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IJSRP, Volume 5, Issue 12, December 2015 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
December 2015 publication has started and publication will continue till 18th December 2015.
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd December, their paper will publish in December edition latest by 24th December.
Online print version will release latest by 30th December. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 24th December and minor corrections are accepted till 22nd December 2015.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Llogari Casas Cambra, Gerard Herrera Sagué

Abstract: This research paper develops an Interactive Mirror Experience using Web-based technologies. Its main aim is to identify and list the perceptions and reactions of the users when they interact with it. Therefore, further evaluation from the User-Experience point of view is performed and analyzed in order to incentivize the usage of this new bright technology.



      Patrick VAUDON, Alain REINEIX

Abstract: "Solutions of Dirac equation are well known in terms of bi-spinors, but the complete determination of these spinors is always derived using the assumption that the wave function is a plane wave. We investigate in this paper the search of general solutions under the form of standing wave modes, using methods issued from electromagnetism. It is shown that such solutions exist as solutions of a system of 64 equations and 64 unknowns, and that they must be associated with a relativistic relation of energy conservation. Complete exact solutions are presented. It is shown that these solutions highlight in a new manner the duality wave-particle, and the uncertainty principle."



      Shabir Ahmad, Sajjad Geelani, Javid Rasool

Abstract: ITP is a common acquired autoimmune disorder defined by a low platelet count secondary to accelerated platelet destruction or impaired thrombopoiesis by antiplatelet antibodies. Aim: we aimed to assess the possible role of vincristine as second line drug in chronic steroid refractory ITP. Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and included all adult patients (n=50) diagnosed as ITP who were previously treated unsuccessfully with steroids. All patients received four doses of vcr 1.5 mg/m2/wk for four consecutive weeks. This was followed by observing plt count on day 1, 3 & 7 for four consecutive weeks. Results: This study showed that out of all patients enrolled for this study 80% were females (n=40) and 20% were males (n=10). Among all female patients (n=40) 4%(n=2) showed no response, 58% (n=29) were partial responders and 18% (n=9) showed complete response. We had 10 male patients out of which 18% (n=9) showed partial response and 2%(n=1) showed complete response. Overall 4%(n=2) patients showed no response, 76%(n=38) showed partial response and 20%(n=10) showed complete response. Total number of patients which showed some response to VCR including both partial and complete response was seen in 96% (48) which is significantly high and statistically significant (pvalue≤0.0001).The average plt count before VCR was 4 and peak plt count achieved on an average was 79.2.Conclusion; vcr has a double advantage (cytostatic and thrombopoetic) that would be an advantage in ITP patients. Duration of response and relapse rate needs further studies.



      Dr.P. Senthil Kumar, B. Mohamed Harif & A. Nithya

Abstract: In this paper, our objective was to apply the response test to a population already known to have long-term hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation. We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percent age of cases, regard less of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) value based on fuzzy time series and genetic algorithms. The modified computational method adjusts the length of each interval in the universe of discourse for forecasting the Longitudinal Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) data on a fully remitted lithium responder for past 5 years who was asymptomatic and treated with lithium throughout the experimental results show that the modified computational method gets good forecasting results.



      Wameedh Hamid Shaker

Abstract: Objective: to assess thalassemic adolescents for their adherence to therapeutic recommendations. To find out whether the patients centered factors, disease and therapy related social and economic factors affective the adolescent's adherence to therapeutic recommendations.



      Sukawi, Agung Dwiyanto, Suzanna Ratih Sari

Abstract: The need for building decent and affordable housing for the middle to lower is increasing. Housing design done by the developers often have a uniform design of the design especially interms of building shape, building area and site area. Due to land limitation, it now appears that residential buildings are built with series model, so that they only have one facade. This is due to the neighborhood buildings are attached to the wall of our building either right, left or rear side.The use of roof ventilation in buildings is one way to improve the natural ventilation in addition to cross ventilation. One of the factors considered in the context of energy efficient is the use of climate such as solar and wind. This study emphasizes in the utilization of wind for natural ventilation, and the aim is to reveal the qualities of simple natural ventilation in high density environments. Building density is one of the factors that affect the principle of micro-climatic conditions in the room. With the density and shape of residential buildings that have only one facade, it needs tactics to be able to take advantage of climatic conditions and shape of the roof in residential buildings. This research is also addressed to identify and analyze the performance of natural ventilation with simple roofs ventilation in a neighborhood with high density. This study was conducted by comparing several roof models with ventilation that found in the study area by applying a ventilation stack. This comparison is to know how effective the roof ventilation design that can increase the effectiveness of roof ventilation design that can improve the air movement inside residential buildings in high density environments.



      Tahira Ahmed, Samreen Lodhi

Abstract: The research is about the barriers that are restricting the growth of Ecommerce in Pakistan. Pakistan has a lot of potential in Ecommerce but due to some factors it is not growing. The factors Fraud and Illiteracy were never discussed in any Research paper of Pakistan and it is detailed discussed in this paper which will help the researchers in future. A questionnaire survey has been used with closed ended questions with a sample size of 200 to collect data. The findings prove that the two factors are affecting the growth of Ecommerce. People do not prefer Ecommerce due to fraudulent scams and therefore buy directly. The result also tells us that due to illiteracy there is unawareness of computer and internet which is causing the abatement to growth of Ecommerce.



      Maha Jamal, Samreen Lodhi

Abstract: The significance of understanding impulse purchasing in retail stores was first acknowledged in the marketing literature over fifty years ago. Impulse purchase illustrates any purchase, which a consumer makes throughout it was not planned. This study aimed at highlighting the impact of external and internal factors that influence consumer impulse buying behaviour at super stores in Karachi. This paper contains two variables, i.e. Dependent variable “Consumer impulse buying behaviour” and Independent variables namely external factors (Visual merchandising, Shopping environment and Promotional activities), internal factors (Gender, Credit card and Hedonic motivation).



      Abaid Ullah Zafar, Mohsin Shahzad

Abstract: The research involves setting up a school for children in Lahore with the name of “Ideal Public School” on G.T Road, Lahore- Pakistan. The focus of this program is to provide students the highest quality education, in a safe and positive learning environment. For this purpose we shall hire experience teachers who play a very important role for the personal development of each student, they will be with students every step of the way to help them reach their individual goals (and maybe even reach some new goals they have never before thought possible).



      Meera D, Sanal Kumar M.G, Sherly P. Anand

Abstract: The pollution status of freshwater ponds in Chavara, an industrial area in Kollam district, south west coast of India was studied seasonally for a period of one year from January 2014 to December 2014. The parameters determined for the study were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, Chloride, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biological oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), sulphate and nitrate concentrations. The study revealed that maximum conductivity, TDS, Chloride, Total Hardness, BOD, sulphate and COD were recorded during summer and minimum during the monsoon season. pH and total alkalinity was found to be high in post monsoon period and low on summer. Maximum DO was recorded during monsoon and minimum on summer. Highest value of Nitrate was observed during pre monsoon and lowest value on summer. The study indicated that the waste water from the industrial area is deteriorating the water quality of nearby water bodies.



      Smitha Asok V, Neethu Mary Jobai and Rajesh Reghunath

Abstract: Water Quality Index (WQI), a technique of rating water quality, is a effective tool to assess overall quality of water and ensure sustainable safe use of water for various purposes. The present work is aimed to assess the pond water quality of Anad panchayath in Nedumangadu block for knowing the suitability of various purpose by calculating the WQI and using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Thirteen pond water samples were collected from the ponds of Anad panchayath for comprehensive physico-chemical analysis. Nine parameters were considered for calculating the WQI such as: pH, chloride, calcium, magnesium, total hardness and total dissolved solid, potassium, dissolved oxygen. The spatial distribution maps of the 13 parameters were prepared by using GIS software. The computed WQI value ranges from 10 to 23. The pond water of the study area fall in Good category indicating the pond water in the area is suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes.



      Arpita Mukherjee, Dr. Mukta Sharma

Abstract: Cancer is likely to emerge as the largest killer in India. World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated That 91% of oral cancer in South-East Asia is directly attributable to the use of tobacco and this is the leading cause of oral cavity and lung cancer in India. The people in India, particularly in rural and remote Areas are found struggling to receive timely medical treatment. The most common cancers are largely preventable. But, it is very difficult for these patients to get cured. Telemedicine might not be the only and ultimate solution for the problems identified within healthcare for lung cancer patients at Radiumhemmet, but it can work well as a supplement.



      Constantino Teixeira, Leandro Pereira, Claudia Teixeira

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding about the effective benefits of public investment projects carried out in Portugal, since their entry into the European Union, in 1986, so far and, additionally, to know the main causes for cost project deviations.



