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IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version will release latest by 30th January. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 24th January and corrections have been closed.

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      Heba Ibrahim Mohamed, Mahmoud Mohamed Ghorab, Aly Fahmy Mohamed

Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a one of the most prevalent worldwide sexually transmitted infection. HSV-2 causes recurrent genital ulcers, neonatal herpes, and also, increases the risk for HIV acquisition. Many HSV-2 vaccines have been tested in humans, but were not consistently effective. In the present work we tried to produce a model vaccine for HSV-2 formulated in different formulae as an attempt for development of an effective prophylactic and therapeutic HSV-2 vaccine. Beta propiolactone (BPL) as virus inactivant was compared with the conven¬tional formalin. Also, calcium phosphate nano-particles (CPN) as a vaccine adjuvant was compared with current used aluminum phosphate gel (alum) micro-particles. Stability of adjuvanted and non adjuvanted vaccine models was monitored at different thermal conditions. Subcutaneous route was conducted in balb-c mice to determine the immune response of vaccine formulations. Data revealed that Al-BPL-HSV-2 vaccine showed the highest and longer durative immune response compared with other vaccine candidates. Different formulations of the test vaccine showed the same pattern of stability at different thermal conditions (4oC and 37oC and 45oC). Also, Al-BPL-HSV-2 vaccine formulation could efficiently develop antibody level that could neutralize the challenge dose of HSV-2 and no viral infection could be detected in the vaginal tissues using direct immune-fluorescent assay.



      Tripti, Prof(Dr.) Gargi Bandyopadhyay

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the validity of the Marshall-Lerner Condition in India in the Pre reform (1962-1990) and Post reform interlude (1991-2013) considering the total exports & imports of India. Also, this paper critically analyzes chief industry (Sugar Industry) of the Manufacturing sector of India for the five year period of 2009-2014. Manufacturing sector is the backbone of Indian economy as it fuels growth, productivity and employment and strengthens other sectors of the economy.



      Pallabi Deka

Abstract: Literacy is a determinant of Social, economic, cultural and political development of an area. Literacy eradicates poverty and unemployment, generates employment, economic growth, international relationship, improves social status and standard of living among the social groups. Among the social groups scheduled caste population is considered as most backward group of society prior to the British era. Literacy rates and standard of living of scheduled caste population is very low compare to the other social groups. Goalpara district is not exceptional to this. Literacy rate of scheduled caste population in Goalpara district is quite lower compare to other caste. The main objective of this paper to study the literacy pattern of scheduled caste population of Goalpara district. This study is based on secondary data and comparative statistical method. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the variation of literacy pattern among scheduled caste population of Goalpara district.



      Apoorva . S, Namrata .F. Dabali

Abstract: Concrete is one of the most fundamental materials used in the field of civil engineering. In this project, an attempt has been made to replace the cement with locally available materials such as Low calcium fly ash and Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) which acts as alternative binder. Fly ash is rich in silicate and alumina and it reacts with alkaline solution to produce alumina silicate gel that binds the aggregate to produce a good concrete. GGBS is a slag which is usually used for partial replacement of cement. Geopolymer concrete members are cured at ambient temperature and also at 80°C in oven for 24hours with varying proportions of fly ash and GGBS for 12M concentration .The alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions) are prepared 24 hrs, prior of casting. The conventional method of mixing, compacting and moulding is done to produce Geopolymer concrete. Cubes, cylinders and beams are tested to find the compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength. The compressive, tensile and flexural strength for all members are tested for 7 days and 28days.After the experimental investigation, it was found that the strength of geopolymer concrete increased with increase in higher percentage of GGBS and also the strength increased with age of the concrete in case of ambient curing.



      Farah M.A.M and Elminshawi A.A

Abstract: Fourteen male lambs of average weight of 14.46 kg were allotted randomly in two groups. One group (A) was kunnaned- a traditional Sudanese method used to control mating which envolves application of a double loop cord around the scrotum and the pendulous part of the ram's prepucial sheath, affecting mechanically normal penetration of the penis in the female genital tract, thus preventing conception. The other group (B) left entire. The two groups were fed on concentrate diet comprised of 15.24% crude protein and 10.48 Mj/kg metabolizable energy for 100 days. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were measured. Kunnand lambs had significantly (p<0.01) increased feed consumption than entire, but kunnan had no significant effect (p>0.05) on growth rate, feed conversion ratio and slaughter weight.



      Wairia Samuel Kingori, Dr. Dominic Charles Okero, Ms. Eunice Muthoni

Abstract: Globally, more initiatives have been taken in order to strengthen national health systems. By coordinating actions across the six building blocks of the health systems, programmes to improve maternal health services can increase coverage and reduce barriers to the use of various initiatives. Service delivery building block is therefore very important in improving maternal mortality which remains an urgent problem to be addressed by Health Systems in developing countries around the world. About 800 women die every day and 99% of these deaths occur in developing countries, Kenya included. 56% of women in Kenya deliver outside health facilities despite availability of skilled maternal health services.



      Sameer Hayikader, Farah Nurafiqah Hanis binti Abd Hadi, Jamaludin Ibrahim

Abstract: Mobile apps is a used to designate the act or process by which application software is developed for handheld devices, such as personal digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g. JavaScript) to provide an "application-like" experience within a Web browser. However there are some cases where the mobile internet banking apps occurred some problems that might cause loss of money. Therefore, In this paper we will examine issues on the architecture, and some security issues of mobile internet banking apps. And then we will explore some security measuras to deal with the associated security challenges.



      Chanchal Sinha

Abstract: The study on “Adjustment of married women in relation to age and job status” was conducted with the objectives to difference in adjustment of working women in relation to age and job status. The study was conducted on 150 married working women in teaching and medical professions. Martial adjustment and self constructed were used as tools in the study. The data was analyzed by Mean, Standard deviation and t-value. Results showed that there was significant difference in adjustment of working women in relation to age and no significant difference was found in relation to job status. The reasons might be lack of time, decreasing social network, losing contact with friends and family members.



      Purusha Prajwal, Dr.M. Siddaraju, Krishna Bhat, and Dr. D. Prashanth Shetty

Abstract: The objectives of the present investigation were to find out the association of thyroid abnormalities with food habits, sex , religion and also habitats of region under study. Two study groups were surveyed for the study on the prevalence of thyroid diseases. One study group is from Dakshina Kannada and the other from the Kasargod District. A total of 398 subjects were surveyed. Questionnaires were prepared and responses were collected from the subjects. The analysis revealed that in D.K district normal subjects comprise of 39.1% followed by Hypothyroidism with 36.2% and Hyperthyroidism of 24.7%.In Kasaragod district, hypothyroidism is observed in 54.6% subjects followed by normal with 27.6% and Hyperthyroidism only 17.8%.



      V. Plachkov, C. Zemyarski, Kr. Nikolov, Marin Nenchev, Margarita Deneva and Petar Petrov

Abstract: Investigated were four different samples of diseased cows, by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that the most suitable pumping wavelength fluorescence method to test samples of cows is 245 nm. Selected as low pumping wavelength, because the bacteria that cause diseases and infections in cattle have lower emission wavelengths. Through the application of fluorescence spectroscopy establishes accessible and rapid method for analysis of different samples of one animal unit. Equally effective were tested as a blood sample, and samples of abscess, vaginal and nasal discharge. Fluorescence spectroscopy was carried out at the dairy farm are not carried in the laboratory, it was possible because of the mobility of the test this device. The method can be applied to a mass testing because the pattern of spectral analyzer for fluorescence spectroscopy described in this article is easy to operate and quite affordable. Fluorescence spectroscopy can safely replace labor-intensive and expensive tests of trivial microbiology laboratories. The three main advantages of fluorescence spectroscopy is that the method is fast, does not require consumables and can be carried out at the dairy farm.



