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IJSRP, Volume 11, Issue 10, October 2021 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
October 2021 publication has started and publication will continue till 28th October 2021
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd October, their paper will publish in October edition in next slots i.e. 12th October or 18th October or 28th October.
Full Table of Content of October Edition will release latest by 30th October. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 28th October and minor corrections are accepted till 28th October 2021.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Tangeni Haimbala

Abstract: Namibian Marine fisheries (MRF) have important social and economic benefits but can impact fish stocks and the environment. The diverse and dispersed nature of these fisheries makes them challenging to study; a lack of data has made it more difficult to include them in fisheries management and the varied motivations of fishers make their response to management measures hard to predict. Research into MRF is growing rapidly, so this themed article set aims to bring together MRF research to highlight the current evidence base and identify future opportunities. New survey methods were presented alongside analyses of existing data, which highlighted issues with methods, reconstruction of missing data, and factors influencing catch and effort. The manuscripts demonstrated the biological and economic impacts of MRF, and its self-subsidizing nature was recognized. Novel approaches for management, including improving compliance, were identified. Finally, the lack of funding for MRF was highlighted. Key research gaps are: governance that embeds MRF in fisheries management; integration of novel approaches and traditional surveys; risk-based approaches to identify impacts; understanding fish welfare; management that balances economic, social, and biological impacts and allows allocation between sectors; and understanding social benefits and their impacts on management and compliance.



      Aliyu Aminu Ahmed, Rukayya Aminu Muhammed

Abstract: Technological advancement from the beginning of this new millennium has been unmatched since the history of humanity. Humanity has leaped into to new frontiers in information and communication technologies. One of the new frontiers in science is Neurotechnology. Neurotechnology is a multibillion-dollar industry that is exponentially growing and giving science the opportunity to effectively explore the human brain.



      Lucky Kartanto

Abstract: The presence of the digital economy is felt by the increasing rise of business and commerce that use the internet as a medium of communication and collaboration of relationships between companies and individuals. In the early 1990s, almost the entire world was affected by the internet revolution, whose main impact was the declining cost in financial transactions. The growth of smartphone user rates in the mid-2000s affected the growth rate of mobile finance, such as mobile payments and mobile banking, which is an extension of financial services.



      Fianita Malati, M Andri Radiany, Wulandari Harjanti, Ali Farhan, Etin Puspitasari

Abstract: This research is motivated by a contradiction between the need for corporate financing and interest costs which are prohibited by Islam. By raising two different perspectives in viewing debt, which are business and Islam, hopefully those point of views of how a Muslim manager mentions debt and his business needs.



      Msabaha Juma Mwendapole, Jin Zhihong

Abstract: The seaport of Dar es Salaam is currently in the third position uppermost container throughput volume in East Africa. It aspires to become the entire maritime hub for the regions of East and Central Africa, and to be one of the most developed seaports in Africa in the future. In this paper various computer software’s such as MATLAB, SPSS, STARTA and Excel were applied together with several prediction models to precisely forecasting the Dar es Salaam seaport container throughput volume.



      Ali Mohammed

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect teaching and learning of mathematics in the undergraduate students of University of Education, Winneba (UEW) in the Department of Mathematics Education. The study also investigated the challenges that students encounter due to the factors. The study employed case study design. In all, 10 respondents comprising of 6 students from the Department of Mathematics Education from UEW and 4 secondary school teachers were interviewed. The data collected were thematically analysed. The study revealed 13 factors which were categorized into five categories: pedagogical factors, conceptual factors, technological factors, modelling factors and individual factors. Among these factors, the pedagogical factors was considered the most influential of all.



      Rifda Fitrianti, Ali Farhan, Sri Rahayu, Muhammad Andri Radiany, Julikah

Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of profitability on corporate debt policy. The method used is quantitative with a sample of 22 companies listed on the IDX in the 2016-2017 period. The profitability variables tested were; ROE, ROA, and NPM with DER as the dependent variable. The test results show that Net Profit Margin and ROE have a significant positive effect on debt policy, while ROA has a significant effect on debt policy.



      Sufi Imdad Ali Soomro

Abstract: Accomplice is dealt under article 16 of the Qanoon-e-Shahadat, 1984. Though term Accomplice has not been explained in the Qanoon-E- Shahadat, 1984, and generally is viewed as a person who has taken part in the commission of crime along with wrong doers. This article through light about authenticity as well as admissibility of the accomplice in the court of law. Most of the time, accomplice evidence might seem to be untrustworthy and unreliable but often it comes out as an invaluable in solving the crime and delivering justice. Further, it will talk about the accomplice being a competent witness and how it differs from the co-accused.



      Barkat Masih, Sudhakar Kumar Singh

Abstract: In today’s world, in the developed as well as developing countries, danger prevails not only on the roads but it also exists in the home and playgrounds. Every year thousands of children die or permanently disabled as a result of accidental injuries. Children are prone to get various minor and major health problems. Early detection and anticipation of the problem many prevent impairment.



      Roswani Siregar, Ferry Safriandi, Eka Umi Kalsum, Syahron Lubis

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the online translation tool use among the students of higher education and to raise their awareness on translation procedures in doing such work. The results of questionnaire reveals the experience related to intensity and purpose of Google Translate and translation procedures was conducted in classroom setting. This study attended by 37 students who are beginner to subject of translation.



      P. S. Nwiyor, E. D. Uko, I. Tamunobereton-ari, A. R. C. Amakiri and O. A Davies

Abstract: This research was centered around making estimates of petrophysical measures in sandstone reservoirs in Zeta Field, Onshore Niger Delta. The petrophysical measures estimated were porosity, permeability, water and hydrocarbon saturation, volume of shale and net-to-gross variations. To this end, seven (7) well logs were analysed. The results of the analysis revealed the presence of 3 viable hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs. Correlation of these sand bodies show that each of the sand units spreads through the field, varying in thickness and some units occurring at greater depth than their adjacent unit which is perhaps a sign of faulting.



