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IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

March 2017 publication has started and publication will continue till 26th March 2017
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th March, their paper will publish in March edition latest by 22nd March or before.
Online print version will release latest by 30th March. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th February and minor corrections are accepted till 26th March 2017.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Ricky Syahputra, Lukman M Baga, Kirbrandoko

Abstract: The needs of Indonesia people to have a high-priced property and the acceptance of having a property is one of the best investment in their life is two key factors that lead property sector for growing rapidly. PT. Hasta Raya Utama is one of the developer company that focus on this sector, since it was established in September 2014, PT Hasta Raya Utama has run 6 projects in 5 different locations. The business model of PT Hasta Raya Utama at this time has strength and weakness. The strength from business model is PT Hasta Raya Utama has strong key activities. Whereas the weakness of the current business model is less-notice about customer relationship so that their loyalty may be decreasing because there is no good customer relationship program from the company. As a suggestion to fix the business model, then there is should be an alternative prototype of the business model that is the customer segmentation concept to a good institution both government or private. This concept is focusing on speeding up the processing of a project and making sure the company cash flow. To support this business model prototype then one of the key activities that play the biggest role is welcoming the networking optimally. This prototype is chosen in order to make stream revenue is not affected by the microeconomic condition.


Abstract: In the past, many experts have made studies on how innovative strategies have been used for effective and efficient execution of new product development (NPD) projects in industries. These strategies aim at effectively leveraging the strength of the organization. Leading manufacturers in the automotive industry periodically develop new products in the existing platform to enhance customer satisfaction and develop new platforms to meet future requirements. It is evident that each project in a firm has linkages with the past projects through shared technology and resources. As a result, technology and resource management is very important for a firm to move towards lean project management.

      Azzam Nimer and Farid AW Ghrayeb

Abstract: The under-treatment of pain is the most disturbing and annoying symptom for hospitalized patients worldwide, yet it is poorly assessed and managed. Pain undermines a person’s quality of life and negatively affects their physical, emotional and spiritual wellbeing. Nurses have a vital role in implementing pain management effectively; therefore inadequate knowledge remains a major barrier to achieving effective pain management. This study aims to assess knowledge levels and attitudes regarding pain management among nurses working in hospitals in south of Palestine. A quantitative cross-sectional study design was utilized to recruit a proportionate sample of 380 staff nurses working in different wards in six governmental and private hospitals in Palestine. A modified Arabic version of Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitude Survey questionnaire regarding Pain was used to answer the research questions. The results of the study showed that a mean score of knowledge was 15.5 out of34 (45.6% out of 100%).This finding indicates that staff nurses had deficit in knowledge and negative attitudes toward pain assessment and management. The findings showed no significant difference in the mean score of knowledge in relation with gender (p = 0.181), age-group (p = 0.399), level of education (p = 0.934), and previous training courses or workshops on pain management (p = 0.612), except for the place of work (p <0.001).The results of this study indicate that there are serious challenges to adequate pain management. Curricular evaluation and/or change aiming to promote pain management and correcting the ingrained misconceptions are needed.

      Nyakundi, R, Mwangi, J and Makokha, M Obiero C

Abstract: Climate change is a serious issue in the world today with extreme weather conditions being experienced globally as characterised by devastating floods and prolonged droughts. This has often led to destruction of property and loss of life. These conditions are viewed as disasters requiring mitigation. Ruiru location being a peri-urban area has a lot of farming taking place and increased population due to settlement. This has increased the demand for water as stream flow is decreasing and boreholes are drying, with water scarcity prominent during droughts.


Abstract: This research purpose to describe and analyze society participation, local political elite participation, local government role, and regionalparliament in the process of area expansion of TanaToraja Regency, and describe and analyze autonomy area expansion of public service. The method used in this research was the explanatory survey. The data collection conducted by using interview, observation, questionnaire and document study. The research informants include local leaders, regional government, Regional Parliament Members, nongovernmental organizations, social organization. The sample was collected by using purposive sampling, and data were analyzed descriptively.

      N.Divya, Dr.Ch.V.S.Parameswara Rao, Dr. S.S.N.MalleswaraRao

Abstract: Injection moulds are divided into two types based on runner design (i.e.) Cold runner moulds and Runner lessmoulds (i.e.) hot runner moulds. In cold runner moulds, for multi-cavity and multi-point injection moulds, there is wastage of material in runner area. Sometimes wastage of material is more than component weight. For avoiding the above problem, the technique used is hot Runner moulds. Hot runner mould is one of the advanced manufacturing methods for multi-cavity type moulds. These types of moulds are commonly used for large production rate. While producing plastic components using normal/standard multi-cavitymould, we are facing theproblems like partial filling, cavities in components, less product quality, injection pressure and temperature drop age and warpage etc... To overcome these problems, hot Runner mould is designed and modeled in PROE 5.0 andtested. Then the thermal analysis is carried out to find out the thermal variations due to the injection pressure of a molten plastic into the cavities of the mold by using Simulation Technology.

      Muhammad Faisal Sultan, Anila, Moazzam Shere

Abstract: It has been observed that online sale’s is the factor which is used by companies in order to optimize their sales and profitability. As the technique provides convenience to customers therefore it has also been considered and preferred by customers all over the world. In fact businessmen in Pakistan is also preferring online sales and use of E-Commerce and more than 100 websites are available for online sales and purchase but there are some factors which needs to be considered and optimized in order to increase the use of online method for purchase. Because customers who are involved in these activities are also gained a level of maturity and want something new and more effective from the vendors as the point of difference of their company and competing companies therefore researches from different authors has been examined and through these it has been concluded that there are various variables which are creating impact on online sales and after using structural equation modeling through AMOS it has been found that all the variables included in the research model are significant in creating impact on online sales except variety of products available on the website.

      Shahana Jabi, Abhishek Mathur

Abstract: Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are widely distributed in nature. In higher eukaryotes, AMPs provide the host with an important defense mechanism against invading pathogens. AMPs of lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes may support successful competition for nutrients with other microorganisms of the same ecological niche. AMPs show a vast variety in structure, function, antimicrobial spectrum and mechanism of action. Most interestingly, there is growing evidence that AMPs also fulfill important biological functions other than antimicrobial activity.


