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IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 2, February 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
February 2017 publication has started and publication will continue till 26th February 2017
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th February, their paper will publish in January edition latest by 22nd February or before.
Online print version will release latest by 30th February. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th February and minor corrections are accepted till 26th February 2017.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Zayda Costa, Toni DiDona, and Anastasiya Rusilka

Abstract: Self-efficacy is the belief an individual has that they possess the ability to do something. Self-esteem is an individual’s self-evaluation of one’s character. Looking into self-efficacy and self-esteem organizationally it is said that organizational self-esteem is an employee’s self-perceived competence within an organization while organizational self-efficacy is an employee’s beliefs that their self-competence can be translated into successful action within the organization (Pierce, Gardner, Cummings, & Dunham, 1989). The focus of this study was to investigate the correlational relationship between occupational self-efficacy and occupational self-esteem. A total of 135 participants whom were all employed at the time were surveyed with the use of the Organizational Based Self-Esteem Scale (OBSE) and New Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale (OCCSEFF). However, the study did not find what it hypothesized. A correlation could not be conducted and no difference was found between gender and self-efficacy and gender and self-esteem. However, because not many studies find no significant results that in it of itself should be taken into consideration.



      Mr. Kunal Priyam

Abstract: The authors in this paper discuss the growing population of Naxalites in the state of Jharkhand, and what role does the state and the center government is playing to curb the Naxalism. The paper talks about what all funding is given by the center government to the state in order to do so, and what all schemes the state is posing to control the growing population of Naxalism.



      Dr.Debesh Bhowmik

Abstract: The paper studied the behavior of total retail sales of ecommerce in India during 2005-2020 with the help of semilog and exponential trend model and Bai-Perron(2003) test for structural shift and Hodrick-Prescott Filter (1989) model for smooth trend and ARIMA(1,1,1) model for stationary and we relates its relationship with internet users,credit and debit card users and GDP growth rate during 2005-2015 with the help of double log multivariable regression model although Johansen cointegration test(1988) and VEC model(1996)were applied to relate growth with retail sales of ecommerce.



      Babiker O. Mahgoub, Omima A. Mirghani, Sara A.E. Ali

Abstract: The objectives of the study were to determine the optimum cropping pattern and assess the impact of some scenarios on farm income and resources use. The results of LP models revealed that the real cropping was different from the basic cropping pattern, the net farm income in the optimal models was over the current situation by 59.3%, most of the land was allocated to onion crop which was 8.68 feddans, followed by cotton crop which was 6.88 feddans, while sorghum and groundnuts entered in the optimal plan with small areas 1.74, and 0.92 feddans, respectively, wheat and chickpea did not enter in the optimal plan. In the real situation cotton, sorghum, and onion occupied about the same area 4 feddan, followed by wheat and chickpea, 3 feddan, and then groundnuts 2 feddan. Many scenarios were tried by developing the parameters of the free LP model to reflect a range of production options.



      Boaz K. Ingari

Abstract: Kenya experiences public service delivery breakdowns in all her major cities due to politicized public service delivery systems. These interruptions occur despite the huge wage bills and bloated workforces at the county governments. These failures affect delivery of essential services in key areas of garbage collection, roads maintenance, fresh water supply, control of hawkers’ activities, healthcare delivery amongst others. This article seeks to recommend strategies that can be adopted to ensure cost-effective quality service delivery and encourage accountability. The article proposes outsourcing of public service delivery from the in-house county governments to competent reliable private providers who can be held responsible throughout the contract periods. The guiding premise is that outsourcing of public services when properly utilized can lead to cost-effective quality delivery of public services using competent private firms. The article acknowledges that outsourcing is not a universal panacea, and that when used carelessly, it can lead to catastrophic results.



      Farid AW Ghrayeb, RN, MSN, PhD

Abstract: Clinical practice is an integral part of nursing curriculum of pre-registration nursing courses to actively engaging student nurses with knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for their future nursing profession and for the fulfillment of intended learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify nursing and midwifery students’ problems during clinical practice at the baccalaureate nursing program in Palestine. A descriptive cross-sectional study with proportionate sampling of 340 students was conducted. The study population was comprised of the second, third and fourth year students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing and midwifery programs. Research data were collected using a 45-item self-administered questionnaire. Prior to beginning the study written permission was obtained from the school administration and verbal consent from all participants. Research data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics by using SPSS version 23. The study findings showed that 85.2% of the students reported that the teaching staff were not with them during clinical practice, 83.3% that they were not able to transfer theoretic knowledge they had learned into practice, 72.7% that they were used to do tasks other than their primary patient care on the ward, 74.5% that the teaching staff was not able to establish cooperation with the hospital employees. Findings reveal that student nurses in Palestine meet a number of challenges in the clinical learning environment. Therefore, approaches that facilitate learning in clinical practice in beyond creating conducive clinical learning environment are essential.



      Amjad A M badah

Abstract: A newspaper in its individual survival among the mass media is supposed to be more ethical than other media because, it is the newspaper that shapes the opinion and can construct the opinions in both progressive as well as regressive ways. The analysis of the news reportage and or editorial view points supposes to reflect the way and the prism of the news medium through which it looks at the event coverage published by it.



      Renida Jozelina Toroby, H. Rakhmat, H.M. Thahir Haning, Hj. Hasniati

Abstract: This study aimed to describe and analyze the factors that affect the implementation of affirmative action programs within the framework of the advocacy process protection, empowerment and bias against women in the political sphere by the Women's Working Group MRP. Related to the findings of a number of influential factors in the process of implementation of affirmative action policies to empower women of Papua, there are three factors that affect the implementation of this policy, namely Content Policy, Capacity Implementor, Stakeholder Support.



