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IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 4, April 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
April 2016 publication has started and publication will continue till 18th April 2016
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th April, their paper will publish in April edition latest by 18th April.
Online print version will release latest by 30th April. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 24th April and minor corrections are accepted till 22nd April 2016.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      S. Meenakshi, Vijayalakshmi Govindaraj, Bhavani Rajasekar

Abstract: Improvement in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) in 35 Patients with acute severe broncospasm was studied to evaluate the rate of recovery from the episodic attack. Two groups of COPD were identified. One group with quick and complete recovery from the episodic attack of broncospasm who were described as “Accelerated Responders” and in the other group the recovery was slow and incomplete and were referred to as “slow Responders”. The way how PEFR values establish a pattern in obstructive disease help us not only to identify the patients into groups but also to discriminate them for diagnosis & treatment of chronic obstruction for patients who are particularly at risk are discussed over here.



      Mike Opeyemi, OMILUSI

Abstract: It appears that the study of insurgency and peacekeeping intervention in Africa suffers from general disregard for an examination of some covert intended outcomes by the intervening organisations– the gap which this study attempts to fill with special focus on the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO. Yet, it is observable that due to huge resource gaps, African Union peacekeepers depend upon external assistance, most notably from states within the EU and NATO in form of classroom education, field training exercises, the provision of equipment, and support to deploy African peacekeepers and equipment into the theater of operations. How has this form of assistance transformed from humanitarian intervention to interference? Using Libya as a case study, this paper sets to discuss this subtle metamorphosis particularly within the context of the US-led NATO operations on the Continent.



      Ahmed, A. H, Kingi, W, and Bachani, S

Abstract: TUM has undergone three distinct phases from a tertiary Technical, Industrial, Vocational Entrepreneurship and Training (TIVET) Institute to constituent college (i.e. Mombasa Polytechnic University College) and finally as a Technical University of Mombasa (TUM) aligned to the fulfillment of social pillar of Vision 2030. Specifically, TUM has been earmarked as Vision 2030 center of specialization in Tourism, Hospitality, and Marine based sciences and Technology. We examine the synchronization of TUM's current Strategic Plan2014 - 2018 and Kenya Vision2030 social pillar. We then look at implementation practices and barriers that can make TUM not realize its vision; and finally, we come-up with viable recommendations that will make TUM realize its vision as "a university of global excellence in advancing Knowledge, Science and Technology".



      Barnabas KAYALTO, Brahim Boy OTCHOM, Cheikna ZONGO, Ludovic KAM, Alfred S. TRAORE

Abstract: The consequences of malnutrition due to micronutrient deficiency on the health of humans, particularly iron deficiency, vitamin A and iodine, are multiple, particularly mortgaging the socio-economic development of developing countries (DCs). Food diversification, public health actions, food fortification and supplementation are the four (04) main strategies against malnutrition and this can improve the quality of life of a community or a country. The present study aimed to develop Chad infant flours fortified in vitamin A and zinc, iron and vitamin C taken from local products such as powder of dried Moringa oleifera leaves and pulps of Parkia biglobosa to improve the balance of these micronutrients in flours. The nutritional value of these flours was assessed according to standard analytical methods. The results revealed that, for 100 g of flour, our experimental flour showed 2 times more iron, vitamin C, magnesium, potassium and zinc, 4 times more vitamin A and calcium. The study found a slight increase in protein, total sugars and phosphorus.



      Salaam AJ, Danjem SM, Ibinaiye PO, Ama JT, Ekedigwe JE, Igoh EO, Ukaonu GO, Salaam AA

Abstract: Ultrasonic imaging provides a non-invasive assessment of the arterial and venous circulation in the lower limb and is accepted as a valuable diagnostic technique.



      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Lower Urinary tract symptom (LUTS) is a common presentation among elderly patients particularly in men in urology clinical practice. Evaluation and treatment of LUTS is a major consideration and IPSS score and ultrasound KUBP are routine investigations for assessment of such patients. There is a controversy on relationship between IPSS score and the prostate volume in the literature. The objective is to evaluate the relationship between IPSS and prostate volume in patients with LUTS. There is a significant relationship between IPSS and prostate volume measured through abdominal ultrasound. The Total IPSS increases with the prostate volume (r=0.223, p<0.003). But there was no statistically significant difference between mild, moderate and severe IPSS in relation to prostate volume.



      Wijesekara Mudiyanselage Sumith Dananjaya

Abstract: Punyakante Wijenaike is a conspicuous Sri Lankan novelist who addressed the women’s social issues of Sri Lanka throughout the previous six decades. Giraya is her second novel in which depicts the psychological oppression of a middle class woman who has been married to a man of high class and high cast.



      Magdal Vanlalvuani and Angom Sarjubala Devi

Abstract: Degradation of land mainly through jhumming cultivation or slash and burning agriculture is the main concern in the mountainous tracts of North-Eastern India. Removal of vegetation especially tree species leads to major changes in an ecosystem. Soil respiration is one such important aspect of soil. It indicates the activities of soil organisms and supplying of nutrients to the growing vegetation. The present study shows that removal of common tree species in three types of slope in a five year old jhum fallow leads to a decrease in soil respiration. It was found out by comparing with plots treated with leaf litter and untreated plots. In the present location the increase in soil respiration due to treatment of leaf litter on steeper slopes was more than the gentler slopes. The reason being gentler slopes are in the upper tracts where human disturbances are more.



      Inna Yadav

Abstract: Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. Is India’s leading and largest passenger car manufactured which according for nearly 50% of total industrial sales. The company has produced and sold over 7.5 million vehicles in India and exported over 5 lac unit to Europe and in other countries. In year 2011 Maruti Suzuki rolled out its 1 crore cars and in year 2010 it has been ranked India’s most trusted brand in automobile sector. Maruti Suzuki received awards as the manufacturer of the year 2012 in “Car Dekho” awards 2012. But last 18th July 2012, Maruti Suzuki face industrial unrest in his Manesar plant. Which lead to the murder of Senior HR executive and extensive damage of property.



      V.S.P Vidanapathirana, M.S.T.J Nanayakkara, A.M.S.D Attanayake, V.Abenayan, Pubudu Dhanushka, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: As the place that stores the brain in an organization, a Data Center centralizes the operations of the company, its equipment and stores, maintains, propagate the data that runs through the company. Data Centers may have a physical or virtual infrastructure and data which are stored in them provides the base for the successiveness of an organization since they are much valuable when making decisions in the business processes. In simple terms, the past, present and the future of an organization relies on the outcome of the analyzed data. Due to these reasons, it is one of the top priorities of a company to ensure the security and reliability of data centers and their information. With the advancement of the technology, securing the data centers to its best level has become a complicated task, due to the various possible attacks. Making an attack on a data center becomes easier when there are loopholes in the security mechanisms that are used in data centers. In this paper the authors describe about the existing security mechanisms which are specific to the physical data centers. Furthermore, this paper has discussed the possible solutions that can be used to ensure the security of data centers as a perspective to the current Information Technology (IT) industry.



      Mr. Arulanandam Kajavatan BSc Eng.(Mora),MSc (Soton), Mr. Uthayakumar Nitharsan

Abstract: Bottling biogas, a renewable energy using anaerobic digestion of organic waste, enhances rural economy by decentralizing biogas utilization. New opportunities emerge in rural area not just lowering their living cost via self-producible fuel. Bottled raw biogas can be marketable as a fuel or for upgrading the biogas. This lower cost bottling system costs less than five thousand Sri Lankan rupees (Rs 5000) and can be used with minimum technical knowledge especially about safety precautions. The bottled upgraded biogas can be used for various applications including electricity generation, fueling vehicles and heating. The side product - slurry is a good fertilizer, can be marketable too. The biogas bottling system motivates villagers to utilize their waste to produce biogas and enables new income opportunities while experiencing hygienic lifestyle through better organic waste management.



      V. N. Kuneva, B. H. Petrova, A. K. Stoyanova, L. K. Dospatliev

Abstract: The aim of the development is to analyse, with the help of a two-factor dispersive analysis, the impact of the factors “year`s character” and “irrigation regime” on the separate biometric indicators for celery. Data for the yield and its structural elements was received and used by a field experiment for examining the irrigation regime that was conducted during the period 2010 – 2012 at the Training Experimental Field of Agricultural University, Plovdiv. Five options were examined: irrigation with 130 % from m norm; irrigation with 100 % from m; with 70 % from m; with 50 % from m; with 30 % from m and without irrigation. It was statistically proved, at a high degree of reliability, the impact of the examined factors and their interaction upon the three observed indicators: mass of the root crop, leaf mass and yield. Strongest impact had the factor “irrigation regime” (94 %).



      Lina Deka

Abstract: Development is the core concern for every government now a days. Millennium Development Goal gives emphasis on sustainable development. The Brundtland Commission’s report defined sustainable development which meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. The Millennium Development Goal also emphasises on empowerment of women, reduce child mortality and to improve maternal health. Under Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) several steps have been taken to improve the condition of mother and child. Then also maternal mortality ratio in Assam is 301 per one lakh and maternal mortality rate is 23 per one thousand and life time risks is 0.79% in Assam according to annual health survey. Therefore my study is based on the condition of health of poor pregnant women in Assam. For that purpose primary data is collected to know their condition, help of the medical practitioner also been taken. This study is going to deal with ground realities of the condition of health of poor pregnant women.



      Jane Wangui Jomo, Ben O. Osuga

Abstract: Health Workers constitute key component of the national health system thus central to planning, managing and delivering health services. Rarely do concerted efforts get made to address severe staff shortages in many Countries despite being of critical importance to the functioning of health service delivery. In addition to absolute shortage of Health Workers in Kenya, available workforce is often ill-distributed and attrition rates are high. Kilifi County, one of poorest rural Counties in Kenya experienced shortage of Health Workers. The goal of this study was to explore ways and means of scaling up Health Workers distribution in public health facilities to improve Health Workforce in Kilifi County, Kenya. The study was based on Human Resources for Health pillar. The objectives of the study included; to determine characteristics of deployment of Health Workers; and explore factors influencing retention rates of Health Workers. Information generated will be valuable to institutional planners in resolving mal-distribution of Health Workers and reinforce strengths in public health facility hence efficient and effective service delivery resulting to improved health.