Abstract: The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between StrategicCompetence and Business Performance of graduates with physical challenges in Kiambu County in Kenya. This research objective was to establish whether Strategic Competencehas any significance inBusiness Performance. This hypothesized relationship was being moderated by Business External Environment with its constructs being Access to Finance and Location of Business. Participants of the study were graduates of higher education and training with physical challenges owning and managing businesses in Kiambu County in Kenya.

      Mr.S.S.Jadhav, Dr.S.N.Tande, Mr.A.C.Dubal

Abstract: Metal foundries use large amounts of the metal casting process. Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry and the remaining sand that is termed as foundry sand is removed from foundry. This study presents the information about the civil engineering applications of foundry sand, which is technically sound and is environmentally safe. Use of foundry sand in various engg. applications can solve the problem of disposal of foundry sand and other purposes.

      Nighat Gul, Nasreen Ghani, Shaheen Ghani

Abstract: Effect of inter and intra marriages on the mental health of the adults has been study by different people in different cultures by applying the David mental health inventory (MHI38) scale. In Pakistan this area of study was neglect, therefore researchers pay attention on it’s and conduct an empirical and scope able research.Methods: comparatative study design used in this quantitative approach. Form district Hari pur draw the sample of 300 participants. Sampling techniques was the simple random. Sample size consisted of (N = 150) both male and female and MHI 38 scale were used which is consisting of 38 items. Results:there by the results positive features of mental health higher in intra marriage rather than inter marriages family adults such as Life satisfaction Emotional and General positive effect scores were higher in intra marriages adults and negative features of mental health intensity level were higher in inter marriages adults such as Loss of behavior and Anxiety. Results of all mental health factors were significant at p = .0001 level. Conclusion: consequences of the study were indicated mental health of out side marriages family adults were better then within family marriages adults. This obviously declare inter marriages are the source for transferring the psychological syndromes in the new generation. By inter marriages psychological syndromes transferred in new generation rather then intra marriages.

      Mohammad Nasir Khan, Aurang zeb, Awal khan, Fakhrul Islam

Abstract: Almost every new inexperienced professional during initial months of clinical practice have certain level of anxiety and face enormous challenges to adopt new working environment. This study was designed to identify the perceived challenges faced by novice Nurses. Objectives:The aim of this study was to find out challenges of novices nurses and to help them in adopting to the environment in the initial days of their career and also to determine the need for developing or improving the orientation program.

      Afsha Awal khan

Abstract: Caring is in practice since existence but caring as profession named Nursing was scientifically Coined by the founder of modern nursing who in her writings “what it is and what it is not”declared the boundaries along with its Constitutional elements. Those elements with appropriate association not only revealed the nature of caring dogma it also shows that it is doing something base on thinking something or in simple words this is practice rely on theory.

      Krishna. A Kumar, Vinu Ramdhas

Abstract: WSNs are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as temperature sound pressure etc. They are highly prone to malicious attacks and security threats[12][13] since their structures are not predetermined. Malicious attack on the sense that it makes the sensor nodes to drop the packets of data when moved from one node to another. This will surely degrade the performance of the whole system. Another major issue is to distinguish malicious attack from normal packet loss. Most cases we fail to realize malicious attack from normal packet loss. In order to overcome that problem we adopt a new method using threshold value called Channel Aware Anti Malicious Threshold System(CAMTS).

      Dr.Syahruddin Hattab, M.Si

Abstract: This study aims at discussing human resources management (HRM) and the role of organizational communication in one automotive company located in Jakarta. Methods used to collect the data is by undertaking direct observation and interviews with the employers and the employees of the company. The study found that HRM has been given large attention by the Toyota-Auto 2000 company by establishing annual planning, recruitment and selection, training, development and job performance analysis, and promotion, transfer and resignation. The employees of the company were also found to be satisfied in their jobs.

      Yu Hao

Abstract: Phonetic teaching is the foundation of teaching Chinese as a foreign language, in the face of Chinese beginners, there will be a period of time to learn pinyin, then correcting pronunciation will also exist throughout the learning process, if the learners can not grasp the Chinese pronunciation, learning will cause great and bad the influence on Chinese vocabulary, grammar , learners will have a low confidence to study Chinese. As a qualified Chinese teacher, we should master the necessary grammar knowledge, there should be some targeted teaching principles and methods.


Abstract: Grievance is very much present in every workplace especially in today’s era of globalization, if not tackled on time a minute grievance can become a conflict. A lack of interest has been found in the organisation to handle the grievance and also to use the grievance handling as a tool to motivate the employees. This empirical research discusses the various motivational theories and various grievance handling styles and at last the relationship between these two factors through the various cases. This empirical research study is based on the objective of finding the relationship between grievances of employees and their motivation. After considering various cases filed in Indian courts, it has been found that there is a relationship found between the grievances and motivation that every manager has to consider before the grievance turns into conflict. If the managers of the public or private organisations do not handle grievances at the initial stage, the consequences can be severe. To motivate the employees, grievance handling can be used as an effective motivational tool. Findings from this study will help manager motivate their employees by handling employees grievances at the earliest. The managers will learn to take care of even a minute grievance of employees.

      Hameem Majid, Tawseef Yousuf , Javaid Ahmad, Ashwani Wanganeo and Sunanda Raghuvanshi

Abstract: This paper embodies the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of three macrophytes Polygonium amphibium(leaves, rhizome), Potamageton pectinatus(leaves) and Ipomea aquatica(leaves, rhizome) against fish pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from freshwater fishes. During the study it was found that the strongest antibacterial activity among the above mentioned macrophyte species were obtained by the aqueous extract of Polygonium amphibium(leaves) with inhibition zone of 12.9mm followed by Polygonium amphibium(rhizome) with inhibition zone of 12mm. The aqueous extract of Ipomea aquatica(rhizome) marked 9.7mm inhibition zone followed by Potamageton pectinatus(leaves) with inhibition zone of 8mm while Ipomea aquatica(leaves) marked 7mm inhibition zone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      Akakuru, O. U, Magu, T. O, Louis H., Maitera O.N, Fidelis, T.T And Bisong E.A

Abstract: Coconut fluid and milk obtained from Takum, Taraba State, Owerri, Imo State and Jimeta, Adamawa State were analysed for the presence of the metals Fe, Pb, Cu, and Zn. The determination of their individual concentrations was done using AAS (model VGP 210 bulk scientific) and the results obtained were of the following trends; in coconut fluid, Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb, while in the coconut milk it follows this trend, Fe>>Zn>Cu>Pb. The overall results show that the metal levels were higher in the milk than in the fluid and for all the metals, the values obtained for Takum were generally low compared to those of Owerri and Jimeta.

