmarks to members and farmers. This research helps government recognize about the efficiency and inefficiency within all agricultural cooperatives in each province. In addition, it also help agricultural cooperatives where have inefficiency organization improve and increase their efficiency.



      Ghada A. Ahmed

Abstract: Traffic flow wave theory was studied by many authors , This article presents survey with references about various topics by using the kinematic waves theory to evaluate flows past any Point by time It is shown here how a formal solution can be evaluated directly from boundary or initial conditions. If there are shocks we have discontinuities in slope describing the passage of a shock and the solution is multiple valued, the solution can be evaluated directly from the boundary conditions by method of characteristic.



      Dr. V. Bhargavi Reddy, Dr. N. Sree Rajani, Ms. A. Parvathi

Abstract: For empowering the rural poor the corporate enterprise like HUL approximates it self to the use of bottom of the pyramid marketing. This paper focuses mainly upon the working of this model called project shakti, its pre requisites & problems and its operational view& How is the performance of shakti entreprenures in anantapur district.



      Muhdin Muhammedhussen Batu

Abstract: Education is one of the most important instruments in alleviating poverty and bringing about sustainable socio-economic development. Students are at the center of Education and Educational System. They always make study field and occupation choices that determine their future life. The main aim of this study is to analyze Business and Economics Students’ study field and future occupation choice in Jimma University. A total of 120 samples are taken from three departments (Accounting and Finance, Economics and Management) of College of Business and Economics. The study applied descriptive analysis, correlation, cross tabulation and binary logistic regression. The outcome of descriptive analysis shows that students’ study field choice is influenced by many issues. The most important are: Job related factors (opportunity, security, and flexibility); Influence of family, teachers, friends and role models; and opportunities for future professional development. As regard to the desire for future occupation, the majority prefers employment in different institutions, especially governmental developmental institutions (in financial institutions like banks). Around 24% of the samples have an intention of self employment. Binary logistic regression result shows that a desire for self employment is determined by sex, training, personal and family experiences about business activities.



      Nik Tehrani, Cynthia Meckl-Sloan

Abstract: Chronic diseases comprised a large share of the estimated $3 trillion in American healthcare expenses in 2013. The U.S. government started to penalize hospitals based on their readmission rates in 2013, and these fines are going to increase in the future. Patient engagement has become a criterion for (i) better outcomes, (ii) fewer hospitalizations, (iii) fewer visits to the ER, (iv) fewer readmissions after hospital discharge, and (v) more gratified patients. Now patients can manage their health by communicating to health professionals using mobile app technology. Personalized interactive communication is a key element of patient engagement, whether during a hospital stay or with their healthcare providers. Many healthcare providers have seen patient engagement increase as a direct result of adopting interactive electronic communications. Hospitals are specifically playing their role in the betterment of humanity by establishing websites and other tools that can help people monitor and manage their health. An effective means of patient engagement, Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS) is a combined effort of the 3 P’s: Patients, Providers and Payers. HRMS monitors an individual’s health and interactively communicates actionable information and provides interactive outlets for patient engagement. Patients can now manage their health by interacting with technological communication devices or systems.



      Zahari bin Ahamad, Assistant Professor Abd Latif bin Kasim

Abstract: Transformational leadership style is an effective and widely practiced within the organization including in schools. Transformational leadership is reported to have a big influenced on the behavior of individuals within the organization. This study was aimed to identify the effect of transformational leadership of principals towards teachers innovativebehavior in the school. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 346 secondary school teachers in Kedah (Peninsular Malaysia). The instrument used was the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and Innovative Behavior Instrument (IBI). The results of the study hadshownthat transformational leadership principalshad affected teachers innovative behaviors. This study also found that the effect of transformational leadership had contributed to innovative teachers behaviors. Therefore, transformational leadership should be practiced by all school leaders to improve the behavior of innovative teachers, megalithic thus improving school performance.



      Endang Turmudi

Abstract: In modern Indonesian society, the number of wearer of jilbab as Islamic veil is growing significantly. The veil has now been worn by all segments of Indonesian women, whereas in the 1970s it is only used by teenagers in school hours. Furthermore, the veil has become a daily outfit of women politicians, bank workers and even the artists. With this florescene, various modes of veiling evolve and veil boutiques are popping up in major cities in Indonesia. Various names then appear from slang to shar’i veil, i.e. in line with Islamic law, given the diverse groups wear veil with different style. In its development the veil is even featured in the fashion show.



      Ayesha Ameen, Jalil Ahmad and Shahid Raza

Abstract: Organic matter is an important chemical parameter to check the stability and maturity of compost prepared by municipal solid waste. This study was designed to determine the percentage of organic matter that must be below 30% after 3 months of composting process. The higher value of organic matter indicates the less stable and immature compost. The organic waste was treated with inoculum and it was concluded that the windrows give stable and mature compost in terms of organic matter analysis because the results showed the organic matter content 30 and below in all windrows.



      Muhammad Taimoor khan, Dr. Waseem Haider and Dr. Shahid Raza

Abstract: In Arabidopsis (Flowering Plant) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is converted into inflorescence meristem. Study has been revealed that there are various genes which control this transition. Two types of inflorescence are found in flowering plants: Determinate and indeterminate. Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene is one of those genes which play key role for the maintenance of inflorescence meristem. Tfl1 gene regulates flowering time and maintains the fate of inflorescence meristem. Arabidopsis genome contains six TFL1 like genes. TFL1 belongs to a small gene family. In this study a comparison between TFL1 wild type and TFl1 mutant is conducted according to which TFL1 is able to convert the indeterminate inflorescence to determinate. TFL1 is believed to be a controller or more specifically a regulator of inflorescence architecture and flowering time. TFL1 is believed to be a negative regulator of flowering time so if mutations are introduces in it the flowering time will be accelerated.



      Marylin Susanti Junias

Abstract: Behavior of open defecation is defecation in open areas (fields, gardens, rivers). The most important problem in the behavior of open defecation is actually a stool, as if the human who produced it suffered from the digestive tract, then the sludge may be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal streptococci which are often found in the human digestive tract. When E. coli is entered on disease transmission media such as food and drinking water, and enter in the digestive tract that are declining immunity would make a person is suffering from diarrhea. The research objective was to determine the relationship between knowledge and availability of toilet with behavior of open defecation. This research methods is correlational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population is community in Oesao Village East Kupang Sub-District, Camplong II Village Fatuleu Sub-District and Noelbaki Village Central Kupang Sub-District, by simple random sampling technique samples obtained 105 respondents. This study was conducted in January-February 2016. The results based on chi-square test showed p value 0,004 dan 0,019. The conclusion there is relationship between knowledge and availability of toilet with behavior of open defecation.



      Dr. Ibrahim Ali A. Al-Shami

Abstract: This research deals with an important area in Bakathir's works, woman portrayal in his novels which does not get the sufficient study and attention. It studies and analyzes the image of woman in Bakathir's novels WaIslamah 'Oh Islam", Al-Thaa'er Al-Ahmar 'the Red Rebel' and SiratShoja'a' the Biography of the Brave'. There are two main objectives of the research, first is to point out how did Bakathir portray woman in his novels and the second is to find out why he portrayed woman in such away. There are three parts of this research; the first is the introduction, which talks about Bakathir's age and life, an outline of his literary career and his view of woman. The second part deals with the portrayal of woman in Bakathir's novels, Gelnar in WaIslamah, Aaliyah in the Red Rebel and Sumayyah in the Biography of the Brave. The third part of the research is the conclusion and findings. It is clear from the research that Bakathir portrayed woman in a positive and bright image. Woman is presented as a wise, brave, hardworking, clever, faithful, honest, heroic, cooperative, influential, skillful and successful Muslim wife and woman with leadership qualities. Bakathir's positive portrayal of woman is influenced by his Islamic ideology as well as his own view and philosophy where he thinks that woman should be admired and appreciated.



      Dr. G. Nirmala, P. Sinthamani

Abstract: This work introduces Maximum Weight Link algorithm as a framework for strength of the path between two cities, having weights attached to them .The main goal of this work is how to find the strongest path between two cities using Mathematical model with fuzzy rule.