      Sidrat Ul Muntaha Anees, M. Sultan Bhat, and O. P. Mishra

Abstract: The purpose of the present research is to identify the earthquake resistant features of some selected Historical monuments of Srinagar city. The historical monuments selected for the study include, Jamia Masjid, Shrine of Shah-e-Hamdan, Mosque and Tomb of Madin Sahib, Patthar Masjid, Tomb of Zain-ul-Abidin’s mother and Mosque of Akhun Mulla Shah. A qualitative vulnerability assessment of the monuments is performed. The methodology includes the Literature survey and Rapid inventory of the monuments under study. The main indicators which were selected in the study for the visual inspection of the historical monuments include; Age of the monument, Building material, Earthquake resistant features, Renovation, Inspection of structural elements, Damages to structural features, Surrounding site conditions and Emergency measures available. The results of this study bring forth the traditional construction practices used in the construction of the surveyed historical monuments. We inferred that traditional methods of constructing structures may found more effective measures for safety of those structures, which can also be adopted into the present scenario to help construct disaster risk resilient buildings under the climate change scenario that influencing several types of natural disasters under the name of climate change induced disasters. In order to generate a comprehensive earthquake risk resilient building design codes it is imperative to augment the traditional building design codes with seismic microzonation observations of the Srinagar city that may provide information about the basement materials and properties of soils lying beneath the historical buildings in Srinagar that help assess the vulnerability map of the city for better urban planning.



      Gianna Mijares and Toni Didona

Abstract: This research study aimed to explore the frequency of organizational citizenship behaviors in the workplace. OCBs vary from culture to culture. Employed adults living in Mexico, Dominican Republic and United States of America were surveyed in order to compare organizational citizenship behavior between cultures. The study used a convenient sample that included 103 employed adults. The survey was conducted anonymously through the Internet and participants were asked to answer a researcher-developed questionnaire about how often an organizational citizenship behavior was performed by themselves or others, such as coworkers. This study expected to demonstrate significant differences in organizational citizenship behaviors across cultures. However, the results indicated that there was no significant difference across cultures in OCBs.



      Ali A. Al-Fahham

Abstract: Background Female infertility is one of the growing problems in the world and is considered as a multifactorial disease .



      Sumera Aurangzeb, Faiza Maqbool Shah

Abstract: Workforce downsizing has becomes a popular strategy done by management to reduce cost and increase profit. But on the other side, it effects on the workforce. Through the quantitative research, the current study examines the effects of downsizing on job satisfaction of existing employees in banking sector of Pakistan. The sample of the current study is drawn from the banking sector of Pakistan and the data is gathered through questionnaires from the sample size of 80 employees. The data is analyzed by applying one sample t-test to identify the relationship between downsizing and job satisfaction of employees and the questionnaire reliability analyzed by applying Cronbach’s alpha reliability in IBM SPSS version 19. The study used 5% significance level.



      M.Krishna Sudha, Dr. S. Sukumaran

Abstract: Latest distributed computing paradigm is cloud computing and it offers tremendous opportunities to solve large-scale problems. It is critical to evaluate the performance of cloud environments as the adoption and deployment of cloud computing increases. The number of active machines are matched dynamically to resource demands inorder to increase resource utilization. However based on extensive studies, existing solutions have not fully considered the heterogeneity of both workload and resource utilization found in computing environments. Currently, effective and efficient scheduling algorithms are needed for the better use of tremendous capabilities in large scale distributed system. Many such algorithms have been designed and implemented. New scheduling algorithm based on dynamic conventional scheduling Heuristics is designed to use their cons and at the same time overcome their pros. The cloud simulator Cloudsim is used to evaluate the proposed scheduling algorithm by comparing to its performance against the basic heuristics. Variety of scenarios is taken into consideration to show that the simulation results of the new heuristic algorithm leads to significant performance gain. Maximization in resource utilization and reduction in makespan are the two basic criteria used for the performance evaluation of the proposed Algorithm. The proposed algorithm proves that it is efficient than the other heuristic algorithms by reducing the make span and increasing the resource utilization.



      Cveta Martinovska Bande, Mimoza Klekovska, Igor Nedelkovski, Dragan Kaevski

Abstract: This paper compares recognition methods for two Old Slavic Cyrillic alphabets: Macedonian and Bosnian. Two novel methodologies for recognition of Old Macedonian letters are already implemented and experimentally tested by calculating their recognition accuracy and precision. The first method is based on a decision tree classifier realized by a set of rules and the second one is based on a fuzzy classifier. To enhance the performance of the decision tree classifier the extracted rules are corrected according to their accuracy and coverage. The fuzzy classifier consists of rules constructed by fuzzy aggregation of letter features. Both classifiers use the same set of discriminative features, such as number and position of spots in outer segments, presence and position of horizontal and vertical lines and holes, compactness and symmetry. We argue that the same feature set can be used for recognition of Old Bosnian letters. Moreover, due to the similarity of the graphemes and fewer letters we expect better efficiency of the recognition system for Bosnian letters.



      Mr.Ganesh K. Jadhav, Dr. P. M. Ghanegaonkar, Mr. Sharad Garg, Aakash Khatale, Manoj Gosavi, Nikhil Sali, Jayendra Ingale

Abstract: Turbo ventilator is wind driven conventionally used in industries for proper ventilation. Rotating turbo-ventilators are cost effective environmental friendly natural ventilation devices, which are used to extract polluted air from a building. For its performance testing, test rig is developed in which plenum chamber is act as the room from which stale air is to be thrown outside. Mass flow rate of the turbo ventilator is measured at the suction pipe of the plenum chamber. This paper aims at optimizing the shape and size of plenum chamber to be used during performance testing. From CFD analysis, deviation in differential pressure at different mass flow rate for different volumes is studied in this paper.



      Muatasim Anwar Ahmed Al Salmi, Assist. Prof. Dr. Norlena Bt Hasnan

Abstract: Every government is seeking to provide the best services to its country to achieve efficiency and accepted performance. This goal could be achieved by improving the service performance of the entire sectors in society. Billions of dollars was invested by governments in order to undertake their first step towards implementing the e-Government project and specially implementing the best methodology of all attached and correlated electronic-based services to it. Government of Sultanate of Oman has realized the importance of moving towards the information century.



      Tun Tun Naing, Khin Khin Lay

Abstract: Industrial processes create a variety of wastewater pollutants which are difficult and costly to treat. Wastewater characteristics and levels of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. The growth of industrialization leads to the rise of wastewater from various industries and so the pollution load on the environment is increasing. The high cost for the treatment and disposal of industrial wastewater is now become a challenging problem for developing countries. The sample used in this research was combine wastewater from distilleries, sugar factories, candy factories and textile dyeing factories. Among them, distilleries and textile dyeing factories are the most wastewater producing industries and the wastewater from these are not easily biodegradable. Total chemical oxygen demand COD of wastewater sample was too high about 30000 mg/l and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) also high over 7000 mg/l. Conventional wastewater treatment is not sufficient to treat this amount of pollution and chemical processes are now widely adapted.



      Samson Manjuru Mburu

Abstract: This study determines the impact of capital structure on the financial performance of non financial firms quoted at the Nairobi securities exchange (NSE) in Kenya for the period of 2009-2013. The study adopts an explanatory descriptive research design. A sample of 40 non financial firms listed at the NSE is drawn under judgmental sampling method. Secondary data is obtained from NSE hand book. Multiple regression method is used to analyze and test the hypothesis at 5% and 1% level of significance with the aid of statistical package for social sciences. The findings show that capital structure variables; current liabilities to total assets ratio, long term liabilities to total assets ratio and total liabilities to total assets ratio have a negative and significant effect on financial performance measured by return on assets for financial firms quoted on the NSE in Kenya. The study concludes that capital structure is an important determinant of firm’s financial performance as shown by prior studies.



      H. K. S. Hansini Athapaththu

Abstract: International advertising involves the distribution of a commercial message to target audiences in more than one country. It is the communication process that takes place in different cultures that differ in terms of values, rituals, consumption patterns and communication styles. Creation of commercial advertisements and buying media are the business activities involving in international advertising. Advertisers and the advertising agencies play a major role in advertising takes place in other countries. The target audiences in other countries or different geographical areas can be vary in terms of religion, language, how they perceive or interpret stimuli or symbols, most importantly culture the level of literacy as well as the way they respond to commercial appeals. Because of these differences in target audiences advertisers need to consider different degrees of two types of advertising strategies, standardization and adaptation. Even though the research in the field of international advertising produced numerous literatures, there is less attempts to assess the challenges in international advertising. This essay entails the difficulties the advertisers and the advertising agencies face in the international market.



      Akhtar Nishat, Pawar Monali, Afzal Anees, Priyanka Singh

Abstract: Broad ligament leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive soft tissue sarcoma. It is more commonly seen in postmenopausal women. Diagnosis can be difficult preoperatively and often it is confused with adnexal tumors. We herein report a case which was diagnosed as ovarian carcinoma by imaging studies but intraoperative findings and histopathology concluded it to be a broad ligament leiomyosarcoma.