      Oladosu, T I, Ngwu, C and Ugochukwu S.C

Abstract: The focus of this study is to investigate the adoption of activity based costing (ABC) for road construction projects in Delta State. Descriptive survey research design was employed, while the population consists of 205 construction professionals, managers and their accountants currently working with registered road construction companies operating in Delta State. A sample of 135 respondents was drawn from the entire population and reached through structured questionnaires;



      Gilbert Turgut, Dr. Peter K. Cheruiyot, Dr. Hellen W. Sang

Abstract: Cash flow forecasting is imperative in every business organization as cash is said to be the life blood of any business. The essence of forecasting is to ensure positive cash flow for smooth business operation. Small and Medium enterprises are vital contributors to the overall performance of an economy and play a crucial role in developing the economy and in creating employment, thus providing employment and income opportunities to a large number of people. One of the serious challenges faced by most business managers is how to effectively and efficiently manage cash in order to maximize their profits and ensure financial sustainability. The purpose of the proposed study was to study the effect of cash flow forecasting on financial sustainability of SMEs in Kericho Central Business District.



      Stephen Maina Kangara, Dr. Karuri Thiongo

Abstract: Organizations have continued to acknowledge the important of monitoring and evaluation. They have embarked on a course of revising methods and means in which monitoring and evaluation can be more effective in judging the anticipated project’s impact. Establishment of a technology-oriented monitoring and evaluation structure in paramount in order to improve performance that is a key requirement by the project’s donors, with an aim of checking the effective usage of resources and overall outcomes and impacts of the project. The research focused at the effect of information technology on monitoring and evaluation system performance on non-governmental organization in Kibra constituency within Nairobi County.



      Mbaziira Hassan, Dr. Naomi Nduta Njoroge

Abstract: The phenomenon of performance of government programs is extensively researched across the globe. However, the influence of monitoring and evaluation planning on the performance of government programs remains a grey area. The study sought to examine the influence of monitoring and evaluation planning on the performance of government programs using a case study of Uganda Women Entrepreneurship Program in Busoga, Uganda. Using a cross-sectional survey design, quantitative and qualitative date were collected from a random sample of UWEP beneficiary groups and a non-random sample of UWEP supervisors from Jinja, Iganga and Kamuli districts.



      Koushik Banerjee, Sanjay Kumar Bhattacharyya , Rabindra Mukhopadhyay, Abhijit Bandyopadhyay

Abstract: The present work explains the influential effect of nanofillers for improving the barrier properties of a tyre inner liner. The study has revealed that organoclay Cloisite 30B when explored in a TBR inner liner recipe containing Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), shows significant improvement in barrier properties without affecting the cure characteristics and mechanical properties of the compound. At 4 phr dosage, the improvement in air retention is approximately 12%. The experiment has also demonstrated that to maintain the air impermeability same as that of the control inner liner, thickness can be reduced up to 56% while using experimental recipes containing organoclay.



      Abdul Joseph Fofanah, Issa Fofana, Saidu Koroma

Abstract: The emergence of recent outbreaks and the current pandemic have had increasing demands for past and present patient medical information, as preparedness and response strategies, create new data sharing and exchange demands on health information systems (HIS). A review of interoperability technique and human mobility mapping was critically examined and key design requirements during HIS implementations as parameters to improve the current health systems across mobility corridors. This paper also presents a mobility mapping network methodology and to support health authorities for preparedness and response especially areas in the health sectors that require improvement for any infectious diseases and future outbreaks or pandemic transmission. To realize the universal health coverage (UHC), we present some key parameters matrix; level of care, national standards and guidelines, health promotion, health education, safe blood transfusion, mobile clinics and field hospitals, infection control in healthcare settings, and patient safety, and healthcare waste management.



      Bernard L. Dillard

Abstract: Pandemic woes did––and are still doing––their fair share at upending the status quo in America and abroad. From March 2020 until now, their implications surely have been impactful, especially within the realm of educational leadership. Mayors, superintendents, and other school administrators have had to toe the line by devising strategies to ensure student success when virtual learning became the only option. Leaders faced the struggle of preparing teachers, faculty, and even some students to engage in online instruction, even though many of them had no such prior experience.



      Mr. James Anthony Kenyi, Dr. Peter Wamalwa Barasa, PhD

Abstract: The common trends in the business world, organizations are majorly concerned with contractors discharging their duties through appropriate contract management procedures in a safe and timely manner (Hotteebex, 2013). Contract management involves all activities of administration concerned with managing contracts which include; appointing the contract manager or constituting the contract management team, planning contract implementation, management of quality, administering the contract, and monitoring contract implementation. The study sought to examine the influence of contract management practices on service delivery in the public sector with focus on Uganda Civil Aviation Authority. It focused on examining the influence of contract mobilization practice on service delivery in the public sector with focus on Uganda Civil Aviation Authority; examined the influence of contract monitoring practice on service delivery in the public sector with focus on Uganda Civil Aviation Authority and finally to evaluate the influence of relationship management practice on service delivery in the public sector with focus on Uganda Civil Aviation Authority.



      Aliseba Akinyi Wagah, Samuel China, Moses Akali, Ngaiwa and Ferdinand Makhanu Nabiswa

Abstract: Climate change and food security are two of the most pressing challenges facing the global community today. Improving smallholder agricultural systems is a key response to both. Given that agriculture is the key economic sector of most low-income developing countries, improving the resilience of agricultural systems is essential for climate change adaptation. Kitui County is characterized by low and declining crop productivity. It is particularly susceptible to climate change due to its over-reliance on rain-fed agriculture, aridity, inadequate water supply and degradation of many of its natural resources. This study examined the influence of Climate Resilient Agriculture on food security in Kitui County.



      Nkala, B.A, Mbongwa, H.P, Qwebani-Ogunleye, T

Abstract: Medicinal plants serve as important sources of pharmaceutical, cosmetic and traditional medicine. Natural products continue to play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Bioactive compounds, which naturally occurs in medicinal plants, such as antioxidants, play a vital role in scavenging free radicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preliminary phytochemicals, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidants, and alpha (α)-amylase potential on selected South African plant extracts.



