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IJSRP, Volume 4, Issue 7, July 2014 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

July 2014 publication has started and publication will continue till 16th July 2014.
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th July, their paper will publish in July edition latest by 16th July.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th July.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th July 2014.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 16th July and minor corrections are accepted till 18th July 2014.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Sang-Soo Jeon

Abstract: The infrastructure in Korea was built after the significant growth in the economy after 1960. Today, this aged infrastructure has been inappropriately maintained and managed without awareness of man-made disasters. Even though the Korean government established complementary laws and regulations to prevent man-made disasters, these disasters have occurred in various locations and have been presented as social problems, they have also resulted in large social and economic losses. This paper examines both historical reviews and damage assessments and provides improvement to plans for typical man-made disasters including fire, collapse, explosion, traffic accidents, and environmental pollution.

      Mohd Lias Kamal, Jamil Tajam, Sharizal Hasan, Mohd Halim Shah Ismail, Anies Suhaida Mohd Naspu, Nur Saliza Awatif Zahala

Abstract: ‘M-bios’ biosorbent is a hybrid of mangrove wasted bark from charcoal industry at Perak, Malaysia and green algae from Sabah to remove heavy metals. This biosorbent is subjected to FTIR and ICP-MS. ‘M-Bios’ contain N – H (3421.89 cm-1, 3465.90 cm-1), C = O (1728.72 cm-1) and – OH (3531.37 cm-1, 3722.01 cm-1, 3768.36 cm-1) functional groups (weak groups) that that easily replaced by metal ions. The adsorption performances were fitted by pseudo-kinetic, Langmuir and Freundlich study. The plots obey both adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir and Freundlich by R2 values. A good agreement between experimental and theoretical qe for contact time data suggested that adsorption reaction happen in aqueous solution was a rate determination of chemisorption process(pseudo second-order kinetic).

      Mandeep Kaur, Rajesh Paul, Sandeep Kumar, Reena Arora, Lalit Arora

Abstract: Flexibility is an essential fitness component that decrease with age and immobility can lead to change in muscle and joint function postural alignment and host of indirect impairments like muscle tightness , atrophy, fibrosis, contracture, joint analysis, postural deformity. Tight hamstring muscle may be a potential risk factor for strain injuries in sports, in which a full range of motion is needed. The stiff and short hamstring muscle tendon unit may be a risk factor for low back pain and the development of patellar tendinopathy. At present various interventions are available to increase flexibility of hamstring muscle. However, there are not many studies that have analyzed the effects of static stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching of hamstring muscles following superficial heat in athletes. The aim of the study was to find out the efficacy of effectiveness of static stretching and PNF stretching of hamstring muscles following superficial heat in athletes.

      Chandra Sabnani, Mukesh Patel

Abstract: For Bamboo to become a mainstream material of the building industry, as a material of substance; an up scaled value of its utility and its deliverance is where research energies have to be spent. Resolution of primary technical issues make it even more compelling to focus on why bamboo construction is not popular despite possessing qualities needed for structural members in tension. Prima Facie; more than the structural vulnerability, appearance, fire and insect attack proneness affecting durability; it is the resolution of the issue of finance, the legal status and the detailed implementation strategy, that appear to be of a greater urgency.

      L. K. Dospatliev, I. T. Ivanov, B. K. Paarvanova, N. T. Katrandzhiev, R. T. Popova

Abstract: Measurements of the electric conductivity, σ, and relative dielectric permittivity, εr, were conducted (0.1Hz –15 MHz) on 40 air-dried soil samples that were subsequently analyzed for pH, total organic matter in soil (ΔM/m1), P2O5, , Fe2O3 and heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu и Zn). The pH of soil samples varied between pH 5.25 and pH 7.73 (mean pH 6.71), the ΔM/m1 varied between 1,49 % and 9.96 % (mean 4.56 %). The mean content of Fe2O3 was 44352.5 mg/kg, which was 114 fold higher than the mean concentration of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu и Zn). The mean content of P2O5 was 0.26% . We found a linear relation between σ (1 MHz) and the indicated physicochemical parameters; P2O5 (coefficient of correlation, r = 0.637), рН (R = 0.530 ) , Fe2O3 concentration (r = 0.450), content of ΔM/m1 (r = 0.545) and heavy metal concentration (r = 0.460). Similar relationships and correlation coefficients were found between εr (10 kHz) and the same physicochemical parameters.

      Kalyan Sundar Som, Prof. R.P. Mishra

Abstract: Sex is an easily identifiable characteristic of an individual. Sex composition of a population refers to the balance between male and female in any population. It can be expressed either in the form of proportion of a particular sex in the population or as a ratio between the population of two sexes. As is obvious, the first one gives the number of males per hundred females or number of males per thousand females in the population and is the most widely used measure of sex ratio the world over. On the country the second provides the number of females per hundred males or number of females per thousand males in the population.

      Ranawake A.L., Hewage M.J.

Abstract: Searching new materials for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance from diverse sources such as traditional rice gene pool is important as there is limited variability for the traits in the improved rice cultivars. Identification and introgression of favorable alleles into elite breeding lines from traditional rice cultivars to increase the biotic and abiotic stress tolerances in cultivated rice are still progressing. This will prevent genetic erosion of cultivated varieties in Sri Lanka hence many improved rice cultivars are derived from few parental lines. Identification of rice cultivars with multiple tolerances are very much needed to utilize in the regions where micro climate of the crop is changing time to time due to short term flooding in prolonged rainy seasons, unexpected drought seasons comes with delayed monsoon rain or increasing salinity in coastal belt with intrusion of tidal waves.

      Amarasinghe U.G.S., Ranawake A.L., Senanayake S.G.J.N.

Abstract: Traditional rice cultivars in Sri Lanka conserve different abiotic and biotic tolerant traits but the yield of traditional rice cultivars is not as much of improved cultivars. Abiotic stress tolerance of some traditional rice cultivars were evaluated in previous studies at Faculty of Agriculture, Mapalana, Sri Lanka and this study attempted to understand the possibility of enhancing the yield and yield components of traditional rice cultivars by altering the fertilizer dose. A field experiment was carried out from October 2011 to April 2012 at the Faculty of Agriculture, Mapalana. Traditional rice cultivars are considered to be weaker in response to fertilizer. Four different fertilizer levels namely no fertilizer, half of the recommended dose, recommended dose and twice of the recommended dose were evaluated with forty Sri Lankan traditional rice cultivars to understand the response of them on different agronomic parameters.

      Ranawake AL*, Amarasinghe UGS, Dahanayake N

Abstract: Allelopathy refers to the chemical inhibition of growth of one species by another. With the objectives of understanding allelopathic effects of sixty seven traditional rice cultivars, a field experiment and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2011 Yala season at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Mapalana, Sri Lanka. Rice cultivars were transplanted according to the completely randomized block design with four replicates. Each replicate consisted of three rows of rice plants and data were collected from the middle row. After three months of transplanting, plant height (cm) and number of tillers/plant, were evaluated in traditional rice cultivars and total dry matter weight of weeds in 0.093 m2 (1ft2) area encircled by the rice plant were evaluated in three replicates.

      S.Rathakrishnan, A. Abdul Jameel & M.Syed Ali Padusha

Abstract: A chiral Mannich base, [1-(piperidin-1-yl(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)] thiourea (TPPTU)was prepared by treating thiophene-2-carbaldehyde piperidine and thiourea . Using TPPTU as a ligand, metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared. Both the compound and complexes were characterized by physical methods such as elemental analysis, melting point and TLC and spectral methods such as IR, UV –Visible, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. For the complexes, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and thermal studies were also been carried out. In vitro antimicrobial study was carried out for both the compound and complexes.

      Roshan Kumar

Abstract: This paper presents a novel low-cost, highly efficient, reliable and compact motor drive topology for residential and commercial application. The Brushless DC (BLDC) motor is a simple robust machine which has found application over a wide power and speed of ranges in different shapes and geometry. This paper briefly reviews the fundamentals behind the motor and also the different types of BLDC motors with different geometries and then presents a new configuration for BLDC motor/generator, which does not use a permanent magnet in the rotor. A new soft-switching boost converter is proposed in this paper. The conventional boost converter generates switching losses at turn ON and OFF, and this causes a reduction in the whole system’s efficiency. The proposed boost converter utilizes a soft- switching method using an auxiliary circuit with a resonant inductor and capacitor, auxiliary switch, and diodes. Therefore, the proposed soft-switching boost converter reduces switching losses more than the conventional hard-switching converter. The efficiency, which is about 91% in hard switching, increases to about 96% in the proposed soft-switching converter. In this paper, the performance of the proposed soft-switching boost converter is verified through the theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental results.