      Prajakta chandgude, Ashwini Bhagwat, Mayuri Autade, Anjali Pansare

Abstract: k-means is one of the most used clustering algorithms due to its simplicity of understanding and efficiency. However, this algorithm is mostly sensitive to the chosen initial centers and thus a proper initialization is hard for obtaining an ideal solution. To overcome this problem, k-means++ one by one chooses the centers so as to achieve a optimal solution. Due to less scalability, k-means++ is not efficient as the size of data increases. To improve its scalability and efficiency, use MapReduce along with the k-means++ method which can reduce the number of MapReduce jobs by using only one MapReduce job to obtain k centers. In this the k-means++ initialization algorithm is run in the first phase called Mapper phase and secondly the weighted k-means++ initialization algorithm is run in the Reducer phase. As this new MapReduce k-means++ method replaces the instances among multiple machines with a single machine. As this iterations are going to perform on single machine it can reduce the communication and I/O costs significant.



      Swapnil Gholap, Govind Ekshinge, Parag Naik, Prof.S.D.Chavan

Abstract: The major challenge to any visually impaired person is to identify and avoid obstacles and to adapt themselves to the surrounding environment. Some of the conventional methods used by the visually impaired/challenged people to reach their destination are talking sign, guide cans, echolocations etc. In this paper, we have discussed some of the existing systems in this domain and we have proposed a novel idea that can be implemented with the help of wireless sensor networks (WSN) for easy navigation of visually impaired through public transport.



      Gurashish Singh, Peeyush Aggarwal, Ayush Aggarwal

Abstract: Owing to majority of accidents happening on transport roads due to sheer carelessness of drivers, there arises a dire need to devise a mechanism which can monitor the drowsiness state of the driver and this paper represents a mechanism in the form of software application. Our application is implemented using PYTHON language and has been tested with different test cases by the approach of GUI like different light conditions, close-ups, and along with facial and non facial features. We present the results based on the experimental study conducted.



      Mousumi Kundu

Abstract: Today every country is suffering from the problem of corruption. So it became a matter of worry for both governments and political scientists. Because corruption has a great number of negative consequents, not over the government but also all over the country. It effected the economic and political growth of a country. Mostly the developing has faced the problem.



      Hardik Mehta

Abstract: There has been an increased interest in sustainability in recent times and both business organizations as well as consumers have shown a rising concern for environmental issues. Construction industry in particular has been criticized for its contribution to environmental degradation. The study is based on a questionnaire survey of 100 customers in Delhi and their views regarding sustainability issues in residential real estate was analyzed to determine their preferences and analyze their views regarding the benefits that LEED certified sustainable residential real estate provides. Green construction projects have been found to be reducing carbon emissions , managing waste , use of cleaner fuels , low electricity bills , better quality of air etc. There is improved quality of lives and comfort for the occupants on account of the fact that there is better ventilation and good air quality. Based on the findings it could well be said that there seems to be a lack of awareness among people about the various certification schemes but the consumers have shown a growing interest in purchasing residential units that offer sustainable attributes. Environmental benefits have been perceived to be the strongest .



      Ambreen Sheikh, N Siddiqui, Quratulain S, Sheraz W

Abstract: Students of young age group are the most active donor population all over the world. This study targeted awareness of young age group and their willingness for blood donation. A questionnaire based survey was conducted with 500 students by cluster sampling design. Only 16.5% individuals were past donors. 84.5% mentioned willingness to donate in future among the group of non donors. We concluded that act of blood donation and attitude of students is related with the education given by their parents. On the other hand we find out that the positive responses for the future blood donation were mostly from the male students. Other factors participating are awareness, mental approach and fears.



      Muatasim Anwar Ahmed Al Salmi, Assist. Prof. Dr. Norlena Bt Hasnan

Abstract: In recent years, Internet and Information Technology growth has been the main driver and catalyst for demand of change in most of the business and service sectors in the world. There from, new technologies and concepts has changed government interaction with business, agencies, organizations and citizens (Lee, 2010; Rokhman, 2011) by establishing new service styles, such as: e-banking, e-commerce, e-voting …etc. Hence, they will permit new channels of interaction and communication between different government sectors and between government and business organizations. This interaction will lead to improvement in government performance and efficiency while interacting with the main and the most important category of this project which are customers. Specifically, customers in e-government and government point of view are citizens. This paper will furnish and review some contributions and advantages illustrated by different scholars of e-Government that would give better understanding of this technology to be conducted in different nations. A qualitative approach of Oman to discuss citizen’s point of view in accepting e-Government adoption and implementation.



      Uttera Chaudhary, Ankita Asthana

Abstract: Advertisement by involvement of celebrities becomes an essence in modern competitive marketing environment for high recognition and creation of strong product perception. These days this practice has been extremely noteworthy and the impact celebrities have on people is unparalleled. In a country like India which is known for adoring its celebrities, organizations have found an open door to influence the buying decision of people and are known to encash this in the best conceivable way by delegating them as their image ambassadors. Celebrity endorsements now play an important role from the perspective of brand building. This exploratory and quantitative research is aimed to assess the impact of celebrity endorsement in consumers’ purchasing decisions. The principle goal of this study is to look at the relationship or effect of big name on a brand and to further analyse consumers’ perception towards effectiveness of such endorsements on their brand loyalty.



      Ramaiah.Kollapudi, Nagamani.K, Latchaiah.P, Kishore.Mendam

Abstract: Empowerment is the expansion of asserts and capabilities of poor people to participate in negotiate with influence, control and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives. Education is one of the important sources of empowering women with the knowledge, skill and self confidence necessary to participate fully in development process. It enhances better socio-economic development. Women empowerment in India is highly dependent on several variables that include caste, class, family background and culture, Geographical location it may be urban or rural and age. The barriers of dalith women empowerment are discrimination in the society, economic disadvantages, religious practices, social believes and violence against women. They are unable to access health and educational services, lack decision making power and face higher level of violence. There is an immediate need for empowering dalith women in present scenario.



      Majed Mohamed . Hasan . Drbseh

Abstract: The use of English expressions frequently has helped the transfer of pragmatics rules, for language learners are very important. Language learners should not only acquire the correct forms and sounds of the target language, but also the knowledge of how language is pragmatically used in the target culture (Lee, 2002). It is significant to develop learners‟ pragmatic competence in the classroom so as to increase their intercultural communicative competence in English. Learning English involves learning variety of communicative acts, or speech acts, to achieve their communicative goals in real life, including: requests, refusals, apologies, etc. A speech act is an utterance that serves a function in communication (e.g., apology, request or greeting).



      Majed. M.H. Drbseh

Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to use one method (quantitative) to investigate the motivation and attitude of Arab students (Jordan, Egypt, Saudi and United Arab Emirate) pertaining to the study of English as a foreign language, the British people and the UK and the students’ future expectations about English. For example, Dornyei (2001) told that motivation remains the most important elusive concepts in the field of the social sciences. Karahan (2007) explain that the positive language attitudes let student have positive orientation toward English language. The official language in these countries is Arabic. Despite English is used extensively in Middle East Arab countries. However, despite English is considered as a foreign language, English occupies a unique place in the Arab countries and the rest of the world, for instance, at the business level, higher education’s, international communications, etc. It is also all of the countries have mentioned above were under the British occupation for many years.



      Majed. Mohamed .Hasan. Drbseh

Abstract: This paper deals with structure of the modern standard Arabic of news broadcasts in Jordan. Jordanian Radio and television, which are state owned, were created after the independence day of 1946 respectively. They broadcast most of their programs and news in modern Arabic. The bilingual private radio station, Radio of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which was launched broadcasts news in modern standard Arabic and English. Likewise, the services of the private channel, Television of the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan, which began operating at the early of 1960s, are characterized by modern Arabic and English bilingualism.



      Pratibha Goswami

Abstract: Employee’s value proposition refers to creating a balance between employee’s job satisfaction and performance of the employee in work culture. Employee’s Value Proposition can be used as an effective tool of employment branding as it outlines the desired and desirable requisites of employees related to employment. By creating the better recruitment objectives, identifying the needs of employment and the positioning of the employees at the right place, and by creating the values of existing employees in the organization.



      Arthiyan S, Jeyasutha R, Bakthameera K, Murugananthan A, Eswaramohan T

Abstract: This current study deals with the identification and the confirmation of the Heterometrus swammerdammi morphologically and molecularly from Jaffna peninsula. H. swammerdami is one of the scorpion species belongs to the family Scorpionidae. But, this is not an endemic species to Sri Lanka.



      Waleed Nour Eldien, Gurashi A.Gasmseed, Babiker K. Abdalla

Abstract: The presence of H2S in sour gas gives dangerous effect on environment. Therefore, H2S must be eliminated from the sour gas, and the corresponding phenomena of mass transfer with chemical reaction in sieve tray column have to be studied.



      Vrushali Patil, Mrunal Ghag-Sawant, Anjali Narayakkadan, Ashish Asrondkar, Anil Bobade and Mira Ramaiya

Abstract: The synthesis of benzothiazole derivatives and investigation of their chemical and biological behavior have gained more importance in recent decades. The structural formula of all derivatives was confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. A methanol extract of Pongamia pinnata, Syzigium cumini, Delonix regia, Adathoda zeylanica was done by Soxhlet. The combinations of the plant extracts with the organic compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant activity and checked for their cytotoxicity. Our findings indicate that the plant extract and organic compounds have a significant effect on biological evaluations.