      Janet Mukoshi Shibonje, Wanja Mwaura-Tenambergen and Susan Njuguna

Abstract: Timely delivery of effective, safe, quality and personal services is a key pillar of health system strengthening. A Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNeCH) Project was initiated by the Ministry of Health and World Vision Kenya in Bamba Division, Kilifi County. The project’s goal was to strengthen health systems at the facility and community levels, including Antenatal Care (ANC). One of the strategies used by the project to achieve its goal was to strengthen community health referral system. The objectives of the study were 1) to determine whether providing maternal health education to pregnant women had any influence on ANC attendance in the intervention and control communities and 2) to determine whether issuing referral advice forms to patients has any influence on ANC attendance in the intervention and control communities.



      Hossein Shirvani

Abstract: The study examined pre-service elementary teachers and newly accepted secondary non-math and science major students at a university. The study examined weaknesses of students in conceptual and procedural understanding of fractions. It also examined whether there were differences in math fractional knowledge for both groups. The study found students’ weaknesses were in solving word fraction problems, in dividing, multiplying, adding and subtracting fractions. Moreover, the study found that on procedural knowledge of fractions, newly accepted students significantly had higher knowledge than pre-service elementary teachers. The study did not find significant differences on conceptual understanding of fractions or knowledge of over-all fractions.



      Bahaa Hussein Taher, Mohanad Abdulkareem Hasan Hasab, Enas Wahab Abood

Abstract: Detecting points of interest is one important issues in image processing systems and these points could be uses to eliminates the information of the images to minimum number to be used in recognition or data reduction ..etc. in this paper we produce a method to detect corners in images depending on topological and tint information , The gradient of intensity is calculated in two steps one for grayscale to detect curvatures and other for binary to detect corners in curvatures . The method was quite accurate , efficiency and fast , but rather fair with noisy images



      Mula Nazar Khan, Fahad Islam, Muhammad Rizwan, Sufyan Rasheed

Abstract: The basic objective of research is to investigate the factors which affect the profitability of the banks in Pakistan. In this study we investigate our factors to determine their impact on the profit. Data was collected from the 2003-2011. This period was used due to availability of data. Data is collected from the bank’s website and WDI. Total 17 of the banks were taken for this research. Panel data technique was used to measure the results of the fixed effect modal and random effect modal.



      Muhdin Muhammedhussen Batu

Abstract: Youth Unemployment is one of the most critical issues at global level. It represents the underutilization of scarce and precious resources, that would be important for nations socio-economic development. This study deals with identifying the main factors responsible for youth unemployment and constraints they face in self-employment in Ethiopia. It is based on the cross sectional data collected by Central Statistical Agency (CSA) in 2015. From all regions of the country, a total of 16,984 samples are considered for analysis. Using descriptive and cross tabulation analysis, the study shows that youth unemployment is highly related with regional location, sex, marital status and education. The analysis also shows youths dream to create their own job is constrained highly by shortage of finance and lack of work place. The government and others stakeholders need to consider the above determinants and challenges for future intervention.



      Kais Kassim Ghaima, Shurook Mohammad K. Saadedin, Kifah Ahmed Jassim

Abstract: Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of burns and wounds infections with Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become an important concern. Isolation and identification of A. baumannii strains from patients with burns and wounds infections by conventional and molecular methods and detection of their antimicrobial susceptibility. Antibiotics resistance of 96 A. baumannii strains isolated from the samples collected between February 2015 and June 2015 were evaluated.



      Emmanuel Addai, Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Akwasi Acheampong Aning

Abstract: A Geophysical study involving 2D electrical resistivity imaging and shallow seismic refraction was conducted to provide support data for engineering site characterization. The case was a potential building site coterminous to the Business School in the precinct of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, (KNUST) Kumasi. The data of interest included depths to bedrock, the thickness and the degree of compaction of the weathered overburden and the variability in the top soil. Collocated resistivity and p-wave velocity data were acquired along fourteen traverses each of length 240 m oriented in the north to south direction. The inter-profile separation was 10 m. CVES resistivity data were collected using the multi-electrode ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000 Lund imaging system in the Wenner configuration with a basic array length of 12 m (minimum electrode spacing of 4 m) and was rolled-along to cover the total profile length. Along the same traverses, the ABEM Terraloc Mk 6, a 24 channel recording system, with a 9 kg energy source and 10 Hz electromagnetic geophones placed 5 m apart were used to collect the p-wave seismic refraction data. The apparent resistivity data were inverted with the RES2DINV software. The soil column (the very near surface) varied in thickness up to 5 m and consists of mostly sandy-clay/lateritic soil with resistivity between 200 Ω.m and 600 Ω.m. Within this layer, there are high resistivity enclaves which are speculated to be loose sand or poorly compacted materials. This resistivity layer is almost coincident with the first of the three acoustic layers identified by the seismic refraction. This zone has average p-wave velocity of 760 m/s. The seismic refraction again delineated a weathered zone which is thicker at the northern section of the site but tapers as it approaches the southern part, extending from 5 to 25 m and 10 to 15 m respectively at the northern and southern parts. The average p-wave velocity is 1300 m/s. The bedrock w



      A. P. T. S. Peiris, R. P. Vitharanage, Ruchira Abeyweera, N. S. Senanayake and Jeevan Jayasuriya

Abstract: This paper presents results of a study carried out to determine the feasibility of utilizing boiler blowdown heat for operating an absorption refrigeration chiller. In the study the coal power plant situated in Sri Lanka was used. This consists of three identical power plant units operated on “Rankine Reheat – Regenerative Steam Cycle. Each unit has 300MW rated capacity with an overall efficiency between 35%-40%. Continuous blowdown of the plant boiler is done at the rate of 10tons/hour. The temperature of the blow down water is at 97.5oC. The study aimed at investigating the possibility of utilizing heat recovered through boiler blowdown water to operate a vapor absorption refrigeration plant to supply required chill water for site air conditioning needs. The power plant at present has three central air conditioning units with cooling capacities of 900, 960 and 640kW operating on vapor compression refrigeration to produce chill water requirements. The amount of heat that could be extracted from the blowdown water (from one unit) was estimated as 496kW. Accordingly, an absorption chiller was selected to match the available heat and based on inlet and outlet temperatures recommended by the manufactures. All necessary auxiliary equipment for the installation of the selected the absorption chiller which replaces the present vapour compression refrigeration system was determined together with economic feasibility. The study demonstrated the possibility of successful utilization of boiler blowdown water for useful application, hence savings in energy.



      Kholoud Alharthi

Abstract: This paper discuses the legal effects of the employee’s improper acts. One of the most fundamental impacts is that employers can be held liable for the harmful actions of its employees. The paper illustrates how Employers could be liable under the doctrine of respondeat superior for defamatory statements made by its employees. Also, the paper shows some examples of how employer can be held liable for defamatory statements made by its employees under the theory of negligent retention. Additionally, this paper provides some suggestions of how employers would minimize the risk of liability for the actions of its employees under the negligent hiring theory for the actions of its employees.



      Sarab Jwaid Mousa AL-Chlaihawi

Abstract: In hybrid power sources or in electric vehicles, the promising concepts for these are multiport converters. They are much beneficial as conversion can be done in single stage while even interfaced with multiple input power sources. This paper presented the introduction and comparison of multiport converters with conventional converter. Here I present the application of multiport converters with reference to use of multi sources along with the advantages and disadvantages of both, the types of converters. Due to the flexibility of a multiport converter, it gives several advantages. It can be used for many applications as electric vehicle, renewable energy sources for Uninterruptible Power Supply without storage, or it can be used for storage of energy using hybrid sources.