      Sivakumar SS

Abstract: The economic aspects of water resource planning involve the evaluation so far, as practicable in monetary terms of the physical potentialities of the catchment for alternate courses of action involving types of uses, different configurations and sequences of development in time. Interpretation in terms of monetary values of the consequences of alternate courses of action, though most convenient way for comparison, is not always possible since extra market consequences, indirect benefits also become important influences in deciding the project acceptability. This is so because in a welfare economy, economic efficiency measured in terms of market value of what the economy produces is an imperfect measure of economic welfare. The measurement of benefits and costs of development programmes should extend beyond mere market values.

      PATPORN WONGSUCHAT, Atcharawan Ngamyan,Ph.D.

Abstract: In looking accommodation business as a part of hospitality industry, there are many new players enter to this business reflecting over supply situation in Thailand. it is important for newcomers or current players to create differentiate to stand out and gain the competitive advantage. Boutique hotel becomes solution as a value-added product. This paper explores relationships between service quality and perceived consumption value toward customer satisfaction that may influence brand loyalty. The study focus on Thai consumers who had experienced with boutique hotel with 301 feedbacks. The study show that perceived consumption value significantly play an important row positively impact customer satisfaction and brand royalty more than service quality. Based on the results, focusing consumption value strategy can help raising competitive advantage is suggested.

      D. Anis, M.A.M. Ishak, A.G. Zaidi, I. Khudzir, M.N. Iqbaldin, Uwaisulqarni M. Osman, W.I. Nawawi

Abstract: Microwave assisted activated carbon from rubber seed pericarp (RSP) was successfully produced by using three different chemical activating agents of ZnCl2, KOH, and H3PO4. The process was carried out at 600W of irradiation power for 20 min. The absorption study was applied for these modified activated carbon samples under cationic methylene blue (MB) dye. The Carbonisation of RSP using ZnCl2 (RSP-ZnCl) as activating agent was found the best as compared among the rest which high BET surface area, total pore volume and iodine number were 1689.00 m²/g, 0.9321cc/g and 883.49 mg/g respectively. The adsorption capacity of RSP-ZnCl under MB was ca. 297.24 mg g-1. This finding showed the feasibility of preparing activated carbon from RSP using ZnCl2 activating agent via by microwave carbonisation technique.


Abstract: Network Security is always foremost and big issue in wired and wireless network. Wireless network, whether it is infrastructure mode or mobile adhoc mode, breaks the barriers of wired network and are easily accessible to everyone but everything is at a cost, the cost is in the form of increased susceptibilities and vulnerabilities of network. Packet delay is a result of poor utilization of network capacity when it is integrated with routing algorithms. Routing protocol contains very serious security issues in adhoc network. The code of AODV and DSDV are having such issues and new protocol are extended in the form of SEAD, SEAR and SAODV. This paper analyses the ways the security is breached by the hackers who emerge as malicious node in Infrastructure as well as in adhoc mode of network. The handiwork is prepared by way of Developing experimental Testbed and simulation in NS2 then proper measure are proposed in order to overcome all the problems.

      Raj Kumar Mistri , Md Arman Ansari, Md Mustak Ali, Manju Kumari, Manoj Prabhakar, Manju Kumari

Abstract: Gate diffusion input (GDI)—A new technique of low-power digital combinatorial circuit design is described. This technique allows reducing power consumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. Performance comparison with traditional CMOS and various pass-transistor logic design techniques is presented. The different methods are compared with respect to the layout area, number of devices, delay, and power dissipation.

      Flamy A. Jacob, C. Latha and B. Sunil

Abstract: An investigation on occurrence of Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in beef was carried out to determine the prevalence rate in Thrissur. A total of 175 fresh beef samples were collected four retail outlets and two slaughter houses located at Thrissur. Hundred gram of the material was taken from each sample. The isolation and identification was carried out by FDA method with necessary modification. Five samples were positive for Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli and virulence gene stx 1 was obtained from two isolates using polymerase chain reaction. None of the isolates was positive for stx 2 and eae A genes.

      Sridarala Ramu, Mesineni Anand Rao

Abstract: The stabilities of ternary complexes of metal ions (copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt) with beta-hydroxy ketone (BHK) derivatives and benzotriazole (BTAZ) derivatives in 50% water + 50% dioxane medium in 0.1 M KNO3 ionic strength at 25oC using potentiometric pH titrations have been established. The data reveal that the copper forms more stable complexes, which is followed by zinc ion complexes with these ligands. Both nickel and cobalt form complexes with similar stabilities. The stabilities of these complexes are further quantified with Δ log K values, intra-molecular equilibrium constants and percentage of stacking interaction in the ternary systems. The observed positive Δ log K values suggest that the flexible side chain alkyl moiety (butyl group) or aromatic moiety (phenyl group) in BHK ligand overlaps with the fixed aromatic moiety of BTAZ ligand in the ternary complex, which results in the enhanced stabilities for the (BHK-Bu)-Metal(II)-BTAZ and (BHK-Ph)-Metal(II)-BTAZ systems.

      M. S .Patki, S.V. Salvi

Abstract: Thermo-power and magnetization measurements of (0

      IKBAL Fatima Ez-zohra, QSAIB Said, FAIZE Mohamed, KOUSSA Tayeb

Abstract: We studied osmotic stress-induced biochemical changes in hydroponically grown plants of grapevine, vitis vinifera (var. doukkali). Our focus was on the effect of peg (applied at 0,2 , 0,4 or 0,8 MPa) on roots hydrogen peroxide, polyphenols, and proline

      Ibrahim, Dauda, Abdul – Bello Kagara

Abstract: This study is design to investigate the risk factors and preventive measures in building construction projects in Abuja FCT, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The study was carried out in the entire building construction project in Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 116 respondents comprising 58 contractors and 58 registered site engineers were used as population of the study. A structured questionnaire containing sixty six (66) items was developed by the researcher and used for the study. Cronbach Alpha, Mean and Standard Deviation were used as the statistical tools to analyze the data, while t- test statistic was employed to test the null hypothesis of the study at 0.05 level of significance.

      Thusharika D. Dissanayaka, Shayama Banneheka

Abstract: The demand to the physiotherapy continues to increase, due to the increasing of aging population. The University Grant Commission (UGC) has started degree program in physiotherapy to address this demand in 2007, by providing high school level science students to enter this program based on the grade achieved from the advanced level exam. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness about physiotherapy among advanced level science students in the Kandy educational zone and to assess the sources form which they could obtain information regarding physiotherapy.

      T. D. Dissanayaka

Abstract: Adults have different learning styles. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning style and specific teaching-learning methods of physiotherapy students. A cross sectional study was conducted on 36 first year physiotherapy students at the department of physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. The students were asked to rank lectures, tutorials, practical and self-study from the most preferred to the least preferred one. The most preferred teaching-learning method among all the students was lectures (61%), followed by practical (27%), self-study (6%) and tutorials (6%). there was no significant difference among male and female students on the preferred VARK mode. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the educators’ awareness of the various learning styles may create effective learning environment for students.

      TD Dissanayaka

Abstract: Teaching and learning activities are challenging area for students and teachers as well. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore the preferences of physiotherapy students in Sri Lanka about various aspects of lecture courses. A structured survey consisting of ten closed-ended questions was developed, and thirty six first year physiotherapy students in the department of physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were approached in this study. Most of the students reported preferring lectures with clinical demonstration. They preferred morning lectures for a maximum of sixty minutes for each lecture, and they preferred to receive information about the lecture topic in advance. The students said that home assignments were beneficial after the lectures, and they agreed with the compulsory attendance for lectures. The results of this study conclude that educators should be aware on students’ learning preferences when they developing curriculum.