      Zainul Abidin, Haselman, H. Badu Ahmad, Atta Irene Allorante

Abstract: Agencification public service in the form of public service agencies at the local hospital Bahteramas have occurred since 2010. sorting, autonomy and accountability as agencification element as part of efforts to improve health services. In this context, the Southeast Sulawesi provincial government as the perpetrators have been entrusted to the agent who is in the hospital, especially the line manager to make optimum efforts to achieve the target set. This study aimed to analyze the public service agencification Regional General Hospital Bahteramas sorting aspect, where autonomy and accountability managerialism. This study used a qualitative approach. Qualitative research is research that focuses on the interpretation and understanding rather than explanation and prediction and natural. Agencification public services in hospitals Bahteramas not go well. In addition to problems in aggregating, managerialism limited autonomy and accountability.



      Adnan J. M. Al-Fartosy, Sanaa K. Shanan and Nadhum A. Awad

Abstract: This work aims to study the effects of exposure to the vapors of motor gasoline (vehicles fuel), on the antioxidants, trace elements and oxidative stress (MDA), on workers of gasoline station. Results showed that increased duration of the work in the filling station lead to significantly increase in levels of Pb, Hg, Cd and MDA, decreased levels of Se, Cu, Zn, Mg, SOD, CAT, GPx, GRx, GST, ALAD, GSH and TAC. Furthermore, MDA showed positive correlation (P< 0.001) with Pb, Hg, Cd, negative correlation (P<0.001) with SOD, (P<0.01) with GRx and ALAD, (p< 0.05) with Se, Zn, Mg, GSH, CAT and GRx and non-significantly (P> 0.05) negative correlation with Cu and of GST. Level of Pb was negatively correlation with GRx, ALAD (P <0.01), while (p <0.001) with TAC, GSH, GST, GPx and SOD, and (P <0.05) with CAT. Also, Hg gives negative correlation (P< 0.001) with TAC and SOD, (P< 0.05) with CAT, GPx, GRx, ALAD and (P > 0.05) with GSH and GST. Moreover, Cd showed negative correlation with levels of TAC and SOD (p <0.001), (p<0.05) with GSH and ALAD, CAT and GPx, and (P> 0.05) with GRx, GST in workers, compared to healthy control.



      AshiqHussain Khan, Neelam Pandey

Abstract: In this paper, the author presented certain integrals involving product of the multivariable H-function with exponential function, Gauss’s hypergeometric function and Fox’s function. The results derived here and basic in natural and many include a number of known and new results as particular cases.



      Asha.S.C, Dr. Venkat Lakshmi. H

Abstract: Social behaviour is the core component of psychosocial development. The social behaviour of Sensory Challenged Children (SCC) can be fostered through awareness, exposure, encouragement, motivation, and practice. An attempt has been made in the present study to foster and enhance social behaviour among SCC attending inclusive schools in Bangalore city. The sample consisted of 100 SCC, in the age group of 10-15 years, they were divided into two groups (Experimental group comprising of 50 SCC and control group comprising of 50 SCC). Purposive sampling method was used to select the samples. Self-structured rating scale was used to assess social behaviour of SCC. The research design for the present study included a pre and post-test with an intervention programme. Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the intervention programme had positive influence on social behaviour of SCC. The result of the present study highlights the need for emphasizing and fostering the interpersonal behaviour, communication behaviour, self-related behaviour and assertive behaviour among sensory challenged children.



      Rajapaksha R.W.P.M, Vivehananthan K, Warshamana I.K

Abstract: The majority of countries today follow stringent quarantine regulations to prevent the entry of pests into their countries especially with the seed stocks. Pectobacteriumcaratovorum is one of the significant bacterial pathogens of various horticultural crops around the world and a quarantine pathogen of seed potato in Sri Lanka. This research focused on detection of quarantine pathogens associated with imported seed potato consignments. Seed potato samples were collected from the intercepted consignments at the entry ports. Microbial DNA extraction protocol was optimized. Extracted DNA was sequenced using Ion Torrent Next Generation Sequencing technology by amplifying 400 bp V1-V2 region of 16S rRNA gene for the detection of bacterial pathogens. The recovered sequences were aligned with 16s rDNA in NCBI, Greengenes and SILVA databases for the detection of bacteria associated with the samples. Further, sub species level of the quarantine pathogen was identified by PCR amplification. The optimized DNA extraction protocol enabled faster isolation of microbial DNA from seed potato tubers and DNA was sufficient for PCR amplification and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis. Out of twenty four samples analysed by NGS, the quarantine pathogen Pectobacteriumcaratovorum was detected only in one sample. In addition, subspecies level was confirmed as Pectobacteriumcaratovorum subsp. caratovorum. As this pathogen is the causal organism of soft rot and black leg diseases of potato, detection of the pathogen in asymptomatic potato tubers indicate the risk of latent infections associated with the imported seed lots.



      Haider Jarral, Farrukh Mehmood, Afif Ali

Abstract: Voice over IP is becoming increasingly a valid alternative to traditional telephony networks because of its low cost, higher flexibility and easy integration. On the other hand Spam over IP Telephony (SPIT) is increasing because of the same vey benefits. There have been numerous proposals in regard to prevention of SPIT however it is very difficult to place a call under the category of SPAM or not on the basis of computations since it totally relies on the uneasiness caused to the end user. Black Listing and Grey Listing are well known methods in SPIT prevention which is based on analyzing call detail records. This paper proposes a method of controlling the SPAM centrally through a server based on Grey Listing and Black Listing recording SPAM flag based on the digits entered by end user on the termination or during the call.