      Sharon Jerop Koech, Dr. Jackim Nyamari, Dr. Eunice Njogu

Abstract: Hand hygiene is a simple act of hand cleansing and the most effective measure of decreasing healthcare-associated infections among the health care workers. The infections not only lengthen the hospitalization period but also increase financial burden to individual, family and a country at large for example in Europe approximately €13–24 billion is spent annually. Hand hygiene compliance has remained unacceptably as low as 40% worldwide with the developing countries reporting a lower percentage. The broad objective of this study was to determine the level of compliance with hand hygiene standards amongst the health care providers in selected public hospitals in Uasin Gishu County. The study used the cross-sectional study design.



      Siti Kholifah, Mursid Saleh, Abdurrachman Faridi

Abstract: The objectives of the study is as follows to know the students’ intrinsic motivation in speaking English Skill, a case of the second grade of MA Futuhiyyah 2 Demak in the Academic Year of 2020/2021, to know the speaking skill is a case study of the second grade of MA Futuhiyyah 2 demak in the academic year of 2020/2021, to describe the effect of the students’ intrinsic motivation to improve English speaking skill, a case of the second grade of MA Futuhiyyah 2 demak in the academic year of 2020/2021.The method in this research was descriptive quantitative method. The population of this research is the eleventh grade students of MA Futuhiyyah 2 Demak in the academic year 2020/2021. The sampling in this research is purposive sampling. Technique of the collecting data are questionnaire and speaking’ test.



      Mahmoud Foud Mahmoud, Ahmed Saleh Khedr, Fayrouz Ashraf

Abstract: Cities all around the country are growing and changing as they reach new heights and adopt new appearances. Engineering and architecture have progressed in ways that were inconceivable just a few decades ago. However, as these places develop, it becomes increasingly important to preserve structures with history, character, and meaning.



      Grace P. Guliman, Emybel M. Alegre,PhD

Abstract: This study attempted to determine the student’s performance level in learning integral exponent of grade 8 students. The descriptive research method was used in this study where a total population of 70 respondents was obtained using cluster random sampling. The research instrument was validated and tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. The descriptive analysis, mean, and paired t-test were utilized for statistical analysis.



      Divya Shakti, Debopriyo Ray, Deepanshu Gupta

Abstract: Many organizations and industries of the world were transformed when the Coronavirus (COVID-19) struck the world in 2020. In order to stop the virus from spreading, a major percentage of the workforce was unable to commute to work. This led both employers and employees to seek new ways of working. Organizations started offering work from home (WFH) as an alternative to working from the office to their employees. This research paper is a study to determine the factors that influence an employee to either work from the office or work from anywhere. The results of this study reveal several meta-factors and sub-factors that impact an employee’s decision to opt for remote working or working onsite.



      Dr. Balanuta Ana-Mihaela, Dr. Bujor Dina, Dr. Horodisteanu-Banuh Adela, Dr. Savoschin Dorina, Dr. Grin Olesea

Abstract: Introduction. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that colonize the nasopharynx can cause a range of respiratory tract infections. There is a lack of related national information about the bacterial spectrum in the nasopharynx that can cause acute respiratory infections in small children. These findings expressed the necessity to enhance a study, which results can play an essential role in improving therapeutic decisions in the national pediatric respiratory care field.



      Nwaobia, A. N; Ogundipe, S.A; & Adejumo,O

Abstract: Debt is a salvaging factor to cushion the effect of recurrent budget deficit, a connecting bridge for the gap between revenue and expenditure as well as means of financing sustainable growth in an economy. However, debt profile both domestic and foreign continues to increase in Nigeria without appreciable performance in economic development, hence this study examined the effect of tax revenue on foreign debt. The study made use of ex post-facto research design, and a 39-year time series data (1981-2019) sourced from CBN Statistical Bulletin 2019 and FIRS annual reports were used. The data were adjudged valid and reliable having being appropriately validated by the relevant agencies. Data analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from the study revealed that tax revenue significantly affected foreign debt in Nigeria (Adj.R2 = 0.463, Rn-sqd = 60.61, ρ = 0.00). It is recommended that appropriate policy mix and setting of achievable measures in exploring several opportunities to widen the tax base should be focus of Nigerian government as current level of tax revenue is not sufficient enough to cushion the rise in the nation’s foreign debt profile.



      Nwaobia, A. N.; Ogundipe, S.A.; Adejumo, R.I.

Abstract: Debt is a salvaging factor to cushion the effect of recurrent budget deficit, a connecting bridge for the gap between revenue and expenditure as well as means of financing sustainable growth in an economy. However, debt profile both domestic and foreign continues to increase in Nigeria without appreciable performance in economic development, hence this study examined the effect of tax revenue on foreign debt. The study made use of ex post-facto research design, and a 39-year time series data (1981-2019) sourced from CBN Statistical Bulletin 2019 and FIRS annual reports were used. The data were adjudged valid and reliable having being appropriately validated by the relevant agencies. Data analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings from the study revealed that tax revenue significantly affected foreign debt in Nigeria (Adj.R2 = 0.463, Rn-sqd = 60.61, ρ = 0.00). It is recommended that appropriate policy mix and setting of achievable measures in exploring several opportunities to widen the tax base should be focus of Nigerian government as current level of tax revenue is not sufficient enough to cushion the rise in the nation’s foreign debt profile.



      Paul Muriithi Ngari, Mercy Kithinji, John Njagi

Abstract: Household salt iodine level monitoring exercise was conducted in 10 schools with a representation from the various zones. The lowlands and highlands each had 4 schools and the urban setup 2 two schools. The exercise in schools was conducted between 8th and 11th June, 2021



      Nusrat Bibi

Abstract: Derawar Fort is a remarkable identification of Rohi Cholistan. Derawar Fort was built in AD 900 known as Dera Rawal. Derawar Fort is a giant four-sided fortress in Ahmadpur East Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan. About one hundred ten km south of the town of Bahawalpur, the forty supporters of Derawar Fort are evident for numerous miles in the Rohi Cholistan Desert. When the Derawar Fort was built, all the towers of the fort were made of mud. Over time, the fort also saw its rise and fall. Then when the Nawab of Bahawalpur Khan l made it the capital of his state, then the Nawab of Bahawal Khan l constructed it with tile bricks. At the same time, it has its own identity in the world.