      Mohammed Idriss. Ahmed, Mohammed Osman Sid Ahmed, Hafiz F.AL Rahman, Isam Salih M . Mousa and Hajo Idriss

Abstract: The fast development of mobile communication systems all over the world has caused the appearance of many hundreds of mobile telephone base stations in every municipality. Mobile base station set up has produced concerns about health and in some cases has resulted in litigation in court. Hence, radiological hazard assessments due to electromagnetic radiation emitted from 50 mobile base stations GSM900-GSM1800 were carried out. The measurement was performed at different distances and directions from 50 mobile base stations using Aaronia Hyper LOG 4040 X instrument. The mean Power density (0.00595W/m2) and Power Ratio (-52 dBm) were determined and compared with International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), World Health Organization allowable limits and different countries. On the other hand, the investigation highlights the importance of radiation monitoring of mobile phone antenna on a residential building.



      Ritika M. Makhijani, V. D. Barhate

Abstract: A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Co (II) by using N - (o - hydroxy benzylidene) pyridine - 2 - amine (NOHBPA) as an analytical reagent. NOHBPA has been synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectral analysis. NOHBPA extracts Co (II) quantitatively (99.78%) into ethylacetate an aqueous solution of pH range 8.5 – 9.5. The ethylacetate extract shows an intense peak at 520 nm (λ max). Beer’s law is obeyed over the Co (II) concentration range of 0.1 - 10 µg/ml. The sandell’s sensitivity and molar absorptivity for Co - NOHBPA system is 0.007142 μgcm-2 and 8250.82 L mole-1cm-1 respectively. The composition of extracted species is found to be 1:2 (Co: NOHBPA) by Job’s Continuous Variation and Mole Ratio Method. Interference by various ions has been studied. The proposed method has been successfully applied for determination of Co (II) in Pharmaceutical samples.



      Vijay Rane, H.S. Goliya, Paresh Sanwaliya, M. Islamuddin Faraz

Abstract: The control of traffic at highway intersections is of fundamental importance to traffic engineers engaged in finding ways to achieve efficient operation of only highway system. When traffic conditions warrant it, signalization may be considered an effective means of control at intersections since the number of conflict points at intersections could be significantly reduced with signalization. However, that an attempt to significantly reduce the number of conflict points will increase the number of phase required, which may result in increase delay. For signalized isolated intersections proper signal phasing and cycle time is very important to reduce the accidents, to allow safe crossing of traffic as well as pedestrian flow and reduce the overall delay. In the present work an attempt has been made to synchronize signal from Rasoma to High court via Patnipura in Indore district.



      Sanjeet Singh

Abstract: This paper talks about •Why Google reCaptcha?



      Mahafroz Khatib, Rituraj Mohanty, Arun Gowda, Gayathri Balasubramanian

Abstract: Despite the advances in vaccine development, vaccine preventable diseases still add to the burden of childhood morbidity and mortality across the globe, particularly in developing countries. One of the major barriers preventing the access to sophisticated vaccines is the high vaccine price, the same factor that is preventing their implementation in developing countries with limited resources and funds. So, it is imperative that financial breaches and funding resources for the future are stringently appraised to strengthen immunization programs and expedite financial sustainability. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) presents an inventive and efficient approach by facilitating decision makers with a valid tool to improvise the allocation of limited resources in immunization programs. Hence, in this article we have attempted to address and suggest measures that can be implemented on a collaborative basis to mitigate the financial challenges faced in immunization programs in developing nations. The article also explores the potential and advantages of HTA as a tool for introducing new vaccines as part of immunization programs in developing countries.



      Eman A. Abdalla, Mohamed S. Osman and Elfatih A., M. Elsiddig

Abstract: This investigation was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Rescores, University of Bakht Er-Ruda, Ed Duiem, Sudan. The objectives of this investigation were to design two stores from local materials for mango fruits and study the effect of these stores in prolonging the storage period and fruit firmness and colour of fruits. Among traditional stores, Jute store showed the lowest temperature. Furthermore, the store made from jute material obtained the highest value of the relative humidity compared with the other stores. Mango stored in Jute showed significant increase in storage period and fruit firmness and delay colour change.



      A. A. Aloma, O.S Olonitola, E.D Jatau

Abstract: Background: Hospital acquired infections are serious problems in patient care, and adversely affect the mortality and morbidity; despite antimicrobial therapy and advances in supportive care. The environment can serve as a source of infection. The aim of this work is to evaluate contamination of the inanimate hospital environment by bacterial agents, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and to determine the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to various antibiotics.



      Noor M. Abdullah, PhD, Hala S. Abdulwahid, PhD

Abstract: Objective(s): To evaluate nurses' performance of family health nursing practices at the primary health care centers in Al-Muthana Health Directorate and to determine the relationships between these nurses' performance and their demographic characteristics of age, gender, years of employment and training.



      D.N.S.Kuruwitaarachchi, R.A.P.Buddhika

Abstract: “Mobile Intelligent Shopping Guide (ISG)” system is a mobile browser based application that will give difference experience to the customers as well as the supermarket managers This document provides a complete description of all the functionality and specifications that is in ISG as a project for Comprehensive Design and Analysis of Projects course by project group (P2011-129) This document provides an in depth overview into the extensive research carried out and the collective effort put by the team to develop the system.ISG system will be give difference experience to the customers as well as the supermarket managers.



      Kavita Hooda

Abstract: ATM is an automated teller machine which is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. In ATMs the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip (that contains a unique card number and some security information). The first ATM was installed in Enfield town in London on June 27, 1967 by Barclays Bank. ATMs are known by various other names as Automated Transaction Machine, Automated Banking Machine, Cash Point(at Britain), Hole in the wall, Ban comet(in Europe and Russia) and Any Time Money( in India)



      Svodziwa Mathew, Kurete Faith, Gwangwara Edward

Abstract: Motivation plays a key role in employee job performance. Principals most often fulfill their organizational goals through the work of employees. Thus Principals need to have highly efficient and productive staff members. Although many factors contribute to productivity, job performance is viewed to be the most influential one. This paper therefore established factors that motivate lecturers at Bulawayo Polytechnic to perform efficiently and effectively at the institution.



      Shahid Raza, Muhammad Waseem Shoaib, Saima Jabeen and Hira Mubeen

Abstract: Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder resulting in irregularly regulating red blood cells also called as sickled cells leading to serious conditions like stroke, acute chest syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, organ damage, blindness and skin ulcers. Several mutations in HBB gene can cause sickle cell disease. Persons with sickle cell anemia can inherit infected genes from both parents. Despite a variable disease severity, individuals affected require regular health care from childhood all the way to adult age. This review, highlights the increased susceptibility to infections, the genetic factors and preventive measures to overcome various complications and challenges for sickle cell anemia.



      Saima Hanif, Nusrat Jahan and Shahid Raza

Abstract: Dengue fever is making headlines all over the world. It is a mosquito-borne disease. The huge leap in dengue cases is causing many scientist and medical experts to worry. There is no cure for dengue fever. In fact, one of the biggest challenges the medical community faces is how to control dengue and how to stop the disease from spreading. Right now, one of the most effective way is the vector control. The current study is the laboratory and field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis Vectobac® WDG (Water dispersible granules) 3000 ITU / mg was carried out against Aedes albopictus (early 4th instar) larvae from Lahore Pakistan. The primary objective was to control Aedes mosquitoes (Mainly vector of Dengue fever) by determing the minimum effective dosage of Bti WDG for larval mortality and pupae reduction of Aedes albopictus in laboratory as well as in the field assay.



      Muhammad Taimoor khan, Dr. Waseem Haider and Dr. Shahid Raza

Abstract: In Arabidopsis (Flowering Plant) shoot apical meristem (SAM) is converted into inflorescence meristem. Study has been revealed that there are various genes which control this transition. Two types of inflorescence are found in flowering plants: Determinate and indeterminate. Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene is one of those genes which play key role for the maintenance of inflorescence meristem. Tfl1 gene regulates flowering time and maintains the fate of inflorescence meristem. Arabidopsis genome contains six TFL1 like genes. TFL1 belongs to a small gene family. In this study a comparison between TFL1 wild type and TFl1 mutant is conducted according to which TFL1 is able to convert the indeterminate inflorescence to determinate. TFL1 is believed to be a controller or more specifically a regulator of inflorescence architecture and flowering time. TFL1 is believed to be a negative regulator of flowering time so if mutations are introduces in it the flowering time will be accelerated.



      Alwadood, J. A., Alaga A. T., Afon, A. O., Faniran G. B. and Gajere E. N

Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the physical (landuse) growth along Abuja-Keffi development corridor. Data for the study were Landsat Imagery (ETM) of 2001, Nigeria Sat-1 Imagery of 2007 and Nigeria Sat-X Imagery of 2013. Others included Google earth image of 2014 and Nigeria political shapefile. The study revealed that between 2001 and 2007, portion of Nigeria Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja within the study area grew from 83.23 km2 to 99.89 km2 while that of Keffi increased from 3.77 km2 to 9.13 km2. This increase respectively accounted for 16.68% and 58.71% growth rate within 2001 and 2007. The study also revealed that between 2007 and 2013, in Abuja, landuse development along Abuja-Keffi Road increased from 99.89 km2 to 158.07 km2 while the portion in Keffi grew from 9.13 km2 to 22.36 km2. The minimum and maximum distance between settlements along the Abuja-Keffi development corridor was 0.21 km and 8.96 km in 2001, while, it was0.08 km and 3.57 km in 2013. The study concluded that the rate of agglomeration of urban landuse along the Abuja-Keffi development corridor was high, hence the need to manage and control development.