      Dr. Saroj Jain

Abstract: The study of science helps individuals learn better those behavior patterns and skills that will enable them to fulfill their roles as members of the society. The study of mind mapping helped them understand concepts and ideas in science teaching in ix class. The study was conducted on total 100 students from 5 urban schools, including 50 boys and 50 girls. The study revealed that the performance of mind mapping group was better than the non mind mapping group in subject science.



      "Dr. Narendra Shah, Shivram Murty, Dr. Alka Jadhav, Dr. Mamta Manglani, Lavina Fernandes, Aparna Surve "

Abstract: This article describes a production unit narrating the processes used in constructing a demonstration unit for making MNT (Medical nutrition Therapeutic) food used during pilot facility trails at LTMCGH facilities in Sion-Mumbai, India. The unit served the requirements of making RUTF kind of products used in clinical trials during 2011-14. The production facility demonstrated that a production unit can be sustained using local ingredients and local skills are adequate to make Ready-to-use food formulations necessary to manage a strategy of administering foods in the “malnutrition-handling” programmes for health-care.



      M.G. Sanal Kumar, S. Thara, B. Bini, P. Priya

Abstract: Present work was designed to study the water quality of Thazhakkara segment of Achenkovil River based on physico-chemical, entomological and microbiological aspect following Water Quality Index and Family Biotic Index of aquatic insects. Sampling was done during summer season 2012. Three study sites were selected from the study segment as Vazhuvadi, Pottamelkadavu and Kunnam. Physico-chemical parameters like TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), Conductivity, Salinity, PH, Temperature, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, BOD, Nitrate, Phosphate were analyzed. Mean with standard deviation and ANOVA were taken. Water Quality Index was also analyzed. It has been observed that overall water quality index of Thazhkkara segment of river Achenkovil during summer season was 53, that is some of the parameters substantially exceeded the limit. Microbiological analysis showed that the level of fecal coli form was moderate during summer season. An average of 7.9 Family biotic index of aquatic insects were obtained during the study period. The results showed that the Achenkovil river water at Thazhkkara segment was polluted with numerous organic pollutants.



      S. Kirthika , B. Pradeep, B. Siddharth, S. Baranidharan, Abhinay Kumar Reddy

Abstract: Engineering is not just solutions to problems but an investigation to turn problems into solution to future problems. Space debris is a miscellany of objects in space which is a mixture of rocket stages, satellites, and fragments from disintegration, erosions and collisions. Space debris, considered as a danger and nuisance to active spacecrafts and future space missions are a collection of defunct objects orbiting the Earth. The density of this junk around earth increases due to collisions with other objects and with each other. It has been found that increase in their number is much faster than their decrease due to natural processes. This leads to an overall increase of junk with time, leading to the so called Kesseler's Syndrome. Hence the space debris is a serious threat to space missions in the future. In this paper we consider space debris as a useful source of energy for clearing smaller debris using laser techniques.



      Joshua Galvez, Marie Francyn Pua, Justin Angelo Bercasio, Samantha Mae Chen, Raphael Joseph Chua, Xylone Klein Cristobal, Eldrick Russell Kaw, Jesan Kae Nava, Rebecca Ngo, Erick Reagan Ong, Freddie Qu

Abstract: Separator gels are composed of polymer gels contained in a tube which are used to separate serum from formed elements for various diagnostic tests. An alternative serum separator gel, 0.25 g/mL of Ipomoea batatas, was used in total cholesterol and creatinine test determination. Results show that Ipomoea batatas starch can be used as an alternative serum separator gel for the determination of creatinine and total cholesterol as all the samples in the alternative serum successfully separated the serum from the formed elements. Despite its ability to lower the cholesterol levels, Ipomoea batatas can be used as a serum separator gel for the total cholesterol determination as there is a stronger agreement [ρc = 0.84] in the total cholesterol levels of serum separator tubes and Ipomoea batatas starch serum separator tubes, as compared to the agreement [ρc = 0.53] in the creatinine levels.



      Amy Mardhatillah, Shukran Abdul Rahman

Abstract: Purpose: This paper explores the relationship between individual spirituality and work related attitude namely; job satisfaction, organizational commitment. The construct of spirituality use in the present study consists of two subscales including individual relationship with God or a higher power and individual relationship with self, community and the surrounding. This paper discuses having a meaningful work, and consider working as worship to God can enhance employee work related attitude.



      Nikita Barman

Abstract: The purpose of the research paper is to show how laws enacted under different statutes regulate cyber crimes occurring on social networking websites. Even though it appears that social media has got the world closer, there is a flipside to it. Many offenders use this vulnerable means to commit offences related to computer, computer system or computer networks.



      Ms. Sheetal Ambulkar, Prof. Anjali Mahajan

Abstract: Over the past few years, rapid technological innovation has facilitated a large increase in e-learning. Although e-learning reduces logistical difficulties, it has pedagogical limitations. It follows the one size fits all approach. In order to make learning environments more effective, researchers have been exploring the possibility of an automatic adaptation of the learning environment to the learner or the context. Assessing the learner during the learning activity is the most vital task as it measures the obtained knowledge, skills and competence level, which leads to personalizing the learning experience.



      R. Nisha and J.S. Kennedy

Abstract: The host selection process of parasitoid, eventually leading to successful parasitism. The influence of host plant odour was studied using the different type of olfactometers like eight arm olfactometer, six arm olfactometer and Y- tube olfactometer. The olfactometer studies revealed that there were more number of parsitoid attraction events towards the infested hosts than healthy host plants over time. While observing on eight arm olfactometer with mealybugs as standard check, mealybugs attracted more number of parasitoids in the healthy leaves, but at the same time, papaya and cotton leaves infested with mealybug attracted more number of parasitoids than mealybug standard. The parasitoid orientation in Y - tube olfactometer of the present study revealed that, infested leaves attracted more number of parasitoids, when they are tested with healthy leaves. Infested leaves with mealy covering attracted even a more numbers than in infested leaves alone.



      Shveti Sejpal, Dr. Nikesh Shah

Abstract: This paper presents a blind digital image watermark embedding technique and its comparative performance analysis based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain for hiding little but important information in cover image. In order to confirm to human perception characteristics, this approach uses two frequency sub-bands HL and HH of DWT to embed a multi-bit watermark image. Here to achieve better robustness and perceptual quality the watermark bits are distributed to the wavelet coefficients of the image edges in every selected sub-band. Here for DWT decomposition simple, orthogonal, symmetric ‘Haar’ wavelet is used. Here gain factor K=0.55 is selected for testing the performance under several attacks. In DWT domain good perceptual quality is achieved with PSNR value 29.7493, SSIM value 0.9451 and NC value 0.9831. We further demonstrated that our technique is robust against several filter attacks and noise addition.



      Atanu Bhattacharyya, S. Janardana Reddy, Manisankar ghosh and Raja Naika H

Abstract: Water is a prime natural stockpile, a basic human need and a treasured national asset. Planning, development and management of water manoeuvre need to be governed by national perspectives. We are all too familiar with the problems of water on earth in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. India receives annual precipitation of about 4000km3, including snowfall. Out of this, monsoon rainfall is of the order of 3000km3. Rainfall in India is relying on the south west and north- east monsoons, on shallow cyclonic depressions and disturbances and on local storms.



      Kiara Rita Abila, Erine Jelina Alapide, Kristina Ysabel Castillo, Gail Denise Destura, Catherine Dinamarca, Julian Victor Dupaya, Jerwin Caesar Estacio, Remylyn Gutierrez, Jillianne Hudencial, Maria

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the accuracy of a commercially available wireless smart glucose monitoring device. Blood samples were collected from fifty selected participants. Results showed that the commercially available wireless smart glucose monitoring device overestimates the laboratory test by 12.02 mg/dL [CI95%: 7.86 to 16.18], which did not reach an acceptable agreement with the standard laboratory testing.



      Mildred Mutanda Murunga, Dr. Agness Njeru

Abstract: Faith-based organizations provide 30% of all health care in Kenya and 50-60% in the rural areas. Although the Government remains the main provider of health care services in Kenya, Faith Based Hospitals are a crucial component of our society today. In faith based hospitals, Political and bureaucratic leakage, fraud, abuse and corrupt practices occur at every stage of the process as a result of low compliance of financial policies, poorly managed expenditure systems, lack of effective auditing and supervision, organizational deficiencies and lax fiscal controls over the flow of public funds. The general objective of this study was to investigate the determinants of financial policies compliance in faith based hospitals in Kenya.



      P. Sainathan, K. Ajay

Abstract: Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobile as it accounts for ten to twenty percent of the unsprung weight, which is considered to be the mass not supported by the leaf spring. Since the composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to those of steel, Composite material is taken into consideration. The modeling of the mono leaf spring is done in Creo Parametric 2.0 and the analysis is carried out in Ansys 15.0. The project is carried out with hybrid mono leaf spring is taken in such a way that the 5 layers and 7 layers of the composite layers are placed in between the steel layers in the ends.