      Prof Vaibhav Gandhi, Dr C K Kumbharana

Abstract: India is 2nd largest country after China based on its population. Even whole country is divided based on different language, region, rituals and lots many differences. Efficient governance of such large country with such diversity is tough task. Government of India is aggressively using Information and Communication Technologies in their daily work to provide SMART (Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent) governance to every citizen of India. The tools, technology and methods used in E-Governance application provide a roadmap for effective and timely delivery of services at the door step of citizen. Majority of regular interaction of government and citizen is done through Local Bodies of government. Local Body is classified in Urban Local Body (ULB) and Rural Local Body (RLB). Purpose of this paper is to examine E-Governance implementation in Local Bodies in India.



      Dr. Nitasha Sawhney

Abstract: River Tawi, the life line of the people of Jammu, provides water for the essential requirements of life to the inhabitants. However, the river is continuously subjected to tremendous anthropogenic pressure resulting in the degraded water quality. In this study, water samples from river Tawi were monitored for various physico-chemical parameters like dissolved oxygen, EC, TDS, pH, temperature, Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Nitrates and Phosphates on monthly basis for two consecutive years at four preselected stations with a view to evaluate its ecological best designated use for various purposes. The study indicates that the quality of water substantially decreases at downstream stations thereby rendering the water unfit for human use.



      Cui Ye

Abstract: It is no doubt that Philippines has undergone an immense diversification all over the world. As a country where the religious belief that reigns is Catholicism, the researcher focused on the college students at Bulacan State University. The researcher conducted this research through the dissemination of questionnaires among students, induction and statistics, analysis and summary, to understand the religious psychology and behavioral characteristics of Filipino college students in the new age. Also, the perceptions of diverse religious beliefs and the view about the development of Catholicism in Philippines are given strong emphasis. In the end, the researcher aims to extrapolate the religious values of Filipino college students under the background of diversification.



      Shahidul Islam, Mohammad Mahbub Islam, Md. Abubakar Siddik, Nigar Afsana, MominulHaque Rabin, Md. Delwar Hossain, Suraya Parvin

Abstract: The present study was carried out to examine the effect of different planting dates on growth, flowering and fruit yield of tomatoduring November 2013 to April 2014. Threetransplanting were done at an interval of 10 days. The different transplanting dates were; December 10, December20 and December 30. The experimental results showed that different planting dates showed significant influence on growth and reproductive characters of tomatoincluding fruit yield. The first transplanting date, December 10 resulted in improvement of all the attributes including increased plant height (63.54 cm), leaf number (33.3), flower number (71.15 days), fruit number (41.98 days), number of flowers plant-1 (150), number of fruit plant-1(86.08) and yield per hectare (85 t) compared to 2ndtransplanting date, December 20 and 3rd transplanting date, December 30.Therfore, it is suggesting that earlier transplating produced higher friut yield of tomato.



      Prerana Nikhil Mahajan

Abstract: In This Paper things is becoming online, so human tendency has changed, they try to do every things from home using Internet. Election is also becoming onlineHere an image based and biometric authentication is used. Use of homomorphic technique encrypts the casted vote stored securely in vote casting and recording server. Also the system is very user friendly.



      Dr. Ali Hussein Ni'ma

Abstract: This research aims to study the effect of the solar activity on the correlation between the electron temperature Te with both maximum peak height hmF2 and the maximum electron density Nemax for F2 region. The data used has been obtained using the International Reference Ionosphere IRI-2012 model which gives overall description of ionospheric parameters. The results show that the effect of high solar activity on the cross correlation coefficient (CCC) of (Tewith hmF2) has an intangible change at equator and no correlation will control it, while for other latitudes, the high solar activity try to shift the CCC from negative to no correlation especially at high latitudes. The second correlation (Te with Nemax), CCC at equator change from positive correlation to no correlation. For mid latitude, the process is opposite. Finally, for high latitude, the process is a typical for an equator.



      H.M.G.Y.J.Hennayake

Abstract: The products and services offered by banks are very similar. The differentiator is the level of service quality. Many studies have been conducted to explore the impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in retail banking. However; it finds fewer studiesconducted to identify the impact of Human Related and Non-Human Related Factors of perceived service quality on customer satisfaction with special reference to rural economic contexts. Alongside the research context briefed, the key purpose of this study was to examinehow perceived service quality factorsimpact on Customer Satisfaction. Data was collected through a sample of 210 respondents from Puttlam District.



      Dr. H. K. M. M. B. Kavisekara, Dr W D N Sanjeewani

Abstract: CPD (CPD) is very important for medical professionals. It improves patient safety and other patient care outcomes. Revalidation is a process to ensure standard of practicing medical professionals. Sri Lanka currently does not have a proper CPD process or a revalidation system for medical professionals.



      Do Thi Ha

Abstract: This paper investigated the application of Multidimensional Three-Parameter Logistic model (M3PL) in assessing and evaluating an English multiple-choice test. Guessing parameter, when put in the picture, has been proved to strengthen the results of test validation. The data was gathered from 488 non-English majors taking an English final test at a university in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The findings, therefore, suggest how M3PL can be utilized in the test development process.