      V.A.A.S.Perera, E.A.M.K.B.Ekanayake, S.S. Shurane, P.A.Isuru Udayanga, J.P.Maharajage, R.M.C.Bandara, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Now a days Wireless networks are very famous the reason is user friendliness of Wi-Fi, within 20 meters any one can connect any Wi-Fi device to network without any wire. Wi-Fi use 2.4gigahertz UHF and 5gighertz range. Mainly devices connect through wireless access points. This is the main entrance of network attackers to large scale organizations. Network security is very important in large scale organizations. Wireless security is help to prevent unauthorized access to the network via wireless access points. Increment of thousands of Wi-Fi users, need to improve wireless security. This Wi-Fi network attacks always focus on large organizations, now organizations consider about their wireless network security. The research explain how increase Wi-Fi security in large scale company networks using WPA2, WTLS, AES Encryption, IP-VPN and HTTP Proxy Servers. Research paper explain things that need to include in new protocol and discussion about the most efficient and fast way to transfer data through the wireless network in a large scale organization has been discussed.



      Syed Muhammad Arif, Akhtar Hussain, Dong Ryeol Shin

Abstract: This paper surveys the research and development of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm for choosing the suitable position and size of Distributed Generation (DG) units within a distribution network. Our discussion first covers the algorithm development of PSO and its use in neural networks. After establishing the foundations of PSO, we then explore its use in sizing and sitting of DG units in distribution network. Future development in PSO algorithm such as combining PSO with other optimization techniques for attaining better results is also discussed in this paper.



      Mohd Shoaib Amir Khan

Abstract: Databases contains very large datasets, where various duplicate records are present. The duplicate records occur when data entries are stored in a uniform manner in the database, resolving the structural heterogeneity problem. Detection of duplicate records are difficult to find and it take more execution time. In this literature survey papers various techniques used to find duplicate records in database but there are some issues in this techniques. To address this Progressive algorithms has been proposed for that significantly increases the efficiency of finding duplicates if the execution time is limited and improve the quality of records.



      Muatasim Al Salmi, Shahimi Mohtar, Norlena Hasnan

Abstract: Earlier, countries used relationships with citizens in outbound and inbound manners and have used them for a better positioning of the nation. Nowadays, both relationships emerged and industrialized through the usage of ICTs to find solutions in attracting tourists and promote their own destinations. In addition, the complete structures of different sectors of goods and services have been partially revolutionized globally by an innovative modern interaction between agents involved. Therefore, the e-government construction requires technical development and implementation solutions from private sector in the country. Both sectors, tourism and government are facing obstacles and challenges generated by the advance and improvement in the use of ICTs by consumers and citizens. This report presents an overview of the relationship between e-government and e-tourism as an e-service under ICT technology. The relationship further explained using a case study of Sultanate of Oman with conclusion and recommendations to the nation.



      Rahman Temizkan, Simge Tokay

Abstract: Destination image perceived by market has been studied for a long time. The main objective of this study is to examine self- image perception of destinations with special references to Turkiye as a tourist destination and Turkish tourist guides. Under the light of developed conceptual framework, a field research was designed and applied. The study discovered that there may be differences between hosts’ perceptions on overall image and destination image of a country. Considering the differences this article will explore two questions that authors pose: According to guides what kind of image problems does Turkiye have and how they affect each other? Authors of the paper have implied the importance of the tourist guides in the destination image formation and management processes.



      Hayder M. Hamodi, Mohamed A. munshid, Khalid S. Shibib

Abstract: The laser communications systems consist of three main parts are a transmitter, free space channel and receiver. In this work the circuit of mobile laser transceiver has been designed to use for data exchange between computers. The electronic parts that have been used to implement the mobile laser transceiver are laser diode of 650 nm used as transmitter, a phototransistor IS485 has been used as receiver, MAX232CPE is an IC used to as data controller, inverter DM74LS04 has been used to invert the received signal from a phototransistor IS485 and the program that has been designed and used to control the data exchange between computers is Visual Studio 2010. The programs have been used to exam receiving and transmitting file are free serial monitor and WinMerge. A laser beam transmits data form 1m to 20m of range with no errors in different free space conditions. The baud rates that have been achieved are from 9600bps to 256000bps.



      Debalke Debala Dalka

Abstract: Empowering the poor through household asset building and improving their economic status is now one of the top prioritized agenda by Ethiopian government. To address this, gauging gender differences in terms of determinants of income and asset accumulation by assessing the practical social and economic characteristics of FHH and MHH is critical in the area. This study was conducted in Arbaminch surrounding by selecting four rural kebeles. A stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 160 household heads for the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interview, key informant interviews and focus group discussion.



      Muhammad Faisal Sultan

Abstract: Consumer Buying Behavior is the area of interest for all the companies. Not for their upcoming offerings but for their current offerings too. Its continuous analysis is required in order to fulfill the requirement of customers as well as to compete effectively with the increased degree of competition from direct competitors and indirect competition. There are several factors which can affect the consumer buying behavior but when companies want to analyze it expensive and Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), the role of packaging found to have the significant role in affecting consumer buying behavior.



      Worku Fentie, Tariku Sime

Abstract: The study investigated three public higher education institutions’ academic staffing practices in which guidelines (institutional /national level) these institutions have, the criteria they use, the organ responsible and the challenges the institutions face in the process were dimensions of the study. To this end, embedded multiple case studies design was used and data were collected through semi-structured interview conducted to department heads. Besides, two national documents by the Ministry of Education and four universities in unison endorsed by the ministry respectively assessed and analyzed as supplement. Finally, thematic analysis was made. The findings implications show that while there are national documents meant for guiding the process of staffing by all institutions, they are not self-sufficient to show the procedures and the criteria used to recruit the right candidates except former national document indicates the responsible organ that doesn’t seem to have been recognized and functioning by the institutions. As the result, the institutions do recruit using arbitrary procedures and criteria of their own that interest those involve in the process. Therefore, the situation calls for having proper binding guidelines, at national level, that clearly guide the process in such a way that procedures, job descriptions, criteria and tools of evaluation are clearly included in.



      N.M.Thenuwara, A.Y.Samarakoon, J.Annalingam, E.Sharooban, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: The current Internet usage, which was designed over 40 years ago, is facing unprecedented challenges in many aspects in the future. Our future Internet, though there will be more than 600 million users, the world is about 10% of the way there, and there is a lot of growth to come. As a result global internet traffic and mobile traffic will rise steadily and explosively over the next five years. These issues are usually referred to as ‘green networking’. Despite some proposals for energy-efficient topologies most of the studies are focused on warning the world about this problem. Mainly as the unnecessary energy consumption is being reduced day by day, the proposed paper provides strategies to save network for future covering through many components such as; wireless networks, wired networks, hybrid networks and the current chemical evolution happening in the world. Furthermore, the proposed project hopes to identify a few strategies that are the key enablers of energy-efficient networking research. Since the proposed project mainly highlights greening the networks, when these strategies come to play approximately 30-35% of energy will be saved through networking for future usage.



      L.S. Wijesinghe, L.N.B De Silva, G.T.A.Abhayaratne, P.Krithika, S.M.D.R. Priyashan, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: As this is the 21st century, the term “globalization” has become popular. Simply put, globalization is the process of international integration. Under this, as nations, people have lots of factors that must be definitely considered. Among those important areas, information technology (IT) is something that is being evolved day by day. As a negative aspect of IT, with the help of technological advancements, criminals are using cyberspace to commit numerous cyber-crimes. Since people are connected to the cyber space with their own devices, they are all vulnerable to intrusions and other various kinds of threats. Basic protection methods, such as internet security suits, are not just enough to protect the data and devices. Introducing effective and highly advanced cyber defense systems has become essential. As of today, with the technology, the globe is moving towards the artificial intelligence (AI). AI plays a major role in technology and has been involved with many technological aspects as well. Creating cyber defense systems, using intelligent agents has become a trend by today. Basically, an intelligent agent is a software component which can be emerged in an environment, take decisions, and has the ability of noticing and representing. The purpose of this study is to introduce a sophisticated cyber-crime defense system which involves intelligent agents that are based on artificial intelligence.



      M.I.Afthab Begum, P.Fijy Jose, S.Bama

Abstract: In this paper, MX/G/1 queue with disasters and working breakdowns services is analyzed. The system consists of a main server and a substitute server. It is assumed that disasters occur only when, the main server is in operation. The occurrence of disasters forces all customers to leave the system and causes the main server to fail. At a failure instant, the main server is sent to the repair facility and the repair period begins immediately. During the repair period, the system is equipped with the substitute server which provides the working breakdown services to arriving customers. The concept of working breakdown services is included and the steady state system size distribution is derived. Various performance measures are derived and the effects of system parameters on queue length are studied.



      Bijal Patel

Abstract: Excessive application of investment casted precise and complex components in aerospace and automobile industries pushes developments in near net shape investment casting process. As investment casting is lost wax process, the wax pattern manufacturing is the significant part of process chain of ceramic mould development .Improvement in properties of wax pattern is needed for successful production of mould as well as casting. In present research work, approach will be made to develop pattern with the mixtures of various commercial wax and novel additives to enhance better physical and mechanical properties of wax blend as well as final pattern. In present work focus will be made on the properties tensile strength, volumetric shrinkage and surface finish as these properties directly affects the accuracy achieved for mould cavity as well as the final casting. Comparison of these properties for various wax blend combination will help for development of effective wax pattern.



      M. A. Abd-Allah , T. Elyan and Eman Belal

Abstract: Lightning is still the main cause of transmission and distribution lines outages and represents an important problem for insulation design of power systems through the back-flashover phenomenon. This paper discusses the back flashover phenomenon on the Egyptian 500kV single circuit tower and 220 kV double circuit tower lines. The induced voltages across the insulator strings of the two lines are calculated. The effects of the lightning stroke magnitude and shape, the striking distances and the tower footing resistance on the induced voltage across the insulator strings are discussed.



      Abhinav Gupta, Komal Tomar

Abstract: To design and implement a flexible and powerful home yet cost effective security system using the GSM technology is the main aim of this research. This novel idea came to our mind while participating in schneider go green challenge .In this growing world nothing is left untouched by technology, so for occupant’s convenience and safety a mobile based home security system is needed. The system is can detect burglary, leakage of cooking gas; smoke caused due to accidents effectively and after detecting such activity it sends a message to the owner number. Android cell phone application is used to control the whole process. The user can control all the features and systems remotely (outside) thorough the app. With the additional control for home appliance switching activating and deactivating the alarm system is also provided. Within the GSM covered region a person can be assured of complete safety of his/her house anywhere in this world.