      TD Dissanayaka, AJB Rathnayaka

Abstract: Knee soft tissue injuries are more common among rugby players. Thus this study aimed to assess the awareness on acute soft tissue injury management using PRICE principle among rugby players in Kandy zone. A retrospective whole population survey was conducted among under 17 and 19 school level rugby players who had undergone knee soft tissue injuries in Kandy zone, Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire which was developed according to the PRICE principal on acute soft tissue injury management was used as the data collection tool. A total of 45 rugby players in seven rugby playing schools in Kandy zone were participated the study. According to the results none of the players followed the PRICE principle correctly to manage acute soft tissue injuries. Even the players not following all the five components of PRICE principle accurately, they have followed each component separately, such as protection (75%), rest (57%), ice (37%), compression (60%) and elevation (8%).This study identified that 40% got recurrent injuries and 38% of players missed at least one match due to inappropriate soft tissue injury management.

      Thusharika Dilrukshi Dissanayaka

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess third year physiotherapy students’ perception and views about initial experience of PBL in Musculoskeletal physiotherapy soon after the clinical placement. The self-administered questionnaire measured perception of PBL on a 5-point Likert type rating scale and focus group discussion used to evaluate the PBL among third year physiotherapy students of the Department of Physiotherapy, University of Peradeniya. Eighteen females and six males responded (comprising 75% of the total sample). Most students were positive that PBL contributed to improve communication skills, critical thinking and makes fun. However female students expressed that they enjoyed group work and it was effective in fulfilling learning objectives. These same views were expressed during focus discussion, female students made reference to enjoying the group work of PBL. This concludes that PBL has facilitated learning concepts in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and helped students to manage patients confidently during their clinical training.

      Anurag Jain, Dr. Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract: Today, computing becomes steadily more important and more used. Cloud computing has appeared as an accepted computing model for processing very large volume of data. Cloud computing is an unavoidable trend in the future computing development of technology. In this paper, we have discussed the computing taxonomy and their relationship with cloud computing. Then we have discussed the essential characteristics, layered service model architecture and deployment model of cloud environment. Last we have identified the several research challenges, cloud adoption challenges along with the applications of cloud computing. This paper is for those who have heard first time the term “cloud computing” and wants to know about its taxonomy. Also this paper will provide an idea of design challenges of cloud computing and help in identifying important research directions in this area.

      Aymen . A . Ahmed Imam, Mohammed Ali Bshir, Emad eldeen A . A . Rahim

Abstract: This paper put a new mathematical system (stacked system) interested in arranging elements in a manner simple analytical set (according to the importance of the element in the set) and to prove that this system is a semi-group and prove some properties of semi-groups in this system.


Abstract: Alkali, Alkaline earth and transition metal ions doped L-proline single crystals were grown by solution growth technique. Due to variation in the nature of dopant, there is a modification in the growth habit, nonlinear optical property and mechanical hardness of the doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveal strong absorption bands occur due to the presence of L-proline. UV–visible spectra show an improvement in the optical transmittance while doping on L-proline. The unit cell parameters and cell volume are obtained by powder X-ray diffractometer. Effect of dopant on the crystal defect on the grown crystals was characterized by Optical Microscopy. Anti microbial study of the grown crystals were analyzed using gram positive and gram negative micro organisms.

      Zuhura Juma Ali

Abstract: This paper presents a miniaturized planar circular disc UWB antenna design for wireless communications. Printed on a dielectric substrate and fed by 50Ω microstrip line with truncated ground plane, the proposed antenna has been demonstrated to provide an ultra wide 10dB return loss bandwidth with satisfactory radiation properties. The special structure reduces the spatial volume and it is used to realize the miniaturization of the antenna. Ansoft High Frequency structure Simulator (HFSS) software tool has been employed for obtaining the simulation results. The return loss, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), radiation patterns and current distributions of the antenna are discussed.

      Longe I.O., Olupitan G.O., Ekundayo O.S.

Abstract: Cardinality of an Elementary Countably Infinite Set.

      Msaakpa, T. S., Obasi, M. O

Abstract: A field study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria in 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons. The objectives were to identify important determiners of yield characters and to determine the correlations between growth characters viz: number of leaves per plant, length of internodes per plant, number of internodes per plant, leaf area index, net assimilation rate, absolute growth rate, plant height; and yield characters namely: panicles per plant, capsules per plant, capsules per panicle, seeds per plant, dry weight of harvestable material, total dry weight per plant, harvest index, seed yield, 100 seed weight and oil yield at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks after sowing(WAS). The technique of growth analysis described by Steel and Torrie was adopted for data collection. Growth characters were correlated with yield characters and correlation coefficients were determined.

      G.Velmurugan, S.P.Venkatesan, P.V.Prakash ,N.Sathishkumar, N.Vijayakumar

Abstract: The global demand for wood as a building material is steadily growing, while the availability of this natural resource is diminishing. This situation has led to the development of alternative materials. Of the various synthetic materials that have been explored and advocated, polymer composites claim a major participation as building materials. There has been a growing interest in utilizing natural fibres as reinforcement in polymer composite for making low cost construction materials in recent years. Natural fibres are prospective reinforcing materials and their use until now has been more traditional than technical.

      Katheem Kiyasudeen S, R. S. Jessy and M. H. Ibrahim

Abstract: This review investigates earthworms as reactors towards the development of designer earthworms for the decomposition of complex polymeric structures. Unit operation aspects pertaining to vermicomposting is least addressed or cited in literature, while a lack of models employing worms as composting agents recognizable as biological reactors is quite apparent. The process of isolation of complex macromolecular structures such as protein is also cumbersome and presents inaccuracies.

      Saad A. Saeed, A. Raza, A. Aziz, H. Tariq

Abstract: This Paper Summarizes components, functionality, calculations, & challenges faced by an on-going project on water heating system utilizing waste-heat. The Source & the Sink of the system are also outlined. The structural integrity aspects are highlighted. Moreover future dimensions of the project are discussed as well.

      Gourav Patel, Dr. Sharad Chaudhary

Abstract: Since long time, it has been noticed that refrigerators are the devices which work almost 365 days round the clock; hence objective of energy efficiency improvement attracts much. There are several ways of improving the performance of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Use of an ejector as expansion device is one of the alternative way. The advent of new component ‘Ejector’ into refrigeration system opened the new era of research. The vital component, which decides the effective operation of the ejector expansion refrigeration system, is the ejector. Hence, design of an ejector and analyses of its physical and operational parameters have drawn special attention. The thermodynamic analysis of natural refrigerant (R 170) based vapour compression refrigeration cycles is presented in this article using a constant pressure mixing ejector as an expansion device. Using ejector as an expansion device, R 170 yields a maximum COP improvement of 24.12 percent.

      Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Mohammed Hasmat Ali, Anshu Sinha

Abstract: The design of intelligent control systems has become an area of intense research interest. A promising direction in the design of intelligent systems involves the use of Fuzzy logic controller to discover the abilities of intelligent control systems in utilizing experience via rule-based knowledge.

      Rajeswari S, Anila Mathan & Swaminathan S

Abstract: This review article highlights the various organs affected due to infection by a host of microorganisms resulting in the elevation of Liver Function Tests particularly liver enzymes due to infections by falciparum malaria, parasites, viral infections, dengue, measels, tuberculosis, anaplamosis etc. Kidney function progressively decrease in infections due to measles, tetanus, staphylococcus, malaria, MRSA viruses and cardiac function tests are elevated in pneumonia. In bacterial meningitis CSF analytes are altered, while HIV, HCV, HbsAG infections are said to affect every organ. We have used recent reach findings during the last 13 years and hence this review article will certainly serve as a platform for exploring new avenues for research in this interesting field.

      Mustafijur Rahman, Md. Golam Nur

Abstract: Preparation is a fundamental factor for any textile material in order to produce the substrate with accurate chemical and physical properties to ensure persuasive colouration and finishing. Pre-treatment plays a significant role for the successful coloration of any kind of natural textile fibre like wool. This paper overview the influence of different types of contemporary preparation techniques applied on wool fibre before coloration such as scouring, carbonising and bleaching. However, traditional wool pre-treatment utilize different chemicals those generate pollution in the effluents; a few of them are erosive which could damage the equipment and the fabric as well. Hence, it also focuses on the recently introduced eco-friendly enzyme based biological application and plasma treatment on wool fibre preparation.

      Dr Mohammad Ashfaq & Mrs Shazia Parveen

Abstract: Pilgrimage as a form of journey provide an opportunity for the people to visit sacred places and is a feature common to more or less all societies. The land of Jammu is blessed with the holy stay of many great saints and spiritual souls. Mata Vaishno Devi being one of them is the most popular shrine located in the lap of Tirkuta Hills of Jammu region. Every year lacs of devotees from every nook and corner of the country as well as from different parts of the world pay the obeisance at shrine. The present work is an attempt to study the socio-economic impacts of pilgrimage tourism at Katra and its surrounding areas and also study the share of this pilgrimage centre in the state economy.