      WigitJatmiko, Arif Imam Suroso, dan GendutSuprayitno

Abstract: This study aims to group universities in Indonesia based on a various quality variables of universities that had been documented in the Data Base of Higher Education (PD Dikti) in order to develop the implementation of higher education in Indonesia. Variables that had been documented in PD Diktiamong other is the quality variable of higher education,that are the number of students, the ratio of the average GPA tomaximum GPA, the number of department, the average number of students per department, the ratio of lecturer to student, the ratio of tenured lecturer to total lecturer, the ration of associate professor to professor, the ratio of certified lecturer, the ratio of lecturer titled master degree, the ratio of lecturer titled doctorate degree. These variables were obtained from data of higher education implementation that consist of institution data, department, student, and lecturer. By using a cluster analysis, this study showed that universities in Indonesia were formed into two groups. The first group consisted of universities with characteristics whose all factor valueswere above the average from the group formed that most members of this group were state universities and the second group consisted of universities with the characteristic factor where all factor valueswere lowthat some members of this group were private universities.



      Md. Abu Hasnat, Kamrul Islam Talukder

Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on the trends and bank behaviors during the global financial crisis. This paper criticizes banking sector during the financial crisis. Based on our deep analysis throughout the paper, funding and risk taking behaviour that can be found are the bank trends and behavior that had been practiced during the global crisis. This paper also focuses on the bank behavior and the financial market. The finding of the paper is the incongruity between the short-term funding and long-term funds had built up more liquidity risks. The study also finds the bank behavior that well-capitalized banks may react less to yield shocks and their profits could be less sensitive to the business fluctuations, as their portfolio decisions may vary from those taken by less promoted banks.



      Fajar Ropi, Idqan Fahmi, Gendut Suprayitno

Abstract: This study aimed to analyze the impact of product quality on satisfaction and user loyalty of Garuda Indonesia Corporate Partner Program, due to good product will drive user satisfaction so that loyalty to a product that will finally provide more benefits to the company and then to analyze competitive bussines in airline industry The data analysis techniques were Descriptive Statistic, Fishbein Model ans Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results indicate that the strategic priority in airline industry for corporate partner. It is a strategy of providing all the atribut and factor that affect the selection of corporate partner in airline industry.



      R.S. Banu, W.D. Ratnasooriya, A.S. Dissanayaka, R.N.Pathirana

Abstract: This study wasaimed at investigating the sun protective activities of leaves of three Sri Lankan croton plants, Codiaeumvariegatum,C.variegatum type 1 and C.variegatum type 2 (family :Euphorbiaceae) in vitro using UV spectroscopic technique and Mansur equation. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) values were determined (which is an index of sun protection activity) using 0.2 mg/mL of methanolic crude extract of each plant. Dermatone ® and Suncote® were used as reference agents. Phytochemical profile of C.variegatum was also investigated using standard protocols and TLC analysis. The results showed that crude extracts of leaves of C.variegatum type 1 and C.variegatum type 2 exhibit mild sun protective activity,( SPF values of 6.39± 0.08 and 8.48± 0.10 respectively) whilst C.variegatum has high SPF value (18.25 ± 0.22). And also reference agents Dermatone® and Suncote®had high SPF values (25.05 ± 0.33 and 27.54 ± 0.35 respectively). Flavonoid fraction of C.variegatum from TLC studies displayed a higher SPF value (25.92 ± 0.32) which is higher than the SPF value of its crude extract. Phytochemical screening of C.variegatum crude extract showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, alkaloids and diterpenes. It is concluded that the sun protection activity of C.variegatumis mediated primarily by flavonoids via its antioxidant activity and this plant is a promising source to develop a cheap, consumer friendlyand efficacious sunscreen formulation.



      HirinduKawshala, KushaniPanditharathna

Abstract: This study examines the effect of bank specific factors of profitability in Sri Lankan domestic commercial banks.This study conducted with a complete panel data and utilized the sample frame annual reports of the domestic commercial banks in Sri Lanka. A regression analysis is built on a strongly balanced panel data set including 60 observations of 12 Sri Lankan domestic commercial banks over the period 2011-2015.Bank size, Capital, Deposits, and Liquidity have been identified as independent variables and Profitability as the dependent variable.



      W.G.D.S Wehigaldeniya, P.A.L Oshani, I.M.N.S Kumara

Abstract: This study will ease the unscientific belief that most parents and teachers have the overweight persons are sluggish, lazy and sleepy; therefore would not do well in academic programme at the university. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between academic achievement and body mass index (BMI) of undergraduate students at the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Researcher hypothesized that H1 -There is a relationship between BMI and Academic Performance. Actabit BMI calculator and Grade Point Average (GPA) scores were used to collect data. Researcher has collected responses from undergraduate students in faculty of social sciences and humanities. BMI was calculated from each student’s height and weight recordings.



      Mohamed Nur Adli K.,Thurgaa R, Beulah Devakirubai G., Fatimah Zahidah F., Luqmanul, Hakim Z., Muhammad Ikram H.,Geetha S., Siti Amira J., Sabariah A.H

Abstract: Autism is a complex disorder of brain development characterized by a variable mixture of compared capacity for reciprocal socio-communicative interaction. A study in Malaysia shows that the community has bad perception towards autism. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude of community in Dengkil towards autism. A cross sectional study was done by using universal sampling. Respondents that fulfill the inclusion & exclusion criteria were interviewed with validated questionnaires and data were analyze using SPSS. Only 47.4% of the respondents have good knowledge on autism, however 94.9% have positive attitude towards autism. A long-term health intervention program (HIP) should be implemented so that the community could increase the knowledge of autismand spread their understandings to their family and friends.