      Farah Nurafiqah Hanis binti Abd Hadi, Akram M. Zeki

Abstract: Information security is a priority for organization, businesses and even for the government. ICT readiness in all countries especially OIC countries are gradually increased and keep improving their technologies in fulfilling citizen needs. However, the level of ICT security and policies might be differ from each countries especially Muslim developed countries. Therefore, in this paper we are examine ICT development after 15 years, difference review on ICT development from Social Economic Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (SESRIC) and ICT Development Index (IDI) analysis from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as well as the list of Information Security policies or laws that available in Bahrain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. And then we will explore a possible solution to deal with the associated ICT readiness and policies.



      Mohamed M.Osman

Abstract: In this paper of Riemannian geometry to pervious of differentiable manifolds which are used in an essential way in basic concepts of Riemannian geometry we study the defections, examples of the problem of differentially projection mapping parameterization system by strutting rank on surfaces dimensional is sub manifolds space of , we prove that in depends only on the doubling charts mapping manifolds, sub manifolds its quantitative extrinsic dimension.



      Agrawal, R.C, Soni, S, Jain, N , Rajpoot,J and Maheshwari,S.K

Abstract: Gymnema is popularly known as gurmar or Madhunashini (destroyer of sugar), as chewing the leaves causes a loss of sweet taste. Gymnema sylvestre leaves extract against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice was studied. The methanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre was analyzed for chemopreventive activity. Chemopreventive activity was evaluated by two stage protocol consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen (7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) two times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated tropically with Gymnema sylvestre extract as compared to the control group treated with DMBA and croton oil. The antioxidant and antibacterial effect of Gymnema extract was also observed .The above studies reveal information about the prevention of cancer. Therefore, the present study is immensely important in future drug development programs for the cancer treatment.



      Agnesh. Valluri

Abstract: Over the last three decades there has been increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution. The world health organisation (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occurs due to prolonged exposure to environmental pollution. Ecopharmacology is a broad term that includes studies of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) irrespective of doses and their route of entry into environment disturbing the balance of ecology.



      Esokomi Solomon Nuni, Prof Indoshi Francis, Prof. Odour Andrew

Abstract: The school curriculum consists of formal, informal and non-formal dimensions. Secondary schools in Kenya, however, tend to emphasize formal curricular activities. Non-formal activities (NFA) are given less emphasis. Little was known regarding the contribution of non-formal curricular of science club activities (SCA) on students’ interest and achievement in Physics. In Vihiga County of Kenya, participation in SCA is poor with only 25 per cent rate of participation of schools. Yet students’ achievement in Physics in the County has been low with mean grade of D over the years 2006 to 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of SCA on secondary school students’ interest and achievement in Physics in Vihiga County.



      Eswaran. N and Mariselvi,S

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vermicompost and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of tomato plants. Various growth and yield parameters like mean Percentage of seed germination and seedling length plant height, yield/plant, marketable yield/plant, mean leaf number, total plant biomass were recorded for each treatment. Almost all the growth, yield and quality parameters increased significantly as compared to control, though the increase within the treatments was not found to be significant. Vermicompost is produced by vermicomposting of organic material through interactions between earthworm and microorganisms. The present study suggested that vermicompost is more favorable for vigorous production of tomatoes. The vermicompost can be economically and environmentally suitable and also maintenance of soil environment. The continued use of chemical fertilizers causes health and environmental hazards such as ground and surface water pollution by nitrate leaching. Compost refers to organic constituents, usually wastes, that have been mixed, piled, and moistened and undergo thermophilic decomposition that alters or decomposes the original organic materials.



      Khalid Fathi Ubeid

Abstract: This study aims to examine the stratigraphy architecture and sedimentology of the Gaza Strip, from the Pleistocene to the Holocene age. The study area is restricted to the Gaza and Middle-to Khan Younis Governorates of the Gaza Strip. The Gaza Strip is a southwestern part of the Coastal Plain of Palestine. To accomplish these aims, data collected from field observations of outcropping rocks, boreholes, and hydrogeological wells has been used. The logging of selected sections paid attention to genetic facies associations.



      Maedeh Mansoubi, Dr. Amir Masoud Bidgoli

Abstract: The present paper deals with improving automatically SQL Server queries in order to increase database performance. This article aims to provide the proposal algorithm called AIQ (Algorithm Improvement of Query) based on program language C# in order to improve automatically the ten queries compiled from various published articles by researchers and also compare the performance of algorithm AIQ with that of SQL Server query optimizer. To achieve these purposes, the mixed method (descriptive and experimental) research design is conducted and then proposal algorithm is provided by researcher and finally query execute time in algorithm AIQ in mode of inactive SQL Server query optimizer is compared with that of in SQL Server in mode of active SQL Server query optimizer on database of Insurance Company. The result obtained shows that speed of improving query with use of proposed algorithm AIQ is more than that of SQL Server query optimizer.



      Shuaibu Ahmed Mahi and Shuaibu Isah

Abstract: The aim of this research is to assess the water quality of Gurara water transfer scheme. The geology and hydrology of the area were studied. The water quality of Gurara Dam and Lower Usuma Dam at different depth of the reservoir at the peak of the dry and rainy season was assessed in order to determine the effects of geology on the water quality, extent of anthropological effect(s) and its Suitability for domestic and industrial purposes. This was done by subjecting 20 water samples from both Dams collected at predetermined depth for comprehensive physicochemical and bacteriological analysis using APHA standard methods of analysis for both rainy and dry seasons.



      Miss.P.Y.Mhaske, Prof. P.N.Narwade, Prof. M.P.Nagarkar

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to compare vertical stiffness of inflation fluid air and nitrogen to increase capacity of tire normal force and then improve vehicle stability. Tire Stiffness is important to provide comfortable ride for passenger and also prevent damage to the working parts. The stiffness of Tata Nano car tire having size P135/70R12 in the radial [or vertical] direction is measured. This information is based on the measurement of single tire at inflation pressure [1.3, 1.7, 2, 2.4 and 2.7bar] and vertical load range [300 400,500,600,700 and 800kg] for different inflation fluid inside the tire. Experimental verification of vertical stiffness is done for P135/70R12 tire by using load-deflection test conducted for different inflation pressure, inflation fluid and load under static condition. To design mathematical model of undamped spring mass system under harmonic force. The minimum vertical amplitude is obtained from theoretical analysis at given load and pressure for different fluid.



      Danjem SM, Salaam AJ

Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the normal range of lacrimal gland dimensions in healthy orbits of Nigerian subjects from brain CT.



      Dr. Homoud M. Alanazi

Abstract: Warming-up is considered to be as the main sport component for any sport training period, it is the basis for any athletes before performing any sport activity or competition. It was noted on most of sport coaches, that they do not give the required attention and following-up for players warming-up period, leaving warming-up exercises to fitness trainers to do it without any supervision. Performance of warming-up exercises should focus particularly on type of exercises, time duration and exact period of time to do before real training or competition. Consequently, the health target average level of heart pulses should be reached through warming-up exercises for the benefit of athlete in general, and for the score results of his participation in competitions in specific. Warming-up exercises if wasn't done properly, it will reflect badly on individual's health and on their achievements. Sports' warming-up gets large importance especially before athlete exercises that requires maximum efforts to be done in a small short period of time.



      Salaam AJ, Danjem SM, Salaam AA

Abstract: Moreover, for developing knowledge among students about radiation hazards and prevention, an effective medical education model would be helpful to disseminate information to those who have limited knowledge about radiology and radio-diagnostics.