      J. Hirudhaya Mary Asha

Abstract: Wireless mediums open nature are capable for intentional interference attacks referred as jamming. This attacks paved a way for denial-of-service attacks on wireless networks. The intruder with immense knowledge of protocol specifications and network secrets can create low-effort jamming attacks that are difficult to detect and counter. In these attacks, the intruder is active only for a short period of time, selectively targeting messages of high importance. However, selective jamming attacks can be launched by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. To prevent these attacks, three schemes are developed to avoid real-time packet classification by combining cryptographic primitives with physical-layer attributes. Here, the security of the proposed methods is analyzed.

      Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Mohammed Hasmat Ali, Anshu Sinha

Abstract: This paper proposes the artificial neural network based controller for speed control of a separately excited DC motor. The Artificial Neural Network controller allows controlling both type of systems i.e. linear and non-linear system by training the network. So it is a novel approach to study and a broad research area.

      Ashly Lynn Joseph, Dr. M. Prakash

Abstract: A healthy and a sound banking system are very essential for an economy in order to grow and remain in this competitive environment. RBI and other regulatory bodies have taken several policies in the light of developing the functioning of the banking sector. The best indicator for the health of the banking industry in a country is its level of Non-performing assets (NPAs). It reflects the performance of banks. NPAs in the Indian banking sector have become a major concern for the Indian economy. NPA has a direct impact on the profitability, liquidity and solvency position of the bank. Higher NPA indicates inefficiency of the bank and lower NPA indicate better performance and management of funds. To improve the efficiency and profitability of banks the NPA need to be reduced and controlled. This paper basically deals with the trends of NPA in banking industry, the factors that mainly contribute to NPA raising in the banking industry and also provides some suggestions how to overcome this burden of NPA on banking industry.

      Prachi Agarwal

Abstract: Today with the advent of technology data has expanded to the size of millions of terabytes. For retail industries, customer’s data works as tracks for analysing their buying behaviour. How this data is maintained and used for an effective decision making in retail industry is discussed in this paper. This not only increases profit for companies but also poses a challenge in the field of data mining about how probably “Recommended for You” items are chosen by the customers and how likable is the platform or store according to the customer preferences. Clustering algorithm is used to segregate customer profiles. Business Intelligence and analytics work to bring best decision routes for marketing.

      Mohammed Hasmat Ali, Shashi Bhushan Kumar, Anshu Sinha

Abstract: The design of intelligent control systems has become an area of intense research interest. A promising direction in the design of intelligent systems involves the use of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and Artificial Neural controller (ANC) to discover the abilities of intelligent control systems in utilizing experience via rule-based knowledge.

      Ofora, Pauline U, Eboatu, Austine N, Arinze, Rosemary U. And Nwokoye, Joy N

Abstract: The effects of some animal materials, viz feather, hide and hoof, as fillers for polystyrene were investigated. Composites of varying weight percentages of fillers in fixed weight of the polymer resins were produced for each filler type by the injection moulding technique. The physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the composites prepared showed variations in the properties such as, tensile strength, elongation at break, compressive strength, flexural strength, surface hardness and melting and crystallization temperatures. These materials of animal origin can be used as fillers and mainly as biodegradable fillers for polymer resins and form bio-plastics.

      Ofem Lekam Ujong

Abstract: Local and global realities compel a rethink of the economic priorities and strategies in Nigeria. The economy is struggling to leverage the country’s vast wealth in fossil fuels in order to displace the crushing poverty that affects about 54 percent of its population. Economist experts refer to the coexistence of vast wealth in natural resources and extreme personal poverty in developing countries like Nigeria as the “resource curse”. Nigeria’s exports of oil and natural gas at a time of peak prices have enabled the country to post merchandise trade and current account surpluses in recent years but still harbors a good percentage of people living below the poverty line.

      Sankalp Mitra, Suchit Bande, Shreyas Kudale, Advait Kulkarni, Asst. Prof. Leena A. Deshpande

Abstract: As an important part of discovering association rules, frequent itemsets mining plays a key role in mining associations, correlations, causality and other important data mining tasks. Since some traditional frequent itemsets mining algorithms are unable to handle massive small files datasets effectively, such as high memory cost, high I/O overhead, and low computing performance, an improved Parallel FP-Growth (IPFP) algorithm and discuss its applications in this paper. In particular, a small files processing strategy for massive small files datasets to compensate defects of low read/write speed and low processing efficiency in Hadoop. Moreover, use of MapReduce to implement the parallelization of FP-Growth algorithm, thereby improving the overall performance of frequent itemsets mining. The experimental results show that the IPFP algorithm is feasible and valid with a good speedup and a higher mining efficiency, and can meet the rapidly growing needs of frequent itemsets mining for massive small files datasets.

      Rakesh Sihmar

Abstract: Indian agriculture history is witness of the new agriculture arrangement which took place in India has changed the overall traditional cropping pattern in India as well as in Haryana. There are many agriculture reforms such as land reforms, green revolution, minimum support price, and new economic reforms have adopted in Indian agriculture. All these reforms have directly affected the agriculture sector in overall India. Even these reforms are favourable in terms of productivity and production of all the crops but they have inadequately affected in terms of crop stability. Only a few crops such as rice and wheat are going to more stable but the coarse cereals and pulses are going to highest instable in area and production in Haryana.

      Abdul Mannan, D.K.Saxena, Mahroosh Banday

Abstract: In this paper, we give an overview of the power line communication (PLC) technology. This paper presents an overview of the research, applications, standards and importance of the power line communication.

      Nagaraja Reddy K M, Dr. Y S Varadarajan, Raghuveer Prasad

Abstract: The two major challenges that industries are facing today are continuous improvement in productivity and quality of the product. An alternative to the Classical and Taguchi experimental design is the lesser known but much simpler Shainin DOE approach. Shainin methods refer to a collection of principles, which make up the framework of a continually evolving approach to quality. Bosch Production System (BPS) - one of the leading manufacturers in Diesel system equipments, has been successfully employing the strong statistical tool ‘Shainin’ for the root cause identification and Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques for analysis and optimization of the quality related issues. Shainin is popular tool being simplest to employ in the manufacturing related problem solving and very effective tool in identifying quality achievement hurdles. The present paper deals with one of the quality issues resolved by using Shainin methodology at Bosch Ltd, Banglore.

      Mrs Jayashri J. Patil

Abstract: The number of Internet users and the number of accessible Web pages are ever increasing day by day. It is becoming difficult for users to find relevant documents to their interests or needs. Thus whole process of finding relevant document is becoming time consuming. In this paper, we report on research that attempt information retrieval based on a user profile. A user can create his own concept hierarchy and use them for web searching which attempts to reveal expected documents to user. Ontology models are used to represent user profiles in personalized web information retrieval process. Many models make use of any one of the global knowledge base or user local information for representing user profiles. We attempt a personalized ontology model for knowledge representation. This model uses ontological user profiles based on a world knowledge base and user local instance repositories. It is observed that superior representation of user profiles can be built by using user concept models and it is found that the ontology model improves performance of web information retrieval.

      Kumara B, M. Mohan Ram

Abstract: Design of new fixture is a modified over the old fixture due to some drawback. The old fixture is not suitable for drum having slot on top face. This is because of the brake drum is seated on fixture ring instead of button so there is no gap maintained. Without sufficient gap it is difficult to machine the brake drum bore(pilot diameter), as well as brake drum surface in single set up to achieve the concentricity. Also current fixture is complicated in design and there is more work in fitting the button to fixture ring. So we designed new lathe fixture over the old fixture. In new modified lathe fixture, pads are provided instead of buttons and it could be suitable for brake drum having slot on the top face and other drum also. By trail run this lathe fixture is more comfortable than old fixture. So this fixture can be used in brake drum (cargo) manufacturing companies because of its simple design and less cost.

      Mrs. Aparimita Pati, Prof. Mrs. Swati Jape

Abstract: This paper proposes a coordinated control of rotor side converters (RSCs) and grid side converters (GSCs) of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind generation systems under unbalanced voltage conditions. The control scheme uses stator flux-oriented control for the rotor side converter and grid voltage vector control for the grid side converter. System behaviours and operations of the RSC and GSC under unbalanced voltage are illustrated. The co-coordinated control schemes manage to restore the wind turbines normal operation after the clearance of fault.