      Hawraa Hussein Ghafel, Rabe'a Mohsen Ali, Ala’ Hazim AL-Rahawi

Abstract: Background: Infertility is the inability of a person to reproduce by natural means. infertility may describe a woman who is unable to conceive as well as being unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. There are many biological and other causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat. Infertility rates have increased by 4% since the 1980s, mostly from problems with fecundity due to an increase in age. About 40% of the issues involved with infertility are due to the man, another 40% due to the woman, and 20% result from complications with both partners (1) In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) was first successfully used in humans over 25 years ago; since then, more than one million children have been conceived using this technology. IVF is a procedure designed to enhance the likelihood of conception in couples for whom other fertility therapies have been unsuccessful or are not possible. It is a complex process and involves multiple steps resulting in the insemination and fertilization of oocytes (eggs) in a laboratory. The embryos created in this process are then placed into the uterus for potential implantation. Each stage of the procedure is associated with specific risks, IVF may provide a couple who has been otherwise unable to conceive with a chance to establish a pregnancy.



      Caesar K. Simpson

Abstract: International Investment Diversification (IID) has been receiving widespread attention at both the academic and practitioner levels in recently time. Those in favor argue that international portfolio diversification is the source of an entirely different world welfare gain, distinguishable from both the gains from trade and the productivity gains from international factor movements. They argue further that there are other several potential benefits that make it attractive for investors to internationalize their portfolios. Although the implications of international diversification are well known, it is also well established in academic studies that investors consistently fail to exploit these effects, preferring to concentrate their investments in the equities of their home country, leading to what is popular known as “equity home-bias puzzle”. It is in line with this debate that this paper presents a theoretical and empirical argument in favor of the topic: Is International Investment Diversification Prudent to Either the Individual or Corporate Investor? The paper established the fact that there exist both theoretical and empirical evidence that IID is prudent to both individual or corporate investor in the form benefits such as; Risk and reward; Diversification; New market; Expertise of International Venture Capitalist; Culture integration; and Microfinance.



      T.G. Shree Raja Gopal, Dr. K. Murali

Abstract: Productivity has an important role in construction industry. The level of productivity is the result of the driving, induced and restraining factors acting upon the workers.The main objective of the paper is to perform secondary data analysis on the factors affecting labour productivity in construction. The secondary analysis provides a cost effective way of understanding a research and also helpful in designing for primary analysis. Based on study it was observed that the secondary analysis techniques such as constant comparison analysis, classical content analysis and domain analysis identified fifty four factors and were grouped under nine groups namely workforce, management team, psychological, schedule compression, material/equipment, supervision, safety, external and miscellaneous. Secondary analysis is valuable for identifying the critical areas investigated during the primary analysis which will helpful in improving the productivity of the labour.



      Dr. K. Murali and M. Arul vikram

Abstract: The land acquisition instead of market mechanism is acknowledged as an essential cause of disputes among affected groups namely farmers, investors, and governments. Urban land use policy analysis has grown deeper and broader in the past twenty years, and a substantial body of' knowledge stands ready to be utilized by the developing nations as they enter this period of urbanization. The various types of land acquisition policies followed across various countries were discussed in this paper. It is observed that a substantial analytic and comparative contribution which can make possible kind of advance planning that may avoid the ill effects of misuse of' urban land.



      Mr. Pathmasiri, E.H.G.C and Dr. Bandara, T.W.M.T.W

Abstract: Kandyan Home Gardens (KHGs) are unique places where a waste number of biological diversity is harbored. The social structures that reproduce and transform by the study community and the KHGs are link together. On the one hand, without KHGs’ resources some social structures cannot be reproduced; on the other hand, the plant species, which are not connected to the structuration process is also very rarely be survived in home gardens (HG), due to home garden management practices of the dwellers. Any social structure is reproduced if the structure has power and resources to control and facilitate the society. However, the power of each social structure may be less or more respect to other social structures constituted to the place and other places. In addition, it changes according to time dimension too. Each social structure does many projects to ensure its power and resources. It leads to reproduce the social structures of the place dialectically. In this sense, biological diversity of KHGs is a result as well as a cause for dialectic reproduction of social structures.



      Sarah Winnie Owiti, Susan Njuguna and Musa Oluoch

Abstract: Quality is a key principle in health service delivery a pillar in health systems strengthening. The Kenya Quality Model of health was initiated across all health facilities to guide the implementation of quality standards. The use of guidelines in health management system describes the measure that can improve performance in health service delivery. Despite having guidelines there are disparities in the quality of services delivered in health facilities. The study focused on implementation of quality guidelines for improved health services. The objectives of the study were to establish the management practices used in the implementation process of the Kenya Quality Model for health and to explore the Human resources factors that influenced the implementation process of the Kenya quality model of health.A cross-sectional study involving 110 clinical managers in six public health facilities in Kakamega County, Kenya was carried out.Public health facilitieswere selected using random sampling, Clinical Managers were sampled using stratified and proportionate sampling. Quantitative data analysis yielded descriptive statistics and Chi-square (χ2) tests.The management practices used to implement guidelines was methods of quality improvement with mean 3.8, planning 3.3, continuous quality improvement 3 P-value was 0.04 indicating a significant relationship with improved quality of health services. The human resource for health factors that affected implementation of guidelines were awareness of guideline contents with a mean score 3.7 and motivation 3 and a p-value of 0.03 which indicated a relationship between human resource for health and improved quality of health services. The study recommends formation of quality improvement teams that can be responsible for the implementation process and development of quality monitoring tools. It further recommends Strategies to be put in place to increase the number of health human resources and train all health managers on the qua



      Piratheepa S, Chitravadivelu K, Edrisinghe U

Abstract: Taxonomic study of Penaeid shrimps in Kakkaithivu coastal waters, Jaffna, Sri Lanka were studied in specimens of shrimp collected from Kakkaithivu coastal waters from January 2011 through December 2012. Identification of species was based on the morphological characters of rostrum (dorasal and ventral teeth), carapace (longitudinal or transverse sutures in the carapace), branchiae, antennule, antenna, third maxilliped, fifth pereiopods, pleopods, abdomen, sub apical spines on telson, petasma, thelycum and the colored pattern of the whole body based on standard keys and diagnoses available from the current literature.



      Zeinelabdin Mahmod Zeinelabdin

Abstract: The experiments of this work were conducted at the laboratory of the Tree Seed Centre, Khartoum, Sudan, on April 2013, to investigate the variation of of Ziziphus spina-christi A. Ritch fruit pulp weight /Kg., number of fruits/Kg. and number of seeds/kg. among four provenances; Daamazin, Sinar, Shambat and golo. The results showed very high differences between provenances in the pulp weight/Kg. (P=0.0001), and high differences in number of fruit/Kg. and number of seed/Kg. among provenances, and Damazin fruit source was the higher in fruit pulp weight, and has the larger size of fruits and seeds. The outcome of this work revealed the importance of these kinds of studies in encouraging tree improvement, genetic resource conservation and food industry of many forest tree fruits.



      Marylin Susanti Junias

Abstract: Behavior of open defecation is defecation in open areas (fields, gardens, rivers). The most important problem in the behavior of open defecation is actually a stool, as if the human who produced it suffered from the digestive tract, then the sludge may be contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal streptococci which are often found in the human digestive tract. When E. coli is entered on disease transmission media such as food and drinking water, and enter in the digestive tract that are declining immunity would make a person is suffering from diarrhea. The research objective was to determine the relationship between knowledge and availability of toilet with behavior of open defecation. This research methods is correlational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population is community in Oesao Village East Kupang Sub-District, Camplong II Village Fatuleu Sub-District and Noelbaki Village Central Kupang Sub-District, by simple random sampling technique samples obtained 105 respondents. This study was conducted in January-February 2016. The results based on chi-square test showed p value 0,004 dan 0,019. The conclusion there is relationship between knowledge and availability of toilet with behavior of open defecation.