      C.A.Senadheera , V.S.S. Kaushalya , S.M.R.D. Mahavewa , N. Sukanthan , C.A.J.A. Rogess , Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Quantum cryptography is a modern technique in networking which is used as a component in making networks secure. Network security is a major problem in Telecommunication data Preservation. The storage of call detail records (CDRs) of telephony and internet traffic and transaction data (IPDRs) which are from governments and commercial organizations. It is often argued that data retention is necessary to combat terrorism, and other crimes. Data retention may assist the police and security services to identify potential terrorists and their accomplices before or after an attack has taken place. With the use of quantum cryptography and Wavelength division multiplexing provide security by enabling the unconditionally secure transmission of a random binary key, which enable bi-directional communication as well as multiplication of signal capacity. This may useful to compress several request to a single wave via fiber optics. And capable of protecting bandwidth capacity. Proposed research is about how to ensure the security of telecommunication call detail record transactions with quantum key distribution, wavelength division multiplexing and ultrafast frequency combs.



      Ramazan Göral

Abstract: If countries want to develop and boost their tourism industry, it should be paid attention to comparative price competition especially among rival destinations. Because there is a broad consensus that touristic demand is responsive to prices. In this regard, this study aims to analyze by comparing the price competition of 10 countries where we can consider as rival destinations in the international tourism market to Turkey. Data on goods and service price of countries where World Bank had prepared within the scope of International Comparison Program (ICP) programme (2011) were used in price analysis. Based on these data, total weighted costs of goods and services in the tourism product basket were calculated for 10 different destinations. In the study, purchasing power parity and exchange rates were determined based upon Turkey. Results of analysis suggest that Jordan and Tunisia among 10 destinations have the strongest price competitiveness, however indicating that France and Italy have the weakest price competitiveness.



      Sneha Khairnar, Snehal Khedekar, Vanita Kumbhar

Abstract: Weighted sets consist of three weights ,namely 0,1,and 0.5 have been successfully use so far for test pattern generation, since they gives both low testing time and low consumed power. Since accumulators are generally found in current VLSI chips, this scheme can be effectively made to use drive down the hardware of BIST pattern generation, as well. From the execution results, it is proved that the testing power for the proposed method is reduced by a considerable percentage. In accumulators used the adder, if we RCA adder or CLA adder its consume the more power and required more gates . If we kogges stone adder its required less power and less gates. Comparisons with previously presented schemes indicate that the recommended scheme compares favorably regarding required hardware.



      Stephen Okyere-Boateng, Kwame Ampadu Sasu, Evelyn Ekua Bentil, Benjamin Tawiah Ansu, Philip Agyepong Boateng

Abstract: The number of tertiary level educational institutions in Ghana has significantly increased from three government-owned universities in 1992 with the establishment of both public and private institutions that have additionally gained tertiary status. The proliferation of private universities has become a matter of public concern because some do not have full-time professionally trained staff for both academic and administrative engagements, and good infrastructure and facilities for provision of conducive environments that would enhance teaching, learning, and research. This study sought to examine the impacts of giving professional training to managers of polytechnics in particular, and tertiary level educational institutions in general. Qualitative research paradigm was used and purposive and stratified sampling methods were employed for data collection. The output of the research indicates that managers of tertiary level educational institutions need to be equipped with professional administrative skills to enhance training of high calibre graduates for both research and the job market. The National Council on Tertiary Education could establish an institute and design training modules for the award of professional certificates in Tertiary Level Educational Management to newly recruited administrators and academic heads of tertiary educational institutions.



      Saravana kannan G, Sasi kumar S, Ragavan R, Balakrishnan M

Abstract: Solid waste management is a big challenge in urban areas for most of the countries throughout the world. An efficient waste management is a pre requisition for maintain a safe and green environment as there are increasing all kinds of waste disposal. Many technologies are used for waste collection as well as for well managed recycling. The Information gathering is cumbersome. The robot capable of detecting the object in the random movement after detecting the object the robot senses by webcam and followed by image processing, after the segmentation process the robot classifies the waste into de gradable and non-degradable waste. The robot run with 60 rpm motor and the arm movement of the robot run with 10 rpm motor and the process is interface with serial port by interfacing device. By Image processing technique, modifications in the robotic arm, navigation, image, and interfacing modules the encountered various problems in garbage collection.



      Dilani Perera

Abstract: Background: Learning environment in any degree program is found to be important in determining students' academic success. It has been suggested that a positive learning environment as a student can lead to increase satisfaction, achievement and success as a practitioner post-graduation. The purpose of this cross sectional study is to investigate student perceptions of learning environment among B.Sc. Physiotherapy undergraduate students in Sri Lanka. Various aspects of environments are compared between year of levels and gender.



      U.L.Muhammed Rijah, S.Mosharani, S.Amuthapriya, M.M.M Mufthas, Malikberdi Hezretov and Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Bluetooth technology has become an essential part of this modern world where it provides a short distance wireless communication between devices and other network with low cost and low power making it convenient for the users. Bluetooth utilizes the standard 2.4GHz signal range. The security issues in Bluetooth network are malicious entities may gain unauthorized access, internal attacks may be possible via ad hoc transmissions, data may be extracted without any detections, viruses or other vulnerable attacks may corrupt data on the wireless devices, etc. These vulnerabilities in the security sectors are increasing which can be possibly dangerous to the privacy of a user’s personal information. To overcome these issues the network security in Bluetooth is introduced. There are many new risks created in Bluetooth network, a good security design is essential for it to be successful. This paper will be focused in what Bluetooth, the vulnerable risks associated with it, network securities related to the Bluetooth, how it works. Through this paper the solution for the above mentioned problems will be solved by giving some safety tips and the possible solutions like conducting seminars regarding the security issues and also doing some workshops for the user Majority of devices now communicates using this Bluetooth technology, the risk of the security issues are high. Due to the security issues, users will aware from Bluetooth attacks. User privacy protection methods for every new security as the device user’s personal information’s should be secured.



      Ethelbert Okey Lawrence

Abstract: The present Global system is confronted with multiplicity of challenges which threaten the survival of many nation states. One of these challenges is corruption. The viral nature of this phenomenon is such that combating it is consistently proving difficult. The menace is present in varying degrees in different countries at different times. Countries in the Global North and the Global South are scourged by it differently. Nigeria is not an exception to this. The phenomenon consequently brings about economic backwardness, political instability, social insecurity, infrastructural decay, unaccountability, negation of the principle of law, etc.



      Nilosha Pereira, Vimukthi Elvitigala, Mahesha Athukorala, Piumi Fernando, Dineth Ehelepola, Kosala Sameera, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Cloud computing has become an emerging technology infrastructure in the IT industry. Reasons for the sudden boom of this model were the advantages it offers to the users. Cloud computing is a service over a network connection which shares enormous amount of resources rather than having to build the infrastructure in house. Other than sharing resources cloud computing offers flexibility, reduced capital costs, achieving economies of scale, globalize workforce etc. Cloud computing technology has some serious drawbacks which now has overrun the benefits it offers. The security of the user data is crucial when adopting a cloud computing model. Several methods have been implemented in securing user data such introducing encryption algorithms. Service traffic hijacking creates a major concern on using cloud computing for this allows the hacker to access the credentials of the genuine user hence he or she can eavesdrop on the user’s activities and transactions, manipulate user data, return false information and redirect your client to illegitimate sites. In this paper we propose remediation to prevent intruders of accessing unauthorized data and using and encryption algorithm efficiently to neutralize the security threats.



      Emmanuel Atta Williams, John Bentil, Ben Asante

Abstract: Soil moisture evaporation plays an important role in the fields of surface water balance and the surface energy balance. Measurements of cumulative evaporation on soil moisture have been carried out in the laboratory using laser sensor. In this study, moisture content of clay loam and beach sandy soils were monitored using an unexpanded 5 mW Helium –Neon Laser ( = 0.63 m) incident through an optical fibre on one side of an equilateral triangular glass prism which was partly buried in the soil sample. The total internal reflected beam from the sample through the prism was collected from an output optical fibre into a detector and a multimeter. In order to dry and evaporate water from the soil, a 60 Watts incandescent light and a fan were placed above the soil sample container and made to operate simultaneously.



      Emmanuel Atta Williams

Abstract: Students of Saint John’s Secondary School, Sekondi-Ghana were made to acquire scientific skills in physics during the practical sessions. The treatment was investigated using a randomized pretest –protest experimental design. The performance of thirty (30) students who constituted the experimental group was compared with other thirty (30) students who constituted the control group. Both groups offered Biology with Physics and Chemistry as their electives. The homogeneity in the entry behaviors of the two groups was determined using the two-tailed F-test analysis of variance at 5 % level of significance. Similarly, the t-test analysis of means was invoked for the post-test. The two-tailed t-test performance for 58 degrees of freedom gave a critical value of 2.00 at the 2.5 % probability level. This value was then compared with calculated t-value of 3.17 and it was found that the treatment was effective. The research therefore recommended the approach for the use by teachers to help students to acquire some scientific skills in physics and science in general.



      D.K.C.P. Sooriyapala, G.K.U. Lakmal, G.M.N.H. Godamanna, E.M.P.Y.S. Elapatha, H.A.P.A Jayasinghe and Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: This is a time where usage of technology keeps growing. Along with a growth of using technology, so as it needs to increase the using hardware and server. It consumes more energy than past. As a solution virtual environment can be used to ease the usage and less hardware, server and energy consume. More than one Virtual Machine (VM) in a host can be run at once but virtual traffic between two VMs will never go out of the host. Therefore, this network traffic will never meet a physical firewall and also when data comes from outer networks must be filtered before they enter the related VMs. In case of that a Virtual Firewall (VF) must be deployed. When a network traffic generated it causes VF to slow it’s mechanism down as well as the hypervisor’s performance. To solve it, quantum mechanism approach will be used and will be given a solution to improve the VF performance as well as hypervisor performance.