      Nusrat Bibi

Abstract: Uuch Sharīf is located near about 25km from Ahmadpur Sharqia and 90km from Bahawalpur City, a historic city in the southern part of Pakistans Punjab province. Uch may additionally have been headquartered as Alexandria on the Indus, a city founded through Alexander the Great throughout his invasion of the Indus Valley. Uch Sharif was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate at some point of the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent also recognized as domestic for the Bukhari’s after the migration from Bukhara. Uch Sharif was once a regional metropolitan middle between the twelfth and seventeenth centuries and became refuge for Muslim spiritual pupils fleeing persecution from different lands.



      Nusrat Bibi

Abstract: Al-Sadiq Mosque is a mosque positioned in Bahawalpur (main city Shahi Bazar) Punjab, Pakistan. Its groundwork stone used to be arranged by way of Great Sufi of Chishtia clan and the Mystical Master of Nawab of Bahawalpur Noor Muhammad Maharvi more than two hundred years ago. The renewal used to be done through the order of Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V in 1935 after returning from hajj. 50 to 60 thousand humans can pray in the mosque at a time. Masjid al-Sadiq is a unique mosque in terms of beauty and structure Nawab of Bahawalpurs love of religion, attachment and friendship with knowledge. The stones have been sourced and high quality wood and stones have been imported.



      Dr. Sapna Singh, Dr. Shama Lohumi

Abstract: The parents of mentally retarded children have various psychological problems. Parents require emotional strength and flexibility in order to raising a child who is mentally challenged. Parents of mentally challenged children commonly experience a gamut of emotions over the years. The aim of the study was to assess psychological problems among parents of mentally retarded children. 250 parents of mentally retarded children were selected through purposive sampling technique from different MR centres of selected Urban area of North India. Standardized tools was used as P.G.I. Health Questionnaire N1 (Verma, Wig & Pershad) for assessing the psychological problems. Result shows that majority of parents had psychological problems. Conclusion of the study suggests that there was need for early diagnosis, prompt treatment and counselling for psychological problems in parents. Level of mental retardation of the children had great effect on psychological problems of parents.



      Olupitan, A.L, Ajator U.O and Nzeneri, O.P

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the critical causes and impacts of cost overruns on public sector construction projects in Port Harcourt metropolis. It further attempts to determine the measures that can be taken to minimize the impacts of cost overruns on public sector construction projects and to establish critical success factors for public sector construction projects in Port Harcourt metropolis. Structured questionnaires were used to determine the participants’ responses with respect to the identified factors from the reviewed literature. These respondents were mainly registered construction professionals working in Port Harcourt.



      Dr. Avneesh Kumar Verma

Abstract: India is a vast and diverse county. Peoples from different religion, ethnicities, language and culture are living together in India. They share their day to day life with each other. But some section of the society use this diversity as the reason of their plight. They indulge in the act of militancy. The Union Territory of Kashmir is facing the same situation. This paper is an attempt to find the reason behind the militancy in Jammu and Kashmir. This paper will try to understand the state response. Also this paper will try to suggest some measures to mitigate militancy from Jammu and Kashmir.



      Krishnan Kutty. V.

Abstract: According to US congress (1988), “The access to healthcare is defined as the potential and actual entry of a group of population in to the health and healthcare delivery system”. That the ability to utilize the healthcare facilities and the availability of qualitive care were basically determine the accessibility of healthcare facilities. Regression and the Structural Equation Model (SEM) used to test the hypothesis and analyze the objective. The workforce shortage (0.434), poor health literacy (0.513), poor service offered (0.593), poor health workers attitude (0.489), cost of health services (0.404), insufficient skills of health workers (0.696) is the most of the challenging factor for accessing healthcare services/facilities.



      B.N Singh, Pradeep Kumar Choudhary

Abstract: Pandemics have significantly affected economy of each country. Health & political system have been also drastically affected in each part of the country. To fight against pandemic, it demands multidimensional approaches comprising of various measures like surveillance, containment, isolation & quarantine, border restriction as well as various socio-political and community measures. Though the entire health workforce is involved at multiple levels, the role of a community medicine/public health expert is maximum in controlling the spread in the community and managing the situation. The community medicine specialists can contribute to the public health as well as health-care services in combating the pandemic.



      Ekamadu Hope Ukame, Ojeka Sunday Ogbu and Zabbey Victor Zigabelbari

Abstract: Caffeine is the most widely used natural stimulant, found in beverages, medicine and some popular masticatories. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of caffeine on hepatorenal functions of male Wistar rats. In this study 32 Wistar rats (120g-240g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups of 8 rats each with group 1 as control given only feed and water. Group two were given 2mg/kg caffeine, group 3 given 4mg/kg caffeine and group 4 given 6mg/kg caffeine orally for 28 days. The result showed significant decrease in body weight. There was also a statistically significant increase in the concentrations of urea, creatinine, uric acid, bicarbonate and chloride in groups 3 and 4 and a statistically significant decrease in the concentrations of potassium and sodium in groups 3 and 4.



      Opeyemi Otolorin Oyatola, Samuel Olatunde Popoola, Olubunmi Ayoola Nubi, Falilu Olaiwola Adekunbi, Ekundayo Oluwaseu Adeyemi

Abstract: The nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) of thirty-two study stations in the Ilaje, coastal waters and Estuaries of Ondo State, Nigeria were studied in the month of August (during the wet season). These 32 stations consist of two Estuaries Awoye (A1 - A6), Abereke (AB1 - AB7), and anthropogenic impacted stations (I1 - I12) and control stations (C1 - C7). The aim of this study is to evaluate the eutrophication status of the Ilaje coastal waters and Estuaries in response to the stress caused by anthropogenic inputs from land use changes, agriculture, and industrial effluents.