      Maira DUMPE

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to investigate how banks can adopt and use social networks for long lasting relationships with their clients. Although Latvian residents internet and social media adoption is quite high, research results indicates that even regular internet bank users is not interested to follow the information which is presented on banks social media profiles



      Vassana Netweera, Aroonsri Priprem, Sucharat Limsittichaikoon

Abstract: Fruits of Zanthozylum limonella Alston, one of the spices traditionally used for toothache relief, were hydro-distilled to obtain about 4.3% yield of volatile oil (ZL). 30% of ZL in a bioadhesive gel was prepared for in vitro permeation and in vivo tests. In vitro permeation of total phenolic contents of the ZL gel through porcine esophagus, as the model mucous membrane, using Franz diffusion cells indicates an average steady-state rate of 0.1 ± 0.02 mgGAE/cm2/h at 37 C (n = 5) without lag time. In vivo study in buccal pressure-wounds of rats indicates that licking behaviour was obvious and could be inhibited by gels containing xylocaine or ZL but not fluocinolone. Histological analysis of the inflammed cells in excised oral wounds showed that it took 1 day for fluocinolone gel to significantly reduce the number of inflammed cells and 2 days for ZL gel (p<0.05 both). Comparative wound assessments (edema and erythema) indicate mild anti-inflammatory activity of ZL gel. Thus, phenolic components of ZL could readily permeate though mucous membrane and ZL gel showed potential benefits for topical use in oral wound.



      Hussein Balfaqih, Mohsen Al-Shawrbji, Mohammed Bakudah

Abstract: Recent advances in the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA) made most of patients to expect to achieve a long-term survival. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD-SCT) is a preferred first-line treatment option for younger patients with severe or very severe AA, whereas immunosup pressive treatment (IST) is an alternative option for others. Horse anti-thymocyte globuline (ATG) with cyclosporin A (CsA) had been a standard IST regimen with acceptable response rate. Recently, horse ATG had been not available and replaced with rabbit ATG in most countries.



      Diaa K. Abed-Ali, Hassan Abdullah Athbi, Safi D. Nawam

Abstract: Work is a significant source of stress in all occupations; a nationwide poll by the American Psychological Association (APA) showed that approximately 75% of Americans experienced substantial stress at work and nearly half noted that their work productivity decreased because of the stress. A cross-sectional descriptive study is conduct in AL-Najaf City from Dec. 2nd., 2014 to March 15th., 2015. To assess the impact of nurses’ burnout on patients’ satisfaction with nursing care.



      Pallabi Deka

Abstract: Literacy is a determinant of Social, economic, cultural and political development of an area. Literacy eradicates poverty and unemployment, generates employment, economic growth, international relationship, improves social status and standard of living among the social groups. Among the social groups scheduled tribe population is considered as most backward group of society prior to the British era. Literacy rates and standard of living of scheduled tribe population is very low compare to the other social groups. Literacy rate of scheduled tribe population in Goalpara district is comparatively higher than the other parts of India. The main objective of this paper to study the literacy pattern of scheduled tribe population of Goalpara district. This study is based on secondary data and comparative statistical method. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the variation of literacy pattern among scheduled tribe population of Goalpara district.



      Pallabi Deka, Dr. P. K. Ryngnga and Dr. S.J. Deka

Abstract: Landuse / Landcover is result of combine activities of physical and human activities. Land use and Land cover change detection is essential for understanding of physical environment, ecological process, soil erosion, deforestation and also helpful in planning perposes. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in Umshing-Mawkynroh, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya. The study has been done through remote sensing and GIS approach using SOI toposheet (1966-1967), CARTOSAT P5 (2005) and LISS III (2011). GIS software is used to prepare the thematic maps. Ground truth observations (through field visits) were also performed to check the accuracy of the classification.



      Asawari Madhukar Fartade, Ravikant Chati

Abstract: The present study deals with the cestode parasite from fresh water fish channa marulius. This taxonomic study emphasis on n.sp. Circumoncobothrium godavarae tapeworm. This worm is having scolex large, narrow at anterior end and broad at posteriorly, scolex is rounded and bears a prominent rostellum armed with 27 hooks. Two spatulate bothria, testes 100-120 in number, genital pore small, ovary bilobed dumbbell shaped, vitellaria follicular.



      Mathew Svodziwa, Chipfakacha Raymond

Abstract: Women dominate the Early Childhood Development (ECD) program which is one of the main short courses offered in the Department of Adult and Continuing Education at Bulawayo Polytechnic . The aim of the study was to determine perceptions and attitudes of students and lecturers on high female enrolment in the Early Childhood Development course, whether the inclusion of male trainees would result in benefits or disadvantages. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews.



      Gamachis Sakata

Abstract: The general purpose of the study was to examine the impact of using Concept mapping as instructional tool on students’ physics achievement in Mettu secondary and preparatory school. It was designed as pretest-posttest nonrandomized control group. The same teacher employed concept mapping instruction in the Experimental Group (EG) and conventional learning method in that of Control Group (CG).



      N.H .Mohammed, M.A. Bashir

Abstract: Let X be a Banach space. A one parameter family S(t) (t ≥ 0) of bounded linear operators on X is a strongly continuous semigroup



      N.H .Mohammed, M.A. Bashir

Abstract: The fixed point theorems concern maps f of a set X into itself that, under certain conditions, admit a fixed point, that is, a point x ∈ X such that f(x) = x. Which the knowledge of the existence of fixed points has relevant applications in many branches of analysis and topology. Then let us show for instance the following simple but indicative example.



      Suja S Nair, Dr. Sindhu G

Abstract: Groundwater level is an indicator of groundwater availability ,groundwater flow and the physical characteristics of the groundwater system. Management of water resources requires input from hydrological studies. This is mainly in the form of estimation of the magnitude of a hydrological parameters. The factors that influence and control the groundwater level fluctuation were determined to develop a forecasting model and examine its potential in predicting groundwater level. Models for prediction of water table depth were developed based on Artificial Neural Networks(ANN) with different combinations of hydrological parameters. The best combination was confirmed with factor analysis. The input parameters for groundwater level forecasting were derived using Time Series Analysis (TSA).Mamom river basin in Trivandrum district was chosen as the study area as its groundwater resources have been used as the main source for drinking and agricultural purposes.



      C.B. Erney Fabian, P.P. Diego Alejandro, G.A. Franklin Meer

Abstract: In order to advance in the firing angle control of thyristors in the single phase fully controlled bridge rectifiers through the actual technology this paper presents a method of obtaining a regulated dc voltage through digital control. This lineal dc voltage is obtained through the control of phase angle of thyristors with a PIC microcontroller of low gamma. The algorithm control is programmed in C language and the results are verified for different types of load.



      Mehedee Hasan,Mustafizur Rahman

Abstract: In this study we tried to develop an optimum amount of dose and a effective as well as convenient dosage form of fenugreek seed and to observe its’ effect on type2 diabetic patient. At the same time, we also tried to find out stability of fenugreek seed through preserving it into pure water. We also focused on any change of effect while boiled or unboiled seed solution administered to the type2 diabetes affected patients.



      B. Bini, M.G. Sanal Kumar, P.Vinod

Abstract: The diversity of soil arthropod fauna inhabiting in rubber plantations at Central Travancore area of South Kerala regions were studied. The soil arthropods were collected during the year 2014. Soil samples were periodically and regularly collected from 10 different sites of rubber plantation. At each station, soil samples were collected between the hours of 8 am to 10 am. 17 orders of soil arthropod were collected and extracted using Berlesse tullgren funnel. Arthropods were collected, using 70% alcohol. The obtained soil arthropods belonging to order Isopoda, Diplopoda, Pauropoda, Chilopoda, Symphyla, Araneida, Acari, Chelonethi, Collembola, Protura, Diplura, Hymenoptera, Isopteran, Psocoptera, Diptera, Coeleoptera, Dermaptera and Psocoptera. Seasonal variations of soil arthropod fauna in rubber plantations were studied. Data collected from the rubber plantation sites were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis.