      Yuliawati, Slamet Hartono, Dwidjono Hadi Darwanto, Any Suryantini

Abstract: This research aims to analyze characteristics of semiorganic and conventional vegetable farmers, types of crops and cropping patterns, the cost structure of farming, and risk productivity semiorganic and conventional vegetable. The research location is determined by purposively, in four villages in Semarang Regency. The number of samples 132 farmers, consisting of 30 semiorganic vegetable farmers and 92 conventional vegetable farmers randomly selected. Data were collected by survey method through interviewing by using structured questionnaires and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively and risk analysis with used calculation of standard deviation and coefficient variation. The results show characteristics semiorganic vegetable farmers such as age, education, number of family members in farming, farming experience are higher than conventional vegetable farmers, except farm size. The types of crops semiorganic and conventional vegetables farmers are the same, but the semiorganic vegetable farmers more choose cabbage, tomatoes and chinese cabbage. Conventional vegetable farmers choose cabbage, chili, tomatoes and tobacco. The highest cost structure for semiorganic and conventional vegetable farming is for labor costs. The highest cost of vegetable production was in labor costs. Total production cost of semiorganic vegetables was 31 percents higher than conventional ones. The risk analysis of productivity used by deviation standard showed that the risk productivity of semiorganic vegetables 59 percents higher than the conventional one. The risk analysis of productivity used by the coefficient of variation showed that the risk productivity of organic vegetable 13 percents lower than the conventional ones.



      Priyanka Patil, Mrs.S.U.Kulkarni

Abstract: Distributed Generator (DG) is a part of distribution network which is used to supply power both to the local loads and network. DG provides clean energy as it uses pollution free re-newable energy resources to generate power so interest in DG increases. Although DG provides many advantages such as improved reliability, efficiency etc it faces one technical issue called unwanted islanding phenomenon. Active and passive techniques are mainly used to detect islanding. Both active and passive techniques have its own advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a novel islanding detection technique which is combination of both active and passive technique. MATLAB/SIMULINK platform is used for simulation and analysis of results.



      Henry Kiogora Thiga, Dr.Godfrey Makau

Abstract: The study focused on identifying the factors that influence adoption of electronic procurement in Kenyan public sector. The research used selected government agencies. The study intended to investigate to which extent the following independent variables namely; E-security, staffing, user acceptance and top management support influence adoption of electronic procurement in Kenyan public sector. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study where all the government agencies (122) that are registered in Kenya formed the target population for the study. The study considered a sample of 18 government agencies in Kenya from which 54 respondents were purposively selected. Questionnaires were used to collect primary data from procurement managers and procurement officers. From the study, it was noted that E-procurement has not been fully adopted by all the government agencies. Top management support and E-security are the major influence of E-procurement adoption in Kenyan public sector. The study recommended that Top management support among the parastatals in Kenya should set goals, strategies and baselines that are necessary for the adoption of the E-procurement and follow up to ensure implementation. The study also recommended that due to the sensitivity of the government data and the legal nature of orders and payments, security of data should be enhanced.



      Meenakshi Trikha

Abstract: Many studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are more prone to develop diabetic nephropathy.There is interrelationship between trace elements and diabetes. The patients of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into 2 groups, based on the presence or absence diabetic nephropathy. Patients in each group (n=50) were subjected to tests for estimation of Zinc, Magnesium and Copper concentration in serum. Decreased serum zinc levels was seen in all diabetic subjects, but the decrease in levels was more in the group with diabetic nephropathy (81.16+24.34 vs. 92.01+20.17; p<0.05). Decreased serum magnesium levels was also more significant in the group of patients with diabetic nephropathy (1.64+0.67 vs. 2.09+0.56; p<0.001). Increased serum copper levels was seen in all the patients, but the increase in levels was more significant in the group with diabetic nephropathy (140.64+33.61 vs. 116.77+26.22; p<0.001). Decreased serum zinc levels and Decreased serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes is said to be due to hyperglycaemia that promotes increased excretion of these trace elements in urine. The glycated proteins seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have an increased affinity for copper, leading to Increased serum copper levels . This bound copper is redox active and leads to production of free radicals that cause oxidative stress which, plays some role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.



      Dilini Gamage

Abstract: This research is an analytical review of the Crisis management strategies and plans implemented by the Fonterra Sri Lanka during its 2013 crisis of the contamination of toxic chemicals in its dairy products. It suggests that ample comprehension of joint operations and usage of diverse media capabilities to provide swiftly accurate communications help organizations in crisis to restore the consumer confidence and their market values. On 2013 Fonterra Sri Lanka had remove its products from the market due to a toxic chemical contamination incident. The incident wen media viral on overnight and threatened the business in to a devastating level. However, as the crisis grew Fonterra Sri Lanka responded successfully with quick and accurate facts & adjustments. They also implemented management plans that helped the company in damage control and retrieving consumer confidence. Using the theories of Mass Communication this research paper examines the effect of cross-field crisis management communication strategies implemented by the Fonterra Sri Lanka. The research was conducted using the Interviews as its primary methodology of data gathering. It also analyzed the news articles made by the national newspapers and the press release of the organization about the incident and its stakeholders. Crisis communication strategies adopted by the Fonterra Sri Lanka are then analyzed according to the Theory of image restoration, and Situational Crisis Communication Theory. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for techniques and strategies that will prepare commercial organizations for damage control in future crisis.



      Dr. L.T. Sasang Guite & Ms. Amritee Bora

Abstract: River banks though being the most fertile region for cultivation, it has become a concern for loss of livelihood as well as settlement during the flood. The inundation of land is reflected with massive river bank erosion thereby causing land loss. The river lower Subansiri exhibit a loads of sediment getting deposited and flooding the flood area leading to massive river bank erosion. The paper explores the impact of land loss due to river flood and substantiate with mapping different study period.



      Emmanuel Atta Williams, Stephen Marrion Cobbina, John Bentil

Abstract: Laser sensing technique, a non-destructive method, has been used to determine the effect of light intensity on soil depth of different moisture contents. In this study, moisture content of clay loam and beach sandy soils were monitored using an unexpanded 5 mW Helium –Neon Laser ( = 0.63 m) incident through an optical fibre on one side of an equilateral triangular glass prism which was partly buried in the soil sample.



      Emmanuel Atta Williams, Stephen Marrion Cobbina, Stephen Kwaku Okrah

Abstract: Security Management and Safeguard of properties have become a necessity in any establishment and requires a measure to deny access to unauthorized personnel from accessing a facility. Some of these measures come at a cost as security is inevitable. The objective of this project was to design and implement an affordable, effective and reliable wireless intruder detection system and to minimize false triggering and enhance detection using Dual Infrared Technology. The idea was to employ distance infrared proximity sensor (SHARP 0A41SK) which generated an interrupted signal when any obstacle is in front of IR sensor. The interrupted signal was fed to an IC (NE 555) timer arrangement to produce a flip-flop audible sound to alert people of intruder presence. The designed and constructed dual infrared intruder detection system subjected to testing produced an accurate security zone that spreads out uniformly to enhance protection for properties, homes and offices. The system could be adapted to monitor other alarm conditions such as fire, heat smoke, flood, etc. The design could be recommended for use of GSM applications as the alarm system that could be programmed to call Police distress line directly and relay a pre-programmed message with the address of the intrusion scene for better response rescue by the police.



      Leticia o and OlekaL.N

Abstract: This work focuses on the mathematical model for the dynamic behavior of two competing plant species. We introduced a control mechanism and a growth enhancer to reduce the population of the weed and enhance the growth of the foodcrop respectively. We obtained steady state solutions which were characterized using the Linearization method. The results obtained were analyzed.



      Shatha Ahmed Mohammed Ali, Kareem Ghadhban Sajem, Alaa SalimTawfeq

Abstract: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) during pregnancy are among the most common health problems worldwide afflicting many women in their reproductive years especially in developing countries. Due to several anatomical and hormonal changes pregnant women are more susceptible to develop UTIs.



      MA. Louisa G. Taguiling

Abstract: With an increasing trend towards organic agriculture, the use of organic compost is becoming a necessity. Organic compost fertilizer produced from agricultural waste generally contains low nutrient contents essential to plant growth. Improving the quality of organic compost fertilizer will help farmers raise healthier food while promoting safer environment. The study aimed to investigate the effect of green biomass in enhancing the quality of compost from crop residues. The study used experimental research method laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in three replicates. Treatments were increasing volume of mixture of green biomasses of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, and Moringa oleifera Lam. added to pre-composted crop residue. Wood ash comprising 1% by weight of dry compost materials was added per treatment. The macro and micronutrient content of finished compost were analyzed. Finished compost quality in terms of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium were significantly increased by enriching pre-composted crop residue with increasing volume of mixture of green biomasses. The best treatment combinations were mixing pre-composted crop residue and mixture of green biomass at 3:5, 3:4 and 3:3 in that order. The micronutrients particularly Zinc and Iron were also significantly increased while Copper and Manganese were significantly lowered. The organic Carbon content of finished compost was significantly increased while the pH levels were enhanced towards neutral level.