      Anesu Mironga, Christopher Namilonga

Abstract: From the inception of the independence of Zimbabwe in 1980 to May 2013, the Lancaster House Constitution was governing Zimbabwe. This document was basically regarded as a negotiated document which provided for the transition to black majority rule from the white colonialism. The Lancaster House Constitution was subsequently criticized for failing to meet the standards of contemporary democratic ideas and practices. The major political parties of the Government of National Unity (GNU) conducted a disputed constitution-making process that resulted in the 2013 Zimbabwe Constitution



      Abdur Rohim, Dwinanto Kurniawan

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has so far had an impact on society in general, not only affecting health, but also on the economic, employment, educational and social aspects of the community. One of the efforts to cope with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the employment sector in Indramayu was by cooperating with private companies through a CSR program of PT Polytama Propindo. The CSR program is Mang Covid which aims to empower communities or groups affected by COVID-19 in the midst of a pandemic that is able to restore the economy and community independence to be innovative and creative in the midst of a pandemic.



      Arga Bagus Prasetyo, Eddy Suprayitno

Abstract: Gelatin is a protein derivative compound extracted from animal collagen through hydrolysis and drying process. An edible film can be made from three different types of constituent materials, namely hydrocolloids, lipids, and composites of both. An edible film is an edible thin layer, which is formed to coat food components, and placed on top of or between the food components. One type of colloid that can be used to make the edible film is gelatin. A plasticizer is a substance with low molecular weight, that can enter the protein-polymer matrix, so it increases the flexibility and forming capability of the film. Glycerol is included as a type of plasticizer, which has a low molecular weight, is hydrophilic, adding polarity, and is easily soluble in water.



      Lina Anggraini, Eddy Suprayitno

Abstract: Gelatin is a polypeptide produced from the hydrolysis of collagen. Gelatin can be made from fish skin, one of which is tilapia skin (Oreochromis niloticus). Gelatin is a hydrocolloid (protein) and is one of the components that can be used as material of edible films. Edible film is defined as a thin layer from edible material and is an alternative packaging that is biodegradable. In the making of edible films made from hydrocolloids, the quality of the film is often fragile, so it requires additional materials that function as plasticizers.



      Nabila Ardianisa, Eddy Suprayitno

Abstract: Gelatin is a type of protein extracted from animal collagen tissue found in animal skin, bones and ligaments or connective tissue. Gelatin has high digestibility properties therefore it has the potential to be the raw material for making edible films. The edible film is a thin layer produced from edible materials. Edible films can be formed from three types of constituent materials, such as hydrocolloids, lipids, and mixtures/composites of the two. Several types of hydrocolloids that are able to make edible films are proteins (gelatin).



      Amira Ali Ben Fayed, Mohamed Illafe, Haitham A.Makzoum, Rafik.A.Elmansouri

Abstract: This paper aims to prove the existence and uniqueness of a nonlinear neutral dynamic equation with infinite delay using the Krasnoselskii fixed point method and the contraction mapping principle, respectively. Let T be a periodic time scale; we will consider the following nonlinear neutral dynamic:



      Shiv Chaudhary

Abstract: Filament winding is a process of loading a high degree of fibers to take advantage of high tensile in the manufacturing of hollow, generally cylindrical products. The process affords the high strength to weight ratio laminates and provides a high degree of control over uniformity and fiber orientation. Filament wound structures can be accurately machined, and the labor factor for filament winding is lower than other open moulding processes. The filament wound composite pipes are fabricated using high-strength fiber and resin matrix by hand lay-up using a 2-axis filament winding machine. In the present work, the low-cost filament winding machine is designed and developed for the fabrication of FRP pipes and cylindrical specimens.



      Cybele Grace P. Aninion, Dr. Emybel M. Alegre

Abstract: This study analyzes the attitude of the students in Agusan National High School (ANHS) towards cooperative learning as a strategy in solving word problems in mathematics. In answering the objectives this study used a twenty-one-item survey questionnaire based on the five components of cooperative learning and another five items for the word problem. The study has a null hypothesis stating that there is no significant relationship between cooperative learning and mathematics performance of the students and there is no significant difference in the mathematics performance of the students before and after the cooperative learning is applied. It is concluded that the grade 10 students got a very high level of attitude in positive interdependence and social skills, while promotive face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, and group processing only got a high level of attitude.



      Tri Ratnawati, I Nyoman Lokajaya, Adelia Putri Rachmadani, Nanda Oktaviyanto

Abstract: The coastal area of Gresik Regency which includes Ujungpangkah, Sangkapura, Sidayu, Manyar, Tambak, Bungah, Gresik, Panceng, and Kebomas has the potential for marine natural resources, business fields include manufacturing, trade and services, the main manufacturing industry producing food products made from fish , snacks, beverages, skullcap production. The purpose of this study was to map MSMEs in the coastal area of Gresik Regency. The benefit of the MSME mapping is that it makes it easier for academics to conduct research and assistance to focus on each type of industry and become a reference for the government to take policies and regulations related to the potential of MSMEs in each sub-district.



      Andrew BARIYO, Claud RUSIBANA

Abstract: Fraud is like an epidemic disease that affects banking sector and has great effects on the country’s economy. This causes decline in liquidity of commercial banks hence performance depreciation. Therefore, the study identified the effects of financial fraud on financial performance of commercial banks in Rwanda taking a case of Equity Bank Rwanda Plc. Specifically, the study sought to assess the effects of fraudulent loans, fraudulent invoices and identity theft on bank performance. Descriptive and correlation research designs were utilized in the study. Population of 100 respondents from different Kigali branches was selected which majorly composed of the managers, tellers, credits and risk officers and finance officers.



      R.B.A.H. Abeyrathne and G.H.J. Lanel

Abstract: Network science and graph theory applications have spread widely to help in understanding how human body features are linked to graph network structure, thus providing a conceptual framework that can help in reducing the analytical circulatory complexity and underlining how network topology can be used to characterize circulatory diseases [1]. The central goal of this study was to verify the possibility of creating a structural network representing the human blood circulatory system and to describe the relationship between the human bodies in graph theory basics. Graph theory concepts were applied to 6 organs which contain selected 162 body parts and 217 links, representing the blood circulatory system.