      PhD.cand. AIDA LAKO, Msc.ELDA CANI, PhD.cand. RAJMONDA BARA, Msc.BRELA XHAFERRAJ, Msc.SELDA VEIZAJ

Abstract: Cerebral stroke is, as defined by the World Health Organization, a syndrome of vascular origin, characterized by the unforeseen beginning of focal neurological deficit or dissolved with duration of more than 24 hours, which may be the deadliest.



      Md. Delwar Hossain, Dr.Kamal Uddin Ahmed, Mst. Farhana Nazneen Chowdhury, Kanij Mohoua Roksana, Shahidul Islam and 3Alak Barman.

Abstract: To study the proximate composition of six Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) released varieties of rapeseed (Brassica campestris and Brassica napus ) and mustard (Brassica juncea) ;an experiment was conducted and work was subjected to the comparative evaluation of its physicochemical properties, seed weight, moisture, ash, carbohydrates, protein, fat, total energy and minerals. Among these varieties, the highest grain weight was obtained from BARI Sarisha-13(4.38g) and lowest grain weight obtained from BARI Sarisha-9(3.06g). In case of proximate analysis, the highest protein content and the highest carbohydrate were recorded from BARI Sarisha-15 (28%) and BARI Sarisha-13 (17.02%) respectively. The oil content of different varieties of mustard and rapeseed varied from 38.75% to 42.25%. BARI Sarisha-14(554.3 kcal/g) contained the highest amount of Total Energy. The highest amount of calcium content (2.7%) and the highest amount of Magnesium content (0.739%) were attained from BARI Sarisha- 9. Substantial genetic variability exists for chemical composition and nutritional traits which could be utilized to suggest the future strategy for the nutritionist, health advisors and feed manufacturers.



      R.V.Sujatha, T.Suseela and K.Suseela

Abstract: The study on market structure, price spread, marketing costs and marketing efficiency for milk in cooperative and private sectors of Andhra Pradesh was conducted during 2013-14.



      Rupali Rajesh Sharma, Rupali Rajesh Sharma

Abstract: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is defined as the delegation of one or more IT-sensitive business processes to an external provider that in turn owns, administers and manages the selected process based on defined and measurable performance criteria (Kumar & Kumar, 2005). Big companies regularly outsource their non-critical work to an outside entity, which does the work based on certain preset criteria. Business process outsourcing (BPO) is as an act of delegation of certain Information Technology (IT)-intensive business processes from inside an organization to an outside or external service provider that in turn owns, administers and manages the process based on defined and measurable performance criteria (M. Ashok Kumar and S. Selva Kumar : BPO – What and Why: a paper presented at an Indian Institute of Public Administration seminar).



      Otieno Rachel Olonga, Ezekiel Ndunda and Mary Makokha

Abstract: A study was conducted to assess seasonal variation in physicochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in Ruiru, Kiambu County in Kenya. A total of 109 well water samples, 51 boreholes and 58 shallow wells during 2 different seasons, viz. dry and wet season were collected during the year 2015 and analyzed for temperature, pH, colour, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, Sulphates nitrate, fluoride, iron, manganese, coliform count and Escherichia coli Significant difference between seasons was observed in all parameters studied except, for sodium and magnesium. The results were compared with WHO guidelines, 2009 and Kenya Bureau of Standards 2006 water guidelines to ascertain its suitability for domestic use.



      Disha Mishra

Abstract: Femtocells are the new cells of technology of the modern day world. They are used to increase the network coverage of the system by decreasing the data path loss and increasing the connectivity of the system as a whole. They are easy to install and do not require much economic concerns such as land acquisition and installing a traditional base station.



      Mohammed Husam Nafie

Abstract: Background: Rocuronium with its rapid onset of action is one of the most commonly used safe and effective muscle relaxants for intubation and maintenance of muscle relaxation during surgical procedures.



      Desy Muliana Wenas, Mahdi Jufri, Berna Elya

Abstract: Liposome is a drug carrier system that can enhance the effectiveness of drug delivery which is made from the lipid that easily penetrated into the skin. The methanol extract of mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) has been proved rich in xanthone compounds that have very high potential of antioxidant activity, especially the fractionation of dichloromethane (FD). The aim of this study to test the penetration ability of liposome cream throughout mouse’s skin. The FD has been used in making liposome as triploid. The precipitate of liposome with the best entrapment efficiency of liposome (77,09%) is used in making liposome cream (LC) with 5%, 10% and 15% concentration. The liposome had been made as triploid and the precipitate of the liposome with the best entrapment efficiency will be used in LC.



      Galvez, M. A. C

Abstract: Many folkloric medicinal plants are found in Tinoc, Ifugao, Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines. These plants were used as traditional medicines by the local ethnic groups since time immemorial. This study aimed to evaluate the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity and to determine the bioactive components present in the ethanolic leaf extracts with antioxidant activity. Ethanolic leaf extracts of Medinilla pendula Merr., Rubus fraxinifolius Hayata, Melastoma polyanthum Blume, Desmodium sequax Wall., Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham ex. D. Don, Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex J.A. Schultes, Allium odoratum L., Physalis minima (L.), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, and Vaccinium myrtoides (Bl.) Miq. were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant.



      Aditya Kothari, Tejal Gath, Mitali Gadam, Shubhay Kadam

Abstract: The popularity of wireless services is increasing in the recent years, especially accessing contents on another machine remotely. There are many applications for the purpose. Application like ES file explorer uses smb protocol for file transfer which is less secure and has performance issues. We propose to use an enhanced protocol for file sharing considering security, speed of transfer, performance and few other parameters. In this project, we propose a software that will help us access the files on Linux applications and that will also control various desktop services wirelessly. With this the need to actually change file sharing permissions every time is also minimized by using wireless execution of sharing commands.



      Abebe Shenkut

Abstract: Performance of Shina-Hamusit and Selamko Irrigation Scheme of Dera and Farta district, respectively in South Gondar zone, Ethiopia were evaluated using some selected comparative indicators, classified into four groups, namely, agricultural, economic, water-use and physical performance by International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Overall activities in primary data collected included: field observation, interviewing beneficiary farmers, discharge measurements in the canals. In addition to primary data, secondary data were collected from the secondary sources, and included total yields, area irrigated per crop per season or per year, crop types, and cropping pattern. The results of performance with respect to both land and water productivity indicate that Shina-Hamusit scheme performs better. Analyses of water-use performance showed that relative water and relative irrigation supply values were calculated as 1.55 and 1.31 at Shina-Hamusit and 1.87 and 0.81 at Selamko, respectively, indicating that water distribution is not tightly related to crop water demand. Physical performance, evaluated in terms of cropping intensity, irrigation ratio and sustainability of irrigated land, were good. Economic performance indicators showed that Selamko scheme had a serious problem about the collection of water fees, but not at Shina-Hamusit.



      Valerie Alcantara, Anne Clarize Altares, Jose Miguel Banzon, Maria Allyssa Buenaventura, Evita Elaine Bumanlag, Christian Jerell Cosme, Cheryl Mae Dandan, Maria Josefina Paulene Jaro, Diana Lynn Lagun

Abstract: Alternative site testing options for capillary blood glucose measurement have been widely examined for their viability and accuracy to substitute the fingertip as the usual testing site. This research compared the blood glucose determination test results from the fingertip and the proposed alternative test site, which is the earlobe. Systematic bias was observed in the 30-minute and one-hour postprandial glucose level of earlobe testing. Accuracy of blood glucose taken from earlobe was observed only at two hours postprandial glucose level.



      Prof. Abdulrazak H. Alnakash, Dr. Zena Abass Mushina

Abstract: Background: Doppler indices of the umbilical artery are used as indicator of fetal well being that permit early detection of fetal compromise and avoid delaying in the management.



      Dijomol Alias

Abstract: Synchronous stream ciphers are lightweight symmetric-key cryptosystems which encrypt a plain-text or decrypt a cipher-text. This project includes two new hardware designs of the Welch–Gong (WG)−128 cipher, one for the multiple output WG (MOWG) version, and the other for the single output version WG based on type−II optimal normal basis representation. The proposed MOWG design uses signal reuse techniques to reduce hardware cost in the MOWG transformation, whereas it increases the speed by eliminating the inverters from the critical path. This is accomplished through reconstructing the key and initial vector loading algorithm and the feedback polynomial of the linear feedback shift register. The proposed WG design uses properties of the trace function to optimize the hardware cost in the WG transformation. The security of WG and MOWG ciphers are increased by providing one way encryption to the initial vector using cryptographic hash functions. The proposed designs have less area and power consumptions than the existing implementations of the WG cipher. The software used for simulation is Xilinx ISE and the programming language used is VHDL. Hardware implementation of the project is done using Spartan-3E FPGA.