      Sandi Utomo, Syamsul Ma’arif, Sadikin Kuswanto

Abstract: Building an organization or institution, both public and private institutions, in addition to the necessary funds also mature strategy when developing human resources. Thus, organizations or institutions will be a body that tactical and efficient. HR planning is an important element in the development strategy of the institution. The availability of qualified human resources in the right quantities is absolutely necessary in every institution. The exact number of employees who can be known through the analysis of the workload and workforce needs. Workload becomes important to note because the institution is fundamental to the identification of how well an employee doing the job. The exact numbers of employees who will assist institutions to further improve its effectiveness. Through systematic HR planning program can be estimated that the number and type of labor required. One method to measure the employee needs to see the work load is a Work Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) method, even this method has been standardized by the United Nations (UN) through the World Health Organization (WHO).



      Ashish Indani, Srinivas Reddy Boreddy, Nadeem Ansari

Abstract: Literature search is a commonly used strategy or a method of collecting evidence on a given research question, specifically for a Clinical Evaluation Report. A precise literature search not only provides accurate evidence but also saves time and efforts during collation of such data. However, unless implemented correctly, literature search can be misleading, time-consuming, or useless. Focusing the literature search on a precise topic and obtaining relevant evidence in a stipulated time requires high skill levels. Despite several guidance documents and papers, the process of literature search has various types of errors.



      MuhammedJubranAL-Mamari, ShabanaHameed

Abstract: This paper is a discussion on the consonant clusters and syllable structure found inMehri language, spoken in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, in the Republic of Yemen, by the Mahrainhabitants in the desert steppe of Yemen, and in Oman particularly in the mountains of Dhofarand in the Omani desert plateau in Sultanate of Oman. Mehri language is a Modern South Arabian language (MSALs) that descended from the Semitic languages of the Afro-Asiatic language family. This paper gives concise study of consonant clusters in Mehri language. There are two types of consonant clusters in the language; initial and final clusters. Initial clusters in Mehri are formed by combining voiced bilabial nasal /m/ with voiced alveolar stop/d/ or voiced alveolar approximant/l/. Also by combining voiced alveolar nasal /n/ with voiceless uvular fricative/ χ / or voiceless labio-dental fricative /f/. And final cluster by combining voiced bilabial glide /w/ and voiced palatal glide/j/ with /b/, /k/,/ɬ/./f/,/b/, /t/, /n/and /l/.Only two consonant is permitted to form cluster in initial and final. Mehri has two kinds of syllables: open syllables (CV), (CV:) and closed syllables (CVC), (CV: C), (CVCC). Mehri has three patterns of syllables: Monosyllabic forms, Disyllabic forms, Trisyllabic forms.



      Arshia Naaz, Saloni Swaroopa and A. K. Choudhary

Abstract: Wastewater commonly use in irrigation for several crop plants growth. The reason is because it contains various important micro and macro-nutrients which are useful for crop development. However the content of nutrients in wastewater completely depends on their origin of source. Moreover such variations in nutrients availability greatly influence the particular crop growth. In the present study we addressed the effect of heavy metal industry, Heavy Engineering Corporation (H.E.C.) wastewater on growth of Vicia faba (Broad bean). Different concentrations of H.E.C. effluent (0% - 100%) were used to examine their effect on development of Vicia faba morphologies. We found that 20% effluent concentration is most suitable for development of different morphologies of Vicia faba, indeed support the maximum growth. At higher concentrations (40% - 100%) development of crop is significantly compromised suggesting certain constituents in effluent are present excess than their tolerance limit. Nonetheless, 20% effluent concentration contains optimum micro and macro-nutrients as well as other components which are useful for better growth of Vicia faba.



      Hirindu Kawshala

Abstract: The multi-dimensional view of Core Competence is addressed differently by different scholars (Barney, 1991; Javidan, 1998; Collins, Smith and Clark, 2005). However, theoretical basis in this regard is still fragmented. Thus, we conceptualize the notion of core competencies. Core competence, resources and competence have been identified as the main constructs of the study. Subsequently, two propositions were developed and model was constructed based on the literature reviewed. We postulate, Capabilities, competencies and resources are the dimensions of core competencies and identical core competencies lead to gain a competitive advantage for a firm. Furthermore, competitive advantages usually proceeds to grow a firm.



      Tomba I.

Abstract: The efficiency of a cryptographic algorithm is based on the time taken for encryption/decryption and the way it produces different cipher-text from a clear-text [1]. An alternative approach was suggested for handling ASCII characters in the cryptosystem, a magic square implementation to enhance the efficiency by providing add-on security to the cryptosystem. The encryption/decryption is based on numerals generated by magic square rather than ASCII values and expected to provide another layer of security to any public key algorithms such as RSA, EL Gamal etc.



      Neneng Miskiyah, Taufiq, Tatang AM Sariman, Rosmiyati Chodijah

Abstract: This study discusses job mobility Major cities in South Sumatera, namely Palembang, Bandar Lampung and Jambi. In this study, the occupational mobility divided into two (2) categories: (1) to move jobs, and (2) do not change jobs. The data used is the cross section data obtained through field surveys. By using binary logistic regression equation, the estimation results show that the variables of work experience, and age variables significantly affect job mobility.