      Ayibapreye K. Benjamin, Collins E. Ouserigha, Aguiyi Nduka Watson

Abstract: This paper illustrates numerical results of millimeter wave scattering, based on a model of flat sea-surface covered by foams. This model considers the structure of foam as coated spherical particles that are randomly distributed within a cubic domain. The cubic domain is divided into five (5) two dimensional 2D slices of foam layers. Electromagnetic wave with unit amplitude was propagated through each slice of sea-foam layer for accurate prediction of millimeter wave scattering due to the interaction between the EM wave and randomly distributed air-bubbles.



      Sylvan Odidi, Rodgers Ombeck Oyoo

Abstract: The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) conflict is the most current and deeply intense diplomatic crisis over the usage of the Nile waters. Over the last 30 years, the struggle for the Nile waters has and continues to develop significantly. In 2011, it worsen after Ethiopia began construction of the GERD project. The Nile Basin consisting of 11 countries that are of significant geopolitical interplay to the Nile’s overall hydro-political regime. The aim of this research was to discuss the legal aspect of the GERD dispute, changing dynamics shaping the dispute as well as the socio-economic and security implications of GERD.



      Oyekan Oluwatosin V and Oyetayo Victor O

Abstract: Tigernut milk drink is a nutritious milk-like aqueous extract produced from tigernut. Its availability is limited due to its short shelf life. The aim of this present study was to determine the effects of preservatives on the microbial and sensory quality of tigernut milk drink. Fresh tigernut milk drink was produced according to the standard procedure with sterile distilled water. The milk was divided into 5 portions, kept in a sterile container, preservatives were added according to the experimental design and kept at ambient and refrigerated temperature.



      Ummu Kaltsum, Sriwulan, Hilal Anshary

Abstract: This study aims to determine performance of Bacillus subtilis probiotic with addition of purple sweet potato and cassava prebiotics on immune response of tiger shrimp. The research is carried out at the Mini Hatchery of the Faculty of Marine and Fishery Sciences and the Laboratory of Fish Parasites and Diseases, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine and Fishery Sciences, Hasanuddin University. The stages in this study consisted of: (1). Prebiotic preparation (of purple sweet potato and cassava), (2). Probitic preparation, and (3). Vibrio harveyi challange test. This research uses a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 replications.



      Beatrice Nangekhe Bwabi, Dr.Jane Kieru, Dr.Maurice Kodhiambo

Abstract: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are key population due to their vulnerability arising from their behavior, society stigma, and discriminative laws that hinder them from acquiring preventive and curative health services. Prostitution is a big industry with 40 to 42 million persons globally 75% aged 13-25years and 80% of them being female sex workers. According to Odek, Githuka and Avery mapping in 2014, Kenya hosts 10670 hot spots of about 138420 female sex workers despite the government ban on sex work in 2017 under section 153 and 154 of the penal code. Nairobi City County accounts to 25% of the female sex workers in Kenya. Kenya falls in Sub Saharan country where highest risks of deaths result from HIV, unsafe abortions and unskilled deliveries. Female sex workers who form 5% of the women of reproductive age are at risk to sexual reproductive health complications since they are unable to negotiate for safe sex and seek prompt health services or legal interventions. 31% of maternal deaths in Nairobi are attributed to unsafe abortions while HIV prevalence among FSWs is 29.3% more than 4 times the prevalence in the general population in Nairobi.



      Md. Abrar Ashfaq Khan, Tawsib Ahmed Likhon, and Mahmudul Hasan

Abstract: Following an extraordinary condition of confinement due to the Covid-19 epidemic, academic institutions were urged to focus on supporting telecommunications technology. Higher education went entirely online for the first time. The authors of this study performed an online voluntary survey in which Greek students were asked questions regarding the distant education they had received during the Covid-19 shutdown, particularly the synchronous variety. The goal of this study was to look at the primary difficulties that hampered students learning, both technological hurdles that made communication difficult and teaching/learning challenges that arose because of growing trends. Recognizing the major issues that occurred in the educational process during the lockdown period will lead to improved communication in the field of remote education in the future.



      Eyad Moufaq Alkousini

Abstract: This study aims to determine the impact of small and medium-sized finance on Jordan’s economic growth. In addition to determine the effect of interaction between small and medium size finance on economic growth according to the theory of endogenous growth. For this purpose, time series analysis (Autoregressive Distributed Lag model) is used.



      Rakhi Sunil Kumar

Abstract: In current times, despite a friendlier and flexible workplace, many professionals are struggling emotionally, physically and mentally in new ways that they are unsure how to address. Organizations are looking for ways to reinvent their HR strategies. One such new approach proposed through this study is ‘Balance of Life’ at workplace, which would seek holistic human development. There are many aspects of life to lead a ‘Balance of Life’. Essentially, they fall in 4 Quadrants – Career, Relationships, Social, and Spiritual. Human beings have the desire and the need to grow in all of these quadrants. If any of the quadrants remain underdeveloped, it leads to a sense of incompleteness.



      Vincent Kipkoech Mutai & Dr. Anthony Osoro

Abstract: This research paper endeavored to establish on how strategic engineering management was affecting performance of all commercial banks in Nyeri, County, Kenya. The findings realized that commercial banks should endevour to embrace the best strategies that are aimed at propelling their banking systems with a view to satisfy their customers, increase productivity and overall enhances their profitability. Hence, when commercial banks deployed strategic engineering management occasioned through strategic implementation, strategic development, strategic planning and strategic performance of all of commercial banks in Nyeri County, Kenya was wedged.



      Lakshi Dhiman, Aman Kumar Sharma

Abstract: Routing in MANETs is a difficult challenge because of the mobility of nodes. A number of routing protocols are used to find out the best route. These routing protocols are mainly divided into three types which are Pro-active, Reactive and Hybrid routing protocols. Further, there exists a number of routing protocols which fall under one of these categories.



      Abdul Rahman Hamzah, Mahatma Lanuru, Syafiuddin

Abstract: Kappphycus striatum is one of the carrageenan-producing seaweeds. Seaweed cultivation is increasing along with the increasing use of carrageenan. In general, carrageenan is used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Furthermore, the carrageenan content of seaweed is strongly influenced by the oceanographic conditions in which the seaweed is cultivated. Measurement of the quantity of carrageenan yielded a value of 43.50 – 80.63 % with an average of 63.62 % ± 12.54. The quantity of seaweed is affected by turbidity, phosphate, current velocity and temperature.