      Okpako, E. C, Louis, H, Magu, T.O., Akwo, J. K, Akakuru O. U., Bisong, E.A

Abstract: The phytochemical and proximate nutritional analyses of brown leaves of Terminaliacatappa L. were determined using the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemistsand expressed in mean standard deviation. The phytochemical concentrations (mg/100g) of the aqueous, ethanoland methanol extract revealed the presence of tannins (0.50±0.58, 0.49±0.58, 0.47±0.56), saponins (2.67±1.33, 2.99±1.41, 3.31±1.49), alkaloids (1.20±0.89, 1.32±0.89, 1.23±0.90), phenols (0.32±0.49, 0.45±0.55, 0.35±0.48), flavonoids (0.93±0.79, 0.86±0.76, 0.65±0.66), anthraquinones (0.02±0.05, 0.03±0.06, 0.04±0.65) and glycosides (-, 6.12±2.02, 2.10±1.18) respectively. The result revealed that the leaves were very high in glycosides, saponins and alkaloids but low in tannins, phenols, flavonoids and anthraquinones.The proximate nutritional analysis revealed crude protein 4.2±1.67, fibre content 12.9±2.94, fat content 4.6±1.75, ash content 12.1±2.84, moisture content 8.3±2.35, and carbohydrate content 57.9±6.21. Carbohydrates had the highest concentration followed by fibre, ash and moisture content, while proteins and fats had low concentration. This study justifies the use of TerminaliacatappaL. leaves by traditional practitioners to treat various ailments and by pharmaceutical companies to produce useful drugs. The leaves are rich source of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

      Kavita Sharma, Sushma Patel, J.N. Verma

Abstract: The most common problems encountered in the Indian farmers throughout in agriculture is control of obnoxious, undesirable, unwanted, useless, ugly and often persistent plants, injurious for crops interfere with agricultural operations increases labour and cost of production and finally reduce the crop yields. Such plants are known as weeds. Although there are losses caused by the weeds within field in terms of crop yield, crop weeds competition for space, water, light and nutrients, increases in cost of agriculture production, reduction in price of farm produce, effects livestock product quality, reduction in land value, harbors to pests and diseases, bad effect on human health and soil productivity. However, some weeds have also beneficial effect in agriculture as well as human life.

      Jaya Bharti, Abhishek Mathur

Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial infections and the etiologic agent of a wide range of diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the diseases mediated by this species include endocarditis, osteomyelitis, toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning, and skin infections. Biofilms are well organized and complex aggregate of microorganisms, surrounded by a protective matrix of exo-polysaccharides and can adhere to each other on various surfaces. Because of increase the drug resistance and the side effect of over use of antibiotic, it is necessary to find a suitable agent to reduce the growth of microorganism. Biofilm are known as a significant problem because biofilm formation protects pathogenic bacteria against antibiotics and is one of the main causes of development of chronic infections. Thus biofilm is the main cause of drug resistance in microbial strains. These strains cause pathogenicity to a maximum extent and thus cause resistance against the conventional antibiotics/drugs. Silver is known as an antimicrobial agent and is utilized in several antimicrobials and medications. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and screened for biofilm production. In the present investigation, the nano-particles were prepared of Ag+. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-Vis spectra of silver nano-particles showed absorption spectra at 450 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the fused nanoparticles were determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 5-20 nm. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs, were evaluated by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition against pathogenic microbial strains and drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

      Gayatri Tripathy and P.N.Chowdhry

Abstract: The River Yamuna is the largest tributary of River Ganga. This river is as prominent and sacred as the great River Ganga itself. Deterioration in water quality as a result of discharge of allochthonous and autochthonous sources of pollution into water bodies in increasingly rendering the natural water bodies unsuitable for various beneficial purposes to the mankind, like drinking water source, bathing, navigation, fishing and irrigation. It is observed that, due to over pollution of such sacred rivers, the microbial diversity gets increases which increase the BOD and organic load in the water thus making the water polluted. The study showed that the fungal biodiversity is the result of increasing pollution in river Yamuna and is also variable as per the seasonal and climatic variations.

      Mugove Kudenga

Abstract: This is part of a broad research that sought to find out the perceptions of street children on law enforcement agents. This study focused on behaviours of law enforcement agencies that affect the life styles of street children. Law enforcement agencies are mandated by the state to make sure every citizen abides by the law. They at times, in the course of their duty have to enforce the law by restricting the behaviours of street children that are against the law. The main research objective of this study was to identify the activities of law enforcement agents on street children that affected the life style of street children. The study used qualitative methodology. A descriptive survey research design was used.

      Mugove Kudenga

Abstract: This is part of a broad research that sought to find out the perceptions of street children on law enforcement agents. This study investigated the behaviours of street children that attracted the attention of law enforcement agencies. Children who live in the streets due to lack of adult figures who give them guidance behave in ways that are against the laws of the country. Such behaviours attract the attention of law enforcement agencies who are mandated by the state to make sure all citizens of the state live according to the expectations of the law. The main research objective was to identify the activities of street children on the streets that attracted the attention of law enforcement agencies. The study used qualitative methodology.

      Mohammed Beshir Mohammed

Abstract: This study used survey data collected by Southern nations, nationalities and peoples’ region (SNNPR) bureau of finance and economic development (BoFED) in collaboration with Arba Minch University for 5,015 urban households. The major purposes of the paper are measuring urban poverty and identifying the determinants via employing logistic regression. Accordingly, for the year 2015 poverty incidence, gap and severity were equal to 18.02%, 5.25% and 2.31% respectively for the urban SNNPR. Urban food poverty measured using the above indexes leaves relatively larger figures. In the last five years the region’s urban poverty reduces remarkably except for food poverty severity which rose by 17.24%. The use of logistic regression to identify the determinants of urban poverty end up with marital status, family size, total dependency, education level, saving habit, and source of energy were found to be statistically significant variables. Hence, pre and post marriage orientations to reduce divorce and input support for windowed, limiting family size and in turn dependency using short and long term solutions, and supplying social and physical infrastructure such as education, financial institutions and power are viable options to reduce urban poverty in the region. The urgency of tackling urban poverty in the region should start from Wolaita and South Omo zones (districts) since both of them are characterized by higher incidence, gap and severity of poverty.