      Soram Rakesh Singh, Narendra Babu C R

Abstract: Wireless ad-hoc sensor networks and routing data in them is a significant research area. The objective of this paper is to examine resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer, which attempts to permanently disable network nodes by quickly draining their battery power. This type of attack is called as vampire attack. Vampire attacks are very difficult to detect because they attack the node only by sending protocol-compliant messages. These attacks are not specific to any protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O (N), where N is the number of network nodes. Methods to detect and secure data packets from vampires during the packet forwarding phase is discussed. PLGP with attestations (PLGP-a) is used for identifying malicious attack. M-DSDV routing protocol is used to detect and eliminate the resource depletion attack from the network.

      Ravindrapal M Joshi

Abstract: The single crystal of MoSe2 grown by chemical vapour transport (CVT) technique are used for the fabrication of Photoelectro chemical (PEC) solar cells. The effect of the concentration of the electrolyte on the conversion efficiency of the fabricated PEC solar cell is studied.

      Akshay Satish More, Ahad Tarade, Ashwani Anant

Abstract: The proposed study involves the experimental investigation of effect of fly ash and rice husk ash on the properties of burnt clay bricks. Determination of properties of the bricks casted with varying proportions of admixtures is taken up to ascertain whether the admixtures can be used for the production of clay bricks. On seeing the present day demand for bricks, an attempt is made to study the behavior of bricks manufactured using, different waste materials like rice husk ash and fly ash The main aim of this research was to compare the compressive strength of the bricks, so for this purpose different percentage of materials were separately added 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight and then the compressive strength of the bricks was established, and then with the help of graph a comparison between compressive strength of bricks, made out of clay, Fly Ash, Rice husk ash and combination of all these was determined.

      Hetal R. Thaker, Dr. C. K. Kumbharana

Abstract: Since last many years Optical character recognition has been an area attracting many researchers. Due to wide range of applications and advancement of digital technology offline and online handwritten character recognition for regional script is becoming fascinated area of research. In any character recognition system feature extraction phase requires input of image which is noise free, binary and having only region of interest. Main objective of Enhancement of image (EOI) phase is to process image in a way which gives more appropriate result than original acquired image for further steps in character recognition. This phase has high influence and hence plays a vital role in any character recognition system. Wide choices are available for digital image enhancement for enhancing visual quality of image. Choosing appropriate approach for image enhancement is a significant step. This paper discusses various image enhancement approach, analyzes them on the basis of result obtained by experimenting on sample handwritten image dataset at every step so as to provide suitable input for feature extraction for recognizing Offline Handwritten Gujarati Numerals.

      Ravikumar, M.S.Sham Prasad

Abstract: The knowledge of load bearing characteristics and failure of material is very important for mechanical engineers. Various metallic, non metallic and composite materials are used in different application. In view of this, the main objective of the present work is to analyze the influence of Aluminum Oxide filler on Fracture Toughness properties of Chopped Strand Mat (CSM) E-Glass Fiber reinforced Epoxy Resin Matrix Composites was evaluated using a Compact Tension (CT) specimen according to ASTM D5045 standard. Fracture toughness was conducted at six different compositions of composites. Three samples have to be tested for each composition of the composites.

      Mahasweta Bhattacharya

Abstract: The paper presents the modeling, simulation and analysis of an AC-DC converter based PWM rectifier. It provides a suitable control algorithm for a pulse width modulation rectifier which reduces ripple from the DC output side as well as shapes the input current properly. The basic objective of a PWM rectifier is to regulate the DC output voltage and also ensure a sinusoidal input current and unity power factor operation. This is implemented by high speed IGBT switches connected in anti parallel mode across the rectifier diodes. The output voltage is controlled by switching these IGBTS and higher order ripples at the output can be easily eliminated with the help of passive filters. Lower order harmonics are eliminated using PWM technique. The control subsystem generates gating pulse to the universal bridge by passing the output voltage through a network consisting of comparator, discrete PI controller and discrete PWM generator.

      M.E.S.A.De S. Ariyaratne, W.S. Gothami, R.V.P.J. Rajapakse

Abstract: Theileriosis is a bovine haemoprotozoal infection caused by Theileria species. It is a tick transmitted haemoparasite and the disease can develop as clinical or subclinical infections. This study was carried out in order to determine Theileria infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction in cattle and buffaloes in a National Livestock Development Board farm at Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. Forty-one blood samples were collected from the herd of diseased and non diseased cattle and buffaloes. Packed cell volume of each blood sample was analyzed using microcenrifugation which revealed that 85.7% (18/21) cattle and 20% (4/20) buffaloes had PCV values below the average. White Blood Cell count was calculated using haemocytometer method and 33.3% (7/21) cattle and 15% (3/20) buffaloes had WBC count above average value.

      Olaide Ismail Aro

Abstract: The question of who are the Ogboni of Egbaland is one of the major controversial issues which in fact call for deliberation. It is in view of the above fact that the author beck to holistically examine whether reference to Ogboni of Egbaland is exclusively restricted to Ologboni Section alone or includes Ologun, Olorogun and Parakoyi Section of Egbaland among others.

      Onekutu A, Omoloye A. A & Odebiyi J. A

Abstract: Indiscriminate use of insecticides in the control of the EFSB and other vegetables makes it expedient to seek for safe and eco-friendly measures. In two separate experiments, the first compared the effect of integrating nylon net barrier with weekly cutting of infested shoot, and the other the effect of integrating use of nylon net barrier, weekly clipping of infested shoot with application of 150ltrs/ha of Karate® 5EC. Treatments were arranged in a Randomized complete block design with three replicates each. Integrating nylon net and weekly cutting of infested shoots significantly reduced EFSB infestation by 27.61% in 2006 and 7.87% in 2007 compared to the control. Single application of Karate® 5EC at 150lts/ha at four weeks interval gave comparatively the same control as more frequent applications.

      Farah Khan, Dr. Divakar Singh

Abstract: Data mining is the art and science of intelligent analysis of (usually large) data sets for meaningful (and previously unknown) insights and is nowadays actively applied in a wide range of disciplines related to agriculture. Association Rule Mining is a powerful tool for generating rules from vast and diversified data such as agricultural datasets. Due to the emerging importance of data mining techniques and methodologies in the area of agriculture, this paper is a survey of some previous researches done in this field. For sustainable growth of agriculture, these methodologies need to be monitored and analyzed optimally.

      Kiran Bala, Khushal Thakur

Abstract: In wireless sensor network, where nodes are power driven by batteries and it is important to prolong the network lifetime by minimize the energy consumption of each node. Thus the choice of optimal transmission power is one of the prime concerns in such network. Optimal transmission power is the minimum power required to sustain the network connectivity while maintain the predetermined maximum tolerable bit error rate (BER). In this paper, optimal transmission power is derived for a WSN deployed based on random topology. In this paper the effect of three fading channel (Rayleigh, rician & shadowing) on optimal transmission power; route BER and energy consumption for successful delivery of data in multihop is studied for such randomly deployment in wireless sensor network.

      Mahak Sharma, Khushal Thakur

Abstract: The world of wireless communications is quickly progressing. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. Emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX).. In this paper physical layer parameters are tuned to study the characteristics of ZigBee and WiMAX technologies independently and proposes a study and comparison of two of most advancing communication technologies (Zigbee and WiMax). Both of these technologies are breakthrough in communication and both of them have their own positive and negative points. In some situations, in a near future highly advanced and area specific application of WSN will be required. We will analyze these two technologies, which would be appropriate for those applications & analyse weather, location and terrain conditions are capable for the communication through such networks.

      R.B. Kulkarni, Arti Rushi1, Mohd Anis, S.S. Hussaini, M.D. Shirsat

Abstract: Structural, optical, dielectric and thermal properties of pure and L-alanine (LA) doped bis-thiourea cadmium acetate (BTCA) crystals have been studied in present investigation. Pure and L-alanine (LA) doped bis-thiourea cadmium acetate (BTCA) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation technique. The crystal system of pure and doped BTCA crystal has been determined by single crystal XRD technique. The shifts in the vibrational frequencies of functional groups of doped BTCA crystal have been identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. The improved optical transparency and large transmission range of doped BTCA crystal has been assessed under UV-visible study. The enhanced optical band gap of LA doped BTCA is found to be 4.83 eV. The thermal stability of doped BTCA crystal was determined by means of thermogravimetric & differential thermal analysis.