      Adji Suratman, Indriyani, Elon Manurung,Auditya

Abstract: This study aims to know and test whether fee-based income and electronic banking affect profitability in the banks companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange period 2016-2020. The goal of this study is to examine the extent to which electronic banking and fee based income influence the profitability of the banking companies.



      Janet Laltlansangi, C.Laldingliana, Jacinta Vanlalrinzuali

Abstract: The present study seeks to determine the space time investigation of gender disparities in literacy in Mizoram. Although the effective literacy rate is quite high (91.33% in 2011 Census), the geographic pattern of literacy rate is relatively uneven over different parts of the State. At the same time, there exists a significant gap in literacy rates between male and female, and between rural and urban area. The temporal analysis of literacy reveals that the gap in literacy rate is slowly narrowing down with time.



      Janet Laltlansangi, C.Laldingliana, Jacinta Vanlalrinzuali

Abstract: The present study seeks to determine the space time investigation of gender disparities in literacy in Mizoram. Although the effective literacy rate is quite high (91.33% in 2011 Census), the geographic pattern of literacy rate is relatively uneven over different parts of the State. At the same time, there exists a significant gap in literacy rates between male and female, and between rural and urban area. The temporal analysis of literacy reveals that the gap in literacy rate is slowly narrowing down with time.



      Puji Lestari, Titih Huriyah, Fitri Arofiati

Abstract: The Hospital Information System (HIS) is a collection of several parts of the way that relate to one another and form a unified whole that is in a hospital. The ongoing Hospital Information System at RSGM UMY is needed in its work activities. Therefore, it is necessary to have a quality measurement of the RSGM information system. This research uses a quantitative research method. The study population was dental students who used HIS at RSGM UMY, which in this study the subjects were about 200 people. Data collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive analysis with percentage analysis techniques.



      Jennifer M. Perez

Abstract: The value of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in global economic development is indispensable. Therefore, SMEs must be properly managed thru good governance. The descriptive method of research, as adopted to explore the corporate governance and financial management practices of SMEs in Batangas province. Top and middle management of 104 SMEs participated in the survey using a researcher-made questionnaire. Documentary analysis and interview with accountants, consultants and directors were also conducted to gather information.



      Mohamed Abukar Hussein, Prof. Kennedy Mutundu

Abstract: Government of Somalia collapsed in 1991, and since then, several actors were engaged in providing humanitarian support, re-storing peace and stability and providing platforms for negotiation. After IGADD was transformed to IGAD in 1996, its member states solidly joined their efforts to reduce threats to regional cooperation, peace and stability. Therefore, the study focused on answering two research questions including what effect have IGADs’ use of peacekeeping missions had in the resolution of conflict in Somalia? and what are the achievements and challenges associated with provision of negotiation platforms for conflicting community in Somalia? The study was based on functionalism theory, with both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Using questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions, the target population of the study was 670 individuals where 200 were randomly sampled for the administration of the questions. The study findings showed that peacekeeping process can be expedited effectively while all the donors can unite their efforts in re-structuring and strengthening Somalia National Armed forces. Moreover, political affiliation, member states conflict of interest, financial incapability of IGAD and limited capacity for Somalia’s political stakeholders are the main challenges.



      Alessandro Raffelini

Abstract: This paper assesses an alternative economic and monetary model based on the coexistence between fiat and those cryptocurrencies that show real functionalities. A few years ago, I named the relation between cryptos and some independent factors which can influence the quantity demanded of virtual currency in a certain economic area {Qcy = f (p,y,t,e)}, the ‘the functioning demand curve of cryptocurrency’. In fact, the model shows that a coexistence between a currency and a cryptocurrency with real functionalities like Bitcoin may exist by reaching alternative equilibria along the curve that we can assume to be an economic or regional area with certain characteristics. By assuming the quantity of cryptocurrency that sellers are willing to accept, because households prefer to hold and spend this alternative functioning currency, is equal to Qcy, it could be possible theoretically to demonstrate that an equilibrium exists in which the quantity required in a given economic area matches the general demand and supply of money with this alternative form of liquidity.



      Eze Promise I. And Lawson Nwidum

Abstract: The built environment in Rivers State Nigeria have in recent years witnessed high rate of urban surface temperatures which is attributed to global warming, climate change and the depletion of the ozone layer. The environment absorbed high temperature during the day time and sometimes could not completely emit it during evening and night as a result of factors responsible for this phenomenon called “Urban Heat Island”. This study is aimed at determining and forecasting of urban surface temperature in Rivers State, Nigeria; with the objectives of extracting the urban surface temperature of the study area using thermal infrared remote sensing techniques, and forecasting of the trends in urban surface temperature of the study area for a period of twenty years.



      Janet Laltlansangi, C.Laldingliana, Jacinta Vanlalrinzuali

Abstract: The present study seeks to determine the space time investigation of gender disparities in literacy in Mizoram. Although the effective literacy rate is quite high (91.33% in 2011 Census), the geographic pattern of literacy rate is relatively uneven over different parts of the State. At the same time, there exists a significant gap in literacy rates between male and female, and between rural and urban area. The temporal analysis of literacy reveals that the gap in literacy rate is slowly narrowing down with time. However, due to various socio economic and cultural factors such as poverty, ignorance, patriarchal system, social custom, conservative attitude of family etc incidence of gender disparity can still be found in many parts of the State.



      Pradeep Kumar Choudhary, Bacchu Narayan Singh

Abstract: Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been declared by the World Health Organization after it has gripped many countries of the world. The exponential increase in the number of cases has resulted in panic and confusion among healthcare workers and the vulnerable population. Pregnant and lactating mothers are a vulnerable group and need evidence-based advice to protect the health of the mother and the child. Healthcare workers can play an important role in dispelling the myths and misconceptions among pregnant and lactating mothers regarding COVID-19, if they are equipped with scientific information on antenatal care, care at birth, and breastfeeding. This review attempts to summarize the published evidence related to antenatal care, care at birth and breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic.



