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IJSRP, Volume 11, Issue 3, March 2021 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

March 2021 publication has started and publication will continue till 28th March 2021
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd March, their paper will publish in March edition in next slots i.e. 12th March or 18th March or 28th March.
Online print version will release latest by 30th March. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 28th March and minor corrections are accepted till 28th March 2021.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Krishanthanie R, Kennedy F. B

Abstract: This study examined the impact of covert marketing on young consumers buying behavior special reference to fast food industry in Batticaloa. Fast food firms in Batticaloa pay novel attitude in promote their products and services through effective promotional medium which is called covert marketing through this covert marketing the firms try to form brand awareness among the consumers via spreading positive WOM and this have adverse effect on their output in terms of sales. They do not see the need of spending part of their budget in advertisement to promote their products and services and influence consumer buying behavior. With great increase in technological advancement, effective promotional way has become extremely important to be able to have competitive advantage, hence the need for this study.

      Mohd Harridon, Mohd Khir Harun, Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Zaiful Hasmi Mohd Hashim, Khairul Dahri Mohd Aris, Baha Rudin Abdul Latif, Muzaffar Wasi Zainal Ariffin, Azizihadi Yaakop

Abstract: Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology (UniKL MIAT) had acquired a static flight simulator of type Boeing 737 NG. Before the arrival of the simulator, a Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) was actuated in order to confirm the simulator would arrive according to the specifications and also within the correct conditions. FAT was also actuated to gauge the functionality of the components of the simulator and to confirm that it would be delivered according to the timeline. This paper delineated the FAT procedures that was implemented and the corresponding results of the FAT.

      Tsehay Melake Gebremariam, Fang Ping

Abstract: Desertification and Deforestation are serious environmental concerns in the Sahel and East African countries, including Eritrea. The dilapidation and natural forests loss due to deforestation and desertification have an irreversible impact on the services provided by the ecosystem. In recent decades Eritrea also experienced a serious threat of forest ecosystem loss and degradation resulting in the degradation of ecosystem services. Estimating the variation in this ecosystems economic values due to deforestation and desertification is an important research topic in this area.

      R. Saman Rajapaksha, A. G. Amali Uthpala Nandasiri

Abstract: The existence of a particular good service, organization or person depends on the facts such as generate the interest appreciation, good-will, trust and public image. All communicative programs which persuade to build up such a mentality on its stakeholders are technically called Public Relations. The modern concept of public relations has been developed through the analysis and perspectives of westerns scholars; e.g. Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays. But the scholarship of the public relations on eastern perspective is not given much attention.

      Sushmita Kalika-Singh, Phillip N.B. Da Silva and Chalasa Cossiah

Abstract: Freshwater fish from wild caught sources are an important source of protein for many residents of Guyana. The availability and safety of freshwater fish that is offered for sale in local markets is not subjected to microbiological quality checks, which raises questions about the safety of the fish as it is moves along the value chains.

      Enrique Ríos-Serrano

Abstract: This article addresses the Japanese Economic Miracle as a dichotomy between the Korean War and the Strong Fiscal Institutions biased on structural reforms during the nineteenth-century period. The research framed social development studies driving for the several Japanese historical processes, and it is economy in analytical terms. For this purpose, quantitative data explains the most crucial Economic Policy factors for Sustainable Growth underlie the Comprehensive National Development Plan and the Post War events and legal actions influencing territorial development. Moreover, a crucial benchmark was CNDPs and their implications establishing balanced development on the industry, property rights, monetary and fiscal policy.

      Ordu J I and Owhor, G A

Abstract: The study is, focused on, use of the isolated starch from Artocarpos altilis seeds obtained following aqueous and alkaline hydrolysis and evaluating for the binder and disintegrant properties on albendazole tablet formulation utilizing wet granulation technique. The resulting granules and formulated tablets were, compared with that from cornstarch using standard methods of quality control reference to official procedures. Tests involving, crushing strength was, conducted on formulated tablets from extracted A.altilis and cornstarch. Result obtained reveal that alkaline hydrolyzed A.altilis starch had crushing strength of 3.2Kg/f while the aqueous extract and corn starch had similar value of 5.0Kg/f. Disintegration result on the formulated tablets containing A.altilis and corn starch shows that tablet formulated from aqueous extract disintegrated at 40.7mins, the alkaline at 50.7mins and that from corn starch at 35.8mins. All of the tablets produced showed comparative dissolution profiles and the content uniformity analysis reveals a percentage range of 96.9-105.8%.

      Jean Mukoyi

Abstract: This article examines decentralisation in Zimbabwe. Decentralisation is the transfer of power from a central authority to the lower levels of government. This transfer of power can be done by the government on behalf of the state as a whole or by offices within larger organizations. The article traces the historical evolution of decentralization in Zimbabwe and finds that the terrain is marked by three phases that is, the colonial, post-colonial and constitutional periods. In the colonial phase (1890-1979), decentralization was characterized by a two-tier local governance system divided along racial lines, with the white minority benefiting more than the black majority.

      Daniel Ernest Max Lavalie

Abstract: Performance of the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) has fallen over the years in Sierra Leone which has caused alarm in all sectors in society. The purpose of the study is to investigate the causes and effects of massive WASSCE failure in Sierra Leone and its possible solutions, taking Senior Secondary Schools in Port Loko City as a Case study. A descriptive approach was used for the research study using self-designed questionnaire (mixed), focus group discussion and observation to collect data from the respondents. Results from findings reveals that the major cause for massive WASSCE failure was as a result of incompetency of the students, which leads to heavy cost on government nonetheless if proper monitoring is instituted by parents and the Ministry (MBSSE) the causes and effects will be lessen.

      Vaizal Asyari,Amin Sadiqin

Abstract: Financial Information System at PT Regista Bunga Surabaya branch is currently not running optimally, data processing is still using conventional methods by using notes in ledgers and data management using Microsoft Excel application. Discusses data agreements and data search results of old elections. For that we need an application that can facilitate financial reporting.