      Emily Wanja Kaburu, Lillian Wambui Kaburi, Dr. Dominic Charles Okero

Abstract: The generation of health information starts at the community level through the Community-Based health information system. At the community level, this source of information is complete in coverage and in planning and action-oriented (Odhiambo-Otieno, 2005). The objective of the study was to assess the internal and external factors influencing the functionality of CBHIS in Embakasi Sub-County, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was descriptive cross sectional in nature where both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used. The study adopted Key Informants interview, for link health facility workers, and 2 sets of questionnaires for Community Health Unit workers. The data/reporting tools, feedback forums, training and support supervision were available but inadequate and that CHUs did not have data analysis capacity. The community was very supportive to CHUs activities and the linkages were effective as stated by all the respondents. Challenges that were said to face the linkages included; community health workers shortage, inadequate tools, inconsistent indicators and late reporting. However 3(60%) of the CHEWs pointed out that the county leadership was unsupportive to the CHUs while 2(40%) reported the county leadership supportive. The researcher recommend that the local leadership should provide the workers with adequate tools, capacity build them on data analysis, strengthen dialogue and action days, offer frequent refresher training and equip the workers with supervisory skills. The linkages between CBHIS and FHIS should be strengthened and that the local leadership should support the community health unit activities.



      Nehal Salahuddin, Ahmed A. Elbarbary, Hend A. Alkabes

Abstract: Chitosan (CS)/Quinazolinone/Tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles have been synthesized using 2.3:1 molar ratio of CS/TPP in presence of quinazolinone derivatives (I-IV) through simple one step reaction. The mixture was subjected to ultrasonic waves to obtain the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are quite uniform in size, spherical shape and rod like structure depending on the quinazolinone derivatives. The amount of loaded quinazolinone was calculated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and TGA. The release of quinazolinone derivatives (I-IV) in acidic medium (pH=2) is significantly higher than in slightly acidic medium (pH=6.8). The proposed mechanism based on zero orders, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas model equation are explored. The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles was investigated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus aureas.



      Rajakrishnan. R, Lekshmi. R, David Samuel

Abstract: Standardization of herbal drugs is the need of the hour as the use and practice of traditional herbal drugs has increased tremendously. The main objective of the present study is to standardize the root tubers of Aconitum heterophyllum as per pharmacopoeial testing protocol which include powder microscopy, physico-chemical screening, HPTLC fingerprinting and GC-MS analysis. Preliminary phytochemical tests indicate the presence of alkaloids, sugars, flavonoids, steroids, quinones and tannins. HPTLC profiling of the ethanol extract using Toluene/ Ethyl acetate (8: 1) as mobile phase revealed the presence of phytochemicals with different Rf values. The GC-MS analysis of the diethyl ether fraction showed the presence of 39 compounds of which 21 were identified.



      De Guzman, Ana Isabella, Sevilla, Alyssa Denise, Bernabe, Adam Lesner, Baustista, Carmela, Yanga, Aedrick, De Ocampo, Yves Aaron, Martin I, Gregorio, Guevarra Jr., Leonardo

Abstract: Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) affecting one billion people worldwide. The most common laboratory diagnosis is still through the microscopic identification of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from stool sample; thus, there is a need to establish a gold standard for its identification. In line with this, investigation of the amino acid content of the protein coat was done for possible development of rapid diagnostic tests. Micro-Bradford assay of the supernatants after decortication using Phosphate-Buffered Saline with Tween 20 revealed increasing absorbance suggestive of increasing protein content (r=0.71). Results of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography exhibited peaks belonging to arginine and tyrosine. Moreover, these amino acids recovered are present in proteins which are inhibitors of mammalian trypsin and chymotrypsin.



      Atanas J.P, Rodrigues C.C, Simmons, R.J

Abstract: This paper presents a brief overview of Lean and Six Sigma use and success in the oil and gas industry by using principles of enhanced productivity, safety and environment as well as process quality management in a well-defined framework. A literature review is also presented, including negative and positive opinions about Six Sigma implementations in industry. Lessons learned from successful implementation of Lean in oil and gas industry are analyzed and summarized. A positivistic approach with case studies of Lean as practiced in some major oil and gas companies in Abu Dhabi is being used. Methodology and process of application of Lean is also described. The study shows the importance of Six Sigma and Lean applications in three of the most important areas in oil and gas: Service quality drilling operations, customer satisfaction, and supply chain. Two successful case study projects are provided with step by step details and are organized around three main parts: the problem, the methodology and the lessons learned. Despite some misconception that some managers have about the implementation of Lean, it will stay the most efficient methodology to apply in the oil and gas business. Success of Lean depends also on top management decisions. Also, the application of these methodologies when applied successfully to projects can produce rewarding results. This paper will outline successful applications of Lean and Six Sigma by two major oil and gas industries in the United Arab Emirates.



      Davidica Llorente- Avelino

Abstract: This descriptive-correlational study aimed to determine the attitude in Basic Mathematics of secondary students in Mambusao, Capiz. The participants included the proportionately and randomly selected two-hundred students enrolled in David Moises Memorial High School, Saint Catherine Academy and Panay State Polytechnic College (now Capiz State University). Data-gathering instrument utilized was a researcher-made questionnaire about the Basic Mathematics Attitude Scale. Personal data sheets for students were also included. Frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviations were used for the analysis of the descriptive data while t-test for independent samples and One-way Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the inferential tests set at .05 alpha level. All numerical data were processed using the Statistical Package for Social Science software. Findings showed that students had a positive attitude towards Basic Mathematics. When classified as to student and teacher-related factors, all students have positive attitude. There is no significant differences in the students’ attitude towards basic mathematics when classified according to sex, teachers’ teaching experience, and teachers’ in-service training in mathematics, family size and parents’ occupational status. However, there is significant differences in the attitude of the students towards Basic Mathematics when classified according to family income and parents’ educational attainment and teachers’ educational attainment.



      Robert Kuria, DR. Waiganjo, E.W.

Abstract: Institutions of higher learning, from the start of their history, have experienced internal and external pressures to meet the needs of stakeholders, needs that go well beyond the pursuit of academic study for the purpose of adding to a knowledge base. The study sought to determine the influence of market penetration strategy on competitive advantage at the University of Nairobi. The justification was driven by the higher education sector in Kenya which has been undergoing rapidly changing environmental conditions in terms of the regulatory framework and competition. The study used descriptive research design. The target population was 400 administrators while the sample size was 40 administrators. The study used primary data; original information was collected from a first-hand experience. The data from the study was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using percentages, means and frequency distribution with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Since data was descriptive, variants such as means, frequencies and percentages will used to describe the findings of the study. Bivariate – ANOVA statistical data analytical technique was adopted to analyze the strategies used by universities in Nairobi County to cope with competition. The data from the study was presented using inferential and descriptive statistical methods. These were percentages, charts and tables, regression and correlation. Descriptive statistical method enables understanding of data through summary values and graphical presentations. The results from the study revealed that market penetration strategy and competitive advantage were positively and significant related. Based on the research findings the study recommended that public universities should adopt market penetration strategy so as to increase the competitive advantage.



      Tadele Tesfay

Abstract: Banking system is one part of financial institution that plays an important role in economic growth and development of a country. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of Ethiopian commercial banks efficiency. The study was based on secondary source of data. Quantitative data were obtained from published and audited financial statements of commercial banks in the period of 2003 –2012. To this end, measuring the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) has been growing in today’s banking system. The efficiency estimation of individual banks was evaluated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Likewise, to investigate the determinants of efficiency Tobit model was used. In Ethiopia banking industry embraces about nineteen commercial banks. Among which eight banks were selected as a sample size via purposive sampling techniques. The result of this study revealed deposit and liquidity has significant positive relationship with commercial banks efficiency.