      Baria Tahir, Maryam un Nissa, Muhammad Tahir, Asma, Gul Zaman, Farrah Batool, Somayeh Azadi, Muhammad Ishaq, Faheem Abbas

Abstract: For the quantification of Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceuticals dosage form by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Chromatographic separation was obtained by using chromatographic conditions on a system for obtaining the results according to USP specifications. The retention time (RT) was 7.6 min per analysis with mobile phase acetonitrile 40% and solution A 60%. The symmetry of column was 15cm x 4.6 mm with packing 5-µm L1 with flow rate 1.5mL/min and wavelength detected on 280nm by using Photodiode array detector.



      Joseph KipngenoKirui, Dr. Patricia Chepkwony, Dr. Willy K. Rugut

Abstract: The current thinking among managers of micro and small enterprises is on how to manage knowledge in a competitive business environment.Good performance, capped with some level of efficiency of these MSEs is what is desired from them to achieve a good and continuous economic growth. However, limited knowledge management skills hamper achievement of good performance of the MSEs. The study aimed at determining the relationship between knowledge creation and financial performance of micro and small enterprises, assessing the relationship between knowledge acquisition and financial performance of micro and small enterprises, and establishing the relationship between knowledge sharing and financial performance of micro and small enterprises. This study was anchored on Knowledge Based View Theory.



      Trevor Mohlala

Abstract: The environment originates from mass, (m=1), and at the point of origin mass is governed by the subliminal law of motion, and the root force of mass that accounts for its potential energy. When mass breaks into motion, it is propelled by force of gravity and mass in motion is dark matter. Mass moves because it goes into a process of decay. This movement of mass is considered the primary motion of dark matter, it fulfils the first law of motion and engage the second law and the supportive law of motion activates and provide support, thereby giving birth to anti-dark matter. Anti-dark matter is the secondary motion of mass activated to support the primary motion of mass.



      Onugu Uchenna C., Udemadu Chika F & Obiekwe J.

Abstract: The study on the efficacy of cluster group model of microcredit delivery for poverty reduction in Delta State, Nigeria investigated the socioeconomic profile of the cluster group members, resource profile, and capacity of Delta State microcredit programme (DMCP) to reduce poverty, compare the difference in the poverty index before and after exposure to DMCP, and X-rayed the challenges encountered in the implementation of DMCP. Data were collected with a well-structured questionnaire from a cross-section of 300 cluster group members using a multi-stage random technique.



      Ellen Artilerin Ramadhani Mawangi, Ghulam Fathul Amri, Ahmad Fathoni

Abstract: 137Cs is a radionuclide that can accumulate in soil and plants and is potentially hazardous to humans. When 137Cs enters the human body, it will be distributed to soft tissues such as muscle and bone tissue. This study aims to determine the concentration of radionuclide 137Cs in soil and rice (Oryza sativa) in the Pandeglang Regency. Soil samples were dried at 105 ˚C, ground, sieved, and put into a Marinelli beaker.



      Fauzia CHINA, Dr Mercyline Kamande

Abstract: The study examined the contribution of monitoring and evaluation on sustainability of Mwisoko project in Rwanda. Specifically, this research ascertains effect of monitoring and evaluation planning, process, and tools on sustainability of Mwisoko project in Nyarugenge District.



      Aurore BANA SINZI, Professor Edwin ODHUNO

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of project management maturity on service delivery of the rural electrification project in Bugesera District, Rwanda. This research project centered on the three specific objectives namely; to assess the effect of integration management, cost management and quality management on service delivery in rural electrification project in Bugesera District. The study serves as a guideline for project management experts and stakeholders. Findings would be used to benchmark future projects regarding project management maturity and service delivery.



      Mr. Mohammed Abdi Hassan, Dr. Peter Wamalwa Barasa

Abstract: The study aimed at investigating the influence of institutional factors on public procurement performance in the county. The specific objectives of the study was to; establish the influence of Staff Professionalism on procurement performance, to find out the influence of Organizational Culture on procurement performance, examine the influence of Institutional Framework on procurement performance, and determine the influence of Top Management Support on procurement performance in Garissa County.



      Abdalsalam Ahwaila

Abstract: Environmental security is addressed at the international level. Peace, national security and human rights depend on it. As such, it encapsulates: "the relationship between the human population and natural resources." That is why the focus of national security is on it. When environmental safety is achieved, then protection from several types of hazards is achieved (both from natural and human factors, and due to inadequate management, accident or ignorance).



      Khalid Aldeeb

Abstract: Marketing organization today, deals with activities such as decision making in all marketing areas, concerning products, marketing channels, pricing, physical distribution and promotion. They establish relationships between employees in the marketing sector and professionals who are responsible for making marketing decisions and planning that are key to the success of any business firm. Hence, we can say that the marketing organization is an organizational structure that implements company policies, helps in making decisions regarding production, packaging, price, advertising, promotion, sales, brand, trademark and distribution channels, etc.



      M. Dharani , V. Senthilkumaran and Y. Palaniappan

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate Nαg closure and Nαg interior. Also we study NTαgs space and its relation to various other spaces.



      Rujito Dibyo Asmoro, Suharto, Mitro Prihantoro, Cecep Hidayat, Purnomo Yusgiantoro

Abstract: State defence is all efforts to defend the sovereignty of the state, the territorial integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, and the safety of the entire nation from threats and disturbances to the integrity of the nation and state. In general terms, the state defence system is a universal defence system that involves all citizens, territories, and other national resources, and is prepared early by the government and is carried out in a total, integrated, directed, and continuous manner to uphold state sovereignty, territorial integrity, and safety of nation from all threats, and to achieve all that requires state defence management. State defence management is all activities at the strategic and policy level which includes planning, implementation, supervision, and control of the national Defence. One part of the national defence management system is the procurement.



      M. Dharani , V. Senthilkumaran and Y. Palaniappan

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate Nαgs closure and Nαgs interior. Also we study NT αgs space and its relation to various other spaces.

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