      V. Persaud

Abstract: COVID-19 introduced a modern normlessness, collapsing social support structures required for encouragement during rapid changes such as social distancing, job loss and psychological distress. The purpose of this research is to determine if there is a significant relationship between unemployment and suicide and to examine whether this association is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a regression analysis to analyze the variances in the number of unemployment and suicides from 1999–2018 in the U.S. Results of the simple linear regression indicated that there is a significant relationship exists between unemployment and suicides, (F(1, 18) = 59.58, p<.001, R2=.768), concluding that higher unemployment rates will increase the number of suicides. Preventing suicide calls for immediate action accompanied by mitigation initiatives and exposure to mental health treatments to ensure that individuals with diminished or unforeseen income have access to appropriate resources.

      Min Bdr. Shahi

Abstract: The ideas of research on teacher recruitment emerged with the diverse situation of teachers in community schools of Nepal. Also, federal shifted of governing system encouraged to conduct this research.

      Ms. Poonam Sharma, Dr. Aninda Duti Banik and Dr. Arun A. Banik

Abstract: The Learning Disability (LD) is usually describes as a specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have various trouble in learning and using certain skills. The skills which most often affected are reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing mathematics. Learning disabilities vary from person to person in a very specific manner. One person with LD may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with Learning Disability problem. One person may have trouble with reading and writing while the another person with LD may have problems understanding math. Still another person may have trouble in each of these areas, as well as with understanding what people are saying (National Dissemination Centre for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY, 2004).

      R.Thusyanthini, S.S.M. Peramunagama, A.G.S.D. De Silva

Abstract: Rainwater harvesting is a best alternative of fresh water sources in dry zone of Sri Lanka. This study was carried out in Kilinochchi to study drinking water crisis during dry period, to assess rain water harvesting practitioners’ perception towards rainwater harvesting technology(RWHT) and satisfactory level of accessibility of safe drinking water. Where 30 rainwater harvesting practitioners were randomly selected. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Around two third of respondents was female. About just over four fifths of the respondents educated up to secondary level (grade 6 to 11).

      Sangap Tua Ritonga; Taufan Maulamin; Avi Wulandari; Albert Naibaho; Agus Romdoni; Feybe Brigite Imbar; Triadi Wijaya Syahrir

Abstract: In the era of industrial revolution 4.0 focused on the pattern of the digital economy, artificial intelligence, big data, robotics, and automation so that it affects the field of management, finance, and business, including accounting, accountants are required to prepare themselves in the face of the era that is by equipping themselves with the latest information technology and the ability of analysis Financial Statements, inevitably an Accountant must be agile to compete with the right proportion in companies both engaged in trade, manufacturing,and in-services. This research paper aims to examine Leadership Dexterity and Accounting Cases in Leadership Capabilities.

      Setiyawami, Sugiyo, Sugiyono, Tri Joko Raharjo

Abstract: This paper examines the various challenges of vocational education in Indonesia in the era of the Industrial revolution. The result of this research is that the challenges of vocational education in Indonesia consist of internal and external factors. Internal factors include government policy factors for vocational education, link and match factors between the academic world and the business world and industry, human resource factors, life skills factors possessed. External factors can be indicated by the increasingly rapid development of the industry which causes a higher level of adaptation difficulty. The conclusion of this paper is that vocational education is experiencing increasingly severe challenges so that it requires commitment and cooperation as well as a level of resources that is able to answer every challenge of life in the future.

      M.I Babangida, S.P. Bako and D.N. Iortsuun

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical composition and antibacterial effect of Tamarindus indica on E. coli, S. aureus and P. mirabilis. The plant materials of Tamarindus indica stem bark and leaves were obtained from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State. One hundred (100g) of the plant powder each, was extracted with methanol and chloroform by Soxhlet extraction method. All the extracts were subjected to standard phytochemical screening for the presence or absence of various secondary metabolites. The susceptibility test of the plant extracts on E. coli,S. aureus and P. mirabilis were done using agar well diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin (10 µg) was used as positive control. The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycoside, steroids and carbohydrates. The antibacterial activity of stem and leaves showed that, the plant extract was effective in all the bacterial isolates, and the activity increased with increase in concentration of the plant extracts. Highest activity was showed by leaves methanol extract (LME) at 100mg/ml with zone of 16mm, and it has higher activity than ciprofloxacin which is the positive control with zone of 15mm.

      Mohamed Musrati

Abstract: The insurance sector has a significant impact on the economic development of each country. The insurance market in Libya belongs to the group of markets with significant potentials, primarily in the life insurance segments, so in the coming years, a very dynamic growth of this sector is expected. In relation to countries, both in the region and in the world, where car insurance, along with life insurance, dominates and accounts for approximately 2/3 of realized insurance premiums, the conclusion is that the motor vehicle insurance market in Libya is underdeveloped.

      Alfred N. Onger’a

Abstract: This paper attempts to provide an accentuated understanding of corruption in Africa by delineating the role of Africa’s leadership and donor agencies in abating mismanagement of public resources. Through a systematic approach, this paper reviews existing evidence on dynamics of corruption in Africa and notes its implications in the modern underdeveloped Africa. The paper notes that good governance, transparency, and accountability are sine qua non building blocks of 21st century democratic societies. African countries can reduce corruption by formulating tough anti-corruption policies, such as high profile convictions, ensuring that companies operating in Africa are more transparent in their dealings with the government and tougher on those companies and individuals paying bribes, just as African leaders must be ready to take a tougher stand on corrupt officials that take the bribes. Importantly, countries in the Global South should strengthen their institutions and create efficient and effective anti-corruption agencies. On the other hand, developed countries should support Africans in their fight against corruption by helping bring corrupt leaders to justice, and seize and return funds that have been stolen through corruption and invested in Western bank accounts.