      Samwel N. Njoroge, Lazarus N. Makewa and Daniel Allida

Abstract: Continuity of a subject is looked at in terms of the vertical and horizontal relationship in the curriculum (relationship between and within content and the subject being taught from one level to the next). In Kenyan scenario integrated Social Studies (SST) is only taught in primary schools and in teacher training college. This research study sought to find out how continuity in Social Studies (SST) content can be made appropriate in relation to the changes in the contemporary society. The study also sought to find out the perception of teachers on the trends of continuity in Social Studies content in relation to the number of years one has taught. The findings indicate that the topics in SST becomes complex as learners progress from lower classes to the upper classes, and that SST content offers learners the opportunity to apply what they learnt in school in their daily life. Findings show that there’s significant difference between the perceptions of teachers on Trends of continuity of Social Studies in relation to the length of teaching Social Studies between teachers.

      Muhammad Sanusi Ibrahim, MohdRusliYacob, ZaitonSamdin, MohdYusoffIshak, Sale Ibrahim Abdullahi

Abstract: Biodiversity conservation can be seen as avoiding and eliminating any steps that can seriously disturb Yankari game reserve biodiversity ecosystem. Eco-conservation is regarded as an ideal tool for attaining both economic and conservation sustainability. The objective of this study is to determine the adjourning community willingness to pay for improve conservation of Yankari game reserve using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (DC-CVM) on 422 respondents from adjourning communities of Yankari game reserve. The result of the study showed that the mean willingness to pay for improve conservation of the reserve by people of the adjoining communities of the reserve is N2, 376.42. The findings of this study would provide a guide for the government, policy makers, management of the game reserve and relevant authorities towards achieving improved and sustainable conservation of Yankari game and also take into account the benefits associated with resources conservation and the need for both the public and private organisations to actively and financially participate for future generation to benefit.

      Thaddeus Wafula Wechuli, Stanley Kavale

Abstract: Water resources projects are essential to the population of Kwale County as well as being the pillar that support most projects in agriculture and fisheries sectors. In this study, the role of leaders such as coordination, change agent, conflict resolution and monitoring were analysed, and the findings showed how the leader’s roles influenced performance of projects and ultimately dictate the success of these projects. From the study, it was important for leaders to optimize performance measurement on projects so as to provide the basis for assessing how well projects progressed toward the planned and achieve targeted objectives.

      Saloni Swaroopa, Arshia Naaz and A. K. Choudhary

Abstract: The present work is an attempt to analyse various morphological development of Vigna radiata due to the effect of Shiv ganga water of Deoghar, Jharkhand. River ,pond and lake water is use in irrigation for several crop plants growth. The reason is because it contains various important micro and macro-nutrients which are useful for crop development. However the content of nutrients in wastewater completely depends on their origin of source. Moreover such variations in nutrients availability greatly influence the particular crop growth. In the present study we addressed the effect of heavy metal discharge by pilgrims by vermillion deposition which contain many heavy metals, Shiv ganga polluted water on growth of Vigna radiata. Different concentrations of shiv ganga water sample (0% - 100%) were used to examine their effect on development of Vigna radiate morphologies. We found that 60% sample concentration is most suitable for development of different morphologies of Vigna radiata, indeed support the maximum growth. At higher concentrations (80% - 100%) development of crop is significantly compromised suggesting certain constituents in polluted water are present excess than their tolerance limit. Nonetheless, 60% sample concentration contains optimum micro and micro-nutrients as well as other components which are useful for better growth of Vigna radiata.

      Ayash Yousuf Shah

Abstract: According to investopedia Demonetization means the act of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender. There are multiple reasons why nations demonetize their local units of currency. Some reasons include to brush-off inflation, to brush-off corruption, and to dispirit a cash system. The process of demonetization involves either introducing new notes of the same currency or completely replacing the old currency with new currency. Indian government adopted demonetization on 08 November 2016 to tackle with black money and make India a cashless digital economy. As per the yearly report of Reserve Bank of India of 31 March 2016 that total currency notes in circulation is 16.42 lac crore of old Rs. 500 and Rs.1000 banknotes. As per the report of RBI dated on 14-12-2016, the total amount of old notes of value of Rs. 12.44 lac crore has been deposited by the customers till 10-12-2016. Banks started accepting deposits from 10 November but within a period of 15 days approximately half money has been received by the banks.

      Nick N. Waswa

Abstract: Schools exist in the heart of each community and school-community links are beneficial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of school -community relationship on students’ academic performance. The study adopted a mixed methods approach and a descriptive survey design. Using purposive and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 44 principals, 369 class teachers and 369 class prefects was selected to participate in this study, giving a sample size of 782 respondents Data was collected by administering a likert scale questionnaire and an interview schedule. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation. Qualitative data was analyzed by describing emerging content from the respondents in relation to the study objectives. The study established that, communication skills influence teaching and learning. From the results it is concluded that academic performance could be improved if school relationship was enhanced. The following recommendation was made: Education stake holders should actively participate in the running of schools by providing material and administrative support.

      Abdulla Mohamed Hamza

Abstract: War is at the core of the efforts to submit the use of military force in international relations to legal rules. For millennia the decision to wage war was not subject to any legal restrictions. Furthermore, war was regarded as a legitimate means of policy, its foremost aim changing territorial boundaries. In the early years of the twentieth century, nearly all states agreed on a ban on the use of force with the explicit exception of self- defense, thus legally accepting only peaceful changes to the status quo. Situations may occur in which the use of force might be believed to be legitimate by moral standards although illegal. Thus, bound between the dichotomy of security and justice, the requirements of legality and legitimacy might not always coincide in international law.