      A.M Aslam Sujah, H.M Shadir, M.S.M Shakir, K. Jasandan, S. Kavitha, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Internet protocol version 6, the new version of the Internet Protocol has been developed to provide new services and to provide flexibility to the Internet's growth. An overview of the key security issues outlines the challenges in deploying and transitioning to IPv6. Protecting against threats, viruses, hackers can be regarded as the most difficult problems on the Internet today. One solution for these attacks is to trace the source of the attacks. However, it is not easy to trace since the attackers generally use the spoofed IP source addresses to hide own network location. The current Internet architecture does not provide any means to find the real sources of IP packets. Numerous trace back mechanisms have been proposed to this prevention method to overcome this issue. Most of such works have been focused on addressing the trace back issues based on the Internet protocol version 4 based network. In this paper, the research group analyze IPv6 hacking techniques and propose a combined solution from the existing solutions.



      S.Pavithirakini,D.D.M.M.Bandara, C.N.Gunawardhana, K.K.S.Perera, B.G.M.M.Abeyrathne, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Network anomaly detection is a important and dynamic research area. Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detect network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. Flooding is a kind of attack, in which the attacker sends several floods of packets to the victim or associated service in an effort to bring down the system. There are unlike types of flooding attacks like ping flood, Syn floods, UDP (User Datagram Protocols) floods etc. The project simulates a ping flood scenario, by using the ping command on the OS(Operating System) and same time wireshark is installing the system on the victim, which would be used to analyses the number of ping packets acknowledged during a specified period with orientation to a threshold, based on which a flooding attack is detected. In wireshark one port received all ping request. Therefore is not accurate to handle the all request. In this paper briefly disused how is wireshark tool working, wireshark tool disadvantages use traceback mechanism and improved the wireshark tool.



      Sanjeet Singh

Abstract: This paper talks about •Why Common Login?



      Aschalew Mulugeta Atnafu

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of Students’ entrepreneurial intensions among newly established universities of Ethiopia by taking Dire Dawa University as a case study. To do so the researcher applied stratified proportionate random sampling technique in which 690 sample respondents from institute of technology, school of business and economics, school of social science, school of natural science, school of health and school of Law were taken as a sample via single population proportion formula of Kish and Leslie. Further primary source of data was collected via questionnaire from previous entrepreneurial intentions standardized questionnaires of different scholars. For the sake of analyzing the data Descriptive statistics was calculated using frequencies and percentages and then Binary Logistic regression analysis with 95% CI was used to assess the relative effect of independent variables on the dependent variable.



      Dwi Haryanto, Lukman M Baga, Kirbrandoko

Abstract: The objectives of this study was to identify internal factors and external factors that affect the business PPSN publisher, alternative business strategies and recommend strategies that can be applied to business development PPSN publisher. This research uses descriptive method with the case study and descriptive analysis, keys succes analysis, five forces of Porter analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis, and the type of data used are primary data and secondary data. The technique of collecting data through interviews, focus group discussions, and questionnaires using purposive sampling tehnique. Based on the results, the strategies that can be done is increasing competitive through run competent business, product development, innovation product and technology, concept product of one source multi platform, increasing market penetration, enhanced the capabilities of human resources, and improve channel distribution.



      Abdul Fatah Sabie, Abdulbaset Elesawi, L. Nesseef

Abstract: Needs for performing business with aims of sustainability and implementing green building construction came from every day growing number of environmentally conscious people. People are having more awareness of the threatening ecological disaster on a global level. As much as is in their power they trying to convey others in ideas and need for sustainable coexistence with their environment. In our work we will pay special attention on sustainable development and especially green building as efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. It minimizes damaging effects on human health and environment and improving productivity by using resources in most efficient way. Green building brings environmental, economic and social benefits. It also need to be safe and secure, so special attention must be paid to fire protection, impact resistance and blast resistance. We will study sustainability of high-performing building as great challenge in modern project management and architecture. Here, building team is consisted from project manager, architect, engineers, contractor, and many other highly educated and skilled members, who must act like one and each of them, must think about project as an entirety. We will introduce you with LEED standards which develop criteria for judging greenness of building.



      Omar. M. Alia, Hamada. H. Amer, Mohamed Nayel, and Adel. A.-H. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract: New paracetamol derivatives and their N-substituted acyclic nucleoside analogues were prepared. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, micrococcus,salmonella typhi and salmonella para typhi.The synthesized compounds were tested also against fungi species such as aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigates, aspergillus ochraceus and candida albicans. Most of tested compounds exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity while few compounds were found to exhibit little or no activity against the tested microorganisms.



      Dr Shishir Basarkar, Dr Mayank Saxena

Abstract: As such the health care systems in India is very complex and having various verticals. With the emergence of corporatization of hospital the measurement of efficiency has become the initial step in the process of individual performance audit of patient care centers. The term efficiency is largely used in the field of economics and it refers to the best utilization of resources. A very common example of operational efficiency is technical efficiency which means the effective use of resources (input) in producing outputs. In the Farrell framework, a hospital is judged to be technically efficient if it is operating on the best practices of the production frontier. Mainly there are two methods which are used in measuring operational efficiency. The first is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) which is a linear programming method enabling the measurement of efficiency consistent with the theoretically based concept. The role of DEA is to examine the relationship between inputs to a process and the outputs of that process. The second technique for assessing efficiency that is employed is Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). However the DEA is used most commonly.



      Mohamed Zaed, Osama Garoum, Moftah Aldaif

Abstract: The phenomenon of turning conventional banks to Islamic banking has been accompanied by the phenomenon of the spread of Islamic banks in the second half of 20th century. Studies in this area are infrequent in Libya because of the absence of Islamic banks. Some conventional banks in Libya have recently started to transform into Islamic. From here the view of the researcher doing the study to help these banks to identify the measures are necessary to turn to Islamic banks and thus enter the Islamic banks to the Libyan arena to contribute to raising the level of dealing with banks, many of the Libyans do not prefer to deal with conventional banks, considering that Libyan society is an Islamic society. Islamic banking services include whether conventional banks close branches for Islamic finance and conventional banks to become Islamic. Libya is trying to impose a particular authorization for Sharia based banks.



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D

Abstract: Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) is a fast rising horticultural herb with many therapeutic and economic benefits. The study was conducted at the Nursery House of the City Agriculture Office, Casisang, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Philippines from November 2015 to January 2016 to evaluate the herbage yield of Stevia shoot tip cuttings in response to various growing media. The study was laid-out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and replicated three times with twenty sample plants per replication. The different treatments are: T1 – pure garden soil, T2 – ½ garden soil + ½ vermicast, T3 – pure vermicast, T4 – ½ sand + ½ vermicast, and T5 – 1/3 garden soil + 1/3 sand + 1/3 vermicast. Results showed that Stevia shoot tip cuttings in T5 (1/3 garden soil + 1/3 sand + 1/3 vermicast) grown in polyethylene pots consistently had the tallest plants 48.64 cm); highest survival rates (100%); least incidence of leaf curling (1.33 rating) and leaf dark spot (1.33); most number of leaves (226.41) and branches (21.13); and highest percentage of expanded leaves (69%). It also obtained significantly the heaviest fresh and oven-dried herbage, leaf and stem weights. It also attained the highest herbage yield and oven-dried leaf yield in hectare basis with 3,903.50 kg and 355.01 kg, respectively, thus, obtaining the highest gross sale of US $37,767.44 per hectare and a net income of US $ 25,980.21 with an ROI of 220.41%.



      S.Damayanthi Edirisinghe

Abstract: Informal economic activities among women is a most popular phenomenon in the developing world as well as developed world. Many economists argued that official labor statistics does not reflect all the informal activities which carried out by women. Moreover the female who are engage in economic activities which belong to the informal sector, do not have proper operating place. Sri Lanka is a small Island in the world. Women of the Sri Lanka constitute more than half of the population. But official statistics reflects, contribution of the women to the economy is relatively low. Majority of women’s work are not often measured in quantitative terms and it is not valued in national accounts.



      Imran Ali Khan

Abstract: To find out the effect of training on selected biochemical variables of urban employee of district Budgam. For the purpose of this study 50 urban employees from various departments were selected randomly from the district Budgam of Jammu And Kashmir State aged between 35 to 45 years. They were divided in to two equally groups (experiment and control). The experiment group containing 25 subjects underwent gym training programme. controlled group comprised of 25 subjects did not received any kind of gym training programme for the same period of time. After completing the eight weeks gym training programme (experiment) post test was conducted in the same way by testing the blood samples of the subjects. The data were collected on selected biochemical variables (determination of haemoglobin, serum urea, serum uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerol, HDL-C and LDL-C.) The entire tests were done at IRAM CLINICAL LAB BUDGAM to get better results. The result concluded that the regular gym training programme contributes to the improve the selected biochemical variables indicating the good health status of urban employees.



      M. Vindyashree, S. Maheswari and M. R. Govindappa

Abstract: The present study was conducted for detection of leaf curl begomovirus disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). In the present study tobacco seedlings were inoculated with leaf curl virus of sunflower under laboratory through insect vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), The characteristic symptoms were observed 10-15 days after inoculation, further all inoculated samples were retested (3-4 weeks after inoculation) by molecular based Polymerse chain reaction diagnosis for the presence of virus. The results revealed that the causal virus of the disease was successfully transmitted from sunflower to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) in a short incubation period and also confirmed the presence of coat protein (CP) of leaf curl begomovirus in virus inoculated hosts of Tobacco.Thus, findings substantiate that Nicotiana benthamiana is also a major source of the virus inoculum and served as potential alternate host of the disease during the off season.



      S. Maheswari, M. Vindyashree and A.G.Murugesan

Abstract: The biosorption of Cd (II) ions from the aqueous solutions by A. nidulans strain isolated from contaminated soil was studied in batch system. The effect of pH (3, 4, 5 and 6), temperature (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45ºC) initial concentration (100 – 500 mg/ L) of Cd (II) ions on biosorption were investigated. The maximum biosorption capacity of A. nidulans was 258 mg/L at 350 mg/L of Cd (II) ions. The experimental results suggest that the second – order equation is the most appropriate equation to predict the biosorption capacity by A. nidulans. Biosorption equilibrium data was best described by Langmuir isotherm model followed by Freundlich model. The free energy change (∆G°) obtained for the biosorption of Cd (II) ions at the temperature of 298, 303, 308, 313 and 318 K was – 633, - 644, - 655, - 665 and – 676 by the fungal biomass at pH – 3. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the spontaneity and feasibility of the biosorption of Cd (II) by kJ/mol by A. nidulans.