      D.S.M. Ranasinghe

Abstract: Studies about the extents of Work Family Balance (WFB) and Job Performance (JP) and relationships among these variables of administrators in leading universities in Sri Lanka are almost none or rare. This study was conducted to describe the extents and relationships among the two variables mentioned above.

      Hemali Jayasekera, Samitha Siritunga, Upul Senarath

Abstract: Injuries are the number one cause for morbidity and mortality among adolescents. Adolescent fractures are a hidden public health problem in Sri Lanka. Injury to upper limb will affect all the activities of the adolescent in this new era as risk factors of upper limb fractures are common with highly commercialized society. Prevention of adolescent injuries is an investment for the country as they belong to economically productive age group. To ease the burden on the state, attention should be given for prehospital care. The objective of the study was to describe the sociodemographic factors of adolescents with upper limb fractures in a district in Sri Lanka and associated prehospital care.


Abstract: The study examined the improvement and learning needs of children in primary schools. The study was carried out in Aguata Education Zone of Anambra State. Two research questions guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. A total sample size of 80 respondents (teachers) was drawn through simple random sampling technique. The researcher developed 20items structured questionnaire titled: Teachers’ Assessment of Children Development and Learning (TACDL) used for data collection.

      Richard Ngu Leubou, Benoit Crespin, Marc Trestini, Marthe Aurelie Zintchem

Abstract: Recent years have seen the emergence of virtual reality environments intended for learning activities. This situation gives rise to new innovative teaching practices and tools which exploit the possibilities offered by immersion, 3D interaction, sense of presence and virtual reality flow.

      Walida Wahid Fitriani, Dwi Rukmini, Hendi Pratama

Abstract: Appraisal concerns with language for evaluation. It is the extended theory of interpersonal meanings from Halliday and Matthiessen (2004). It is then developed by Martin and White (2005). The Appraisal system is deployed to explore texts in detail from discouse semantics perspectives (Martin & Rose, 2003). Aprraisal covers three major systems including attitude, engagement, and graduation. This study was intended to find out the manifestation of Appraisal systems found in male newspaper articles. It employed descriptive qualitative method in the form of discourse analysis. It examined eight online newspaper articles written by male authors within the theoretical framework of Martin and White (2005). Besides, gender and psychological theories from Coates (2008); Shields (2000) and Guimond (2008) were employed. The findings found out that those three systems of Appraisal manifested in the male articles. Engagement was dominantly perceived. On the other side, attitude was scarcely found. This study is beneficial for writers in all levels, especially for English Language Learners. It gives awareness about how to convey emotions and voices effectively by using Appraisal.

      Marta Sibhat, Jianfu Zhao, Sha Lu, Huanzheng Du, Tao Wang

Abstract: With rapid urbanization and the rising standard of living, more plastic materials are used in cities in China, leading to an increasing quantity of municipal plastic waste (MPW). However, robust information about details for waste plastic management, including plastic composition, plastic waste sources, waste generation, and material recycling,are limited. Using cross-sectional data, this study estimated MPW generation in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China from 2000 to 2018 by employing the environmental logistics regression model.

      Hairul Pibri

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of GCG on firm value and bank performance in a crisis pandemic in Indonesia. The approach in this research is to use a quantitative approach. Data analysis techniques in this study include 1) descriptive statistics 2) classical assumption tests: normality test, multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity test, autocorrelation test 3) multiple regression analysis 4) F statistical test and coefficient of determination. The results showed that there was a significant effect of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) on firm value. In addition, testing conducted by researchers shows that the effect of GCG from 29 companies from 2017 to 2019 is around 46%.

      Ms Swathi B

Abstract: The research work entitled “Parental perception of psychosocial status of children” made an attempt to find out the influence of parenting method in the areas of psychological, emotional and social development of the children. The study is descriptive in nature. It has studied 50 parents by using research tool such as questionnaires. The primary data was systematically processed. Descriptive analysis was made to draw inferences. The study revealed the various problems faced by the children due to inappropriate parenting style, issues of children in relation with psychological, emotional and social functioning. The authoritative parenting style are adopted by the majority of the respondents and the managed by the parents. The research reveals the limitation of knowledge of the parents in the areas of psychological, emotional, social development and parenting.

      Samantha B. Tan

Abstract: The Industry 4.0 is apparently increasing exponentially in the field of internet banking, competitive advantage is achieved by highlighting service qualities which are key determinants in achieving customer satisfaction. This study evaluated internet banking e-service qualities of selected banks in the Philippines using E-SERVQUAL model which enables the measurement of customer expectations as to the quality of services of internet banking. The findings indicated that customers were most satisfied with the privacy dimension but they were less satisfied with the system availability dimension of the assessed service qualities. It was determined, nonetheless, that the demographic profile of the selected bank clients do not affect customer’s satisfaction.

      Nicola Malizia

Abstract: Through numerous theoretical contributions, this study addresses the delicate problem of prison culture; i.e., the subculture that develops among members of the prison community, but outside the institutional prison rules. The subculture aims to make the prisoner a characteristic member of the prison community, guiding him in his behaviour towards other prisoners and pushing him to total submission and obedience to those in power, all of which has repercussions on psychological balance and health. Acculturation to this internal culture involves symbols, gestures and forms of encrypted communication among inmates to prevent prison workers from understanding the contents.

      J. O. Ogenga

Abstract: Rainfall variability exhibits spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall in the world. Extreme seasonal rainfall variability has led to lower or total failure of agricultural production in many parts of the ASALs in the world hence food insecurity and famine. The study objective was to analyze the seasonal rainfall variability in rainfed agriculture in Homa bay County. The study used descriptive research design.