      Belew Worku

Abstract: Dire Dawa is a disputed city over claims of ownership between Oromia and Somalia regional states.Hence, among the Oromo and Somali ethnic groups. However, there was no conflict so far experienced between these ethnic groups in the city of Dire Dawa. The article attempted to study the basic reasons for such peaceful state of affairs in the city. To accomplish this objective, the researcher utilized qualitative research method. Sources of data- primary and secondary sources were used. Primary data as the main source was collected from informants and documents through interviews, observation, focus group discussion, and document analysis. The collected data was analyzed to find common indicators. The study finding revealed that these ethnic groups have developed a sense of belonging to the city of Dire Dawa. They developed a single vocabulary-ye-Dire-lij-. This single vocabulary was the result of cultural dialogue and understanding they developed over century through their interactions. Their interaction was their common cultural heritage which they mobilized to solve their competition over city ownership that avoided outright conflict. This was shown when the two ethnic groups agreed to share the terms of the city Council. This is a lesson that needs to be promoted and shared by others to avoid violent ethnic conflict over claim. It concluded that cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue is one of the surest guarantees of development and peace. The lesson from Dire Dawa provide values needed for economic development: values that are tolerant, trusting, and participatory.

      Deresse Mersha Lakew

Abstract: Capital investment decisions play vital role for the achievement of strategic plan of organizations. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capital budgeting practice of business organizations in Ethiopia with especial reference to strategic planning, project idea generation and cash forecasting. To achieve this objective, primary data was collected using self administered questionnaire from 109 large private and public owned business organizations found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The finding of the study showed that the majority of the firms try to link capital investment projects to their strategic plan. Top managers and board of directors are the main sources of project idea and most organizations do not make cash forecasting properly. For instance, they will not incorporate working capital, inflation and tax effect of depreciation in to account while forecasting cash flows.

      Kiman Silas, Highina K. Bitrus, John M. Wadinda and Abdu Zubairu

Abstract: Optimal enzyme activity occurs within a limited set of conditions such as temperature and pH which must thus be carefully controlled to promote high reaction rates. Therefore, watermelon peel was collected, processed, pretreated and subjected to hydrolysis in a series of batch reactors. Trichoderma reseei was isolated from decayed wood and the enzymes released by Trichoderma reseei were used for the hydrolysis for glucose production from watermelon dry peel. The effects of temperature at selected temperatures of 20 oC, 25 oC, 30 oC, 35 oC, 40 oC and 45 oC; as well as effects of pH on enzyme activity at selected pH ranges of 3.0 to 5.5 were studied. From the study, the results obtained within the limit of the experimental conditions show an optimal temperature of 30 oC, having a corresponding glucose concentration of 0.091728 g/l, optimal pH of 4.5 with a corresponding glucose concentration 0.6436 g/l, which implies that the enzymes from T. reseeigives high yield of glucose when controlled at these conditions. Also, the watermelon dry sample used in the study was highly deliginified, leading to high glucose yield.

      Arshia Naaz, Saloni Swaroopa and A. K. Choudhary

Abstract: Industrial wastewater is enormously utilizing in irrigation worldwide. It is well known that physico-chemical and biological properties of wastewater influence the plant growth. In the present study, we have investigated the physico-chemical and biological properties of steel industry, Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd. (H.E.C.) effluent. We found that most of the physico-chemical parameters were comparable to the BIS (The Bureau of Indian Standards) value for irrigation. However, conductivity, sulphate, B.O.D and C.O.D were higher than BIS value for irrigation. Moreover, microbial population was found to be higher in H.E.C. effluent as compared to tap water.

      Leila Ateffakhr

Abstract: Practice of dowry poses heavy threat to the life of females. Dowry is an age old practice in Indian society referring to property or valuable security given by one party to another as a consideration for marriage. The origin of dowry primarily was the contribution of wife’s family or by herself with the intention to help the husband.This custom of dowry was started in the medieval period. Women were gifted with wealth and jewel from their parents during her marriage and this served as a tool of financial independence for the bride even after marriage. This menace is the root cause of almost all violence against a married woman. In most cases after marriage the problem of dowry will arise. If the wife is not able to provide all, which her husband and in laws demand, her life in the groom’s house become miserable. She will be treated cruelly and in some cases she may lose her life.

      MitthanLal Kansal, Prashant Kumar, Kumar Abhishek Kishore

Abstract: Floods are the most recurring hazard in Kosi and Gandak river basin of North Bihar in eastern India. Despite a long history of flood control measures in the state for more than six decades, the rivers still continues to cause a huge disaster and a lot of misery in the region due to extensive flooding. The Kosi and Gandak River typically shows very high discharge variability in addition to high sediment flux from upper part of catchment. This often results to inundation followed by flooding in the low-lying tracts of the alluvial plains. This paper re-visits the flooding issue in Kosi and Gandak river basin and presents an in-depth analysis of flood management.This flood risk analysis follows multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using Concept of Choosing by Advantage (CBA) for selecting component of Integrated Flood Risk Management (IFRM) by stakeholder and decision makers.

      Muhammad AfzalJaved, Azar Ali

Abstract: Educational development policies in Pakistan, especially in military regime,when Pakistan faces non-electoral government were focused on both national and international educationists and experts. Lots of reports analyzed the performance of Musharraf government in education department. President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf introduced lots of reforms which ultimately assist the modernization of education department in the country. Historically the educational policies of Pakistan remained under the strong influence of religious ideologies and education, global challenge, social agenda, regional trends. After the global challenging incident of 9/11, the attacks on world trade center, affected all interests and needs of globalization. This article is compiled to highlight the policies and reforms in the era ofpresident ship of Musharraf (1999-2008).

      Dr. Arrisman, SH, M.H.

Abstract: The influence of globalization in many fields (social, political, cultural, legal, economic and others) needs to be understood that the national economic development should be oriented on the constitutional commitment as defined in the Article 33 of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia embracing the principles of economic democracy- Pancasila. Of the many economic activities that need to be improved their productivity and their efficiency is a State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs).

      Dr. Moe Thanda Kyi, Dr. Reiji Noda

Abstract: Bio - oils production studied from heavy tar which is organic phase of pyrolysis oil using CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst in the bench scale hydrogenation process. In this experiments, hydrogenation of biomass tar were carried out in varied reaction conditions to elucidate influence of operation factors. The effect of reaction temperature, retention time, feed rate, space velocity (SV), hydrogen concentration, and catalyst loading factor on bio-oil yield, carbon content, and carbon recovery of heavy tar by catalytic conversion was investigated.