      Assist Prof. Huda Baker Hassan, Assist Prof. Kareem Ghadban Sajem, Assist Prof. Sabah Abass Ahmad

Abstract: Iraq is the largest internal displacement wave in its history, after the invasion of terrorists to the north and west of the country and that the current places inhabited by IDPs, which was held hastily lacking mostly basic services and because of the lack of fit between the amount of space and number of families, the possibility of the emergence of health problems is significant, as the congestion Basically, contribute and easily in transition and the spread of communicable diseases



      Salman Tamseel, Shah Alam

Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to run a high capacity packaged type air-conditioner using solar energy. For this purpose the vapour compression cycle has been selected. In this the D.C powered compressor is used to save the losses of input energy. It is found that for cooling a given space 10TR capacity cooling unit is needed. As per market survey we found that package type vapour compression system can fulfil this requirement. To power this unit we need 12 photovoltaic modules of 345 Wp capacity connected in series. In this analysis the COP of system has been taken 2.52. Four quantities per panel of 24 volts battery are needed to give backup power for system.



      Nkwoada Amarachi, Oguzie Emeka, Alisa Christopher, Agwaramgbo Lovell, Enenebeaku Conrad

Abstract: Increased gasoline consumption in automotive engines have triggered the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) especially carbon dioxide (CO2) from automotive exhausts. These exhaust emissions depend on factors like the engine combustion design and operating conditions, fuel grade and lubricant, the state of maintenance and local road conditions and continue to affect the concentration of pollutants emitted by automotives like CO2 and unburnt hydrocarbons which are very toxic to humans, leading to environmental pollution. In pursuant of improved efficient engine and less toxic emissions, the use of gasoline blends and biofuels are not the panacea since the exhaust-gas concentration and its constituent are not indicative of the contribution of the constituent to the overall emission due to variations in exhaust-gas flow rate with different engine types and automotive sources. Moreover real-time monitoring, turbo-charging technologies, fuel injection strategies and catalytic exhaust aftertreatment may reduce emissions if compared to base engines but significant risk of CO2 induced climate change continue to persist, while CO2 capture technologies such as adsorption and absorption are limited in contrast to new developments in engine and exhaust technologies that are cheaper and locally sourced and could become the next trajectory.



      K.Shayether, S.A.Asmina, M.J.E.Fernando, K.J.Sheshadari, H.A.T.Rangari, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: The aim of this paper shows the prospective routine of Li-Fi technology and its features to increase the performance of data transmission and various applications where Li-Fi has been placed to use. The modern society is highly affected by modern communication technology. Almost all the level of peoples are using web to complete the chore through wireless network. As amount of users are increases in using wireless network, this has unfortunately led to an increase in network complexity, speed decreases, shortage of wireless radio bandwidth and an increased risk of interference of radio frequencies. Moreover efficiency and safety of the internet are dominating issues now. Though Wi-Fi gives us speed up to 150mbps, which is not sufficient to accommodate number of anticipated users. To Resolving this limitation of Wi-Fi, a new technology always is desirable and, there are enormous new technologies participating to make sophisticated environment for an end user. As a result, Li-Fi has been introduced that could provide a connection that's 100 times faster than traditional Wi-Fi, Li-Fi provides better effectiveness, handiness and safety than Wi-Fi. It has gained a huge popularity in short range of year. Such technology has brought not only speed but harmless and inexpensive future of communication. The immense usage of Li-Fi may solve some tailback of Wi-Fi technology. In the present; this paper made an exhaustive study on Li-Fi technology, working techniques, and related researches which used Li-Fi technology.



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D. and Rodulfo R. Pabellan, Jr

Abstract: Vermitea is a water extract from vermicast brewed for beneficial organisms. This study was conducted at Campo, Kinoguitan, Misamis Oriental, Philippines from December 2012 to June 2013 to determine the efficacy of varying levels and brewing durations of vermitea foliar spray applications on the growth and yield of eggplant. A study was laid-out in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated 3 times, with concentration levels as Factor A and brewing durations as Factor B. Results revealed that plants sprayed with 20% concentration level of vermitea had the tallest plants (29.69 cm), most resistant to pests and diseases (3.8), earliest to produce 50% flowers (50.33 days), produced the most number of flowers (144.92), highest percent fruit set (74.72%), longest fruit (20.79 cm), largest fruit (3.56 cm), obtained the highest total fruit yield (9.21 tons/ha) and the highest ROI (228.93%). Brewing vermitea for two days produced the tallest plants (25.21 cm), most resistant to pests and diseases (3.35), most number of flowers (133.67), highest percent fruit set (76.19%), longest fruit (21.75), largest fruit (3.50 cm), highest fruit yield (9.44 tons/ha) and highest ROI (232.49%). Plants with no foliar application consistently showed very poorly in all growth and yield parameters.



      K.A.L.K.Dhananjaya Arachchi, K.A.D.K.N.Peiris, M.Nishanthan, I.D.M.D.Sandimali, R.Indrakumar, W.A.L.K.Athukorala, U.G.P.R.Weeragoda and Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: Wireless Local Area Network (W-LAN) security has signified incredible favorable advantages in numerous fields, with adaptable and straightforward access, W-LAN system administration has an extensive variety of requisition. This project involves the implementation of a network with more security by using measures which will disable access for unauthorized users to the network. The goal is to rise W-LAN security by introducing a W-LAN management system which can prevent the intruders who are try to access the system for steal the data. For this security process system going to detect the intruders and categorize them by using the algorithm and using data mining techniques, after categorizing system check activities of that devices and if the system feel that the activities are harm then it will block the device permanently from that network system. Although considerable debate exists regarding the risks and benefits of building a W-LAN it is possible to reduce unauthorized access to the system by making use of the existing technologies while building protocols to add more. Spoofing, Eavesdropping, phishing and other methods of accessing the network can be eliminated by this particular system.



      S.C. Tharaka, R.L.C. Silva, S. Sharmila, S.U.I. Silva, K.L.D.N. Liyanage, A.A.T.K.K. Amarasinghe, D. Dhammearatchi

Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study of firewall technologies which are commonly used for network security. A firewall cannot handle all the destructive threats which are coming from unauthorized networks. Therefore, to develop a secured network different types of firewall technologies are used. Lot of researches have been done considering technologies of firewalls. The main purpose of this paper is to apply firewall capacity along with other firewall technologies such as packet filtering, network address translation, virtual private network and proxy services in order to prevent unauthorized accesses. Due to lack of many researches, related to firewall capacity and firewall technologies together. The research group focuses to build a more protected network by combining both firewall capacity and firewall technologies. The experiment results show the proposed idea good enough to build a secured network.



      T. N. T. K. Nawarathana, M. Makehelwala

Abstract: Nalanda Lake is (Long. 80º 37’ 1.93” and Lat. 7º 40’ 30.6”) one of the ancient Lake in the Sri Lanka. It’s fed by the Basin of Mahaweli River. This lake water is use for drinking, agriculture and human activities. Generally, in this lake observing the high amount of algae due to high nutrient content. Equally lake water had a less amount of Dissolved Oxygen (DO). The DO concentration is characterize of a lake healthiness. And also, the DO concentration responds to the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) load. Main Objective of this research was determined the DO concentration in selected Non-point source and developed the DO consumption model by using Mathematical Equation. Five different sample location points were selected. DO and BOD variation was studied during four weeks. Totally 20 samples were analyzed. DO was measured by DO meter (HACH Sension6), BOD was measured by the Winkler method. DO consumption was measured using Streeter-Phelps equation. According to investigated data DO vary (8.31±0.76 – 10.02±0.46 mg/l). Minimum DO value (7.62 mg/l) obtained point-3. BOD varied from 5.13±1.08 to 5.92±0.53. The position where the lowest DO appeared was around 14-18 km.



      Md. Anower Hossain, ABM Rezaul Kabir, Sheikh Mohammad Shakilur Rahaman, Md Quamruzzaman and Md. Dulal Sarkar

Abstract: The present study was designed to assess the constraints affecting market performance of selected vegetables: namely potato, egg plant, pointed gourd, okra, aroid and red amaranth. Total 100 respondents were randomly selected from two upazilas- Bogra sadar and shibgonj of Bogra district. Both tabular and quantitative analyses were conducted to achieve the objectives of the study. Spread values of vegetables grower to consumer were almost doubled. The average spread value change of vegetable at town market was 19.67 % higher than village market. The major findings of the study revealed that production of all the selected vegetables were profitable but respondents faced constraints due to improper marketing systems. Growers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers of vegetable put first priority accordingly on low market price, irregular supply by growers, high wholesale market price and high retail market price. All the respondents were put emphasis on to stretch out constraints early and proper steps should ensure by government to minimize all the risk.



      Cynthia Meckl-Sloan

Abstract: Unplanned readmission of hospital discharge patients is driving up healthcare costs, and the statistics are staggering. In 2010, U.S. hospital discharges numbered over 35 million and nearly 20 percent of Medicare patients were readmitted back into the hospital within the first month. The Affordable Care Act’s Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) began a penalty on hospitals having high readmission rates. As a result, hospitals are financially motivated to reduce hospital discharge patient readmissions. At-home patients with undetected deteriorating physical conditions can result in adverse secondary conditions (i.e., developing infections) that send them back into the Emergency Room. The most common post-discharge complications are: (i) an adverse drug event (ADE), (ii) infections acquired in the hospital, (iii) secondary acquired complications, as well as, (iv) pneumonia, and (v) depression and loneliness. Reducing adverse events post-discharge is essential for the U.S. health care system. Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS), a new healthcare paradigm, monitors the patient’s health from home after discharge to help minimize hospital readmissions. At the same time, it alleviates loneliness and isolation by providing a connection to a caring health community, empowering patients to control health outcomes in collaboration with their care providers and care experts.