      Sangeeta Mishra

Abstract: Sida cordifolia commonly known as Indian ephedra belongs to family Malvaceae. The present paper highlights the effects of temperature and light exposures on the seed germination of Sida cordifolia. Seeds of Sida cordifolia were germinated temperature 400C. The maximum seed germination % was recorded at 12 hours storage in refrigerator at 5-7 0C and 12 hours in oven at 100 0C. Blue light accelerates germination percentage. The best results were obtained during rainy and summer seasons while in winter seasons the percentage of germination becomes low.



      Mohamed M.Osman

Abstract: In this paper is to introduce the idea of integration of tensor field .The definitions of indefinite and definite for tensor fields are similar to the analogous definitions for integrals functions differential calculus , and the definite integral tensor fields is also a tensor field of the sum type.



      Akpakpan, Edoama Edet, Inabo, Helen Ileigo and Aminu – Mukhtar, Maryam

Abstract: Background of the study. Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of death among children under five globally. In a study carried out to determine the prevalence rates of some parasites implicated in diarrhoea among children aged 0-5 years and their nutritional status in Kaduna State, Nigeria, stool samples were collected from 368 children in selected hospitals representing the three senatorial districts of the State. The result obtained showed prevalence of 19.8% and 22.8%, for Cryptosporidium parvum, using both microscopy and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The result of this study showed that the percentage of the study population which were underweight, stunting and wasting which were 17.4%, 27.4% and 11.4% respectively.



      AKAZA Moroh Joseph, KOUASSI Abou Bakari, AKAFFOU Doffou Sélastique, FOUET Olivier, N’GUETTA Assanvo Simon-Pièrre and LANAUD Claire

Abstract: To identify QTLs for cacao resistance to Phytopthora palmivora., a study was conducted in three hybrid progenies of CNRA in Côte d'Ivoire obtained from crosses (SCA6 x H) x C1, (P7 x ICS100) x C1 and (P7 x ICS95 x) x C1. SCA6 (Scavina 6) and P7 (Pound 7) are resistant Forastero clones, while ICS100, ICS95 and H are moderately susceptible Trinitario clones and C1 (IFC1), a susceptible Forastero clone. Resistance to P. palmivora was assessed by means of pod rot rate (PRR) in field and leaf discs inoculation with zoospores (Folres) in both half-sib progenies, while only PRR was investigated in the progeny derived from (SCA6 x H) x C1.



      Priyanka Kumari, Pankaj Kumar Ojha, Satya Prakash

Abstract: This paper is based on a research study at Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar. The title of the research was “Mushroom training programme of R.A.U. – a critical analysis of Samastipur district”. It was conducted by taking the responses from sixty respondents included 30 beneficiaries and 30 non-beneficiaries through personal interview. The all sixty respondents were from Thahara and Morsand panchayats of PUSA block. The objective of the study was to assess the extent of recommended mushroom production technology in Samastipur district. The statistical tools like mean, frequency, percentage, standard deviation and t- test were used for data analysis. The analysis revealed that adoption level of beneficiaries was found to be higher than non- beneficiaries and this was statistically significant. Hence, mushroom training had been successful and had significant impact on mushroom growers. Therefore, training programme needs to be given to large number of respondents in order to enhance adoption and diffusion of innovation.



      Chandra Sabnani

Abstract: Architecture is based on and contributes to the collective human experience. While thus embodying a certain continuity and maintaining unity, it also represents change and embraces diversity. The balance is struck by the interplay between culture, ecology, materials, technology, economics, and function. These both set boundaries as also fuel a combination of the architects' analytical insights and creative syntheses, which are finally responsible for giving rise to the range of built forms. This movement can be visualized along temporal, spatial and functional planes. The edifice of the creative non-rational element must be based on a firm foundation of rationality.



      Pratiksha D. Mandal, Madhuri S. Kadam, Sayali R. Kakade, Monali J. Reddy, Guided By - Prof. Amar More

Abstract: Whatever kind of industry are you in being able to obtain information based on analysis of data coming from wide variety of sources can help make better decisions. In 2004 Google developed MapReduce, a programming framework for the processing of large datasets across distributed systems. MapReduce got more popularised by open source Apache Hadoop framework. In 2009 Amazon introduced Elastic MapReduce which is used for processing large datasets efficiently using the Apache framework on the fly. It allows customer to write their MapReduce application without dealing with hardware, network and Hadoop configuration. User only needs to submit their Map and Reduce functions along with required number of nodes and in return user will get simplified data as per his specifications mentioned in the application. Issue with Amazon EMR is the usage of computing resources provided only by Amazon datacenter at a certain cost. The goal of this project will be open sourcing of Amazon Elastic MapReduce. It will add the features of Elastic MapReduce to open source private cloud.



      Purushothaman P K, Balaji C R K, Punitha M

Abstract: Objective: This is to analyze the outcome of treatment given to three cases of squamous cell carcinoma of bony part of external auditory canal .



      Daniel Mekonen

Abstract: The main objective of this article is to investigate Maaga indigenous conflict resolution institution among the Libido-Mareko ethnic group in Gurage Zone Southern Ethiopia. To attain this objective, the article employed both secondary and primary data sources. Both primary and secondary data were organized thematically and analyzed through systematic interpretation and triangulation of various sources. The article found that conflicts are manifested at family, neighborhood and clan level with varying magnitude. The indigenous conflict resolution institution among Libido-Marko ethnic group has two stages of conflict resolution involving the Maaga and Raaga. The two stages of conflict resolution are highly interconnected and refer cases from one setting to another. The first stage, Maaga, has five structures: Minan woran jaana (family congregation), Hegeegan janna, (intra- and inter-village structure), nihuss-gossa (sub-clan), gichchotan hafa (clan structure) and Meexe hafa/libidan dummichcha (Libido-Mareko assembly).



      Dr.Balaji.C R K, Dr.Purushotaman P K, Dr.Vignesh R

Abstract: Aim: To study and compare the temporalis fascia graft uptake in myringoplasty in cases of inactive chronic otitis media (mucosal type) with medicated and without medicated gel foam in the external ear canal.



      M.S. Sultana, M.H. Rahman, M.S. Rahman, T. Sultana and A.K. Paul

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Farm, Dhaka, Bangladesh during December, 2011 to April, 2012 to study the effect of integrated use of vermicompost, pressmud and urea on soil fertility status after harvest of rice (Hybrid Dhan Hira 2). Ten treatments coded from T1 to T10 were used in this experiment. The highest amount of organic matter (1.67 %) were observed in T9 treatment receiving 120 kg N/ha from vermicompost. The highest amount of total nitrogen (0.070 %), were observed in T3 treatment receiving 90 kg N/ha from urea along with 30 kg N/ha from vermicompost. The highest amount of available phosphorus (11.71 ppm) and available sulfur (11.46 ppm) in postharvest soil were recorded in treatment T2 receiving 120 kg N/ha from urea. The highest amount of available potassium (21.85 ppm) were observed in T5 treatment receiving 60 kg N/ha from urea along with 60 kg N/ha from vermicompost. On the other hand the lowest values of these parameters were obtained from control treatment T1.



      Fatima Allawi Abdul Sejad,Suaad Abdel – Mahdi Abd – Nour and Hana,a Kadtem Egzar

Abstract: In this work we prepared a new catalyst from Antimony (III) oxide, Chromium (III) oxide which mixed in different weight ratio and supported on granulated alumina by suspension method .



      Nahla Khalil

Abstract: The development of information technology and Internet has led to rapidly progressed in e-commerce and online shopping, due to the convenience that they provide consumers. E-commerce and online shopping are still not able to fully replace onsite shopping. In contrast, conventional online shopping websites often cannot provide enough information about a product for the customer to make an informed decision before checkout. 3D virtual shopping environment show great potential for enhancing e-commerce systems and provide customers information about a product and real shopping environment.