      B. Arun Kumar, DrV.NagaBhushana Rao

Abstract: Cryogenic engineering is concerned with low temperatures and the equipment used in producing, storing and using of fluids at low temperatures. Due to the increasing use of cryogenic-fluids in industrial applications, the storage and transport of cryogenic fluids has become a necessity. Because of low temperatures, the storage of cryogenic fluids is difficult. Cryogenic fluids must be maintained at low temperatures and high pressures, otherwise the change of phase may occur, and storage of cryogenic fluids is possible with insulated chambers, using fiber, foamed or powdered insulation.In the present work, design analysis of multi layered cryogenic shell, with optimum orientations; minimum mass under strength constraints for a cylinder subjected to axial loading for static analysis on the pressure vessel has been studied. The modeling is carried out in Creo Parametric 2.0 and the analysis is carried out in ANSYS 15.0 solver. Static analysis and Thermal analysis has been done and also material optimization is done for enhancement. Different materials are analyzed. Taking weight into consideration and stress into account, S- glass epoxy for the outer structure with aluminum for the inner structure is comparably better than the other materials.

      Irsyad Ilyas, Musa Hubeis, SetiadiDjohar

Abstract: This research aims to formulate strategic change management in SBU Metrasat Indonesia, by identifying internal and external driving factors of the company, developing new business strategies, and formulating corporate change programs to achieve SBU Metrasat’s competitive advantages. The research approach was through a case study with descriptive methods, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the analysis show that the type of changes are categorized into transition. The company establishes three priority strategic change managements, which shouldbe made in nine elements of business model canvas. However, to achieve the innovative value, SBU Metrasat should focus on elements of value proposition, key resources, key activities and key partners. The McKinsey 7S analysis found that structure and skill are two elements which become barriers to change. The strategic change management plan within the next five years at SBU Metrasat would execute only 6 of the 8-step change management model proposed by Kotter (1996).

      Rupak Paudel, ManojDangal

Abstract: The existing vapour absorption system is compared with the vapour compression system designed with the detailed ASHRAE standard CLTD method along with software like e-solution. The pros and cons of the vapour compression system and vapour absorption system is compared in technical and financial reference. The research paper is based on the resort located in the hilly region projecting circumstances of modern rated star luxury facility. For calculated load of 60 TR, fuel consumption of boiler at different loading conditions is determined. Then actual and theoretical fuel consumptions are compared. For the analysis, existing VAS is replaced by the Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) system. Complete design of VRF system is performed separating the building in three zones: (a) upper two floor, (b) ground floor and (c) lobby. Energy consumption of VRF system is also calculated and compared with VAS. The research displays that load performance of VAS is poor and resort using VAS are losing large amount of fuel and associated financial resource at part load condition. When comparing VAS with VRF system, it is also found that large amount of money will be saved by replacement of VAS by VRF system with less payback period.

      Prof. Jitendra Kumar and Ms. Singh Suman

Abstract: The objective of the study was to identify and know the prevalence of learning disability among children of class fifth. The sample comprised of all the students studying in class fifth of five schools in Kurukshetra and Jind districts of Harayana. The tools used were both formal and informal-Academic result of the previous class (English and mathematics),Checklist for identifying learning disabled students by teachers/parents, Ravens progressive matrices (test for intelligence) and Diagnostic test of learning Disability (Swaroop and Mehta 2005). It was found that that the prevalence rate of students with learning disability varies from 10.76 percent to 13.41 percent with mean percentage of 12.31.

      Gideon P.N, Nzei J. M, Munywoki J. M, Louis H, Kwata F. G., Fidelis T. T

Abstract: The mangrove swamp forest of Sobekiri I, II and III area of Rivers state Nigeria, was investigated to determine the phytodiversity, flora density, bundance, and importance of some useful plants including endangered species. three 250 x 40 transects containing (10 x 10) randomly laid quadrants for trees, 5 x 5 for shrubs and 1 x 1 for herbs was used in 1hectare plot to increase the chances of encountering and inventorying all species.

      Gideon P.N, Channya F. K., Nzei J. M., Munywoki J. M., Louis H, Kwata F. G., Fidelis T. T

Abstract: A survey of angiosperm parasites on vegetation of Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola using quadrant method measuring 100m x 100m for 20 quadrant. A total number of (14) different types of host plants species were identified these include, Eucalyptus, Mangifera indica, Acacia seyel, Vittelaria paradoxa, Anacardium, Azadiracta indica, Pakia bigblobosa, Lycopersicum esculantum, ficus thoningi, Citrus sinensis, Helianthus annuus, vitex doniana, Afzelia AfricanaThe result shows that plants without parasites (angiosperm) are the dominant over those with parasites. Six (6) different parasites plants were also identified these are Loranthus, Mistletoes, Cuscuta, Oranbonche, striga, Cassytha. Mistletoes was found with the highest distribution attacking about five (5) different host species (Eucalyptus, Acacia seyel, pakia bigblosa, Adansonia digitata, Afzelia Africana) making it the most dominant parasitic plant in the study area.

      Sigsbert Ngemera

Abstract: In Tanzania there are laid down land dispute settlement machineries which at all falls have legal backup. The rationale behind their establishment is to the effect that anyone who claims an interest over land has to knock the doors of the judicial holy temples for the redress. There is no dispute that land disputes at a village level are in existence despite having these machineries. However, this paper focuses on whether inaccessibility to these land dispute settlement machineries may be one of the sources for accelerated land disputes in Morogoro Region.