      Ravi Teja Ch.v, Ch.Pujitha, S.Gayatri, V.Jalander, Ch.Kavitha

Abstract: Present day skateboards and bikes are truly engineering marvels; nevertheless they have already been so refined that they are quite simplistic by today’s high technology standards. Rapidly advancing technologies in many sectors including potential E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i.e, when and how the power from the motor is applied. As such, the classification of these e-bikes varies greatly across countries. The classification of e-bikes is mainly decided by whether the e-bike’s motor assists the rider using a pedal –assist system or by a power-on-demand one.



      U.M.G.B. Alahakoon, H.M.U.R. Herath, C.L.H. Liyanarachchi, E.A.A.N. Edirisinghe, K.A.A.D. Kumarapeli, Dhishan Dharmmearatchi

Abstract: Many companies are using computer networks in modern days because to make easy their works. Not like earlier, it is actually easy to work with computer networks. People use different topologies to communicate with networks. There are different kind of topologies in the world. For an examples Ring, bus, Mess, Star, etc. Not only that wireless technology has vastly developed within 5 years. Although there are some difficulties when communicating in networks. It is hard to categorize different access levels in network. Many companies are using networks to communicate. Many of them used different topologies to communicate. Therefore those researches face so many difficulties while communication. For an example in ring topology if one cable broken down there is no way to fulfill the communication. Modern days lot of companies do not involve with Network topologies because it is not efficient. Consider both topologies and wireless together, these fields are different fields in network. Although combination of both together it can made efficient network topology with wireless technology. From this concept it helps to made proper network topology. This conceptual schema helps to do communication most secure and efficiently.



      S.J. De Silva, D.C. Amarasinghe, D.C. Jayasuriya, Ranatunga R.M.H.N., K.D.D.P. Premarathne, Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study about how tokenization and dynamic data masking assist for security of banks. Financial sector is one of the most important sectors in any developing country. In financial sector banks are playing a vital role. All over the world, there are lot of transactions happening in banks per day. Most of the people have choose banks as a safe place to keep their money and valuables safely. To secure those money and valuables are difficult for banks because of frauds and vulnerabilities. As a developing country, Sri Lankan financial sector should have proper security mechanisms to secure information, different encryption methods can be used. When it comes to Tokenization and dynamic data masking together it’s a new face of encryption methods. It does both encryption and Tokenization which provide more security. Technology is developing day by day. To face the future, new technology should be applied. Therefore the need of implementing research of tokenization and dynamic data masking for Sri Lankan banking sector is the purpose of this study. How tokenization and dynamic data masking assist for security of banks in Sri Lanka has been discussed as in results.



      Yu-Ting Huang, Ming-Cheng Shih

Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of linearized process on the adsorption equilibrium isotherms of methylene blue from solutions onto rice husk, the experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm equations by using five different types of linear expression. The adsorption equilibrium constant related to the affinity of the binding sites and energy of adsorption (KL ) and maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for each linear expression had been calculated. Also, values of the the amount of MB adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium time using the constants calculated from these five linear types of Langmuir isotherm equations were compared with the experimental data. The results indicated that the type 1 linear expressions were able to calculate the adsorption equilibrium constant and qe for the studied system (methylene blue/rice husk) well. The results also showed that it was inappropriate to use the other four proposed alternate linear expressions (type 2 to type 5) to calculate the adsorption equilibrium constant and qe for the studied system.



      L.S. Wickramaarachchi , W.G.P. Prabashini , J.A.L.T. Hemachandra, S. Babiththira, J.Sanjeevan Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: The aim of this research paper is to make a security in social media network. Social media networking sites offer a straight forward way for people to have a simple social presence through web. They provide a virtual environment for people to share each and every activity, their interests, and their circle of acquaintance with their family, friends, or even the unknown. Usage of social media network is very high in nowadays, hackers have found very easy ways to steal personal information through these networking sites. The use of social media for communication is becoming more prevalent worldwide, with people from countries of varying economic development increasingly accessing the Internet to participate in networking sites. In present the social media has security risks. It is used to damage the reputation of popular person, criminals for fraudulent activity, gathering business intelligence, stealing sensitive information etc. This paper will demonstrate the security level increment & the methods that make the popular person’s social media network profile more secure.



      Alfred Wandeba Wanyonyi, Paul Mutebi Wanjala, Makokha M. F, Sammy Rop, Laura I. Kedode, Helen Lydia Kutima

Abstract: Kenya is ranked 15th on the list of 22 high-TB burden countries as determined by the World Health Organization, with a case notification rate of 440 cases per 100 000 persons. National TB treatment success rate is 85.5%, Nandi County lags behind at 77%. The country has adopted WHO recommended short course since 2007 and direct observation of treatment (DOT) since 1993 to mitigate against interruption of treatment. We conducted this study to determine the reasons for TB treatment interruption and the factors relating to patient attitude and practices that influence interruption in Nandi County.



      Dr. Elizabeth JeyaVardhini Samuel

Abstract: Past few decades have witnessed, increased incidence of diseases for e.g. Diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, as part of metabolic syndrome; i.e. “cell metabolism is deranged due to unknown factors”. This project is planned to prevent, revert the elucidated “unknown factors” as highlighted in the published e book-“Destroyer of life on earth…”



      A. Senthil kumar, K. Nagarajan and M. Moorthi

Abstract: Tanneries generate wastewater in the range of 30 to 35L kg-1 skin/hide processed with high salinity, high oxygen demand, high organic loading and a high salt content one of which is chromium which spoils the agricultural land and pollute the ground water. In the present investigation, the bacterial strains were isolated from the contaminated soil which was collected from in and around the tannery waste contaminated site. Previously grown indigenous bacterial culture was transferred into 100 ml nutrient broth containing different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (100ppm, 200ppm, 300ppm, 400ppm, 500ppm, 600ppm and 700ppm). These were incubated for 72 hours in facultative conditions. The blanks were also maintained in same conditions without bacterial inoculation. Samples were collected from this experiment to evaluate hexavalent chromium at different time intervals (0hr, 12hrs, 24hrs, 36hrs, 48hrs, 60hrs and 72hrs). From the results it was inferred that the higher bacterial growth was observed at 48 hrs and the maximum chromium reduction was observed upto 500ppm, it was reduced at percentage of 90.40. The isolated microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis.



      Henry M Maguta

Abstract: Successional planning is an essential issue within organizations, particularly within non-governmental organizations. The empirical literature depicts that albeit numerous of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are run and managed by their initiators or by a small management team, very little is observed as pertains adequate and tactical succession planning as a strategy for long-run survivability.



      Dr. Eric Randy R. Politud, Ph.D.

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of Stevia as influenced by clonal propagation methods and growing media at the Nursery House of the City Agriculture Office, Casisang, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon, Philippines from September 2015 to November 2015. The study was carried-out in a 3 x 5 factorial arrangement in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates and twenty plants per replication with cutting methods (A1 – shoot tip cuttings, A2 – nodal cuttings and A3 – wedge stem cuttings) as Factor A and growing media (B1 – pure garden soil, B2 – ½ garden soil + ½ vermicast, B3 – pure vermicast, B4 – ½ garden soil + ½ sand, and B5 – 1/3 garden soil + 1/3 sand + 1/3 vermicast) as Factor B. Results revealed that shoot tip cuttings in combination with 1/3 garden soil + 1/3 sand + 1/3 vermicast in plastic cups two months after planting significantly produced the tallest plants (13.72 cm), highest survival rates (96% for Factor A and 97.33% for Factor B), least incidence of leaf curling and leaf dark spot (both 1.22 ratings for Factor B), and most number of leaves (26.67) and branches (3.25). However, the combinations of nodal cuttings and pure garden soil showed very poor growth performance with the shortest height, least survival rate, highest incidence of leaf curling and leaf dark spot, and least number of leaves and branches. Thus, propagating Stevias using shoot tip cuttings with 1/3 garden soil + 1/3 sand + 1/3 vermicast media mixture using plastic cups for two months showed the best growth performance. Hence, recommended for mass propagation and herbage production.



      Nur Nabi Alam

Abstract: Salinity intrusion is causing acute drinking water crisis in Southern and coastal part of Bangladesh. During dry season major portion of rural people use pond water for drinking which is unhygienic and also becoming saline gradually. This problem has been even more severe since the cyclone SIDR in 2008. Rainwater harvesting is a laboratory proven sustainable drinking water supply solution. Taking Paikgacha Upazilla in Sathkhira district of coastal Bangladesh the study seeks to analyze the way how rain water harvesting can accelerate the access of coastal people to safe drinking water and to what extent they have willingness to accept and pay for the service.



      Dorina Roko, Anila Babameto-Laku

Abstract: Cytogenetic analysis is a valuable investigation in the diagnostic work up of children with suspected sexual chromosomal disorders. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of various types of sexual chromosomal abnormalities in Albanian children undergoing cytogenetic analysis for the time period 1984-2015. The frequencies of sex chromosomal abnormalities were calculated for comparison with data reported in similar previous studies.



      Sramika Rijal, Sagar Kumar Rimal, Ram Hari Timilsina

Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the impact of MAPs based enterprises in rural livelihood’s financial capital in buffer zone of Bardiya National Park in 2011 A.D. It included purposive sampling of 105 households from four user committees of four VDCs of Bardiya namely, Thakurdwara, Suryapatuwa, Manau and Patabhar. The study was conducted through household survey, key informant survey and focus group discussions. Among 105 respondents, 59 were found to be cultivating mentha, 7 were chamomile cultivators and 39 were found to be cultivating both mentha and chamomile. The findings revealed that mentha and chamomile based enterprises has positive impact on livelihood’s financial capital. The T- test showed that the mean annual income in the household increased having positive impact on many household components. A positive impact of enterprise in income from agriculture and livestock is found, however, no significant impact on the off farm activities because of enterprise was seen. The employment opportunities at the local level were found to be addressed. From the respondent’s perception, willing to conserve the biodiversity was found to be increased among the IGAs users after being involved in enterprises through the involvement in various conservation activities. Good initiation on adoption of alternative energy for cooking like biogas was found. Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of enterprise were studied. A need for further training for farmers in marketing has been identified in order to maximize the quantity and quality of product.