      Sharmila Rajan and Dr.A.Pushpa

Abstract: Antioxidant properties of plants are well established. Hence this study aims to evaluate the various enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase(SOD), Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase(POD), Polyphenol oxidase(PPO), Glutathione-S transferase (GST), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Glutathione reductase (GR) in the methanolic extracts of Syzygium cumini and Momordica charantia seed, leaf, seed mix and leaves mix samples.. The seed extract of Syzygium cumini showed the maximum activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, Glutathione-S-transferase, Glutathione reductase and registered lowest value in the peroxidase activity. The leaves mixture showed the maximum activity for polyphenol oxidase. Glutathione reductase activity was formed to be highest in the methanolic extract of Momordica charantia leaf.



      Vimal P.Parmar, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Semantic map is defined as a complex network of words or phrases which are related in predefined way. To search related words or phrases for a given English word from a large database of English language is a massy process of comparison for a computer. Each time to search desired set of words or phrases requires amount of computer processing if the search database is large enough and it is necessary to obtain some kind of solution that makes searching efficient and making maximum usage of the computer. The words and phrases may be related using synonyms, antonyms or homophones which are the words which have similar pronunciation but different spellings and meanings.



      Ali A. Naji Ghyadh, Dr . Hala S. Abdul-Wahid Al-Taie

Abstract: A descriptive study is conducted at Al- Najaf City in Iraq on (540) secondary schools' adolescents which aims at constructing a causal model for the early detection of students’ exposure to risk factors .The results depict that secondary school students are exposed to risk factors Which are directly linked to their behavior , families , schools and communities , and they experience psychological problems on a large scale which include suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Furthermore, they also experience physical problems that include disabilities and genetic diseases. So, they do not receive adequate protective measures as result of the roles of government, school and their families.



      Mr. Mohamed M. Jouda, Dr. Tarek Elbashiti, Dr. Atef Masad, Mr. Zuhair Dardona

Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial effect of Ficus sycomorus extracts and their synergistic antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extract of medicinal plants were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus for alcoholic extract, and water reflux for aqueous extracts. The results of this study showed that ethanolic extracts of Ficus were showed against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, While Aquatic extract showed synergistic effect with some antibiotics better than organic solvent. The results of this study showed that there is a decrease in MIC in case of methanolic extract of F. sycomorus extracts against selected bacteria.



      Adamu, Sani Jauro, Danladi, Mohammed Umar, Mahmoud, Aisha Babayo

Abstract: A study on the use of millet as a partial replacement of poultry feeds on the growth and development of broiler chickens was conducted at Fadil and Fareed poultry farms Gombe-Nigeria. A total of twenty chickens were used for this research, ten were fed with starter/finisher with 0% millet for six weeks and the other ten were fed with starter/finisher mixed with 60% millet for six weeks, and at the end of each week their weight is been taken to monitor their growth and development . The result of this research revealed that the growth and development of all the chickens reared with both feeds (starter/finisher with 0% millet and starter/finisher mixed with 60% millet) was adequate although starter/finisher with 0% millet was found to be more effective in terms of faster growth and development of the chickens for a limited period of time compared to the starter/finisher mixed with 60% millet. The study recommend the continues use of starter for two weeks and finisher for the remaining weeks as the best type of feeding that would boost the growth and development of poultry chickens, The study also recommend the use of finisher mixed with 20% millet after feeding them for two weeks with starter alone, as against the use of starter for two weeks and finisher mixed with 60% millet for the remaining weeks in order to reduce the cost of rearing poultry chickens with starter and finisher.



      Kuliya Muhammed

Abstract: With the rapid growth of Information and Communication Technology, a growing number of businesses in Nigeria are now applying e – commerce to their business in response to customers demand for new innovations. The need to meet the demand of the growing customers has lead most businesses in the country adopting e – commerce which has significantly impacted positively on the Nigerian economy. E-Commerce has experienced significant development in the country as a result of increased availability of broadband access and low-priced data bundles offered by mobile operators in the country. The coming of new technologies has further decrease the widening gap between the retailer and the customer and in few years to come e-shopping will eventually take the place of the traditional shopping. With an estimated population of about one hundred and seventy million, Nigeria is about to become the biggest market for e-commerce in the African continent. This paper explores the impact of Information Technology and its application in the rapid growth of e-commerce in the country. It also discusses the impact and consequences of marketing goods and services online.



      Bikorimana E

Abstract: Rwanda’s high population growth constitutes a major challenge to the economic development. In 2010 Rwanda’s population growth rate was of 2.6%. Over time, the use of Long Acting Contraceptive Methods (LACM) has not been opted for as short acting methods. In the study conducted in Kicukiro District to assess barriers to the use of LACM, the main objective was to identify the barriers to the use of LACM. Specifically, to measure prevailing rate of LACM use, to measure the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the use of LACM, to identify current knowledge and attitudes regarding LACM. To meet all those objectives, a cross sectional study was conducted. The study participants were 96 women and proportionate sampling method was used. About 95.8% of participants had general knowledge about LACM. The study showed that LACM use increases significantly with the level of education (OR: 6.500; p=0.012), the number of living children (four and above: OR: 14.25 p<0.001), the family size (four and above: OR: 8.591 p<0.046), the joint discussion with partner on the number of children to bear (OR: 5.053; P=0.048) and partner agreement to the use of LACM (OR: 3.659; P=0.038). According to the study, the use of LACM decreases significantly with desire of having another child (OR: 0.389; P=0.040) and negative attitude toward LACM (OR: 0.166, P=0.014). Campaigns against negative attitudes toward LACM should be strengthened.



      K. Sahitya Raju, Dr. S. Srinivas Rao

Abstract: Interest in studying of the shell arises from the fifties of twentieth century. The assemblies, containing thin shells, find wide use in the modern engineering, especially in ships, aircraft and spacecraft industry. The shell vibrations and buckling modes are analyzed by means of numerical methods, to clarify qualitatively the critical loads and different buckling modes. In today’s aerospace and aircraft industries, structural efficiency is the main concern. Due to their high specific strength and light weight, fiber reinforced composites find a wide range of applications. Light weight compression load carrying structures form part of all aircraft, and space vehicle fuel tanks, air cylinders are some of the many applications. In the present work, design analysis of fiber reinforced multi layered composite shell, with optimum fiber orientations; minimum mass under strength constraints for a cylinder under axial loading for static and buckling analysis on the pressure vessel has been studied. The modeling is carried out in Catia V5 R20 and the analysis is carried out in Ansys 15.0 solver.



      M.Srinivasnaik, Dr.T.V.V. Sudhakar, Dr.B. Balunaik

Abstract: The petroleum based fuels used for Internal Combustion Engines steadily achieving a steep pricing demand because of the Industrialization of the world. These petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited resources. These limited resources are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. So, countries not having these resources are facing energy/ foreign exchange crises mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally with in the country such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oil etc. The present paper attempts to review critically on the aspects of production, characterization and the status of vegetable oil and biodiesel. This paper also reviews the experimental research work carried out on these fuels in various countries. The world resources of primary energy and the raw materials are limited. According to an estimate the reserves will lost for 218 years for coal, 41 years for oil, and 63 years for natural gas. The global population of motor vehicles on the roads to day is ½ a billion which is more than 10 times higher than what was in 1950.



      Monika Kusiak-Pisowacka

Abstract: The paper is a report on the project which involved the process of designing and piloting a General Competence Test intended to serve as a placement test in teaching Polish intermediate foreign language learners. All the actions taken to design and pilot the test are discussed in detail. The use of Iteman 4, a program designed to do a detailed item test analysis, is described. Problems encountered by the teacher during the process of designing, piloting and preparing the final version of the test are discussed. It is hoped that this paper will elucidate the advantages of tests constructed by foreign language teachers themselves and will encourage them to produce their own tests tailored for their teaching needs.



      Philip Samuel Kongoley-MIH

Abstract: Over the past years the tourism industry has experienced a steady increase in tourist’s arrivals in Sierra Leone which has also contributed to an increase in visitor expenditure, employment and revenue generation. This has made a significant improvement in facilities within the country to meet the expectations of guests and economic growth. The outbreak of Ebola in May 2014 has caused a negative impact on the tourism industry in Sierra Leone such as the closure of many hotels, restaurants, guesthouses and airlines right across the country, dropped in revenue and profits and unemployment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the Ebola outbreak has had negative impact on the tourism industry in the country. A survey was conducted in four regions namely, Western, Southern, Northern and Eastern. A random sample of 200 respondents was selected from the four regions out of a population of 400. Questionnaires, interviews, discussions and document analysis were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. It is recommended that disaster recovery plan and budget be developed by all active businesses within the tourism sector.



      Gabriel A. Igwue, Nentawe Y. Goshwe, and Teryima D. Kureve

Abstract: In this paper, an active eighth order band-pass filter is implemented. The filter has a center frequency of 15 kHz and roll-off rate of -80dB/decade. The architecture used is the Sallen-Key configuration. The filter parameters and values for the passive components were calculated and the gain magnitude and phase output response is then analyzed with MATLAB software. The simulation shows that the filter has high gain, a wide bandwidth and a good roll-off at the pass band.