      Shivangi Mehra, Dr. Sarika Boora, Dr. Chitra Kataria

Abstract: Aims and Objectives: The present study compares the level of depression, anxiety and stress on the basis of gender differences in people with lower limb amputation in Indian population.

      Ami Jain

Abstract: Investor behaviour is a significant area in research studies. Before evaluating any type of investment avenue and its prospects, one needs to take into account the behaviour of a rational investor. It has been highlighted in many studies taken up in the past that investor behaviour plays a significant role in their decision making process when it comes to making an investment. The success and popularity of any investment avenue depends upon the degree of effectiveness achieved in meeting the expectations of the investors. The present study focuses on the understanding the expectations of the investors and their preferences when it comes to making an investment. The study also focuses on finding out the awareness level as well as identifying the factors that influences an investor to make an investment in mutual funds. The survey has been conducted on female investors of Howrah through a pres-structured questionnaire.

      Hadijah, A. G. Tantu, A. Supriyanto

Abstract: This research was conducted in September-November 2019 at the Biopharmaca Laboratory of the Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University Makassar and at the Artificial Feed Production Laboratory, Bosowa University Makassar. The aim of the study was to determine the length of immersion in the cepoka eggplant fruit extract (Solanum torvum) against the change in male to female sex in catfish (Clarias sp.) seeds. The results showed that the length of immersion of catfish seeds in the Cepoka eggplant fruit extract had no effect on the change in the sex of males to females of catfish seeds. Likewise, the length of immersion in the Cepoka eggplant fruit extract did not affect the survival of catfish seeds.

      Balqis Fajarrina Utami, Warsono , Zulfa Sakhiyya

Abstract: In Indonesia, students face more challenges in learning English as a foreign language, which means that the students face difficulties such as in mechanics, mastering grammar or vocabulary and also the topics. Every student has different learning style in writing skill. To help them solve their problems, the teacher can apply the strategy that make them easy to construct a text. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Peer Editing and Think-Pair-Share strategy to teach writing descriptive text to Visual and Read-Write learning styles students.

      Ashmita Barthakur

Abstract: Environmental law is one amongst the rapidest developing facets of law. It is generally agreed upon that those that cause harm or damage should be paying in a method or another for such harm. Such harm may be to the society or to our surroundings or to our body at an intimate level. Due to lack of sanctions in environmental law, it became very difficult to keep an eye on the hazardous activities. This required the initiation of a penalty to punish the folks that caused damage or harm to the environment. This gave ascent to what we all know today as the ‘Polluter Pays Principle’. This principle implies that the value of pollution should be paid polluter and not by the authorities. This principle is taken into account to be the foremost adequate environmental strategy and has been constituted in numerous international and regional agreements regarding pollution. This conception of Polluter pays has been breathing even prior to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) approved it as a recognized precept of environmental law.

      Rosi Triandani, Dwi Anggani LB, Warsono

Abstract: This study used an experimental method with pre-test and post-test of factorial design. There were 32 participants in this study. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of Draw Label Caption in writing talent for visual learning style. The results revealed that there was significant difference of the students’ achievement on the post-test result after being taught by using Draw Label Caption strategy. The mean score of both of those strategies were 62.50 < 74.19. Draw Label Caption strategy was effective for visual learners, learning styles. However, based on the prewired sample test, H0 is then discarded and H1 is approved. It implies that in this experimental, the use of the Draw Label Caption strategy is successful in developing students writing skills with visual learning styles.

      R.M. Dhanapala, Dr. C.D.H.M. Premaratne

Abstract: The emphasis placed for Learning Environment and Resources in ELT study programmes has not been duly recognized although they are so immense for the improvement of ESL proficiency of university students. This study was a survey research in nature and was a part of the PhD study conducted in selected peripheral universities in Sri Lanka.

      Darsh Jain, Ankita Upadhyay, Asjad Nirban, Manav Arya, Ragini Mishra

Abstract: The Current COVID-19 pandemic has got the world to a halt and took everyones attention, as it was a global pandemic the world knew about it. But some underdeveloped nations suffer from viral outbreaks every year. To protect ourselves from these viral outbreaks there is a need for a continuous supply of Sanitizers and face masks to maintain personal hygiene. To help such nations and give some contribution to the world, a novel idea of Face Mask Detection and Attendance System has been proposed in this paper. Also, the various techniques that can be used for facial recognition and object detection, like the HAAR cascade method, Machine learning Algorithms, Deep Learning, etc. are discussed.

      Saira Sehar, Muhammad Mohsin Sher Ali Khan, Adil Iqbal, Waqas Saif, Muhammad Zahid, Nayab Aslam, Amiza, Syeda Duaa Zahra

Abstract: The study developed new, novel, and cheaper materials as micronutrients for plants. These studies showed that some copper ore can be utilized as a cheaper source of copper micronutrients. This method would be economically feasible for agriculture. The study has shown that roasting increased the recovery of copper from different ores differently. As the roasting time and temperature increase, the leaching of copper will also increase. The leaching of copper maximum in a sample was in the order of leaching of copper in three ores is as Sample C>sample D>Waziristan chalcopyrite. The experiments showed that the untreated raw oxidized copper ore show significant leaching which is 9.5% for saline and 35.5% for fertile soils respectively. This is an important finding which showed that oxidized copper ores can directly be used as slow-release micronutrients. A cheap process based on grinding to 200 mesh would be feasible. It is further seen that roasting at 750oC is suitable for treating sulfide ores. The acidification has shown much improvement in leaching and providing micronutrients to the soil.

      Padmini Jayasekara

Abstract: Expatriate-Repatriate Management (ERM) is increasingly considered an important branch of International Human Resource Management (HRM). With the rapid growth in the globalizing business environment, it is still an emerging field of research in the Sri Lankan context. This research paper is an attempt to find out some research gaps in the ERM process which are highly essential to address in the future empirical studies. The scope of the paper, thereby, was limited to empirical findings available in Sri Lanka and it resulted in identifying six gaps in the ERM process under the coverage of two theories namely, contingency theory, and social exchange theory. Empirical research findings of future research studies could fill these identified research gaps.