      Herbert Wafula Nyongesa, Prof Jacob W. Wakhungu, Dr. Samuel Maragia

Abstract: The main objective of the study is to examine the role that post-conflict parenting plays in primary school pupils’ academic achievements in Sigowet and Nyakach sub counties of Western Kenya. The correlational research design was adopted. The researcher used questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation checklists in collection of primary data. The completed questionnaires were coded and entries made into the Statistical Package for social Sciences (SPSS 21). The research used both descriptive and inferential statistics in data analysis and interpretation. The conclusion is that post-conflict parenting had a significant impact on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Sigowet and Nyakach sub counties of Kenya. The study recommends that more needs to be done to minimize the effect of conflict on parenting and pupils’ academic performance in the post-conflict period by; strengthening peace and security programs, provision of water to the local communities, setting up rehabilitation centers, establishing youth and women empowerment programs and provision of support services to the vulnerable groups.



      Zafran M R M ,Gunathunga L G K M, Rangadhari M I T ,Gunarathne M D D J ,Kuragala K R S C B, Mr Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: This paper presents how to do Advance communication between two or more browsers without having any issue. Wieb RTC API (Real-Time Communications) and Asterisk virtual PBX, Using P2P (peer to peer), Real time outbound calls, video conferencing with two or more browsers and Live chatting, File sharing and also QoS Characteristic Asterisk Call center Engine for handle the SIP calls which are coming outside to the network, Using AGI Scripts for handle the route of the inbound calls and also give some instructions to the call flow. Handling files and support to download files automatically.



      A. R. M. Ahmed, D. K. S. Dematagoda, M. I. I. Ahamed, W. I. S. J. de Alwis, J. A. D. S. G. Jayasinhe, Dhishan Dammearachchi

Abstract: VoIP Stands for Voice over Internet Protocol which is an alternative way of making telephone calls at a cheaper rate. Traditional telephone calls are replaced by VoIP rapidly as a result of cost efficient. The basic necessities of utilizing VoIP comprises of hardware and software such as a computer or any device which supports it, including microphone and speaker, with a relevant VoIP related software, and an active internet connection. VoIP transmits the sound that is received by the microphone over standard internet infrastructure using IP Protocol to the particular recipient(s).



      Ramanathan Mohan, Tharini Ramanathan, Ganesh Rajendran, Dr.N.Mohan Raj

Abstract: Today IT (Information Technology) teams want to do more with less resources and with less budget. Cloud adoption is the best approach to handle this scenario. With the advent of lot of cloud technologies, there is a great advantage and opportunities for the presales consultants to promote better business decision across the enterprise.



      Tharini Ramanathan, M.Ramanathan, Dr N.MohanRaj

Abstract: India is a booming hub for software related jobs, women are equally get a better employment as men. Though women are getting job most of the women are not able to withstand in the IT industry for a long time or not able to level up in their career. Because the IT work culture is new to Indian women family structure is more complex than the western world. Though Indian women are mentally strong and capable of multiple tasking in due course they are developing stress.



      Vinaykumar S. Nimbalkar

Abstract: The Exposure to electromagnetic fields is not a new phenomenon. However, during the 20th century, environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behavior have created more and more artificial sources. The general opinion is that there is gradual hazardous effect at the cellular level related to human health. The study of the low frequency radio frequency wave reveled that different dimension of EM wave have not shown any DNA damage directly hurt there is concern about evidence of cellular effect of EM.



      P.D Panditharathna , K.T Jayatunge , A.Nirojan , S.Srikanth, Mr. Dhishan Dhammearatchi

Abstract: In this era attacks against computer system has increased and increasing significantly. Exploit which means component that can harm the system can buy from black-market even. Most of the organization consider securing the data of their organization from security breaches. One of the way is hiring professional pen testers to find the vulnerability and fix such mitigating risks. To do this task pen testers using automated techniques to gather information of security breaches. Most of the companies willing to hire white,grey hat hackers which we called about as pen testers.



      Virginia P. Cabales

Abstract: This study was conducted last March 2014 at Capiz State University, Poblacion Mambusao Campus to determine the different difficulties encountered by Bachelor of Science in Food Technology and Entrepreneurship students when taken as a whole and when classified according to year level. Respondents were the seventy-one bonafide BSFTE students . Open-ended questions about general environment of the CapSU, Food Technology Department were given and were then classified as physical environment and social/interactive. Data gathered were tabulated, computed and analyzed using frequency count and percentage for the descriptive analysis. Results of the study revealed that the majority of the institutional environment difficulties of students were from the physical environment aspects. First year BS Food Technology and Entrepreneurship students had both the highest physical and social/interactive environment difficulty.



      Jerry Antenorio Ceballos

Abstract: The study on Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) was conducted in Maasin, Iloilo, Philippines. The aim of the study was to assess the status of Maasin CBFM. The objectives of the research are: (1) to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the beneficiaries of Maasin CBFM; (2) to assess the inputs, interventions, approaches, and strategies undertaken in the said CBFM; (3) to evaluate the CBFM outputs and outcomes; and to find out the status of Maasin CBFM. The design of the study was descriptive. There were 335 participants as the population and the respondents of the survey were 77. They were the sources of primary data. Secondary data of the study were gathered from Department of Environment & Natural Resources (DENR) which provided the characterization of Maasin CBFM in terms of bio-physical, socioeconomic, and infrastructure. Aside from the respondents of the study, there were also key informants for the triangulation method of research.



      Novita L Sahertian

Abstract: Democracy today often associated with religion, law, economics and education. This is due to the power that uses the label of democracy but practicing injustice, suppression of human rights, suppress human freedom, pluralism is less appreciated and recognized as well, the policy and the law in favor of the ruling majority. In the Bible human uniqueness is the man's responsibility before God and neighbor. Picture of life that singles out, get rid of, and oppressive is a deadly act of human rights, undemocratic actions. The history of democracy in a span of time that has been so long with the level of intensity is different, as well which have been adopted by almost all countries are different in terms of geographic location, history, culture, and development levels have resulted democracy controlled with the purpose of which is no longer free mankind but it has been deadly human capacity.



      Muhammad Ikram Idrus, Djabir Hamzah, Haris Maupa, Mahlia Muis

Abstract: This study aims to analyze and explain the effects of transformational leadership style on job satisfaction. Design / Methodology / Approach : Test models created and analyzed descriptively as well as Structural Equation Model. The method used is survey method with the participation of respondents were 341 local government employees. The results of research in tian indicate that there are effects of transformational leadership style on job satisfaction has a positive and significant, indicating that the transformational leadership style are enhanced quality will influence and improve employee satisfaction.



      Hosea Rimon Ambrauw, Nur Muhammad Sadik, Rachmat, Badu Ahmad

Abstract: The implementation of special autonomy for Papua Province since 2001 until the year 2014 has been entered into 13. The implementation of special autonomy in Papua have bring a lot of change and progress for indigenous Papuans in various development sectors such as health. However, the implementation of special autonomy in Papua still reap a lot of criticism, one of which is indigenous Papuan community dissatisfaction against the implementation of various development programs and activities funded by the local government of the special autonomy funds, such as missing the target and uneven in its implementation. Therefore, accountability is required to provide an explanation for what has been done by the bureaucracy.



      Hasan Lauselang, H. Mahmud Tang, Supriadi Hamdat, Eymal Demmalino

Abstract: This study aimed to describe the work ethic Salafi economic actors in the city of Ambon in particular in Batumerah. That since the outbreak of horizontal conflicts in Ambon city, many traders exodus and the city of Ambon. The opportunity was utilized by some members of the Salafis to plunge into the business world. Until now, this group is quite successful in the field of entrepreneurship. In contrast to other entrepreneurs, they are very disciplined to keep praying in congregation five times, in addition to actively follow the teachings of religion every night. This study intends to reveal their work ethic is there a relationship with an understanding of his religion. This study used a qualitative approach. The data collection is done by observation, depth interview with the economic actors Salafi whether related to their motivation in entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial characteristics they nor their ethics in business. The conclusion is that they are motivated by the principle of work as worship to Allah SWT. As of worship, in the behavior of the economy, they are maintaining the ethics and norms set forth in the Qur'an and Sunnah Rasul SAW, so no offense, either against God's rights and human rights.



      Khaleel Ibraheem Mohson and Nada A. S. Alwan

Abstract: Background: Nipple discharge is a symptomatic dilemma that causes women distress and worry. Ultrasonography is a vital complementary diagnostic device in the exploration of the etiology of nipple discharge.



      Mr. Uppu Praveen, Dr Shashidhra Y.N, Mrs. Malathi G Nayak

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century and the third major cause of death globally due to its complications. Among the complications of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are often asymptomatic in diabetic patients until onset of the myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death. Objectives of the study were to identify the risk status for Coronary Artery Diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus adults and to find the significant association between the risk status of coronary artery diseases with selected demographic variables like age, gender, BMI, duration of illness, blood pressure, RBS value Methods: A descriptive survey was done among 127 diabetic adults at selected villages of Udupi district. Purposive sampling method was used for selection of sample.



      Surbhi Narwani

Abstract: Fire causes irreversible damage to fragile natural ecosystems and greatly affects the socio-economic systems of many nations especially in the tropics where forest fires are more prevalent. Early detection of these fires may help reduce these impacts.



      Kawakeb N Abdulla, Nada A.S. Alwan, Wafa’ M. Al-Attar & Nawar Al Mallah

Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among females. The lack of adequate skills and knowledge precludes early detection of breast cancer.



      Salim M Omambia, G.W. Odhiambo-Otieno

Abstract: Embracing modern technology is one among very many ways of improving efficiency and reducing costs within healthcare organizations. While the integration of information and health services potential benefits cannot be disputed, there are many challenges which affect its adoption, in fact, majority of organizations have abandoned their newly acquired systems only to go back to their old manual systems.



      ANKUR NAGAR , Selvakumar.A

Abstract: Embedded systems are commonly found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical, commercial and military applications. Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to cell phones at the end-user. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data.


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