      S.M. Abul Kalam Azad, Md. Bellel Hossain, Md. Mizanur Rahman

Abstract: The current new algorithmic approach to solve the Transportation Problem (TP) is based upon the Total Opportunity Cost (TOC) of a Transportation Table (TT). Opportunity cost in each cell along each row of a TT is the difference of the corresponding cell value from the lowest cell value of the corresponding row. Similarly, opportunity cost in each cell along each column of a TT is the difference of the corresponding cell value from the lowest cell value of the corresponding column. Total Opportunity Cost Table (TOCT) is formed by adding the opportunity cost in each cell along each row and the opportunity cost in each cell along each column and putting the summation value in the corresponding cell. The current algorithm considers the average of total opportunity costs of cells along each row identified as Row Average Total Opportunity Cost (RATOC) and the average of total opportunity costs of cells along each column identified as Column Average Total Opportunity Cost (CATOC). Allocations of costs are started in the cell along the row or column which has the highest RATOCs or CATOCs. The Initial Basic Feasible Solution (IBFS) obtained by the current method is better than some other familiar methods which is discussed in this article.



      Yidersal DagnawDinberu, Man Wang

Abstract: The study conducted to examine the effect of state and private Ownership on the Profitability of the Commercial Banking Sector in Ethiopia initiated following the emergence of researches, in different economic set ups, with varied results on the effect of Ownership structure on the performance of banks. The research used panel data set of 8 banks operating in the sector for more than 10 years in Ethiopia, where the financial sector is at its enfant stage and closed for foreign investors, for the period covering 2005 to 2014. The mean Profitability of the commercial Banks under study were described, compared, and then tested for the relationship between Banks’ Profitability and Ownership Structure using pooled OLS Regression model with Dummy Ownership Variable. After performing some statistical tests, Return on Equity (ROE) has been used as a measure of Profitability. The result shows that there is a significant outperformance of state owned commercial banks than private competitors during the period. Of the control variables used, bank size, liquidity, loans and advances, and bank capitalization have been found to have significant effect on profitability of the commercial banking.



      K. Sreenivasulu, P.Saifulla khan, R. Sreenivasulu

Abstract: Schiff base, 1-[2,4–dihydroxy phenyl] ethanone [RPT] Ligand is a new chromogenic reagent have not been used so far for the determination of copper and cadmium in trace quantities. Effect of pH on wave height for Cu-[RPT] and Cd-[RPT] systems have been studied at pH 6.5-11.0 in 0.1 M NaNO3, and 0.002 % Triton -X-100 which increases the stability of the complex. Effects of Ligand concentrations, height of mercury column, metal ion concentrations on Copper and Cadmium on wave height at pH 10.0 have been studied. The author also investigates metal-ligand ratio and stability constants of cadmium-RPT by reversible system.



      Md. Abu Hasnat, Meshkat Mahbub, Kamrul Islam Talukder , Tasnim Mubasshira

Abstract: As one of Asia's leading telecommunications groups, Axiata has investments in mobile network operations, network infrastructure, and digital internet companies, serving almost 300 million subscribers in 10 countries across the region. In 1015, revenue is USD 5.1 billion, profit after tax USD 0.7 billion. Market capitalization is USD 13.2 billion. They have 275 million subscribers across the nations and employees are 25000. The aim of the study is to investigate the company in term of their business strategy, core competence, competitiveness, the role of technology and management system operation. The study found that One of the important business strategies of Axiata is doing some acquisition of telecommunication companies in several countries which this thing will increase their level of competency, competitiveness and market shares in Asia. In term of the role of technology, Axiata Group also has taken over and built up the strategic companies which those companies knew as a company which based on advanced technology to support Axiata core business such as Edotco and Axiata Digital. Furthermore, in term of management operation the company applying lean system concept which improves operating performance by focusing on the continuous flow of products, materials or services through the value stream by identifies and eliminates all type of waste or non-value-added activities.



      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda, KC Kapukotuwa

Abstract: Urolithiasis is one of the major problems in urology practice. The health care providers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices are important factors causing delay in treatments. The objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding urinary tract stones among final year medical students. This study was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted over a period of six months with 102 students within the age range of 22 to 28 years. The mean age was 25.21 ±1.041years and mean knowledge score was 72.72%. Out of the sample 55.55% had positive attitudes towards the urolithiasis. There were 90.12% (n= 92) of them recommended to drink more than 2 liters of water instead of other liquids for patients who suffered from kidney stone disease. Out of the sample 83.35% (n=85) participants agreed to advice to avoid highCa containing foods. Therefore the knowledge and practices of medical students towards urolithiasis was good and attitudes were poor.



      Prof. Ravi Kumar

Abstract: All engineered construction resting on the earth must be carried by some kind of interfacing element called a foundation. The foundation is the part of an engineered system that transmits to, and into, the underlying soil or rock the loads supported by the foundation and its self-weight. The resulting soil stresses except at the ground surface are in addition to those presently existing in the earth mass from its self-weight.



      Abdullahi, S. Ayegba, Musa Abdul and Adejoh Joshua

Abstract: This study was aimed at the determination of the relationships between the global solar radiation, relative humidity and mean air temperature of Ikeja, Lagos state Nigeria, for the month of June, 2016. The data of minimum and maximum temperature as well as the relative humidity and Microsoft excel tool was used for this work. From the study, it was observed that global solar radiation is affected by both the mean air temperature and relative humidity. The positive correlation of 0.460648 (46.648%) shows that global solar radiation increases with increase in mean air temperature. While global solar radiation increases with decrease in relative humidity based on its negative correlation value of -0.47686 (-47.686%). An accurate knowledge of solar radiation distribution at a particular location is very useful in the sizing of the thermal solar systems to estimates their performances.