      Anoopsingh Chandel, Rohit Maurya, Umesh Kumar

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide readers an overview to the potential use of coir fibres in various forms and methods in civil engineering applications. The paper is based on the comprehensive review on the applications of coir fibres in different media and forms such as used for insulation, as reinforcement member in concrete, to provide reinforcement to soil mass in embankments and foundations, in casting light weight cement boards for soundproof walls, cement blocks, etc. As we all know coir fibres are available in abundance in tropical regions as well as in cities of religious importance, we can lay emphasis on high usage of coir fibre in civil engineering. Further potential uses of such a valuable waste can be thought upon.



      Olumayowa Tijani-Eniola

Abstract: The US health care industry has undergone considerable consolidation, with mergers and acquisitions happening amongst health insurers, pharmaceutical companies and hospitals. Although there have been mergers in the pharmaceutical and insurance sectors, this paper will focus only on the impact that hospital mergers have had. With the trend all but continuing, various arguments for and against hospital mergers have been propounded, with different points of view on the net effects that hospital mergers have had. The main concerns of both sides is the impact that hospital mergers have had on price, quality of patient care and hospital efficiency. In this article, we find that the impact of hospital mergers on these indices has been mixed as there is no predictable effect that hospital mergers will definitely have. Indeed, it appears that the impact of a hospital merger is specific to the degree of hospital consolidation in the region where the hospitals operate, the market share of each partner to the merger, and how good they are in terms of quality of care prior to the merger.



      Olumayowa Tijani-Eniola

Abstract: Health Care is both a science and an art. While the science of caring for patients is taught through a structured curriculum, practical sessions, and direct practice, the art such as communicating effectively with patients and other health professionals is often assumed. It usually falls to the innate capability of healthcare providers, with the assumption such skills will improve over time. Communicating effectively in a clinical environment improves the quality of care that patients receive, this article outlines some effective strategies for managing daily communication with patients.



      Rufai Mohammed Ahmed and Asst. Prof. Dr. Halil Z Alibaba

Abstract: As a result of urbanization and industrialization, the world started facing some environmental complications such as urban heat island which can raises air temperature to about 2-5% in a city or more, noise and air pollution, storm water run-off, ultra violet radiation etc. But the introduction of green roof in our modern buildings after a series of researches in late 20th century especially in Germany and other European countries tend to minimize these environmental complications to a reasonable level. Therefore this paper is going to discuss about green roofing in buildings with reference to its history, types, application, and its benefits on the environment. Furthermore, some case studies of both intensive and extensive green roof were selected randomly from some buildings and which were compared, discussed, conclusion and recommendations were drawn from the case studies.



      Dilpreet Singh Bajwa, Gurpal Singh Chhabra

Abstract: There are many cyber forensic tools available for extraction, making copy of original media and for analysis. Tools are inherent part of any cyber forensic investigation and they must be based on proven methodology and techniques admissible under legal procedure.



      Sumit Rana, Sunaina Hooda

Abstract: Psychiatric illness in the general health care setting pose a considerable burden not only to the individual and his or her family but also to the primary care services and economically to the wider society. Physician recognition of CMD is generally low in developing countries (patel et al 1998) because of high patient loads, poor undergraduate training in psychiatry, stigma associated with mental illnesses and somatic presentation of mental disorders. Neurotic illnesses in the primary care often become chronic and are associated with high use of services. This article presents an overview of the common mental disorders in a primary care.



      Mariselvi,S and Manimegalai,K

Abstract: Many plant extracts or allelochemicals show a broad spectrum of activity against pests and such products have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical pesticides for pest management because they pose little threat to the environment or to human health. Cotton is the major cash crop in India. So we have to protect the cotton plant from pest organisms and to control the pests biologically instead of Chemical pesticides for safe to humans and non-target organisms.



      Darul Mutakin, Mohd Toriq Khan Mohd Niyaz Khan, Jamaludin Ibrahim

Abstract: This paper will discuss the current cyber threats in organization wireless network since it is a trend nowadays to implement wireless network in an organization. Despite the benefits that wireless technology can provide to organization, it also can bring potential cyber threats which are done in a form of sophisticated and diverse attacking mechanisms that will jeopardize the organization reputation. The BYOD initiative in organization has brought significant cyber risk and threats into the organization because of tremendous possession of mobile and portable devices by employees which can also utilized during work.



      Ahmed H. Eid, Noha F. Abdelkader, Ola M. Abd El-Raouf, Hala M. Fawzy, Ezz-El-Din S. El-Denshary

Abstract: Despite the prevalent clinical applications of cisplatin, serious toxic side effects comprising reproductive toxicity confine its therapeutic efficacy. Thus, the current study explored the possible protective effect of captopril and telmisartan against cisplatin-induced testicular damage in rats. Captopril (100 mg/kg) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg) were orally administered for 15 days, whereas cisplatin (10 mg/kg; i.p.) was injected as a single dose at the 12th day to induce testicular damage in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cisplatin prominently decreased reproductive organs weights, sperm count, sperm motility, and increased sperm abnormalities, along with histopathological damage of testicular tissues.



      Agaba E. B, Msaakpa, T. S

Abstract: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a leguminous crop and belongs to the Family fabaceae (Wikipedia, 2010). It is the 13 most important food crop and 4 most important oilseed crop of the world (Kees Stigter,2011).Groundnut is grown in 23.95million hectares with a total production of 36.45million metric tons and average yield of 1520kg/ha in 2009(FAO,2011).Major producing countries are: China,40%; India,16.4%; Nigeria, 8.2%; USA,5.9% and Indonesia,4.1%.Biotic and abiotic factors are major production constraints in Nigeria and elsewhere.



      Rajesh Kumar, Karishma

Abstract: Electronic waste or e-waste refers to unwanted, obsolete or unusable electronic and electrical products. Ever increasing usage of electronics and electrical equipments has resulted in piling up of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in India encounters many challenges like the difficulty in inventorization, ineffective regulations, pathetic and unsafe conditions of informal recycling, poor awareness of consumers and reluctance on part of the stakeholders to address the issues. As a result toxic materials enter the waste stream with no special precautions to avoid the known adverse impacts on the environment and human health as well resources are wasted when economically valuable materials are dumped. The purpose of this paper is to find out various issues related to e-waste and suggest strategies for effective e-waste management in India.



      Asawari Kulkarni; Prof D.E. Upasani

Abstract: In this paper three-level single phase inverter by using SHEPWM system will be focused. The total harmonic distortion (THD) method is used to specify the quantity of harmonics contents in the output waveforms. Here we will check and prove the relationship between the line voltage THD and the number of switching angle.



      Ahmed Al-Arafati

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Customers Relationship Management (CRM) system in Nonprofit Organization in Oman by using Five Forces Analysis. In this research we are going to take Information Technology Authority (ITA) as an example of Nonprofit Organization in Oman.



      Haerani Rasyid, Andri Yosef Panangian, Syakib Bakri, Hasyim Kasim, Melda Tessy, Dina Nilasari, St. Rabiul Zatalia R

Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal failure. The clinical pathology of CVD in renal failure is arteriosclerosis. One of the features of arteriosclerosis in renal failure is vascular calcification. High level of phosphate and calcium in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are the risk factor of vascular calcification. Furthermore, vascular calcification is an aging process which related to calcium deposit and inflammation. Method used to assess vascular calcification is lateral abdominal radiographs which is expressed as score Abdominal Aortic Calcification (AAC).



      Adamu, Sani Jauro, Danladi, Mohammed Umar, Danladi, Musa

Abstract: A soil survey and land use analysis was carried out around the northern part of Janguza along Kano – Gwarzo road. A pH meter was used to analyze the soil samples from the study area, a hydrometer method was used to determine the particle size distributions of the soil samples, and also the calculation of particle size was done to determine the percentage of clay, sand and silt in the samples collected. It was discovered that all the soil samples from the study area were acidic, it was also discovered from the result of particle size calculations of clay, silt and sand that soil sample D1 recorded the highest percentage of clay with (11.44%), soil sample A1 recorded the highest percentage of silt with (30%) and soil sample B2 recorded the highest percentage of sand with (92.56%), and it was also discovered that loamy sand soil is the most dominant type of soil at the study area. The research recommend that for proper land management practices at the study area, there is need for the creation of contour ridges and strict measures should be put in place in order to stop the excavation of sand at the study area.