      Prof.Monalipa Dash, Prof.Manjari Chakraborthy

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study and analyse the local climate of Bhubaneswar and to assess the potential of using natural ventilation for arriving thermal comfort conditions in residential buildings. Various theories in response to Thermal comfort have been analysed to assess the thermal comfort of the city which has a very distinct hot and humid climate. Since natural ventilation is a key factor for achieving thermal comfort in hot and humid climate a typical mean monthly weather data has been selected from a 10 years weather data. The weather data are analysed on the basis of temperature, Humidity, wind speeds which are the key parameter for any typical Bio climatic chart. Thermal comfort models applicable for Bhubaneswar are used for assessment of thermal conditions. The study concludes that thermal comfort during night time can be achieved all most throughout the year by controlling the wind speed to 1-1.5m/s at least. Except the month April and May, in most of the months even it is possible to achieve Thermal comfort during the day time in Bhubaneswar. This study can also be used as a basis for developing strategies on naturally ventilated building forms.



      Dr. Lawrence Achimugu

Abstract: The study examined the factors affecting effective implementation of the senior secondary education chemistry curriculum in Kogi State, Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of seventy-six (76) chemistry teachers from Senior Secondary Schools in Kogi State, Nigeria.



      Oyedeji, Funmilayo Nike

Abstract: The effects of fish density on growth rate of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in two (2) different tanks with different stocking density shows that there was a general increase in weight and length in all fish during the experimental period. Fish were fed with coppens commercial feed containing 45 % crude protein at 5 % body weight. The mean weight of fish in tank one was 5.13 ± 0.23 g and tank two 5.09 ± 0.19 g and specific growth rate (SGR) for tank one (1.92 ± 0.01 %.day-1) was lower than that of tank 2 (3.62±0.01 %day-1). Condition factor of 12.21 ± 0.37 and 14.14 ± 0.84 were observed for tank one and tank two respectively. However, fish survival varied between 64.0 ± 0.0 to 80.0 ± 0.0 % for tank two and tank one respectively while the percentage mortality in tank two (36.0±0.01 %) was higher than tank one (20.0±0.01 %). Feed conversion ratio was fairly the same for fish in both tank one (0.39±0.01) and tank two (0.39±0.03). Percentage weight gain was higher in tank one than values obtained for fish in the tank two. The water qualities parameter for all the experimental tanks are as follows temperature 25.05±0.07 0C each, dissolved oxygen 6.00 ± 0.14 mg/l each, pH 8.20 ± 0.17 each, ammonia 0.40 ± 0.04 each and total hardness of 60.00±0.92 mg/l. These water quality parameters probably enhanced the observed good growth and condition of the test fish throughout the experimental period. The assessment of the effect of fish density on growth rate of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p = 0.05 level of significant.



      Rasida Hatam, Hadi Sabari Yunus, Rijanta, Sri Rum Gyarsih

Abstract: Kotamobagu city is a city which is established as a result of proliferation of region. The proliferation of region is aimed at improving public services for community welfare, including road network infrastructure. This study aims to examine the correlation between road network infrastructure and proliferation of region, in this case the density of the road network after the proliferation of region. The method used to examine the density of the road network was by overlaying maps of the road network in 2000 and 2013. The results of map overlay were calculated using a simple statistical tools in Ms. Excel 2010 and the results were calculated using the formula of road network density and was analyzed descriptively. The results of overlay map of the road network density in 2000 and 2013 indicated the existence of the highest density of the road network in Kotamobagu city spatially after the proliferation of region. The highest density of the road network was in the city center and several surrounding villages. The road network increased in all the main roads spatially in Kotamobagu City after the proliferation of region. The road network density and the improvement of the road network in Kotamobagu City were affected by the proliferation of region.



      E.A.Subaida, Dinesh.K.S

Abstract: Retting is a process of immersion of coconut husks in water for manufacture of good quality coir fiber. Open retting of coconut husks in water bodies is the conventional method which causes serious environmental problems due to emission of green house gases. The pollution due to open retting practice accounts to biodegradable COD and large quantities of non-biodegradable poly phenols in the retting water bodies. This has been affecting natural heritage of rich biodiversity in the backwater bodies. Mechanical and chemical methods for extraction of fiber are found not to be feasible solutions because of low quality and economics. Closed retting, an alternative to open retting is a process in which soaking liquor is treated in a high rate anaerobic reactor. In this retting method biodegradable organics are converted to VFA fractions like acetic, propionic and butyric acids and finally to CH4. There is no sulphide generation in this process as fresh water can be used for producing quality fibers. The present study analyses the performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in the treatment of husk soaking liquor. A laboratory scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and retting tank was fabricated and the efficiency of the system was evaluated by analyzing the parameters like, Alkalinity, pH, COD and total Suspended Solids etc. The analysis indicated favourable atmosphere for anaerobic reaction within the reactor and he working performance of anaerobic baffled reactor in the treatment of husk liquor is found to be satisfactory.



      Tripathy, A., Mohanty A. K. and Kar S. K.

Abstract: Malaria transmission depends on the competence of selective Anopheles mosquitoes that plays role of intermediate host. The innate immune system of most mosquitoes (non-vectors) is able to completely clear a Plasmodium infection, preventing parasite transmission to humans. Mosquito defense against malaria parasites involves variety of biological processes, among which ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) are important determinants of parasite invasion to the mosquito. ROS are toxic by-product of cellular metabolism in all living beings. The living cells create potent antioxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. The detoxifying enzymes are superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are a diverse family of enzymes involved in a wide range of biological processes. Our previous study demonstrated that elevated GST activity played a role of resistant phenotype (to insecticide) in the mosquito, which is directly related to vectorial capacity and competence. The study of role of GST in mosquito physiology will give an insight in terms of effect of insecticide application on the vector and Plasmodium parasite development inside the vector, which has potential to explore more powerful and effective malaria control tool.



      Abdul Rahman Ahmad Dahlan, Sayed Kabir Salehi, Sami Mohammed Abdulrahman Ali, Mohamed Tarek Elgammal

Abstract: This paper aims to focus on the introduction of the eLearning systems and the importance of the eLearning systems among the today community, globally. Besides that, it will be also discussed the concept of distance learning and its place in todays’ world. Furthermore, at the peak, it will be the introduction of the Islamic eLearning system called iLearn which is being proposed as an ultimate solution for the Islamic based society as comprehend way to manage knowledge in accordance with Islamic thoughts and values. I-learn is an outstanding platform created to meet the need of today’s Islamic World education concerns. The idea comes after the appearance and growth of numerous e-learning networks which enables the individuals to study and learn online. Despite the fact that there are number of e-learning websites with Islamic nature, yet there are several gaps which needs to be filled by our initials.



      P. Gunavathy and Dr. M. Boominathan

Abstract: The efficient cellulase producing bacteria was isolated from the soil of sacred groove and identified as P. aeruginosa SG21 by 16S rRNA sequencing. The objective of this study is to perform biochemical testing, antibiotic sensitivity testing and optimizing the growth conditions of the bacteria P. aeruginosa SG21. The culture conditions like pH, temperature, carbon sources, and nitrogen sources were optimized. The optimum conditions found for cellulase production are 35 and 40°C at pH 6-10 with CMC as carbon source and urea as nitrogen source.



      K.V.Parvathavarthii, T.Senthilnathan, S.Sahaya Rajan

Abstract: Water is indispensable for the drinking purpose. The water must be safe and pure must be without contaminants due to urbanization and industrialization. The present study evaluated the physical and chemical parameters of the water taken from four sampling sites located at the industrial city known as MaraimalaiNagar Town near Chennai city .More than 150 industries are located in the site. The standard methods are use for evaluation of the parameters and the water samples are found to have more concentrations of iron and alkalinity in the area .Hence, suitable water treatment is required to make it drinkable.