      Ombanda Paul Olendo, Dr, Florence Muindi

Abstract: The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between employee retention practices and OCB at D.T.Dobie (K) Limited. The factors explored on retention practices were Recruitment and selection, Realistic Job Preview, Corporate Image, Organizational Culture, Leadership style, Employee Relations, Communication, Reward and Recognition, Training and Development, Work Life Balance and Geographical Location/Transfers. The study then explored the intervening relationship of OCB factors thus; Helping Behaviours/ Altruism, Sportsmanship, Loyalty/General compliance, Conscientiousness/ Individual imitative, Civic Virtue and Courtesy.



      NawalElgadiry , IsmaeilHammuda

Abstract: Term economic diplomacy, then, is of French origin (La diplomatieeconomique). Bearing in mind the traditional ties of French and Russian school of diplomacy, the term has been established, and in the Russian terminology (ekonomicheskaјaDiplomacy). Unlike them, the American or Anglo-Saxon terminology uses the term international business and trade diplomacy (International business trade or diplomacy).



      M.S.Ali, M.M. Rahman, M.A.A.Mamun

Abstract: This study presents the comparison between circular and Schrödinger waves. The Hankel functionsH_0^((1) ) (mr) and H_0^((2) ) (mr) which are the solution of circular waves (sink)when combined with e^(-ikt)and diverging wave (source) when combined with e^ikt respectively. Moreover the functions J_0 (mr) and Y_0 (mr) of x=mr suggest that each have a damped oscillatory behavior as x→∞ and that the positive and zeros of J_0 and Y_0 separate each other. On the other hand the Schrödinger wave equation represent that the positive (+) sign is a wave traveling in the +x direction and the negative (-) sign for traveling in the -x direction. In this study the authors have tried to find out the comparison between the circular wave and Schrödinger wave on the basis of monochromatic plane wave.



      Geetha.T and Poongothai. T

Abstract: The loss of skeletal muscle mass during aging, sarcopenia, increases the risk for falls and dependence. Resistance exercise (RE) is an effective rehabilitation technique that can improve muscle mass and strength however older individuals are resistant to the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with traditional high-intensity RE.



      Boaz K. Ingari, Ibrahim Ali

Abstract: The concept of inter-firm knowledge sharing in public service delivery outsourcing has not been fully realized in Kenya’s county governments’ public service outsourcing strategies.Studies show that outsourcing strategies do not always work successfully unless the client and vendor align their interests and establish collaborative partnerships. The effective management of relationships in these partnerships is key to their success.Knowledge sharing is one of the strategies that firms are adopting to foster and build a reliable long lasting mutual relationship.



      Sanjay Kumar, Shivam Vats, Siddharth Shukla, Shiv Shankar

Abstract: A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network or VANET is a technology that has moving vehicles as nodes in a network for creating a mobile network. Vehicular networks are very fast emerging for deploying and developing new and traditional applications. It is characterized by rapidly changing topology, high mobility, and ephemeral, one-time interactions. Our goal is to provide the better algorithm for solution to the inaccurate positioning due to signal loss in GPS locators.



      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda, KC Kapukotuwa

Abstract: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) represents the gold standard of surgical therapy for the management of symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction due to the prostate. This is a major operative procedure. The objective of this study was to analyze histological findings of Trans Urethral Resection of Prostrate (TURP). The study sample included the patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostatomegaly who came to the genitourinary clinic. There were 444males who underwent TURP as the surgical treatment for BPH. According to the results, out of the sample 14.9 %( n=66) found to have prostate carcinoma, 83.8 % (n=372) were Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, 61.5 %( n=273) exhibits intra prostatic inflammation, 1.6 % (n=7) were Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) and 10.4% (n=46) had squamous metaplasia. In the cancer group with a mean age of 66.3(SD=8.9) years, 16.7% coexisted with chronic prostatitis, 4.5% and 3.1% coexisted with PIN and squamous metaplasia respectively. Of the prostate cancer the Gleason grading was favorable (2-6) in 66.7% cases, 19.7% had intermediate (7) and 13.7% had unfavorable Gleason grade (8-9). As the conclusion, chronic prostatitis is more prominent than the acute prostatitis. However, chronic prostatitis is less with dysplasia and compare to total population dysplasia present is lower than the hyperplasia in our study.



      Vikas Singh Gangwar, Chandan Prasad, Akanksha Gaur, Varsha Srivastava and lokesh Saxena

Abstract: Soil samples from two different city hospitals were collected pre-treated along with several antibiotics for primary screening of numerous microbes were cultured after serial dilution over sterile nutrient agar plates. A total of three isolated were identified and purified from the samples, further screened for individual antibiotics at their respective varying concentrations and found that isolates 2nd is strong resistant against antibiotics selected in the study. Morphological, biochemical and physiological properties were analysed for all the isolates.



      Prof. Patrick L. Akpan , KaluAgwuUkpai

Abstract: It is an established fact that small businesses are adjudged critical to the development of any nation’s economy. They remain excellent sources of wealth creation, poverty reduction and development of indigenous entrepreneurs. Unfortunately, small scale businessesin Nigeria, particularly in Makurdi metropolis have high rate of collapse. In recognition of the increasing failure of small businesses in Nigeria, the study sets to examine the influence of succession planning on survival of Small Scale Businesses in Makurdi metropolis. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study with a sample size of 120 persons drawn from the population of 560 small business owners. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation and hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Variance. The study revealed that manpower training influences longevity of small scale businesses and there was no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female entrepreneurs on influence of manpower training on the longevity of small scale businesses in Makurdi metropolis. The implication is that business owners should have a succession plan in place to ensure continuity and sustainability. On the strength of the above, it was recommended among others that owners of companies should propose successors for their business in good time so as to allow enough time for training that could see their business survive through several generations.