      Dr. Abimbola Ayodeji COLE, Dr. Abolade Francis AKINTOLA

Abstract: The study investigated microfinance banks and economic growth in Nigeria from 1999 to 2018. Secondary data were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical Bulletin. Data obtained were analyzed using ordinary least square regression techniques. The result of the estimation regression shows that there is a positive relationship between microfinance bank credit and real gross domestic product which represent economic growth. The study therefore recommended that microfinance should be involved in community activity projects to increase the level of economic growth and development in Nigeria

      Wafa Naufaliyah Bilqis, Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

Abstract: Export is one of the most important factors in a countrys economic growth. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant natural resources that make Indonesia the largest producer and exporter of palm oil in the world. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of RED policy, EU GDP, price, and productivity on the volume of Indonesian palm oil exports with a total of 20 observations and obtained from secondary data. Based on the analysis, RED Policy, EU GDP, prices, and productivity simultaneously have a significant effect on the volume of Indonesian palm oil exports. Partially, productivity, RED Policy and EU GDP have a positive and significant effect on the volume of Indonesian palm oil exports. Meanwhile Price has a negative and significant effect on the volume of Indonesian palm oil exports

      Kalyani M W, Madhuwanthi, M. A. K. U

Abstract: Job-hopping is becoming a phenomenon over the years as employees keep moving from one job to another for better opportunities and self-development. In the Sri Lankan context, when there is a new public sector recruitment scheme opened, most of the graduate employees tend/incline to job hop from the private sector to public sector. Thus, the researcher explores this matter with the intention of identifying the forces of job hopping beheviour of graduate employees who belong to the generation ‘Y’ in the context of Sri Lanka. Since no research studies have been conducted to examine this phenomenon in the Sri Lankan context, this research study enables to fulfil the empirical research gap in the existing literature.

      Mildred Achieng’ Onyango

Abstract: Xenophobia, the fear for the stranger, the foreigner or fear of the unusual, manifests through attitudes of exclusion and acts of violence and intolerance towards other people and their culture. In the post-apartheid South African set-up, emotions of hatred and vilification of ‘blacks’ have played out in recurrent incidents of xenophobia. Natives have found a convenient scapegoat in the black immigrants who are subjected to dehumanizing practices that alienate them as ‘other’, resulting into psychic trauma and acts of self-destruction. That former victims of apartheid subjugation have become perpetrators of similar hatred against humanity exposes xenophobia as a complex psycho-social pervasion that requires a more conscious interrogation. Psychoanalysis explains xenophobia as one of the mechanisms through which perpetrators project their frustration and repressed emotions on people perceived to be different. The study reaffirms the scapegoat thesis and further explores other unconscious drives, uncanny expressions and implications of xenophobic hegemony on the characters as exemplified in the post-apartheid novels: Niq Mhlongo’s After Tears (2007) and Phaswane Mpe’s Welcome to Our Hillbrow (2001).

      Abie Assres Fenta

Abstract: The main purpose of this study has to assess the socioeconomic impacts of newly emerged pandemic covid-19 on the community. To acquire sufficient and detail information regarding the issue, mixed research approach had been utilized, as well as researcher employed a descriptive research design that intends to describe and reckon the socioeconomic impacts of covid-19 on the community. In this research, 319 respondents had been selected from the entire target population by employing both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. Along with probability sampling technique, cluster and simple random sampling methods had been utilized for opted respondents. From the non-probability sampling technique on the other hand, purposive sampling has been employed to attain a pivotal and constructive data that pertinent to the study.

      Prof. A. Anyamene, Prof. C. N. Nwokolo, L. O. Onyeukpere

Abstract: The researchers were disturbed by the rate of stealing exhibited by students in school and the effects it has on them. And the relentless quest for solutions to this problem, has led to this study that sought to determine the effects of cognitive restructuring technique in reducing stealing tendency among secondary school students in Ika south Local Government Area of Delta state. Two research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05alpha levels of significance. A pre-test, post-test non-randomized control group quasi-experimental design was adopted for this study.

      Mohammad Qayoum Sial

Abstract: The study focused on the challenges and prospects of Afghanistan’s economy. It is based on analysis and reviews of previous studies on the issues related to the Afghanistan economy. Afghanistan is one of the landlocked countries in Asia. The economy of Afghanistan has been affected by various challenges since 1979 A.D. Challenges such as foreign attacks, civil wars, political instability, foreign interferences, and illiteracy were the main reasons that arose so many other economic issues like poverty, unemployment, inflation, brain drain, capital flight, budget deficit, poor tax collection, low productivity, and the primitive agricultural system just to mention the few. Most of the studies conducted on the challenges and prospects or issues related to Afghanistan’s economy were based on secondary data and hence there are not enough studies in the area.

      Damith Gangodawilage

Abstract: Taxation is a complex and most important fiscal tool used by the government to balance fiscal efficiency and the countrys social wellbeing. As a result of the fourth industrial revolution, digital disruption makes technology an inseparable tool across all economic sections. This study investigates how the use of technology in taxation influences the compliance decision of entrepreneurs in the digital economy. To achieve this objective, this study employs phenomenological inquiry to conduct qualitative research. This studys findings reveal that trust in the technology used by the tax authority and the power of tax authority in implementing the technology-driven tax system influence maintaining tax compliance, and it breads confirmatory compliance as a new compliance strategy in the digital economy.