      Karzan G. Khidhir & Kochar Idrees Mahmood

Abstract: Pathologies of hair growth can be psychologically distressing but they are poorly controlled. Hormones and paracrine factors regulate the hair follicle and its associated glands. However, our understanding of their mechanisms is limited, restricting the development of new treatments for hair disorders. Therefore better treatments for hair loss disorders are required. Some plant extracts are believed to have effect on hair growth. Few local plants in Kurdistan region are used traditionally as stimulators of human hair growth, but their effects on hair growth in vivo has not been studied yet. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the actual effects of those local plant extracts used as a traditional herbal treatment for hair loss, using in vivo rat model; and to compare their effectiveness with the best medical treatment available (Minoxidil).



      Ala Berzinji, Karzan G. Khidhir, Saman Salahaddin, Gulan Namik

Abstract: Providing efficient health care system for citizens is an essential requirement of any developing or developed countries. A key success in having a functioning good health system is connecting citizens with doctors and pharmacists which is part of having an electronic government (e-government). Technologies can easily deliver government services to citizens and empower citizen through access to information, or more efficient government management. Unfortunately this region ( Kurdistan - Iraq) lacks a functioning e-government system for citizen health care, which hampers bringing the best possible services for the patients. Currently the patient’s records are not held in a secure database system in which all the doctors, pharmacist can easily access the patient’s records. Therefore, to solve this problem this e-government project computerizes the current health system in our region into an intelligent computer based system. This intelligent system is called “Intelligent Patient Doctor Pharmacy system (PDP)”.



      Galvez, M. A. C

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants has been transferred from one generation to generation by the elderlies in every community. These medicinal plants have been used by the Tuwalis in Maggok, Hungduan, Ifugao in curing different diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the ten folkloric medicinal plants against five human pathogenic bacteria and determine the phytochemicals present on the ethanolic leaf extracts with antibacterial potentials.



      Doreen D. Domingo, Maricon A. Gumsat, Prima Fe R. Franco & Henedine A. Aguinaldo

Abstract: To demonstrate how different levels of confinement stress at different time interval can affect the immune system of white mice, differential white blood cell (WBC) count was performed considering with and without application of confinement stress to male and female mice using different chamber diameters (1.0 inch, 1.5 inches, and 2.0 inches) at different time intervals (1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and at full confinement). Control group (without confinement) and experimental group (with confinement) were considered. Thirty mice (15 males, 15 females) were used with blood sample collected. Prepared blood smear was stained with wright-giemsa and examined under light microscopy. Differential WBC count was performed to determine the number/percentage of each type of WBC (lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil).



      K.H.K.L. Piyasiri, M. Wijeratne

Abstract: Ceylon Cinnamon, which is popularly termed as ‘True Cinnamon’ is a derivative from the bark of an indigenous to Sri Lanka plant Cinnamomun zeylanicum Blume. The competition pertaining to Ceylon Cinnamon in world trade has already become significant, as the worlds’ total Cinnamon market is comprised not only of True Cinnamon, but of Cassia; the closest substitute and a spice inferior to True Cinnamon as well. Sri Lanka has to compete with three Cassia producing countries in the total Cinnamon market, as China, Indonesia and Viet Nam; the three major Cassia producers are the major producers of the total Cinnamon market as well. According to the experts, lack of productivity of Ceylon Cinnamon cultivated lands and insufficient production to fulfill the worlds’ demand for Cinnamon is one of the major issues and, which have to be immediately addressed to be cope up with and to withstand the competition in the total Cinnamon market. In this context this research aimed to identify the cultivated area and production trends of Ceylon Cinnamon comparing them with those of major cassia producers. The FAOSTAT (Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics) database was used as the data source. Results revealed that Ceylon Cinnamon cultivated area has expanded in a minute pace and Ceylon Cinnamon production remains almost constant throughout the years compared to the major Cassia producers. The average annual productivity of ‘Ceylon Cinnamon’ have remained constant at about 500 kg/ha, throughout the past thirteen years, in which China and Indonesia have shown an average productivity of about 1350 kg/ha and 1000 kg/ha respectively.



      Hikmah Yusida, Tjipto Suwandi, Ahmad Yusuf, Qomariyatus Sholihah

Abstract: Sasirangan is one form of local wisdom in South Kalimantan. Sasirangan is one of the industries in the informal sector. Informal sector workers are also entitled to protection in order to avoid occupational disease or occupational accident. The development of occupational health is considered necessary to support the creation of occupational health literacy. Occupational Health literacy also implies that the public has to access and understands of Occupational Health and Safety (OHAS). The research objective was to determine the relationship between individual factors with occupational health literacy. This research methods is correlational analytic with cross sectional approach.



      Vimal P.Parmar, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Neural networks are widely used in computer science in various research applications specifically for pattern recognition. Neural network can solve complex problems by nature and implements solution as being similar to be performed by human being. It is possible to incorporate such a neural network concept with phonetic algorithms that try to identify phonetic similarity among the words that will result in improvement of overall result. Phonetic algorithm based programs are used to identify phonetic similarity in which pronunciation of the different words with different meaning in English language are similar. There exists number of such algorithms with advantages and disadvantages which are introduced here and then after author has derived, designed and developed new algorithm. Each algorithm provides certain result at some extent but by integrating these algorithms in form of neural network results in improvement over any individual algorithm implementation. Neural networks are familiar as a solution for pattern recognition and here efforts are being made to identify similar patterns based on pronunciation of the English words to correct the misspelled English word as well as to suggest number of alternative English words as a result which have similar phonetic identity.



      Amiyaranjan Sahoo,Ramanupam Tripathy,Subrat Kumar Padhiary,Sudipta Sahu

Abstract: Accessory mental foramen is a rare anatomical variation. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more accessory mental foramen during surgical procedures involving the mandible.



      Mayasah A. Abdulrida, Kais J. Al-Jumaily

Abstract: Estimation of rainfall by satellite technology is one of valuable data production. These data need to be verified for more consistent with observed data. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation products have been extensively validated at ground sites around the world. This research is a first attempt for evaluating TRMM measurements of monthly rainfall over Iraq. Accumulated monthly rainfall collected by the Iraqi Meteorological and Seismology Organization (IMSO) at four stations, representing different climate zones, in Iraq for the period 2000-2010 were compared with TRMM measurements. Results showed that rain highly varies from one season to another and such behavior is observed in both sets of data. It was found that TRMM measurements overestimate rainfall in most months of the rainy season. The results indicated that there is a high correlation between TRMM and IMSO measurements suggesting that TRMM measurements may be used to estimate rainfall over Iraq. This could be a very useful specially for rural and deserts areas where no instruments are available for measuring rain.



      A.N. Tikle; Sameer Kumar, R. Vijay Kumar and K.B.Saxena

Abstract: Pigeonpea is the major source of vegetable protein in Indian diet. About 72.5 percent area and 62.5 production of world’s pigeonpea is in India.Pigeonpea is the only food legume where cytoplasmic-genic male sterility is being exploited for commercial use of hybrids. The discovery of stable CMS system and breeding of commercial hybrids in pigeonpea has become a landmark in increasing the productivity of this crop. Keeping in view the combining ability estimates were worked out through Line x Tester analysis of 10 hybrids developed by crossing 2 lines (Males) with five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (Females) to know the genetic architecture of yield attributes- Days to maturity, branches plant1, pods plant1, seed yield, wilt resistance and pollen fertility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, crosses, lines, testers and Line x tester interactions for most of the traits.