      Mohammed Getahun

Abstract: The small scale industries have a very important and effective role in the developed countries generally and in developing countries especially because it is considered the backbone of their economies. In respect of this, the main purpose of this study is to identify the problems and prospects of small enterprise in Addis Ababa sub-city. To do this, data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The main instrument of data collection was the questionnaire and supported by interview. The data were presented in tables as frequency, distribution in the data analysis; the techniques of percentages frequencies were used. The empirical studies elicit major challenges which seem to affect performance of SSEs in sub-cities which include: inadequate finance, inadequate infrastructures, poor management practices, multiple taxation and capital shortage in that order, are the major challenges affecting small scale businesses in Ethiopia. The researcher suggested that the challenges and problems of the SSEs in Ethiopia are having many centers and hence can only be effectively tackled by a multi-dimensional and concerted approach by all stakeholders i.e. the governments and their agencies, banks, regulatory authorities, tax authorities,), the employees of SSEs, multilateral and bilateral agencies and donors.



      Sri Endang Saleh, M.Baiquni, Hadi Sabari Yunus

Abstract: This research aims at analyzing livelihood assets and strategies in relation to socio-demography of households around Limboto Lake. Assets as livelihoods resource for inhabitants living around Limboto lake consist of human capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, and financial capital. The research took place in Iluta Village And Limehe Timur Village around Limboto Lake, Gorontalo Regency. It employed survey on 97 households of farmers and fishermen. Data were analyzed in descriptive and quantitative manner to determine the livelihood assets selected by households and were illustrated into an asset pentagon. The research results showed that the correlation between socio-demographic variable and livelihood assets was weak, which R-square value was 0.2532. The correlation of the influence socio-demographic variables (X1) and Livelihood Assets (X2) on Livelihoods Strategy (Y) was good. This correlation was indicated by the R-square value of 0.7055, meaning that variations on Livelihood Strategies (Y) were able to be explained by socio-demographic variables (X1), and Livelihood Assets (X2) by 70.55 percent, while the remaining 29.45 percent was influenced by other variables that were not included in the model.



      Kawakeb N Abdulla, Saba J Alheshimi, Hanan Dh. Skheel Aljebory, Thaer J K Altaei

Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer is readily preventable when effective programs are conducted to detect and treat its precursor lesions.



      Riya Shah, Karishma Pathan, Anand Masurkar, Shweta Rewatkar, Prof. (Ms.) P.N.Vengurlekar

Abstract: Web mining is an application data-mining technique used to extract information from web services. E-commerce websites nowadays have become one of the most important sources for buying all kinds of products. Many strategies have been developed by analyzing customer’s behavior so as to attract more business and participation of people. As there are many e-commerce websites available it becomes difficult for users to choose best deal for desired product amongst these websites. Comparison of E-commerce products using web mining enables users to analyze prices and get desired product at minimum price. Users can also select multiple products that belong to same category for comparing its features. To obtain best deals from e-commerce websites web crawlers and web scrapping techniques are used to fetch detailed information. This way, paper aims to provide solution for online customers to buy products at good deal and save their valuable time, effort and money.



      Abhishek Dewangan

Abstract: Modeling of runoff path and soil erosion potential estimation is significantly important for its economic and environmental impacts. A very precise model can give a very good understanding of soil erosion complexities in study area. The amount of soil erosion is associated with many natural climatic conditions. To measure such conditions Universal soil loss equation (USLE) has been used in the study area. In present study five controlling factors i.e. rainfall erosivity factor (R), Length slope factor (LS), soil erodability factor (K), vegetation cover factor (C) and erosion control factor (P) has been calculated for the measurement of soil erosion.



      Dilip Maske, Manisha Deshpande, Vidula Angane, Dattatray Gadkari

Abstract: III-V ternary bulk crystal (ingot) using Indium, Antimony and Bismuth as the source materials (InSb1-xBix) was grown by the vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique and the grown ingot was sliced into wafers. Further the well-polished wafers were used for the surface characterization of the grown crystal. The resistivity measurement indicated that the wafers were n-type semiconductors with the resistivity 1.00 X 10-3 ohm-cm. These wafers were lapped and polished to get mirror finish surface. After cleaning the wafers were etched by using CP4 (HNO3:HF:CH3COOH::5:3:3) and the modified CP4 (HNO3:HF:CH3COOH:H20::5:3:3:10) etchants. The microstructures and defects on the surface of the wafers (substrates) were studied using metallurgical microscope. SEM and EDAX techniques were used for the further analysis of the microstructures observed by the microscope. Most of the surface is having uniform configuration with some defects like grain boundaries, dents, black spots etc. EDAX analysis of the black spots indicate Bi rich domains. Distribution of the compositional elements was studied by elemental analysis of the surface. High resolution SEM analysis of a dent shows formation of nano-crystals of size ~ 150nm.



      Arega Seyoum Asfaw, Hanna Nigussie Bogale, Tadele Tesfay Teame

Abstract: The study aims at identifying the major factors affecting Non-performing loans of Development Bank of Ethiopia, Central Region. To achieve this objective descriptive research design was used and data has been collected mainly through primary source using questionnaire from both borrowers and region’s staffs. Secondary data were also used by reviewing the annual reports, bulletins, manuals, directives and procedures issued by the bank. 43 borrowers and 24 staffs were taken as samples from 77 default loans (Nonperforming loans) and 31 region’s staffs respectively based on stratified random sampling method of sample selection by using mathematical formula. For data analysis, descriptive statistics including mean, frequency and percentages were used and processed through computer loaded SPSS software.



      Ehijiele Ekienabor, Sunday Aguwamba, Nuruddeen Liman

Abstract: The research investigates the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the manufacturing sector in Nigeria, and its importance in the Nigeria economy in general. The main issues in this paper relates to understanding the effects and impact of foreign direct investments on the manufacturing sector, as well as our ability to attract adequate funds, sufficient enough to accelerate the pace of our economic growth and development. In order to analyse the data, both econometric and statistical methods were used. The econometric regression model of ordinary least square was applied in evaluating the relationship between foreign direct investment and major economic indicators such as manufacturing output, exchange rate and interest rate. The model revealed a positive relationship between foreign direct investment and each of the variables (manufacturing output, exchange rate and interest rate). Foreign Direct Investment has a positive relationship on the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. In addition, there is a positive and significant relationship between Exchange rate (EXCH) and manufacturing output (MOUTPUT) in Nigeria. Some recommendations were made therein that government should step up efforts in attracting foreign direct investment into the sector by ensuring that investor confidence is protected. The study also suggest that despite the fact that the importance of FDI cannot be over accentuated, there is the need for government and policy makers to realize the fact that the fundamental element in any successful development strategy ought to be the encouragement of domestic investors first before going after foreign investors.



      Eliseo P. Marpa

Abstract: The study explores factors on the learning engagement in mathematics of the OBTEC students. To determine the learning engagement, the researcher utilized the correlation-predictive method of research using the modified Mathematics Classroom Engagement Scale developed by Qi-Ping Kong, Ngai-Ying Wong, Chi-Chung Lam administered to the 162 OBTEC students. Statistical tools such as the mean, standard deviations, and stepwise multiple regression were used to answer problems of the study. Results show that the level of behavioral and cognitive engagement in mathematics is high while the affective engagement is average. However, when grouped according to personal factors, the level of the behavioral and cognitive engagement is high but low in affective engagement. Results also reflected that attitude towards mathematics and instructors/professors teaching competence are predictors of OBTEC students learning engagement. This means that OBTEC students were engaged behaviorally and cognitively in their mathematics class. On the other hand, students’ attitude toward mathematics and instructors teaching competences predicts students’ learning engagement.



      Essien, I. E and Essiett, A. A

Abstract: The radiological hazard indices due to radiation exposure from the Uyo metropolis central dumpsite were investigated. An in -situ measurements of the exposure level were made using Radex radiation meter model RD 1212. The radiological hazards indices evaluated were, exposure, annual dose rate (ADR), outdoor annual effective dose rate and the excess cancer lifetime risk. The mean exposure obtained for the dumpsite ranged between 0.09 µSv/h -0.19 µSv/h and the corresponding calculated ADR ranged between 0.16 mSv/yr – 0.33 mSv/yr, while the calculated outdoor AEDR is 0.11 mSv/yr -0.23 mSv/yr. The estimated excess lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radiation at the dumpsite is ranged between . As a reference to aid observed any significant change in radiation level, the background radiation (control) exposure level was measured and values for exposure, ADR and AEDR (outdoor) were 0.07µSv/h, 0.12 mSv/yr and 0.09 mSv/yr respectively. The results show that the presence of these waste materials have slightly increased the radiation level in the area studied but not large enough for concern as the annual effective dose rate is below the acceptable dose limit of 1mSv/yr for the public, 20mSv/yr occupational limit.