      H.K.Patel, P.M.Patel, J.V.Suthar And M.R.Patel

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the College Agronomy Farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand, Gujarat during rabi season 2002-03 on loamy sand soil. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of sulphur, phosphorus fertilization and PSB inoculation on growth and yield of chickpea (GC-2). It was consisting of combination of three levels of sulphur and four phosphorus management treatments. The experiment was laid down in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD-2) with four replications. The results revealed that application of sulphur and phosphorus fertilization with PSB inoculation gave significant effect on yield, protein content, nitrogen content, sulphur content and post harvest soil nutrients status. From the yield and economic point of view, it is concluded that for securing maximum yield the chickpea crop should be fertilized with 20 kg S ha-1 and 25 kg P2O5 ha-1+ PSB and also maintained soil health.

      M.A.Gopalan, S.Vidhyalakshmi and K.Lakshmi

Abstract: We obtain infinitely many non-zero integer quintuples satisfying the non-homogeneous sextic equation with five unknowns. Various interesting properties among the values of and are presented. Some relations between the solutions and special numbers are exhibited.

      Nedyalka Palagacheva, Lilko Dospatliev, Yanko Dimitrov

Abstract: Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a damaging pest of oilseed rape. Its harmful activity directly threatens the production and in some years it could compromise the yield. In many cases, the products applied in pest control, turn to be less efficient due to the conditions under which they are applied and the restricted application regime. In order to avoid the development of resistance, it is necessary to use insecticides having different mechanisms of action, which continue for a long enough period of time, with the aim of limiting the application of chemical substances and protecting natural pollinators and bees.

      Zohaib Hassan, Kamran Khattak, Atif Ali Raza, Samar Inderyas

Abstract: This study is conducted to check the impact of work life conflict on job satisfaction of doctors in hospitals of Pakistan. In this current study two dimensions of work life conflict were used to check relationship with job satisfaction. Those two dimensions are: Work to Family conflict and Family to Work conflict. Regression analysis was used to check the relationship between the variables. The result of this study reveals that there is a significant negative relationship between work to family interference and job satisfaction. The results have been discussed in the context of Pakistani culture.

      A. Bharathi, N. Sarojini, M.Padmaja

Abstract: In Penaeus indicus neuroendocrine organs plays an important role in the growth and reproduction. In Penaeus indicus four different types of neurosecretory cells such as A cell, B cell, C cell, D cell were identified. The Eyestalk of Penaeus indicus shows many neurosecretory cells, but the Brain and Thoracic ganglion shows only few neurosecretory cells. After the unilateral Eyestalk ablation the Brain and Thoracic ganglion has many neurosecretory cells. The neuroendocrine glands are stimulatory and inhibitory in function. Brain , Thoracic ganglion are stimulatory principles of growth and reproduction. But the neurosecretory cells in the Eyestalks are inhibitory influence of these function.

      Deepti Srivastava, Md.Shamim, Deepak Kumar, Pramila pandey, N.A. Khan and K.N.Singh

Abstract: Rice blast is not only one of the earliest known plant disease but also one of the most widely distributed, occurring in every region of the world where rice grown. Ten isolates of Pyricularia oryzae causing rice blast disease were evaluated for their morphological, pathogenic, virulence and genetic characterization using RAPD marker. Isolates were classified into three groups based on pathogenicity viz. severely pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and mildly pathogenic and into four gropus i.e. PG-I, PG-II, PG-III and PG-IV based on cultural & morphological characteristics.

      K. Nisha., Padma Devi, S.N., Vasandha.S and Sunitha kumari, K

Abstract: Phosphorus is the second most important macro nutrient required by the plants for its optimum growth and yield. But it is considered to be a most limiting factor of many crop production systems, due to its unavailability of soluble forms in the soils. About 80% of applied P fertilizers are immobilized due to the formation of complex with Al or Fe in acidic soils or Ca in calcareous soils. An alternative way to circumvent P deficiency in soil and to improve crop production is through the utilization of microorganisms as biofertilizer. Rhizospheric microorganisms play a vital role in the transformation of unavailable form of P into available form which will be a boon to the agrarian communities to remove P deficiency in plants.

      Dayamani K. J. and Brahmaprakash G. P.

Abstract: Laboratory investigations were conducted to identify suitable form and to determine the suitable dose of application of osmolytes for liquid inoculant formulations of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) viz., Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. Osmolytes such as four grades of polyvinyl pyrrollidone (PVP), four grades of polyethylene glycol (PEG), and glycerol were added to broth at three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%). Supplementing the specific media with 2 % Glycerol for Azotobacter sp., 2 % PVP K-15 for Bacillus sp., 1 % PEG 400 for Azospirillum sp., 2 % PVP K-15 for Pseudomonas sp., and 2 % PEG 4000 for Acinetobacter sp. resulted in the highest population densities.

      Dr. Sreetanuka Nath

Abstract: Students have different perception about science and scientist. How do students view science and scientists? And is this perception important to science educators in any way? Finding out answer to these questions would pave new insights in science education. This study tries to elucidate upon the choice of subjects students state when told to write about ‘scientist at work’ and ‘me as a scientist. ’Results indicate drift towards choice of astronomy and chemistry. The subjects mentioned rarely in the passages were ecology, earth-science, education, mathematics, sports, genetic engineering and the social sciences.

      Sushil Kumar Sharma and Prof. D.D Agarwal

Abstract: An efficient method for the synthesis of chlorinated arenes is disclosed. The method involves the use of NaClO3 as oxidant and HCl as chlorinating agent in aqueous medium under mild conditions to chlorinate the aromatic compounds in good to excellent yields (75-96%). The reagent system is efficient, organic solvent-free and easy to handle.

      Sushil Kumar Sharma and Prof. D.D Agarwal

Abstract: A facile, efficient, simple, environmentally safe, regioselective, controllable and economical method for the oxybromination of aromatic compounds using NH4Br-Br2 system. The electrophilic substitution of bromine generated in situ from NH4Br as a bromine source and molecular bromine as an oxidant.

      Dr. (Mrs.) Saylee Gharge, Sumeet Birla, Sachin Pandey, Rishi Dargad, Rahul Pandita

Abstract: This paper present a system which can efficiently detect fire after the image of the area has been captured by a camera. Fire has destructive properties which cannot be tolerated in any work areas. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat and light. The light parameter and color of flame helps in detecting fire. The system first detects smoke and then fire. When smoke is present in the area it displays a message on the Security terminal. When a fire breaks in the area under consideration, the corresponding fire region in the input video frame will be segmented which covers the fire. If the area of the flame increases in the subsequent frames then an alarm is sounded.

      A. Saleem, Shabana Tabusum. S.Z. & Dr. M. Sadik Batcha

Abstract: A Research Design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy procedure. Research Design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations. Tools for data collection method, to give the result and testing hypothesis, my paper deals with the steps involve in Research Design, Need of Research Design, and Characteristic of Research Design, Features of Research Design, and the tools and techniques of data collection method. Report writing is a presentation of facts and findings. After collecting and analyzing the data, the researcher has to accomplish the task drawing Interference followed by report writing. This has do very carefully, otherwise misleading conclusion may be drown and the whole purpose of doing research may be violated. In this paper I had clearly sketch the outline of report writing from title to end page and also our sample of title page.

      Ameya Bihani, Jaini Lodha, Arpit Sharma, Jyoti Dabholkar

Abstract: Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of thyroid gland and presents generally as a thyroid nodule. Extra thyroidal extension of papillary carcinoma invoving exclusively skin is very rare. We present a case of 65 year old male with papillary carcinoma of thyroid arising from isthmus presenting as a cystic skin swelling with discharging sinus masquerading as adenxal tumour/minor salivary gland tumour.

      Ramesh Dharmaraj, Viji Rajendren

Abstract: The present study was aimed to isolate, characterize and examine the probiotic properties of Bacillus infantis (KADR2) from Labeo rohita. The total of seven strains isolated from gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita, one of them KADR2 showed higher antagonistic effect against fish pathogens. The strain was evaluated under in vitro intestinal condition based on resistance to bile tolerance, low pH, hydrophobicity, catalase activity and antibiotics susceptibilities. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain KADR2 were blasted and showed homology with Bacillus infantis(99%) supported by morphological and physiological characterization. Consequently, the positive results of this study suggested that further studies in challenge experiments in fish to explore their probiotic effects having great scope for being used as a potential probiotic in aquaculture.