      Yaya Abdul Malik, Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar, Kirbrandoko

Abstract: With the increasing mobility of people and goods, the time will come when they demand transportation services with higher level of safety, security, speed, smoothness and comfort. If a transportation company or a certain form of transportation always provides services with quality that satisfies the users, the consumers will become loyal customers. Good quality of the services will increase a company's image in the customers' eyes. Ferry ports are vital when it comes to distribution of goods or people from one place to another. Because ferry ports are places where people shift, port areas are strategic places to extend businesses. Economic development needs transportation services that are adequate and sufficient. Without transportation as the supporting tools, we cannot expect good results in terms of the economic development of a nation. A strategy is a activity plan to reach the goals. A strategy as an activity that is incremental and, in the implementation, refers to the customers' expectations in the future. A strategy is a vital tool in terms of creating competitive strengths. A strategy is a plan that is designed to reach targets and goals. Planning is an organization's anticipation, what needs to be done in order to reach the goals. The purposes of this research are (1) To identify the segmentation of the passengers of Merak Ferry Port, (2) To analyze the passengers' level of satisfaction regarding the various services business of Merak Ferry Port and (3) To analyze and formulate the proper various services business strategy to be implemented. The research method that is used is descriptive tabulation which is a statistic analysis process that includes attempts to investigate and reveal information that is relevant that the data contains. Analysis Cluster is used to reduce the data in the research into clusters. The purpose is to show the differences among the clusters created and unite the similarities based on the data achieved.

      Dr.Mousa Abunawas

Abstract: Teachers usually find a difficulty to create new ways on teaching a language. This is because not all ways effect on students and attract them to learning. The researcher’s focus will be mainly on how teaching by playing effect on learning process and if teachers are using playing games in teaching . This research is a case study on some teachers majoring in English were given a survey to answer, and their responses were gathered and analyzed in this study.

      Dr. Mousa Khaleel

Abstract: This research report explores the influence of technology on smartness &cognitive development of children with analyzing thebehavior of children with using the gadgets and advanced devices. This paper investigates that whether the mental capabilities of children are due to use of technological equipment and tools or they have their abilities. This research uses mixed approach method questionnaire and survey approach with convenience sampling from 15 respondents three of them was selected for aninterview. Results indicate that children are nowadays are moving towards the age where parents will make their children bounded with these technologies and limiting their thinking capabilities to solve the complex matters and issues that will surely make children dumb instead of making smarter.

      Dr. Mousa Khaleel

Abstract: Education is an essential requirement and it must be fulfilled for every individual. The requirement has been declared as the basic human rights along with the food and shelter by the United Nation Organization as well. Apart from that, the education reflects the personality of a person, so as the grades as well. The grades mirror the person’s behavior and its attitude towards its academics irrespective of whatever educational background the person possesses. People say that girls are always smarter than boys. Therefore, in this research paper I'm going to prove that female students do tend to get higher grades than male students do. Female students tend to care more about studies and they work harder than male students do. Boys are more interested in technology than girls since they are always on the computers exploring and video gaming and they rely on technology more than girls do. There definitely are solutions that could make both genders on the same academic level such as including more technology in studying and including more practical work in academics.

      Dr. Mousa Khaleel

Abstract: English plays an important role in every part of the world. English is omnipresent in every sector and every walk of life. The young learners should be shown the importance and the interest of learning English for their better future. In schools teachers give much importance to vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and try to cover their portions for the examination. Young learners are fond of listening to tales and stories and this researcher firmly believe that stories help young learners to learn the language successfully. This paper will focus on the importance of using stories by conducting various activities among young learners in the language learning process.

      Syeda Sabika Meerza , Prodduth Chatterjee

Abstract: : Marketing myopia, a high-lightening marketing theory projects crucial facts diagnosed in business organizations. Theodore Levitt, the real theorist tried to narrate how some misconceptions or constricted vision can impede a company’s long run. Marketing myopia is more or less is evident at some stage of a growing industry. It implies the conditions and matters, which can make the company to decide some strategic procedures which eventually hamper the long run of it. In this research, it has been trying to explain the aspects of marketing myopia where the main highlight concentrated on the Telecom industry of Bangladesh. The research is conducted to make a correlation between the concept of marketing myopia and its impact on the business. It moreover tries to find the valid possibility of the theory in practical aspects.

      Suprihartono Kurniawan, Nurmala Katrina Panjaitan, Gendut Suprayitno

Abstract: Implementation of Total Quality Management makes organization to maintain quality standards in all aspects of organization's business. The standard of quality management system (QMS) that has been developed and suitable for education is ISO 9001, achievement of quality device that is expected to respond to the challenges of globalization by increasing the efficiency and effectiveness to satisfy stakeholders. Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University (SPs-IPB) proved itself as a reliable organization that received the ISO 9001:2008 certificate issued by SUCOFINDO on June1st, 2011. This research aimed to determine the implementation of Quality Managements System ISO 9001:2008 from the aspect of documentation, management responsibility and alternative implementation strategies for corrective action. The data used in the form of primary and secondary data, both from qualitative and quantitative. Processing of qualitative data using descriptive analysis was based on interviews with party organization consisted of three informen who master the Quality Management System and its implementation in SPs-IPB on the right target and can affect policy. The collected data is processed by the method of analytic hierarchy process AHP. The results of data processing showed that the essential elements of QMS ISO 9001:2008 in SPs-IPB were Responsibility Management (43.9 %), Quality Management System (31.4 %), Product Realization (14.1%), Resource Management (6.8%), and Measurement, Analysis & Improvement (3.8 %);alternative measures such as Focus on the customer (1st priority), Quality

      Nivedita Kasturi

Abstract: In the outcome based education system, universities focus on outcome of student’s technical competence, professional skills. Due to Changes in the curriculum of outcome based education (OBE), this has been an on-going need to be addressed and practiced by the institution to consistently generate well groomed learners suitable for industry. The high demand of industry on their potential employees with good technical competence and professional skills continuously drive the need for change.[1] All curriculum and teaching decision are made based on desired outcome.

      Sabariah A.H.,Norhafizah A.M

Abstract: Overweight is an increasing health problem in the world. It is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hypertension and osteoarthritis. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of overweight and diseases related, among the elderly population in Kg. Baru, Sepang, Selangor and to identify their self-conscious on weight status.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly persons, who consented to participate. The prevalence of overweight and obese were 34% and 30%, respectively.Majority of the overweight respondents were diabetic (61.1%), whereas among the obese elderly 72.2% were having hypertension. Among the elderly respondents with overweight and obese, 83.3% and 62.5% respectively, were not conscious about their own body weight status and it was statistically significance (p < 0.05).It is crucial for this group of subjects to have their weight reduced by methods such as dietary control and physical exercise. Health education should also be targeted on this aspect.