      Mugove Kudenga

Abstract: This is part of a broad study that sought to investigate the appropriateness of counselling being given to street children by non-governmental oganisations in Harare, Zimbabwe. This paper looks at the types of counselling given to street children in transition to independent living as adults. A qualitative descriptive survey was used was used to guide the research methodology. A purposive sample of organizations that work with street children based on visibility in dealing with street children participated in the study. Officials of non-governmental organisations who have direct contact with street children and street children who received some assistance from the non-governmental organisations were randomly selected to participate in the research.



      Mugove Kudenga

Abstract: This is part of a broad study that sought to investigate the appropriateness of counselling being given to street children by non-governmental oganisations in Harare, Zimbabwe. This paper looks at the appropriateness of skills imparted to street children in transition to independent living as adults. A qualitative descriptive survey was used was used to guide the methodology. A purposive sample of organizations that work with street children based on visibility in dealing with street children participated in the study. Officials of non-governmental organisations who have direct contact with street children and street children who received some assistance from the non-governmental organisations were randomly selected to participate in the research.



      Eka Dahlan Uar, Pawennari Hijjang, Munsi Lampe, Muhammad Basir

Abstract: Larvul ngabal effectiveness in the resolution of the conflict in Southeast Maluku covers all aspects of customary law that became the foundation of the Kei grounded in social life as well as the basis for decision making by both individuals and groups in determining policy. All policies and decisions based on customary law larvul ngabal embodied in the seven fundamental ground rules that classification into three categories (Nev-nev, Hanilit, and Huwear Balwarin), each of which were translated into seven chapters, which form the basis of relationships and social order in Kei Southeast Maluku. Therefore, believed to be the tool of civilization in Kei by these traditional institutions can solve all the problems of society. For the Kei, larvul ngabal also has the strength and recognition of the validity and relative nature never changes.



      Ahmad Lonthoir, A. Rashid Asba, H. Mahmud Tang, Supriya Hamdat

Abstract: The purpose of this study to assess and analyze the existence of the management of marine resources in the Kei islands, to examine and analyze the order of juridical and anthropological towards setting marine resource management in the Kei islands and to assess and analyze the social institutions of society to the management of marine resources in the Kei islands between juridical and anthropological order, when correlated with cultural relations Kei islands community. The data collection process, which is done using several ways: interview studies, observational studies, literary studies (secondary data and primary data) and documentation study.



      M. Ridwan Tuny, Hamka Naping, Munsi Lampe, Ansar Arifin

Abstract: This article discusses the existence of traditional institutions Saniri country continues to be Reproduced by indigenous groups in the State Tulehu in Central Maluku. State Saniri role as institutions of Deliberation issues concerning the interests of the country that Gave the wisdom and the rules that govern society in everyday life, Including the setting of social resources and natural resources. This research is qualitative techniques of data collection literature study, observation of activities that are the focus of research and interviews with the informants regarding the data required in this study. The results Showed that domestic Saniri as traditional institutions Reproduced by groups with a status quo power Certain clans within the structure of a particular society. Traditional institutions is also supported by Law No. 32 of 2004 and the Regulation on Foreign Maluku As Indigenous People Unity government. Yet in existence in the region, the country got a rejection Saniri institutions (resistance) of certain groups as their medium of political contestation in local dynamics.



      Maurits K. Rumfaker, Suratman, Alwi, Muhammad Akmal Ibrahim

Abstract: This study aims to identify and analyze the mechanisms, structures and incentives partnerships between government, private and public in the area of the strait Dampir district of Raja Ampat. This study used a qualitative approach with case study. This study used a technique of in-depth interviews, observation and documents , Data were analyzed through the stages of data reduction, data presentation, making conclusions and verification. These results indicate that the mechanism of the partnership, aktor-actors involved seeks synergy between its mission with common interests. Effectiveness partnerships undertaken continue to be pursued through coordination mechanisms between actors in the utilization of the wealth of Dampir Strait region. In partnership unification occurs, utilization, and the synergy of government resources, public and private sectors. The structure of partnerships in order to manage the tourist area of the Strait of Dampir in Raja Ampat is not integrated but fragmented parties working together to achieve the goal area together. Government own incentives minimal process management cooperation Dampir Strait. This is because people who have the resources directly by reference to customary rights.



      Pankaj Kumar Ojha & Kalyan Ghadei

Abstract: This paper is based on a research study at Banaras Hindu University in India. The title of the research was Career Dynamics in Extension Education. Method of survey research was applied to conduct the study. It was conducted by taking the responses from hundred respondentsof Agricultural scientists, academicians and research scholars from different agricultural institutions selected through random sampling method. The objective of the study was to know the employment Opportunities in Extension Education. The data was analysed through SPSS version 16.0. The statistical tools like mean, frequency, percentage, rank order, and Chi square test were used for data analysis. This focuses the different sectors where the students of Extension Education can find their job.



      Yilkal Wassie Ayen

Abstract: Microfinance and microcredit is a recent development issue and one of the mechanisms to empower poor people in rural Ethiopia. Microfinance interventions may empower women by increasing their incomes and their control over that income. This study evaluates the impact of microcredit program on female headed households’ annual expenditure in rural Ethiopian, Jimma Zone. Data were collected from 1092 female headed households from both participants and non-participants in microcredit program during 2013. Data was analyzed using the PSM technique. PSM results show that participant in microcredit program has a significant and positive impact on households’ annual expenditure. Furthermore, the Probit result sows that higher price of egg and sugar makes households more likely to participate in microcredit program. However, more educated households’, large land holders and higher income earners are less likely to participate in the program.



      Fitsum Sharew Denbel, Yilkal Wassie Ayen and Teshome Adugna Regasa

Abstract: The Ethiopian Economy has the feature of low and stable inflation before the period 2002/03. However, in the post 2002/03 period continues rise in the prices level along with rapid economic growth has been emerged. On the basis of this situation, this study has examined the existing causal relationship between inflation and money supply and between inflation and economic growth in Ethiopia for the period 1970/71-2010/11.The Johansen co integration test indicates the presence of one co integrating vector and the VECM demonstrate that the existence of long run bi-directional causality between inflation and money supply and uni-directional causality from economic growth to inflation. In the short run one way causality were found from money supply and economic growth to inflation. Therefore, the key findings of the study are inflation is a monetary phenomenon in Ethiopia and inflation is negatively and significantly affected by economic growth.Thus, based on the results of the study, monetary policy should be planned to maintain price stability by controlling the growth of money supply in the economy. Also combined efforts should be made by policy maker to increase the supply of output so as to reduce the prices of goods and services and boost the growth of the economy.



      Muhdin Muhammedhussen

Abstract: The main objective of this study is to identify the determinants of Economics Students’ academic performance at Jimma University, Ethiopia. A Simple random sampling was used to select 100 students from senior students of Economics Department. The independent t-tests, pearson correlation and tobit model were used to investigate factors affecting students academic achievement. The outcome illustrates that university entrance exam score, family economic situation, sleep time and habit of study are the main determinants of students’ academic performance. However, sex, residential place, study time and recreation time were found insignificant. Finally, the study recommends that universities, students’ families and policy makers need to work hard towards improving students academic performance, by considering aforementioned determinants.



      Arega Seyoum, Muhammed Aragie, Daniel Tadesse

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affect growth of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Addis Ababa City. The study tested impact of availability of technical and business management training for owners, the size of initial investment, the output of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) as product versus rendering service, working in cooperatives versus working without cooperative on growth of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Bole Sub City of Addis Ababa City Administration. Primary data, through structured questionnaire, was collected from random samples of 165 Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). Results revealed that Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) whose owners attained training, started business with high initial investment, engaged on the service sector, and established in non-cooperative form have better growth than those whose owners/operators did not attend training, who started with low initial investment, those engaged on production sector, and those working in cooperatives respectively. Hence, the concerned government officials, nongovernmental organizations and other national economic development players have to work hand in hand in the area of training, availability of finance, formation and business sectors of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in the country.