      Niroj Maharjan, Sailesh Chitrakar and Ravi Koirala

Abstract: Most hydropower plants in Nepal are run-off type, which cannot supply the designed amount of energy during dry season and peak demand period resulting in energy crisis. Therefore, pumped storage plants can be an ideal solution to meet the current energy needs of the country. Most of these storage plants make use of a single unit acting both as turbine as well as pump; hence aptly called Reversible Pump Turbine (RPT). This paper explains the new application concept for use of such RPTs as auxiliary unit to supplement the main power unit in hydropower plants of Nepal. It also summarizes the design process of such runner with reference to the parameters available at Chilime region in central part of Nepal. The design is performed in two steps. The first step is an analytical design, which gives an initial geometry of the RPT runner. The process resulted in a runner of larger size than a normal Francis runner for same parameters since it has to work as pump as well. The next step is an optimization procedure involving CFD analysis under which the simulation of the RPT in turbine mode yielded an efficiency of 88.71%. The detail laboratory experiments on a model RPT will be performed later to validate the results from CFD and determine the characteristics of the designed runner at different mode and operating conditions.

      Rishav Shaw, R.Rajkumar

Abstract: As we all know that our country is second largest in terms of population just after China. And as the population is increasing the number of vehicles too are and so is the number of accidents. During high traffic on roads with no traffic police officials to manage and automation is the only way to control the traffic it is difficult to take decisions. For overcoming this problem we have sensors in all directions of a junction and based on the traffic level we allow the passage of vehicles and stop the rest of the vehicles in all the other directions. This paper also deals with the payment of entire taxes at one toll gate which allows it to pass through the other toll gates. We implement this solution using the CLOUD approach.

      Manuranjan Borgohain, Aparajita Borkotoki and Rita Mahanta

Abstract: Edible insects are important dietary component that consumed as food in many developing countries. The edible insects are the rich sources of high quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Different species of edible insects contribute to variation in nutritional value which depends on the host plant, season and geographic location. The present study was aimed to assess the amount of lipid, cholesterol and triglyceride of Oecophylla smaragdina, Fabricius (the weaver ant) in different developmental stages, castes and in different seasons of the year collected from Upper Assam, North East India. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among all the groups and between same caste of queen and worker. The total lipid content in this particular species Oecophylla smaragdina of present study was from10-25% in queen larva, 10-23% in queen pupa and 10-20% in queen adult in different seasons of the year. However, the amount was found to be higher during peak period of availability. Similar trend was observed in case of worker caste but with lower magnitude which ranges from 10-13% in almost all the stages of worker caste. In case of triglyceride, amount was found maximum with 166.81 mg/gm in pupal stage of queen ant in the month of March - April and in pupal stage of worker minimum of 47.75mg/gm in the month of January. Cholesterol content was found relatively higher in pupal stage in both the caste with 15.22 mg/gm in worker pupa and 10.95 mg/gm in queen pupa. Differences in developmental stages, caste and impact of season are quite evident in the study.

      Lalitha.P, Dr.R.Nedunchelianr

Abstract: This paper aims to propose a methodology for face recognition using artificial neural networks in dynamic background. The dynamic background is chosen for comparing the important information sequences, characteristic. This paper analysis four different techniques using artificial neural networks for face recognition.

      Mr.V.Balamurugan, Mr.A.Vigneshkumar

Abstract: XML is a self-describing data representation format with a flexible structure. Since hundreds of XML-based languages have been developed, XML is widely accepted as a standard for data representation and information exchange over the internet. The major advantage of using XML is that it allows the users to create their own tags. This kind of increasing popularity of XML attracted the Business and enterprises to make queries on XML data more frequently. There is an increasing demand for efficient and effective query processing on XML data. For performing query processing operations an input XML File is required. Such an XML Files can be viewed as an XML Tree using DOM parser. XML-DOM Parser is mainly used to store, access and manipulate our XML Tree. We have proposed a new search engine named XML Search engine for pattern matching. This XML Search engine gets the input keyword query from the user and performs exact pattern matching for text, images and audio files based on an effective XML Tree Pattern Matching algorithm called TreeMatch. The downloading time of images and audio files in an XML Search engine is going to be compared with local search engine. Finally from the experimental results we are going to prove that our proposed XML Search engine performs exact pattern matching and takes less downloading time compared to local search engine.

      Apurv Kantilal Pandya, Dr. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Image is one of the most important techniques to represent data very efficiently and effectively utilized since ancient times. But to represent data in image format has number of problems. One of the major issues among all these problems is size of image. The size of image varies from equipment to equipment i.e. change in the camera and lens puts tremendous effect on the size of image. High speed growth in network and communication technology has boosted the usage of image drastically and transfer of high quality image from one point to another point is the requirement of the time, hence image compression has remained the consistent need of the domain. To cope up with the said problem, time & technology has given many image formats periodically. Researcher has identified the requirement and importance of the problem and prepared and designed conversion model to convert one image format into other image formats using java api and analyze the algorithm by taking different color as well as grey scale image. The presented paper represents conversion model and different image analysis.

      Nagarjun.S, Dr.H.N.Divakar, Raghuveer Prasad

Abstract: Pumping element is an important component of a diesel fuel injection system. This project was carried out in Bosch. Ltd Adugodi, Bangalore. Using Pareto analysis, defects with highest percentage rejections are found. Barrel bore taper more and Honing Lines rejections were 2.5% and 1.8% respectively in the year 2013. Root cause analysis is done using Shainin Technique. Reason for the cause is analyzed and the solution is found. The solution is optimized by analyzing the Physics behind the problem. Optimized solution is validated for a calculated batch over particular period. After validation the solution is incorporated for daily production. The rejections were brought down by more than half.

      Sridarala Ramu, Mesineni Anand Rao

Abstract: The metal mediated intramolecular interactions and their stabilities have been established for the ternary complexes of metal ions (copper, nickel, zinc and cobalt) with beta-hydroxy ketone (BHK) derivatives (O-O donor atoms) and benzotriazole (BTAZ) derivatives (N-N and N-O donor atoms) in 50% water + 50% dioxane medium in 0.1 M KNO3 ionic strength at 25oC using potentiometric pH titrations. The intramolecular interactions and the stabilities of these complexes are quantified in terms of Δ log K values, intra-molecular equilibrium constants and percentage of stacking interaction in the ternary systems. The observed positive Δ log K values suggest that the flexible side chain in BHK ligand having butyl and phenyl ring overlaps with the fixed aromatic moiety of BTAZ ligand in the ternary complex, which results in the enhanced stabilities for the ternary complexes. Based on the experimental data we conclude that, (i) the flexible side chains of BHK ligand having butyl and phenyl ring interacts with the heterocyclic ring of BTAZ ligand in the ternary metal-ligand complex, but not with aniline ring, (ii) ternary complexes with BTAZ having N-N donor atoms form more stable complexes over the BTAZ having N-O donor atoms and (iii) ternary complexes with copper forms more stable complexes, which is followed by zinc ion complexes with the ligands, and both nickel and cobalt form complexes with similar stabilities.

      Mogire Philip, Dr.(Eng).G.N Mang’uriu, Prof.(Eng.) W.Oyawa

Abstract: Analysis of curved plate elements requires a high computational effort to obtain a reliable solution for a buckling load for design purposes. Available programs are expensive to acquire and they need thorough knowledge for effective use. There is therefore need to code cheaper and accessible programs in line with using sustainable methods to better the livelihood of mankind. To address this issue a theory is formulated based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam model. This model is applicable to thin elements which include plate and membrane elements.

      Abdulkadir, M. and S.A. Ma’aji (Ph.D)

Abstract: This study was designed to assess the workshop facilities management practices in Technical Colleges of Niger State. Four research questions were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The study was carried out in all the Technical Colleges in Niger State. A total of 488 respondents comprising 443 technical teachers and 45 administrators were used as population for the study. A structured questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for the data collected for study. The instrument was face and content validated by three lecturers. Mean and standard deviation were the statistical instruments used to analyze the data for answering research questions, The findings of the study revealed among others that technical teachers were not allowed to participate in the planning of the workshop facilities, workshop facilities were not stored according to their characteristics and preventive maintenance are not regularly observed. Based on the findings it was recommended that technical teachers should be involved in the planning of workshop facilities, workshop facilities should be stored according to their characteristics and preventive maintenance should be observed regularly in the workshop.