      Abdikadir Yusuf Mohamed and Akram M Zeki

Abstract: Internet age changes the business exchange style and conveys numerous business chances to the e-commerce. E-commerce is characterizes as the purchasing and offering of item and service on the web .However, the security likewise turns into the most basic issues of ecommerce framework All ecommerce exercises dependably include client individual information and exchange data. This enormous increment in the uptake of E-Commerce has prompted another generation of related security dangers, in this paper we will concentrate on the most imperative security confronts that any E-Commerce framework needs. However any online business must have four essential necessities. in the first privacy security the information traded must be kept from unapproved gatherings, second Integrity the traded information must not be modified or messed with, third Authentication both sender and beneficiary must demonstrate their characters to each and fourth Non-revocation evidence is required that the traded data was for sure gotten .additionally we will talk about e-commerce segment and security dangers and solution about e-business.



      Ms.Dhanashree V. Patil, Mrs. Anis Mulla, Ms. Swaleha B.Chougale

Abstract: In todays world visual information is becoming more important aspect.Human also relies very much on visual information.The visual information is represented by using digital images or videos.Digitalis images mostly suffer from poor image quality, particularly lack of contrast and presence of shading and artifacts due to the deficiencies in focusing lighting, specimen staining and other factors also.Because some features of images are hardly detected by eye in an image,images can be transformed before display.Image enhancement is a digital process-ing method which does its best to improve image vision and make the image adaptable to be processed by computer.



      Auwal Mustapha Imam

Abstract: This paper presents the design of a Digital Clock that displays 24-hours, minutes and seconds. A time-based oscillator containing a 555 timer Integrated Circuit (IC) in an astable mode with a frequency of 1Hz provides the clock pulses for the seconds display. On each of the Dual Seven-Segment (7-Segment) displays for hours, minutes and seconds, Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) counters converts each clock pulse received into a 4 bit 8421 synchronous logic output. Display decoders/drivers connected to each 7-Segment display decodes the 4-bit 8421 logic and converts it to a 7-Segment display codes. The dual-7-Segment displays of each of the hours, minutes and seconds output the figures 0 to 9 according to the set time. The clock is designed to work with the stabilized 9V DC voltage power supply.



      A. Usman, A. M Imam

Abstract: The common radio transmission and reception activities are accomplished through modulation at single carrier frequency. Channels linking information sources and receivers are one of the fundamental blocks of all communication system. In free space, the signal for transmission and reception suffers from diffraction, scattering and interference due to the presence of dust particles, rain drops, heat and other obstacles. A concurrent dual band receiver is designed to operate at two frequency band with two Local Oscillators (LO) at the detection level. A frequency multiplier is introduced to use Single Oscillator (SO). This architecture reduces component cost, low power consumption and complexity of the receiver thereby enhancing its performance.



      Vimal P.Parmar, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Today online computerized examination is widely used to automate the examination process and quick evaluation of student saves amount of time for teachers. Hours of time and efforts are required for preparation of question papers and evaluating the answer sheet by teachers in manual examination system. But manual examination system is an effective examination system which involves objective as well as subjective types of questions. To make online examination system as effective as manual system, it requires tremendous amount of time and human effort to build an intelligent system that not only allows taking online examination but also performs automatic evaluation with vast amount of knowledge. In such types of questions, taking user response as an input is easier than the evaluation of answers.



      Ing. Katarína Demeterová, Ing. Daniel Papán, PhD

Abstract: The technical seismicity is perceived as a negative effect on the environment, buildings and constructions. We mean that seismic vibrations are induced by the force impulse, stochastic process, and artificial source. [1]. In Slovak republic, there is the impact of vibrations on building structures rated in Eurocode 8, however, STN 73 0036 is dealing directly with the technical seismicity. Simultaneously, this norm classifies bridges into the group “U”, therefore into the group that is significant in terms of the technical seismicity. Using the FEM simulations and comparison in similar conditions is important for the analysis of these cases, due to short norm rating of this issue.



      Nurfaidah, Osman Lewangka, Indrianty Sudirman, Hamid Habbe

Abstract: Provide a consistent basis to the customer satisfaction can make customers become loyal to Culinary Services Industry in Makassar. Customer Loyalty attitude to Culinary Services Industry in Makassar will be very helpful in the restaurant business and a restaurant in the culinary service industry to be able to survive in a competitive business because the customers are the source of income of culinary services industry in the city of Makassar. Relationship marketing is a marketing strategy that can be used to achieve these goals. Through a strategy of relational benefits, culinary services industry in the city of Makassar to provide benefits on the relationship between food and the customer service industry. This research was conducted by the city of Makassar culinary services industry by respondents as many as 153 people. The results showed that confidence benefits and social benefits and significant positive effect on customer satisfaction and loyalty in culinary services in the city of Makassar. Special treatment benefits no significant effect on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the industry culinary services in the city of Makassar Furthermore, customer satisfaction and significant positive effect on the Customer Loyalty culinary Services Industry in the city of Makassar.



      Johanis Steny Franco Peilouw, Alma Manuputty, Muhammad Ashri, Juajir Sumardi

Abstract: This study aims to discover and understand the application of the doctrine of pre-emtive military strike against the existence of the principle of self-defense and the principle of non-intervention in an attempt to establish a new international legal provisions. The method used in this study is a normative legal research methods. The results showed that application of the doctrine of pre-emtive military strike is, the development of the interpretation of Article 51 of the UN Charter and raises the pros and cons among academics and practice of the countries in the world, so it can affect the formation of a new international law. Conclusion : The doctrine of pre-emtive have strayed or not in line with the principle of self-defense in international law.



      Joseph HW Mirino, Sangkala, Muhammad Yunus, Badu Ahmad

Abstract: This study aims to measure how fast the Department of Public Works of Raja Ampat do learning in order to improve performance, to find and analyze the strategies used PU Department of Raja Ampat in improving the performance, classify the type of learning that is used by the Department of Public Works Raja Ampat, and analyze support Department of Public Works Raja Ampat in encouraging the growth of learning activities. The approach used is a qualitative approach. This type of research that is eksplanatif. The object of this research study is the organization, because the level of analysis- it is organization. In this study there is a quantitative question the method used is the method of incorporation (mix method) in which quantitative methods are less dominant as dominant is a qualitative method.



      Dety Yunita Sulanjari, Haselman, Hamka Naping, Suryadi Lambali

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the behavior of the bureaucracy in the line of duty in the autonomous region. This study used two theoretical approaches and models of behavior of bureaucratic red tape. Adherence to the rules can lead to positive and negative impacts. The methods used by qualitative analysis that explains the behavior of the bureaucracy in the line of duty. The results of this study indicate an increase discipline for the apparatus. Improved discipline can lead to rigidity in implementing the rules and reliance on superior orders. This is due to increasingly stringent regulations and the enactment of sanctions.



      Iqbal H. Abd AlKareem

Abstract: Dust storms are a common atmospheric phenomenon in Iraq especially during spring and summer months. Their frequency of occurrence has increased drastically in the last decade and it is increasing continuously due to many factors including urbanization in areas previously devoted to agriculture, drought, military operations that remove sandy pavements that would otherwise cap dust, and upstream dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that reduce the water available to Iraq. The aim of this work is to analyze the synoptic situation of a massive dust storm occurred on the first week of July 2009 and covered most of Iraq. TOMS aerosols index and weather maps for three days from 3rd of July to 5th were used for this purpose. Results indicated that the storm was typically caused by Shamal wind. Results also showed patterns of upward surface vertical velocity, downward 850 hPa level vertical velocity, and northwesterly horizontal wind on both pressure levels. The horizontal wind was strongest on 3rd of July and was weakening and shifting eastwards on the following days. It is believed that such patterns may have caused the severity and persistence of the storm.



      R. Sakthivel and Martin L. William

Abstract: Many procedures are available in the literature on testing for univariate normality. Among them, the procedure of Shapiro and Wilk (1965) is a very effective test to detect departures from normality. The Shapiro-Wilk procedure has been extended to test multivariate normality recently by Alva and Estrada (2009). The present paper proposes another approach to extend the Shapiro-Wilk procedure for testing multivariate normality. A simulation study has been carried out to get the critical values of the proposed statistic in order to make it applicable to dimensions 2 and 5. Power comparison of the new approach to the one given by Alva and Estrada (2009) is presented for a contaminated alternatives. The software for the same is developed in R Language.



      Yashwant S. Chandel and Purnima Swarup Khare

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate n-type perovskite oxide based superlattices as a potential materials system for thermoelectric power generation. The model based on the phonon Boltzmann transport equations with diffuse mismatch interface conditions has been used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of SrTiO3/TiO2 nanostructures. Result shows that in the superlattice nanowire structure the interface scattering cause the reduction in phonon thermal conductivity. . It was also found that nanowire boundary scattering provides significant resistance to phonon transport. The reduced thermal conductivity of superlattice nanowire was found to be 1.156 W/mK for dw=0.44 nm and L=5 nm. As the diameter increases, the nanowire boundary scattering decreases, which leads to increase nanowire thermal conductivity. The obtained results suggest that, by optimizing the periodic length and the wire cross-sectional width, SrTiO3/anatase TiO2 superlattice nanowire can be a very good candidate as materials for high performance, efficient thermoelectric material. However the reduction in thermal conductivity is more effective due to the reduction in diameter of nanowire as compared to reduction in periodic length of the nanowire.