      Anne M Syallow, Dr. Hellen Mberia, and Dr. Julius Bosire

Abstract: This study seeks to appraise the role of organizational communication on employee job satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Kenya in a bid to improve its effectiveness and applicability in the industry. It aims to achieve this by (1) Examiningthe role of organizational flow of information on employee job satisfaction (2)evaluating the role of communication climate on employee job satisfaction (3)Assessing the role of nature of information on employee job satisfaction and (4)Evaluating the role of information load on employee job satisfaction in telecommunication industry inKenya. In view of the background and literature review, it was found that, organizational communication plays a vital role in ensuring employee job satisfaction. Also, the attributes of organizational flow of information, communication climate, nature of information being shared with employees, and information load, all work together for the benefit of employees’ productivity and satisfaction at work. The study concluded that, the interplay and harmony of these aspects ensure effective organizational communication that leads to job satisfaction. Therefore, there is need to ensure that proper communication strategies are employed in all organizations.



      Nick W. Namunga

Abstract: Despite the government strengthening capacities of education managers, inducting subject teachers and funding day secondary education, many secondary schools still perform poorly in KCSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of supervision of instructional practices on teaching and learning in sub-county secondary schools in Bungoma County. The study adopted a mixed methods approach and a descriptive survey design. The study was based on Glatthorn’s theory of differentiated supervision which advocates for use of different supervision approaches for different circumstances. Using purposive and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 44 principals, 369 class teachers and 369 class prefects was selected to participate in this study, giving a sample size of 782 respondents Data was collected by using questionnaire and interview.



      Nick W. Namunga

Abstract: This study determined the relationship between teacher and student motivation and academic performance of students in secondary schools of Bungoma County. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of teacher and student motivation on teaching and learning in sub-county secondary schools in Bungoma County. The study was based on the Herzberg’s theory of motivation. The study adopted a mixed methods approach and a descriptive survey design. Using purposive and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 44 principals, 369 class teachers and 369 class prefects was selected to participate in this study, giving a sample size of 782 respondents Data was collected by using questionnaire and interview.



      Nyarondia Samson Mecha

Abstract: The strategy of giving micro-loans to the youth for their empowerment more especially the poor youth in the rural areas is very important for the youth as well as the country as a whole.The research studies which have been done on youth empowerment indicates that at least there has been some improvements on their standard of living and that at least some degree of empowerment has taken place in their lives. On the other hand there has been limitations in defining empowerment in economic terms only but the researcher here proposes that its multidimensionality meaning of the concept should be adopted that is, it’s meaning in economic, social and political terms. This review of literature has captured the use of power theories that is: power over, power within, power with and power to, at the same time the researcher has applied the Resource, Agency and Achievement theories to explain the empowerment concept of the youth. Finally the researcher has developed a simple conceptual framework where Micro-credit is an independent variable, empowerment as a dependent variable and intervening variables as: culture, economic conditions, and levels of education.



      Wogene Solomon and AgenaAnjulo

Abstract: Soil fertility decline is one of the principal factors contributing to low productivity of crops and food insecurity in Ethiopia. A study was conducted at Doyogena with the aim to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels i.e. 0, 23, 46 and 69 kg/ha N on yield and yield component of three bread wheat varieties. A factorial approach in randomized complete block design with three replications was used.



      Tesfaye Wossen

Abstract: Cultivation practices of white cumin (ajowan) particularly nutrient requirement differ to a certain extent in various soil and climatic conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2007 to 2008 to determine economically feasible rate of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on white cumin. A treatments consisted of 4 nitrogen rates (0, 15, 30 and 45kg/ha) and 4 phosphorus rates (0, 10, 20 and 30kg/ha) was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications planted at two locations per year. The seeds were sown in the second week of July and harvested on the last week of December. Data on plant height, and seed yield. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS Statistical Software V8. The pooled data revealed that 45/30 N/P2O5 kg/ha fertilization recorded highest yield (whole part grounded) of 4.5t/ha over the unfertilized (2.7t/ha). Application of 45/30 N/P2O5 kg/ha gave highest net benefit (12122birr/ha) with acceptable marginal rate of return (208). Sensitivity analysis also revealed that 45/30 NP application gave the highest net benefit (9281birr/ha) with acceptable marginal rate of return (105). Fertilizer rate of 45/30 N/P2O5 kg/ha were economical rate and recommended to Takusa and similar white cumin growing areas based on this research output, but to come up with optimum rates, further study will be conducted of higher rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.



      H.K.M.D.K. Kavisekara, H.K.M.M.B. Kavisekara

Abstract: Motivation seems to be one of the most important tools of Human Resource Management. Organizations design motivation systems to encourage employees to perform in the most effective way but also to attract potential candidates. Employee motivation is a significant psychological aspect of management. To maximize the effort of employees, there should be a mechanism of motivation. This study sought to investigate the perception of motivation on the performance of Grama Niladaries attached to Kandy and Harispaththuwa Divisions. Specially, the study sought to find out whether motivation of GNs had any effect on their morale to perform and: the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the performance of the GNs.


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