      Faheem Abbas, Tayyaba Nasir, Muhammad Awais Ahmad, Saira Sehar, Rida Zulfiqar, Muhammad Shaid Iqbal, Muhammad Ishaq

Abstract: To boost the performance of solar cells (SCs), four non-fullerene ?-conjugated acceptor compounds, including iodo-substituted (SubPcs) subphthalocyanines is ?-conjugated rigid tetrahedral geometry aromatic molecule composed of three units combined around a boron atom bearing a macrocycle core with a perpendicular axial ligand. The C3 designed molecule shows the optoelectronic analysis is better than the reference molecule R due to absorption range because its range found to be nearer the reference compound as well as the absorption occur at 645.53 nm, 519 nm respectively.

      Thilakarathna .H.M. A

Abstract: Diabetes Mellites (DM) is one of a major public health concern in both developed as well as developing countries. It is widely accepted that good glycaemic control, regular screening for complications, and early intervention, in the form of integrated services provided by a diabetes health care team prevents complications. This paper reports on the quality of services provided by the diabetic clinic of the Divisional Hospital, Maskeliya by an audit of its structure, process and outcome.

      Senanayake SP, Fernando RSP, RS Maddumage, HEH Perera, Neranja AGK, Gallage SD, Sandharenu KLKTD

Abstract: Basketball is a common and fast sport played all over the world, with high levels of speed and frequent jumps. Sri Lanka is contesting for a higher ranking in the international basketball arena as a region. Body composition and physical fitness affects both individual and team performances. Therefore, the assessment of body composition and fitness level has become an emerging requirement in basketball players when designing their training sessions to improve performance. This study provides the baseline of their body composition and fitness level hence allowing them to reevaluate themselves for improvements after training sessions. Ten (10) male players of the KDU basketball team aged between 21 to 25 years were participated in this study.

      Henry Palandeng, Ronald Ottay

Abstract: Hospitals are part of a health care system that provides medical, preventive, and promotional, and rehabilitation services. Medical needs are urgently needed, although the apparent effect of any discharge from the hospital is largely determined by the existing wastewater treatment system. Definition of wastewater quality will also affect the surrounding community, especially the health side of hospital waste

      R.Thusyanthini and S.Siyamalan

Abstract: The school education from kindergarten to grade 11 for value based water education has been slow to take up the challenge of water crisis scenario and only a very small number of research publications are in Sri Lanka which actually focus on school education for water even though school life is a strong remarkable time period for long-lasting learning. This study focused predominantly on science from grade 6 to 11. Because this subject had been endorsed as a compulsory subject and water related studies were as explicitly.

      Fidelis Kamaayi

Abstract: Plantain is widely cultivated in Africa and they are consumed after taking them through various methods of cooking. The riped and unriped pulps are used in making many delicacies. As a climacteric fruit, technology should be applied to process them to increase their shelf life and also develop new products which will be accepted by consumers.

      Breeze A.S. Maringka, Nusa Sebayang

Abstract: This study has a purpose to describe the intellectual capital, leadership, and work performance owned by architects, to analyze the effect of intellectual capital on training, to analyze the effect of intellectual capital on architect work performance, to analyze the effect of training on architects work performance, and to analyze the effect of intellectual capital on architect performance through training.

      Zulfikar Chandra S. Harahap, Bahagia Loebis, M. Surya Husada

Abstract: Background: Diagnosis of breast cancer does not only affect physical conditions but also social and psychological conditions. The 5-year survival rate for breast cancer patients has increased by 89%. Patients with breast cancer at this stage appear to be the most stressful and have a higher risk for emotional distress. This study aims to determine whether there are differences in depression scores in breast cancer patients before and after mastectomy.

      Risni Nanda, Bahagia Loebis, Vita Camellia

Abstract: Objectives: It is known that the prevalence of depression is quite high in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, associated with poor adherence leading to irregular treatment and low treatment success rates. Method: This study is a multivariate predictive conceptual framework study with a cross-sectional approach to 111 subjects at the Dr. Pirngadi General Hospital, Medan in June 2020 to August 2020. This study aims to determine what factors are associated with depression scores. The measuring instrument used is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression (HADS-D).

      Sri Andriani, Bahagia Loebis, M. Surya Husada

Abstract: Background: Most people with schizophrenia experience a decrease in social functioning and this causes distress, not only in patients but also in their caregivers. The consequences of caring for people with mental disorders are associated with burdens reflected in physical and psychological illness. It is estimated that one in four families is involved in responsibility for caring activities around the world. Families of people with mental disorders reported experiencing psychiatric distress, depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms due to caregiver responsibilities.

      Maria Susana Widyaningsih, Dwi Anggani Linggar Barathi, Zulfa Sakhiyya

Abstract: This paper attempts to investigate the implementation of Process-Based Writing Approach (PBWA) to teach writing to students with different writing anxiety. This study focuses on analyzing the types of writing anxiety experienced by the students; cognitive writing anxiety, somatic writing anxiety and avoidance behavior, explaining the implementation of PBWA in writing instructions and investigating the effectiveness of PBWA to teach writing to the students with different anxiety. This study employs mixed-methods design. The research subjects were 23 students of XII grade of SMA Kolese Loyola. SLWAI questionnaire designed by Cheng (2004) was administered to analyze the types of writing anxiety experienced by the students, observation sheets were utilized to explain the implementation of PBWA, and pretest and posttest were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of PBWA to teach writing to the students with different anxiety. The findings showed that cognitive anxiety is found to be the most experienced type of writing anxiety among students. The dominance of cognitive writing anxiety was most possibly caused by fear of teacher’s negative comments, low self-confidence in writing and linguistics difficulties.

      Odil Olimjonov, Elnora-khan Yakubova

Abstract: This scientific article is devoted to the consideration of the issues of strengthening interregional cooperation between Uzbekistan and the Central Asian countries as a source for the economic growth of the country and its regions. Besides, the study presents the evaluation of foreign economic activity and competitive advantages of Uzbekistan’s export of goods and services with the Central Asian countries. Furthermore, the article highlights positive aspects and priority areas for further expansion of interregional cooperation.