      Msaakpa,T.S. and Agaba,B.E

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi and National Cereal Research Institute Substation, Yandev during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Laboratory experiments were done at Benue University, Makurdi and Adamawa State University, Mubi. The objective was to determine the kernel quality of seven groundnut varieties at Makurdi and Yandev locations. The field experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Kernel quality parameters evaluated included: proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and elemental composition. Results showed significant variation among the parameters evaluated. Results on proximate composition showed that Borno-Red and Samnut-21 were significantly higher in protein (40.47%) at Makurdi and Yandev locations respectively; Samnut-16 gave higher Lipid (40.50%) at Yandev; while Ebunaigbaji produced higher carbohydrate content (4.92%). On fatty acid composition, Dan-Bomboyo both in Makurdi and Yandev, recorded the highest Oleic/Linoleic ratio of 3.74 and was also higher in Lauric and Oleic acid content. Samnut-22 gave higher Palmitic, Palmitoleic and Linolenic acids; while Samnut-16 produced higher Myristic and Linoleic acids. For elemental composition, Ijiwanda was higher in Potassium and Iron; Samnut-16 in Calcium and Copper; Dan-Bomboyo jn Magnesium; Samnut-21 in Sodium and Zinc. It was concluded that the study identified groundnut varieties with varying kernel qualities that can be selected from according to the product to be made. The variation in kernel quality among the varieties was probably due to differences in environmental conditions at Makurdi and Yandev locations and in the genetic make-up.



      Mr. Basavaraju S R

Abstract: Internet of Things (IOT) plays a vital role in connecting the surrounding environmental things to the network and made easy to access those un-internet things from any remote location. It’s inevitable for the people to update with the growing technology. And generally people are facing problems on parking vehicles in parking slots in a city. In this study we design a Smart Parking System (SPS) which enables the user to find the nearest parking area and gives availability of parking slots in that respective parking area. And it mainly focus on reducing the time in finding the parking lots and also it avoids the unnecessary travelling through filled parking lots in a parking area. Thus it reduces the fuel consumption which in turn reduces carbon footprints in an atmosphere.



      Gubak Happy Daniel

Abstract: Nigeria has been portrayed in bad light due to its unimpressive image and reputation as a corrupt and mismanaged economy often blamed on bad governance and leadership. The paper basically examines the impact and consequences of state weakness on the Nigerian foreign policy reputation. Findings from the paper reveals that Nigeria since inception as a federation has been a fragile and weak nation, Nigerian foreign policy reputation has been greatly affected by some internal factors that have made the country not to secure a remarkable influence and respect in sub-regional, regional and global diplomatic relationship despite its wealth and commitment in assisting other countries, the weakness of the Nigerian state arises primarily from the incapacity of the state to deliver essential and basic needs to its citizens and the Nigerian state is a victim of high level corruption and bad governance, political instability, ethnic and religious conflicts among others. These challenges have clogged up the route to sustainable development, tarnished Nigeria’s image and caused the diminishment of Nigeria’s prominence both at home and abroad. The paper therefore recommends that, the Nigerian government should vigorously pursue goals of democracy, good governance and respect for human rights at home to ensure that its leadership role is credible abroad, Nigeria should urgently mount image and reputation management campaigns in the media and project the achievements and humanitarian efforts of the country, the anti-corruption agencies should be pro-active, sincere and expedite action in fighting corruption. The paper adopts qualitative method of data analysis, drawing from secondary sources.



      Muhammed Aragie, Ashenafi Beyene, and Netsanet Shiferaw

Abstract: The main intention of this study was to examine the relationship between capital structure and performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia. The investigation was based on pannel data (from the year 2000-2012) collected from the annual reports of eight sample commercial banks in the country. This study establish a model to measure the association between capital structure which is proximate by total debt to total asset (TDTA) and total debt to total capital (TDTC) and performance which is measured by return on asset (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and net profit margin (NPM). The results of regression analyses indicate that on average leverage has a positive effect on the financial performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia when performance measured by return on equity. In contrast, the similar analyses indicate that leverage has a significant negative effect on performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia when performance is measured by return on asset and net profit margin. These support both trade off theory and pecking order theory of capital structure. Hence, participants in Ethiopia banking industry should make capital structure at optimal level by raising funds from equity finance by participating in the secondary market in order to enhance its performance in related with capital structure.



      Mehran Qadri, Yusree Abubaka, Jamaludin Ibrahim

Abstract: Mobile usage among university students is an essential part of a student’s life nowadays. Students accomplish various tasks on a daily basis using mobile devices. Contacting classmates, professors and friends is done regularly via mobile devices. However the way these tasks are accomplished has changed dramatically in the past five or six years. New mobile technologies such as high speed mobile internet (3G, 4G LTE), the introduction of smartphones backed by hundreds of thousands of mobile applications, have launched a new dimension to how students now use mobile technology. This survey will investigate the current trends of students’ mobile usage at the International Islamic University Malaysia. The survey will also compare these current trends with the past trends of university students’ mobile usage and discuss how these trends have changed. Finally, this survey will try to predict the future trends of mobile usage among university students at IIUM. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed among students from various faculties. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions split into two parts. Part 1 asked a couple of demographic questions. Part 2 measured the prevalence of mobile usage among the students. The results were analyzed and some conclusions were drawn. Some predictions were made about the future of mobile usage among university students.



      J.C. Ifemeje

Abstract: The effect of cooking on the proximate composition, energy value, ascorbic acid content and selected antioxidant minerals of four edible leafy vegetables used in preparation of local diets was investigated. In raw samples, moisture content ranged from 71.03±0.21 % in oha leaf (OL) to 83.20±0.23 % in curry leaf (CL). Protein was highest (7.10±0.22 %) in garden egg leaf followed by utazi leaf (5.13±0.12 %) then oha leaf (4.50±0.12 %) and was lowest in curry leaf (3.33±0.21%). Total carbohydrate was low in all the samples and was lowest in garden egg leaf (3.47±0.21%) with the highest value of 16.53±0.25 in oha leaf. Garden egg leaf had the highest ash content of 6.50 ± 0.16 % followed by utazi leaf (4.43±0.22 %) while ash was lowest (1.53±0.16 %) in curry leaf. The low caloric values in raw samples, which ranged from 47.7 kcal in garden egg leaf to 101.8 kcal/100g sample in oha leaf, indicates that these edible leaves are not good sources of crude fat, crude protein and total carbohydrate. Heat processing significantly affected moisture content and generally decreased ash, crude protein, crude fat and the ascorbic acid content of all the edible leafy vegetables investigated at P<0.05. Loss in ascorbic acid to the cooking water ranged from 48.78 % in curry leaf to 51.08 % in oha leaf. Results indicate that vegetables analyzed were good sources of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and manganese (Mn). The study shows that utazi is a better source of mineral than oha leaf. Mineral level were in the order UT>CL>GL>OL. Cooking decreased the level of the minerals Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and Se.



      Aastha Singh, Arun Singh Yadav

Abstract: This document describes quality-of-service (QoS) requirements for web services. With the dispersal of web services as a business solution in enterprise application, the importance of QoS for web services is increasing rapidly to the service providers and the clients. Providers need to specify and guarantee the QoS in their web services to remain competitive and achieve the highest possible revenue from their business while the clients desire to have a good service performance in terms of very high availability, shorter response time, accuracy, etc. However, due to the dynamic and unpredictable characteristics of the web services, it is not an easy task to provide the desired QoS for web service users. Even, different web service applications with different QoS requirements will compete for network and system resources such as bandwidth and processing time. But, an enhanced QoS for a web service will bring competitive advantage for service provider. To provide such a better QoS, it is first necessary to identify all the possible QoS requirements for web services, which is the objective of this document.



      Harshwardhan Uddhage, Sanjay Kumbhare, Krishna Kumar Thakur

Abstract: Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat from one fluid to another fluid either in direct contact with each other or separated by solid wall. In heat exchangers, there are usually no external heat and work interactions. Typical applications involve heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern and evaporation or condensation of single- or multi-component fluid streams. In other applications, the objective may be to recover or reject heat, or sterilize, pasteurize, fractionate, distill, concentrate, crystallize, or control a process fluid. In a few heat exchangers, the fluids exchanging heat are in direct contact. In most heat exchangers, heat transfer between fluids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient manner. In many heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface, and ideally they do not mix or leak. Such exchangers are referred to as direct transfer type, or simply recuperators. In contrast, exchangers in which there is intermittent heat exchange between the hot and cold fluids—via thermal energy storage and release through the exchanger surface or matrix— are referred to as indirect transfer type, or simply regenerators. Such exchangers usually have fluid leakage from one fluid stream to the other, due to pressure differences and matrix rotation/valve switching. Commercially, heat exchangers are known as boilers, condensers, air heaters, cooling towers in power industry, radiator in automobile industry, equipments in chemical industry.


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