Abstract: Drug resistance to therapeutic antibiotics pose a challenge to the identification of novel targets and drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. Infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis are a major health problem. Moreover, among UTI causing enterococci, multi-drug resistant E. faecalis such as vancomycin-resistant strains (VRE) have been reported increasingly in many countries. SMX & TMP are the commonly prescribed inhibitors of DHFR & DHPS, the enzymes of the folate biosynthetic pathway. In this study, insilico docking of various ligands/inhibitors to the Enterococcus faecalis DHFR & DHPS proteins has been performed by using Autodock Suite, version 1.5 6rC2.

      Godishala Sridevi, Debashis Rout & K. Rangaswami

Abstract: Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a psychosocial treatment for preschoolers with conduct, behavioral problems and their parents. PCIT is empirically validated intervention that is designed for families with young children and was draw from both attachment and social learning theory in which teaching parents to interact with their child in new ways to change the child’s behavior. The PCIT provides a comprehensive treatment approach that is focused on increasing positive behavior, decreasing negative behavior, and improving the parent-child relationship. In this overview an attempted has been made to desirable to Parent-Child Intervention Therapy and to provide an overview for research conducted after the introduction of the therapy. It is apparent significant research work had been carried out into behavior and conduct problems. Hence this systematic approach to the child and the parent in the management of behavior and emotional problems would be beneficial to the young research scholars in child clinical psychology and professionals.

      Monica HennySudaryati

Abstract: The world grows so rapidly,as no stopping word rotation. This development is characterized by the rapid spread of information in the hemisphere. Social Media is an online media that users can easily participate, share and create contents include blogs, social networks, wikis, forums and virtual worlds.

      Kuntal Kalra and Rashmi Kumari

Abstract: Inulinase consist of an important class of enzymes for the production of fructose and fructo-oligosaccharides, which are extensively used in pharmaceutical, food industry and beverages. Inulinase have also found their application for inulin substrates hydrolysis for single-cell oil and single-cell protein production. The isolated fungus was identified as Aspergillus niger. It has been isolated from numerous habitats. This enzyme is found in many plants species and is widely distributed in fungi, yeast and bacterial strains. In the present study; rhizosphere soil samples were collected and inoculated for the isolation of fungal species present in soil. A local fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus niger was tested for the optimization of inulinase production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation for various parameters such as pH, temperature, incubation time, carbon and nitrogen sources. Five different substrates wheat bran, banana peel, orange peel, sugarcane bagasse, garlic peel were used. Among five banana peel substrate resulted in maximum production of inulinase for incubation time in days. The inulinase production using banana peel as substrate was higher in submerged fermentation (61 U/ml) than solid state fermentation (52 U/ml). The optimum pH and temperature was found to be 5.4 and 37°C respectively. In submerged fermentation inulinase showed higher activity when inulin (72 U/ml) with respect to sucrose (67 U/ml) was used as carbon sources. Yeast extract showed higher activity in submerged fermentation (66 U/ml) was used as nitrogen sources.

      Ahmad H. Sutawijaya and Regita Dian Pertiwi

Abstract: A company can survive if in all their activities are supported by a high loyalty from his employees. The existence of the compensation received by employees, a comfortable working environment, as well as the burden of work in accordance with the capabilities of the factors that could cause employees last longer in the organization and creates a feeling of satisfaction in doing any work. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of compensation on employees’ loyalty. Data collection using interviews with the help of a questionnaire instrument which the employees of PT.XYZ were taken as target respondents. Both primary and secondary data were gathered. Secondary data were gathered from various sources such as journals, books and other related publications. Primary data were collected using questionnaire which were distributed to the target respondents. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of 30 respondents were gathered. Various statistical tests such as validity, reliability and classical assumptions tests were employed. Using a regression analysis, it was found that compensation had a positive and significant effect on employees’ loyalty, both partially and simultaneously.It is suggested that PT.XYZ should increase its compensation both financial and non-financial so it will increase the employees’ loyalty as well.Further research on other variables such us motivation, organizational structure, and supervisor’s quality will provide a better pictures about factors that affect customer satisfaction.

      I. Aizpuru, U. Iraola, J.M. Canales, A. Goikoetxea, E. Garayalde

Abstract: High Power battery packs are a series/parallel connection of single energy storage cells.The series connection of cells affects in the whole battery pack energy and power due to the unbalancing behavior of each different cell. To improve the whole battery pack energy a balancing system is connected. Passive balancing systems are wasteful and do not increase the Battery pack energy during discharge. Active balancing systems are efficient but most topologies add big complexity to the BMS work. Single switch active balancing systems are simple and reliable. During this work the main balancing current modelling and efficiency equations are presented for the most important single switch active balancing systems. These expressions permit to evaluate the balancing power of the system, and to know how much energy is balanced during the balancing system process between the Weak cell and the Strong cells. Experimental validation of each balancing system is implemented to compare balancing power, efficiency and behavior.

      I. Aizpuru, U. Iraola, J.M. Canales, A. Goikoetxea, E. Garayalde

Abstract: Series connection of energy storage cells implies the need of a BMS and a balancing system to control and improve the performance of the battery pack. Nowadays passive balancing is the most used balancing system in industrial applications, basically due to its simplicity and low price. Active balancing systems are mostly reserved to research articles and experimental prototypes. During this research article, single switch active balancing systems will be presented as a real option of passive balancing substitution. For that purpose during the article most important characteristics of balancing systems will be presented regarding to the impact on the final battery performance, behavior and price. After detecting most important comparison characteristicsa single switch active balancing systems will be compared with a passive balancing system prototypes under different working situations.

      Ahmed Hussain

Abstract: There is different techniques to increase existing column capacities; however, such techniques differ in their advantages and disadvantages. In this research work, it is intended to study the effectiveness of an alternative technique involving micro-concreting (around square specimen to obtain circular) for increasing existing column capacity without much increase in section dimensions under axial compressive load using 200 T compression testing machine. The objectives of this research are to understand the behavior of R.C square, R.C square micro-concreted to circular (SMC) & R.C integral circular specimens subjected to axial compression & to compare the effect of CFRP confinement on the above three types of column specimens by means of an experimental investigation.



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