      Kennedy Ameyaw Baah

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the extent to which discovery learning could enhance the performance of Basic Six pupils in Basic Electronics. It is a quantitative action research that employed the One Group Pretest-Posttest research design. The performance of 21 Basic Six pupils in Basic Electronics was obtained after being taken through a five-hour introductory lesson and another five hours of discovery learning. Data collected were analysed using Average of Gains and Paired t-Tests. Results revealed that discovery learning approach is more effective in improving student achievement in Basic Electronics. Also, the experience of doing it by oneself makes it easier to discover and grasp concepts that are even deemed above standard. It was concluded that discovery learning approach is a viable teaching method for enhancing pupils’ performance in Basic Electronics. Based on these, it was recommended that teachers adopt the discovery learning approach for teaching Basic Electronics at the basic level and that government and private school proprietors make the needed resources readily available for teachers.

      T.K.Jayasumana, Y.R.H.Vijayan

Abstract: This paper addresses the definition of internationalization as it encompasses both direct and indirect internationalization. Before the implementation of internationalization, the traditional view claimed that the state contracts should be governed by the law of the country in which the contract is performed. However, international law identifies the obligation of the host state to not to deny any foreigner of justice by identifying concepts such as denial of justice. Eventually, the aim of scholars and arbitrators favored developed countries was to withdraw state contracts from the domestic legal system and place them in the international sphere by applying some external law to regulate the state contract rather than the host state s law. They used concepts like "direct internationalization" and "indirect internationalization".

      Ogunwuyi, Babatunde Oyeyemi, Atibioke, O.P

Abstract: Death anxiety is a societal phenomenon that has been with us from ages past, while it could be rational for the aged to experience increased death anxiety, intensive fear about death among adolescents is worrisome but has been traced to heightened insecurity, pandemic and other disasters experienced in the society. Many studies on death anxiety had been done outside Nigeria considering age, gender, religious and media factors which need to be replicated in Nigeria. This study therefore investigated Socio-demographic factors (Age, family, religious) and media as correlates of death anxiety among adolescents in Aroro Community Grammar School, Ibadan.

      Mohammad Liton Hossain, Md. Noushad Rana

Abstract: The main focus of this study is to help a handicap person to operate a computer by voice command. It can be used to operate the entire computer functions on the user’s voice commands. It makes use of the Speech Recognition technology that allows the computer system to identify and recognize words spoken by a human using a microphone. This Software will be able to recognize spoken words and enable user to interact with the computer. This interaction includes user giving commands to his computer which will then respond by performing several tasks, actions or operations depending on the commands they gave. For Example: Opening /closing a file in computer, YouTube automation using voice command, Google search using voice command, make a note using voice command, calculation by calculator using voice command etc.

      J.Sukanya, Dr.K.Rajiv Gandhi, Dr. V. Palanisamy

Abstract: The healthcare industry contains a large amount of information that is difficult to process by means of manual methods. Big data is too valuable to extract information and to form relationships in the area of large data sets. All the clustering techniques are utilized to gather things that are like each other. In this paper, we propose an equal k-implies grouping calculation dependent on MapReduce, which is a straightforward yet amazing equal programming procedure with enormous information examination. The test results show that the proposed calculation can be proficiently measure huge datasets on item equipment.

      Jara Gutiérrez and Francisco Javier de Miguel

Abstract: This study aims to promote fertility control as a non-lethal means of managing wild animal populations, specifically red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a region of Spain. This is the first time that a research plan on the use of immunocontraceptives in red deer in Spain has been laid. This plan is accompanied by a follow-up study to: (1) determine the effectiveness of the vaccine over 3 years in the prevention of pregnancy, (2) determine the possible contraindications, (3) identify any weaknesses and drawbacks of the treatment and (4) propose future improvements.

      Munyao, Daniel Kiangi

Abstract: Aflatoxin is a worldwide problem with a tendency to be more common in countries with tropical climate that have extreme ranges of rainfall, temperature and humidity, including tropical West African countries, South Western USA and India. Outbreaks of acute aflatoxins in Kenya occurred in 2004 and 2006, which caused deaths of about 200 people. In 2014, 14,500 tonnes of maize were found to be unfit for consumption in Kenya as they were infected with aflatoxin. The Kenyan Government has made efforts to reduce aflatoxin contamination on maize by creating awareness among farmers through extension officers.


Abstract: The present study was conducted on “Work-Family Conflict and Parental Self-efficacy of employed parents on COVID phase”. The study aimed to find out the relation between Parental self-efficacy and Work-Family conflict amidst COVID-19.The sample of present study comprised of 52 people within the age group between 25-65 years from different parts of India.

      Mohamad Nurkholik, Bertha Yonata, Suyatno Sutoyo

Abstract: The aim of research is to describe the effectiveness of the inquiry learning model to improve the student’s high order thinking skills that have an impact on the completeness of the student learning outcomes at MAN 2 Gresik on the factors affecting the rate of reaction topic. This study used the One Group Pretest- Posttest Design. The data obtained from this research were as follows: (1) The implementation of the stages of the inquiry learning model showed that the percentage of implementation from the first to fourth meetings are 92.74%; 93.99%; 96.61%; and 97.13% with very good predicate. (2) The HOTS ability of students had increased. This could be seen from the pretest and posttest values processed with N-gain, getting a percentage of 96% in the high category and 4% in the medium category.

      Majdi Ayad Salamah

Abstract: In recent years, multinational corporations have faced growing criticism from consumers, local communities, NGOs, and even the United Nations for not paying attention to the negative effects of their business. In the ongoing race for profit, companies have been accused of both endangering earnings rights and destroying the environment. As a result of these criticisms, managers are slowly becoming aware that, on a global level, business decisions and activities can have unpredictable consequences at different levels of society and in a much larger area than where the company operates directly.