      Dinga Elvis Tita and Adrien Lamire Djomeni

Abstract: The arrangement of lithofacies of the Cretaceous and Tertiary Formations of the Kombe-Nsepe area southeastern part of the Douala sub basin has been examined by statistical techniques. A statistical approach by a modified Markov process model and entropy function is used to prove that the Formations of the Kombe-Nsepe area developed distinct cyclicities during deposition. The lithologies have been condensed into five facies states viz. Dark/grey shale, inter-bedded fine grained sandstone and shale, coarse to medium-grained sandstone, conglomerate faciesand carbonate and argillaceous shale for the convenience of statistical analyses.



      Ajith Sundaram

Abstract: An organization develops software in order to meet the functional needs and to keep a track of the estimated budget and time. Though many tools such as Object Oriented Language, middleware have been introduced, the Capability Maturity Model is the most widely used model in the software organizations.



      S. Prema, Dr. A. Pasupathy and Dr.S.R. Bheeter

Abstract: The Nickel(II) and Copper(II) complexes of Uramido Benzoic acid were prepared and characterized by magnetic studies, molar conductance studies, thermal analysis and spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, UV and ESR). The IR spectral studies revealed that the Uramido Benzoic acid behaves as a tridentate ligand. Electronic spectral studies and magnetic studies suggest that the complexes are in octahedral geometry. The thermal study explained the stability of complex and its decomposition.



      Shahid Raza, Hira Mubeen

Abstract: Circadian clocks are dependent on multiple transcribed genes which control gene expression levels. These genes belongs to cryptochrome family and mainly includes Cry 1 and Cry 2 genes and also specialized falvoproteins. Cry1 gene was found to play an important role in maintaining energy balance under various nutritional circumstances. The circadian system is responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological and behavioral rhythms. The analysis of these genes predicted regions of high similarity among both selected homo sapiens and mouse Cry 1 gene. The results were obtained by using BLAST tool. Phylogenetic analysis of Cry 1 gene was performed by CLUSTA W alignment software. Protein domains were analyzed by using Interpro domain repository. Therefore, the analysis through bioinformatics tools can be useful to infer 3D structure and function of proteins.



      Gaurav Sharma, Partap Singh

Abstract: Presently large amount of industrial sand are generated from metal industries. The Disposal of Industrial Sand is an important issue as it has direct impact on environment. In the present study the feasibility of using Industrial sand (I.S.) as a partial replacement of fine aggregates for the production of concrete has been explored.



      Ismalia A. Hasbullah, Fachrurrozie Sjarkowi, Najib Asmani, Muhammad Yazid

Abstract: The existence of ecotourism around the farming land as the promising alternative source of income for the farmers, on the other hand can distract the interest and the attention for the main use of it. Farming management, can be the source of income as well as the life cantilever and can give advantage for the continuance the life of living creature on the earth including the balance of ecosystem. The aim of the study is to know the farmer’s preference toward the farming land by developing the dolphin’s nature ecotourism around it. The finding of the research shows that the farmers’ preference to manage the farming land was influenced by various factors such as ethnic/socio-culture, modal availability, education, farming product, cultivated commodity price and time trends. The farmer who mostly involved in the ecotourism, though have the domination of large farming land, were not maximal in managing the land because their focus was distracted as they prioritize managing the ecotourism. While, by managing it well, the result of the B/C ratio and NPV analysis shows that clove, cacao and banana in the Kiluan Bay social forestry area give benefit financially.



      Anzela Nikolovska

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to present the results of a qualitative research into mentors’ perceptions of participating in a pilot mentoring program for pre-service English teachers. The study investigates mentors’ motives for mentoring as well as the outcomes for the mentors. The findings corroborate the findings of previous research. The survey revealed that the most common motives were the desire to support novice teachers and the need for professional development. The benefits of mentoring for the mentors included enhanced professional learning as well as personal growth and satisfaction. The most common challenge was the increased workload. Mentors’ suggestions on how to improve the mentoring program can be taken into account in planning future mentoring programs.



      Ankita Kumari, R. Rangasayee

Abstract: Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are not necessarily recordable in all healthy neonates, before discharge, due to transient conditions (such as vernix in ear canals). To determine the possibility and feasibility of screening of very young newborns before discharge from hospital (JCIH, 2007), it is important to know how vernix in external ear during this time affects screening results and how it should be managed. After establishing an interobserver agreement index , the presence of varying degrees of vernix among newborn and their TEOAE finding was studied in 112 full term medically stable newborns before 72 hours from birth or before discharge (whichever was early), and after 15 days from the time of first screen. Vernix was found in 52.2% ear canals of neonates from birth to 72 hours, which dropped to only 15.2% of non-occluding vernix after 15 days. Prevalence of occluding external canal vernix is 35.4% in well newborns 24 hours or younger and 29.4% in infants aged 48 to 72 hours. Since vernix in ear canal did not drop significantly before 72 hours of age, it is recommended that the screening may be undertaken after 15 days to overcome the problem of vernix. It was observed that 73 out of the total 79 ears that failed TEOAE screening had vernix. The presence of vernix significantly (X2=123.086, p<0.05) influenced the pass rate on TEOAE screening. 19.6% of ears had vernix and passed TEOAE while 32.6% had vernix and failed the screen. After 15 days 98.7% of previously referred ears passed the screen. Cleaning of vernix has been observed to improve pass rates from 76% to 91% (Chang et al, 1993) and 58.5% to 69% (Doyle et al, 2000), yet it is not practiced while screening. To overcome the problem of vernix it is also recommended that the reproductive and child health guidelines to include a system for clearing the ear as are for eyes.



      Mustafa. R. Al-Shaheen, Awang Soh

Abstract: The current study focuses on the use of plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid) and Amino acids (proline) with the goal of finding ways to cope with water scarcity and understanding the physiological adaptations of corn plants to drought by using growth regulators and Amino acids. A field study was conducted from March 2014 to June 2014 to investigate the influence of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (100 and 50ppm) and proline (200 and 100 ppm) to reduce the effect of water stress on the some of physiological characteristics of corn (Zea mays L.) under different irrigation levels (25%, 50%, and 75% from Of field capacity). Compared with that in the untreated plants,a considerable improvement was observed in the growth and yield of the corn plants sprayed with different concentrations of gibberellic acid and proline. Specifically, a clear increase was noted in the leaf chlorophyll content, Proline concentration in leaves (ppm) and The percentage of protein in the seeds of the corn plants sprayed with proline (200ppm) and gibberellic acid (100ppm) under water stress irrigations. Corn plants positively responded to the spraying of proline and gibberellic acid and showed high drought tolerance. The corn plants were more tolerant of drought when sprayed with 200 ppm proline and 100 ppm gibberellic acid. The use of gibberellic acid and proline is an innovative and promising way to reduce the impact of drought on plant growth and crop production.



      SANDE PAULINE NAMUKUNDA, Dr. Kennedy Ogollah

Abstract: It is important for a project manager to understand timing and scheduling and how to make planning tools work for their project and not the other way round. Time is unique and unlike other resources such as money and people lost time can never be replaced. The impact of a family planning program can be seen in the form of increased use of contraceptives, increased motivation to control births and increased preferences to have a smaller family. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting implementation of Family Planning projects in Kenya. Specifically, the study sort to, assess the effect of technical capability on implementation of family planning projects in Kenya, examine the effect of project planning on implementation of family planning projects in Nairobi, Kenya, assess the effect of financial controls on implementation of family planning projects in Nairobi, Kenya, establish the effect of project communication on implementation of family planning projects in Nairobi, Kenya and determine the moderating effect of culture on the factors affecting implementation of family planning projects by non-governmental organizations in Nairobi, Kenya. The study was governed by three theories; project management theory, Lewin’s Change Management Theory, Logical Framework model and Network Theory.


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