      Okasha Eldow,Prashant Chauhan,Punit Lalwani,M.B.Potdar

Abstract: The growing fast of the computer networks require a very high security, to keep the networks , data and , the resources of the network as much safe as possible and to get sure safely and trusty communication between the networks members . The security issues is rising as it is facing a growing problems of unauthorized access , viruses , malicious , etc. so it demand an updated technologies to face all of these circumstance ,The growing rapidly of networks as we said coming with security risks , so every computer network should be fully secure and safe unfortunately it is something can't be possible easily . In the paper we will look to the security issues and count measures of the computer networks and going further also about the intrusion detection systems . SNORT which it’s open source system and also SURICATA and also comparison of these two tools



      Agbanyim, Akuagwu N, Okoro,OriakuA, Iheanacho, Glory C

Abstract: This research was done to study the effect of changes in pH on the binding characteristics of paracetamol to bovine serum albumin at 37oC as a follow up to the work done previously by Okoro, et al (2015) on this title at 260C .The binding characteristics were investigated at a pH range of 6.0-8.0 using UV- Spectroscopy . The result showed that the binding of paracetamol to bovine serum albumin was impaired at almost neutral and near alkaline pH (6.8 -7.2) with the drug-protein binding constants (KL) of 1.698X102, 0.330X102 and 5.007X102 respectively and was enhanced at higher alkaline pH of 8.0, with the drug-protein binding constant K. of 216,432x102 . This can be interpreted as conformation changes (neutral-base transition change that occurred at pH of 6.8 to 7.2. This confirmed that bovine serum albumin has two structures, one at the acidic pH and the other at the basic pH.



      Fatmawati, Garuda Wiko, Salfius Seko Purwanto

Abstract: Since the opening of palm oil plantations in Sanggau in 1995 it often occurs dispute between the companies with palm smallholders. It can be seen from land management tenure of more than 90 percent controlled by the company exclusively. Phenomenon of conflict potential include the existence of structural conflict by the government, annexation and land overlap and deceit committed by the company. Allegedly, the company did not respect the local institutions in the fields of conflict resolution, giving rise to a protracted conflict between the company with the local community.



      Jasmeet Singh Birgi, Mahesh Khaire, Sahil Hira

Abstract: Data modeling is the basic step of any database design, which is a powerful expression of any company business requirements. It is nothing but an act of exploring data oriented structures and the conceptual models in form of diagrams and flow charts on how data items relate to each other. Data modeling tools and techniques capture and translate complex system design into clearly understood representation of data flows and processes. The main focus of data modeler is on data and exploring data issues, therefore they tend to get much more accurate data than object modelers. They often use multiple models to view the same data and ensuring that all processes, entities, relationships and data flows have been processed.



      Ms. Kirti S Bidnur

Abstract: This article puts a limelight on the pro’s and con’s of performance appraisal. It stresses on what is performance appraisal is about? What can be done to improve performance evaluation sessions? What are the expectations of employees in an organization when such achievement measuring sessions are conducted? How do some managers behave during such discussions?



      K. Kanmani, Dr. A.K. Ravisankar

Abstract: Menstruation is the discharge of blood and tissue that occurs each month as part of a woman’s menstrual cycle. The first periods are often very irregular. It is not uncommon to skip a month, or to have periods close together. The length of periods varies from two days to a week. Gradually, a regular cycle will be established. Under this backdrop, this paper made an attempt to analysis the menstrual problems faced by the visually challenged women and its determinants, it also describe their treatment seeking behavior of the respondents. Totally 468 visually impaired women were interviewed. More than one-third of the respondents experienced menstrual problems and the association between the incidence of menstrual problems and their background conditions has statistically been proved. About 27 percent of the respondents consulted doctors for treatment of the problems mainly at Government and Private Hospitals. Hence, specific measures should be taken for mainstreaming disabled women to get better education on reproductive health which will help them practice safe and hygienic menstrual practices.



      Naveen Kumar Pandey, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar

Abstract: Information is traditionally confined to paper or digitally to screen. In this paper, a wearable gesture interface, this attempts to information out into a tangible world. This interface connects the physical world around us with the Digital Information.



      Bharath SS, Dr.Indumathi TS

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are large networks made of numerous sensor nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communication capabilities. Due to the achievement in low-power digital circuit and wireless communication, many applications of the WSN are developed and already been used in habitat monitoring, military object and object tracking. The energy of nodes is the most important consideration among them because the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks is limited by the energy of the nodes.



      NGWIRI Bancy Muthoni Ph.d, Prof. Mukulu Elegwa Jomo, Dr. Jane G. Mputhia

Abstract: Technology transfer usually involves some source of technology group which possess specialized technical skills which transfers the technology to a target group of receptors who do not possess those specialized technical skills and who, therefore, cannot create the tool themselves. Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) need to be strengthened and developed so that the income they generate can support transition in terms of enterprise growth. Over the years, Catering MSEs have shifted from the old traditional methods of operation through the transfer of technology.



      Nicole Komendat, Toni Didona

Abstract: This study investigates employee’s perception of job security in relation to performance evaluations in the workplace. Job security can affect many facets of performance and attitude in the workplace. Not all organizations conduct performance evaluations, which can result in adverse outcomes for both them and their employees. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between performance evaluations and employee’s perception of job security. In addition, this study seeks to determine if there is a difference in receiving none, below average, average and above average evaluation feedback in terms of job security in performance evaluations being present or not. A one-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the total score for job security and the performance rating the participants received. There was a significant difference between above average and average ratings (p=.04). Between the three groups (above average, average, and no performance rating) a significant difference was also found (p=.012). This indicates how important the evaluation process is while giving feedback to employees.



      C.S. Manjarekar, A.N. Chavan

Abstract: Let L be a compactly generated multiplicative lattice with 1 compact in which every finite product of compact elements is compact and M be a module over L which is also a compactly generated in which the largest element I_M is compact. In this paper we define A_p ,〖 A〗_FM in the lattice module M and obtain many properties where p is prime element of L . Finally we define σ- element in a lattice module M and obtain it's properties.



      Violet Nakhungu Momanyi, Ruth Amata, Hellen Atuncha

Abstract: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) is an important tuber crop worldwide. It is the second most economically important after Irish potato in Sub- Sahara Africa. In Kenya, it is an important food crop alongside maize. Sweet potato has gained popularity among many farmers in Kenya due to its ability to give satisfactory yields under adverse climatic and soil condition as well as under low or no use of external inputs. However, its yield potential of 20-50 t/ha of root dry weight is yet to be exploited by farmers due to abiotic and biotic constraints. A Participatory rural appraisal and survey was carried out in central, eastern and western Kenya in August to October 2012 in order to understand and validate problematic weeds of sweet potatoes, methods and costs of control, with the aim of conducting research. Results indicated that hand weeding using hoes was the most popular method farmers used to control weeds. And that most farmers across the counties spent between Ksh. 2,000-2,999 to control them.



      Mike OMILUSI

Abstract: It a truism that the strategies of the defense and intelligence communities and the commitment of the present administration in Nigeria to rout out the Boko Haram elements in the Northeastern region, have not halted the violent activities of the sect which have now remained frequent, particularly the perennial bombings of soft targets. This paper basically addresses the task of combating violent conflicts and terrorism in Nigeria from four dimensions, namely; the security institution and international dimension, the socio-economic dimension, the governance and democratization dimension and the rule of law and human development dimension.



      Mohamed M. Osman

Abstract: In this paper is In this paper some fundamental theorems , definitions in Riemannian geometry to pervious of differentiable manifolds which are used in an essential way in basic concepts of Riemannian geometry, we study the defections, examples of the problem of differentially projection mapping parameterization system by strutting rank on surfaces dimensional is sub manifolds space .


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