      Authority Benson

Abstract: Blue carbon ecosystems also known as coastal or marine ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots that render invaluable ecosystem services, and possessed high capacity for carbon sequestration and storage. Whereas societies are well informed about the roles and significance of terrestrial ecosystems in climate change mitigation, there is comparative lack of awareness, knowledge gap and absence of legislative framework at national and international level to protect and conserve blue carbon ecosystems and their resources. This study identifies blue carbon sources in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and analyzed their ecological characteristics in relation to ecosystem services, carbon sequestration and storage and social economic significance. Primary data were obtained through physical observations and documentations of biophysical resources of blue carbon ecosystems, and over 70 publications on related subjects of blue carbon sources, carbon markets and climate change were empirically reviewed. A narrative analysis of the data were carried out and further discussed and characterized various threats to blue carbon ecosystems in the Niger Delta and implications for climate change mitigation and adaptation to people living in the region. It concludes with policy recommendations for conservation, restoration, protection and management of blue carbon ecosystems in the Niger Delta region.

      Fatima Gilani, Sachit Anand Arora, Dr. Rupali Kalsi , Kumar Saurav Singh, Anchal Saini

Abstract: Gingival recession has been defined as the apical shift of gingival margin from its physiologic level (1 to 2 mm coronal to cementoenamel junction) causing pathologic exposure of root surfaces. Mucogingival esthetic surgery is all about treatment of mucogingival esthetic alterations. Mucogingival problems may be caused by gingival recession often in association with non-carious cervical lesion or by root caries or by altered passive eruption. Gingival recession can be treated by surgical or non-surgical means. Nonsurgical means include - restorations, crowns, veneers and gingival masks whereas surgical approaches includes various methods of increasing the width of keratinized tissue such as frenectomy in case of high frenal attachment & root coverage procedures.

      Anchal saini, Sachit anand arora, Rupali kalsi, kumar saurav, Fatima gilani

Abstract: Recession is apical displacement of gingival margin to Cemento-enamel junction which is associated with certain etiological factors like vigorous tooth brushing habit, Aberrant frenum, Periodontitis, tooth position etc. Various procedures can be done to achieve root coverage by many procedures like Double papilla, Free gingival graft, connective tissue graft, pedicle grafts. Cohen and Ross described Double papilla procedure with success rate of 80% in covering denuded root surface. It is mostly used for single tooth recession to increase width of attached gingiva along with root coverage. This procedure is little sensitive as two adjacent interdental papilla need to be joined on mid surface of denude root to make it one flap.

      Dr. Nirmala Loung-Poorunder

Abstract: The study was undertaken with the purpose of studying Risk-Taking levels and Decision-Making styles of working and non-working females (aged 18 to 35) in Mauritius. The sample comprised of 50 working and 50 non-working females. It was a quantitative research and they were assessed through “Decision-Making style” and “Risk-Taking” questionnaires. Results showed significant difference in risk-taking and decision-making levels of both groups. Non-working subjects take more risk than working subjects. Sensation and Thinking Decision-Making styles are mostly used by both groups. Both groups did not differ significantly regarding Decision-Making style.

      Lukram Slim, Sachit Anand Arora, Rupali Kalsi, Kumar Saurav, Sourav Boro

Abstract: Periodontal plastic surgery performed to correct or eliminate anatomic, developmental, traumatic or disease induced defects of the gingiva, alveolar mucosa or bone”. The contemporary opinion is that even in the areas with insufficient or absent attached gingiva oral hygiene maintenance is possible but if the gingival tissue is thin, there is an increased risk of gingival recessions. The treatment of buccal gingival recessions one of the indications of PPS as it involves patient’s aesthetic concerns. The free gingival graft (FGG) is a technique introduced more than 50 years ago to address the lack of keratinized tissue by Bjorn in 1963 and was first described by Sullivan and Atkins in 1968. FGG can also be attempted for treatment of gingival recession and root exposure. It is a simple and highly predictable when used to increase the amount of attached gingiva.

      R. Sabo, B.A. Jinjiri

Abstract: Biogas (biomethane) production is achieved through digestion of solid waste by anaerobic bacteria (methanogenic bacteria) in an air tied environment or closed system called biodigester or bioreactor. Biogas primarily is methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.

      Akhtar Shareef, Durdana Rais Hashmi and Muhammad Azam

Abstract: Background: The main object of this study was to analyze the opinion of general public in Karachi city to examine the levels of psychological impact (anxiety, stress and depression) during the 1st episode of the COVID-19 pandemic. Coronavirus epidemic is a public health emergency of international distress and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. The collected data will be used for future reference.

      Ojomolade Dele Jacob, PhD, FCIB, Adejuwon, Adewale Joshua PhD, Akinjide Akinlabi Msc

Abstract: This paper examined determinants of foreign exchange rate volatility and Non-oil Export in Nigeria. The study used time series data covering 36years (1982-2017) collected from CBN. The method of analyses used was descriptive statistics as well as co-integration analysis (ARDL)The study also employed ARCH and GARCH model to determine the presence of volatility in the exchange rate.ADF and PPT were used to test the unit roots and determine non stationarity among the variables. Autoregressive Distributed Lag and bound test used to determine long run cointegration among the dependent and independent variables. The volatility of exchange rate was determined through Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscadasticity (ARCH) and GARCH 1(1) model on the non-oil export in Nigeria. The results show that foreign exchange rate, bank rate, inflation and foreign exchange volume has a positive relationship with non-oil export, however, GDP,M2 and Government expenditure has negative coefficient and statistically insignificant. The ARCH(1)1 and ARDL model indicated exchange rate and inflation has most volatility effect on non-oil export respectively .The government should pursue a rebound policy on exchange rate stability that encourages non-oil exports.



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