      Zhahid Hassan1, Summiya Farooq, Naila Nazir, Khurshid Iqbal

Abstract: Ischemic heart disease is uncommon in young adults and may have some characteristics that are different from those in older patients. This study examined the risk factors for coronary artery disease and angiographic characterization in young adults. In current study 45 patients (90%) were men and only 5(10%) women. 10% of this population were obese and 78% were overweight. Risk factor analysis revealed smoking to be present in 78% of population. Family history was present in 52% of population. As compared to Diabetes Mellitus 12%, hypertension was present in 40% of patients and hyperlipidemia was seen in 48% of patients. Angiographically the percentage of coronaries involved was 84% (n=42). Nevertheless single vessel disease was the most common angiographic finding in the study group, 67% of patients had single vessel disease and 28% had double vessel while as about 5% patients had triple vessel disease. The left anterior descending artery was the most common artery involved followed by right coronary artery and circumflex artery. From these results we conclude that Myocardial infarction before age 45 is a disease of men. A sizeable proportion of patients will have normal coronary arteries. Coronary arteriography should be considered for patients who sustain a myocardial infarction before age 45 for purposes of diagnosis, management and prognosis.

      Doctor T.R., Manuel J.F.and Rivera M.P

Abstract: In view of the ecological hazards of chemicals, in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the probable toxicity of the different water samples from the main water source of Barangay Ambassador, Tublay, Benguet employing the classical Allium cepa test prior to the establishment of communal water catch basins/tanks. In this study, experimental Allium cepa were grown in the different water samples from Lower and Upper Coroz, Baliti, and Salaksak. The different parameters that were utilized in the study (i.e. macroscopic and microscopic) served as indicators of the genotoxicity of the water samples to the test organisms. This laboratory experiment of the genotoxic effect of the water samples revealed insignificant differences among the different water samples and the control group for all the following observations: macroscopic level in terms of root length and frequencies of root forms and the mitotic index values scored at microscopic level. This interaction implies that the different water samples inhibited the growth of the onions, may have caused some morphological abnormalities and possible genotoxic effect on the onions in all the treatment groups.

      Anamika Ray, Ankuran Dutta

Abstract: The fundamental concerns of imbalances in information and communication had been discussed for a longtime globally. The American media scholar Wilbur Schramm (1964) stated that the flow of news among nations is thin, that much attention is given to developed countries and little to less-developed ones, that important events are ignored and reality is distorted. After a long discussion and debate over media representations of the developing world in UNESCO in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a new term was coined as ‘the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO or NWIO).’ The term was widely used by the MacBride Commission, which was charged with creation of a set of recommendations to make global media representation more equitable.

      Alok Asati, A.D. Singh, Madhuri Asati

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to prove a fixed point theorem using semicontractive mapping a well-known result of Ky Fan in Hilbert space.

      Smt.Ashwini. N. Puttannavar, Ms.Benazir.H.Muntasher

Abstract: Heart is a most important and vital organ in the whole body which performs different functions throughout the day. The term heart attack has become the most familiar disease for doctors in the medical field today. The need to predict the attacks accurately is of major importance as the patients having heart attack are increasing day by day because of many reasons like stress, lack of physical exercise ,bad habits like smoking ,alcohol etc. This paper describes the efficient method of predicting the heart attack using the fusion of both clinical data as well as ECG parameters to increase the accuracy. Probabilistic Neural Network is adopted for training and testing the data. The comparison of results is done for all the three methods and the fusion method is found more efficient.

      Mr.A.Vigneshkumar, Mr.V.Balamurugan

Abstract: A Virtual Sensor estimates product objective or process conditions using mathematical models rather than and sometimes in conjunction with physical sensors. These mathematical models use other physical sensor readings to calculate the estimated property or condition. Virtual sensor may provide flexibility, cost effective solutions, promote diversity, ensure security and increase manageability. In this work, data fusion is performed and privacy gets increase in virtual sensor. Data fusion is often performed in order to reduce the overall message transmission from the sensors toward the base station. Time slotted voting mechanism is used for data fusion. This work investigates the problem of data fusion assurance in multi-level data fusion or transmission in this paper. Different to a recent approach of direct voting where the base station polls other nodes directly regarding to the received fusion result, this work propose a scheme that uses the time-slotted voting technique. In this scheme, each fusion node broadcasts its fusion data or vote during its randomly assigned time slot. Only the fusion result with enough number of votes will be accepted. Thus, our scheme eliminates the polling process and eases the energy consumption burden on the base station or the fusion data receiver, which could well be the intermediate nodes. In this work, for security plumstead’s algorithm is used to overcome against threat and attack

      Mredula Trivedi and Archana Singh

Abstract: Quantitative studies of primary metabolites were conducted on healthy (control) and naturally infected (weakly, moderately and heavily) with Drechslera graminea, seeds and seedlings of Barley at different stages after sowing. Observations revealed that content of total sugars were highest in healthy (control) seeds and lowest in heavily infected seeds and were continuously increased in healthy (control), weakly and in moderately infected seedlings and decreased in heavily infected seedlings from 10 to 30 days after sowing. Total starch contents were also highest in healthy (control) and lowest in heavily infected seeds. Starch contents were slightly increased up to the 20 days and followed by deceased to the 30 days after sowing in all categories of naturally infected. Phenols and proteins decreased as the severity of infection increased and were highest in weakly infected and lowest in heavily infected seeds among naturally infected seeds. Total phenol contents were increased throughout from 10 to 30 days after germination. Proteins showed same response as phenols.

      J. Masanganise, T.W. Mapuwei, M. Magodora, C. Shonhiwa

Abstract: A subset of global climate models from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 was used to explore the changes in temperature and rainfall under moderate and high climate change scenarios. We used downscaled model projections of daily minimum and maximum temperature and rainfall for the period 2040-2070 relative to the 1980-2010 reference period. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test (at 5 % level of significance) for differences among the three selected models in predicting the three variables under both climate change scenarios. Where significant differences were observed, we carried out multiple pair-wise comparison of the models using Dunnett’s test. Overall, two of the three models showed insignificant differences (p˂0.05) in predicting minimum and maximum temperature while the other model deviated from the two. However, we identified a consistent warming trend across all the three models. The strength of global climate models in rainfall prediction was found to lie in their ability to simulate extremes, making the models relevant to sectors of the economy that are vulnerable to extreme rainfall such as drought and floods.

      Ragvinder Singh Jessy, Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim

Abstract: Biomaterials constitute a class of materials that are used extensively in biological systems, particularly in medical research involving scaffolding material. Various polymeric materials fall within this category, and are largely biodegradable, although various applications and particularly, bone scaffolding, involves the use of non-biodegradable polymeric materials such as PMMA that are not biodegradable. Blends of non-biodegradable and biodegradable polymers have been employed in bone implant and regenerative studies; while the biodegradable component disintegrates over time to be replaced by osteogenic or native cells, the non-biodegradable component contributes to the structural integrity of the tissue.

      Nur Nasulhah Kasim, Syarifah Nursyimi Azlina Syed Ismail, N.D. Masdar , Fatimah Ab Hamid, W.I Nawawi.

Abstract: The potential of Cinnamon essential oil as a natural insecticides and ants repellent was studied. Cinnamon cassia bark was extracted using hydrodistillation and soxhlet extraction method with three different solvents i. e. petroleum ether, hexane and dichloromethane. All extraction was carried out for 6 hours at 1 atm. The highest yield of cinnamon oil was obtained by soxhlet extraction in dichloromethane, followed by hexane and petroleum ether were 5.22 %, 3.84 % and 3.71 %, respectively. While only 1.82 % yields of cinnamon essential oil extracted when using hydrodistillation method. The volatile compounds of cinnamon essential oil were identified using GC-MS analysis. The results indicated that 9 major volatile compound were presence such as alcohols, aldehydes, alkenes, carboxylic acids, ether, ester and ketone in the cinnamon essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation. Trans-cinnamaldehyde was found to be the major volatile compound with the highest percentage of 86.67 % by soxhlet extraction using hexane. The repellency and insecticidal activity of cinnamon oil by hydrodistillation method obtained was directly exposed to specimen i.e., ants. The repellency and insecticidal activity of cinnamon essential oil was compared through different concentration of fabricated repellency paper. As a conclusion, solvent extraction shows an effective method on cinnamon essential oil extraction with positive insecticidal and repellent activity on ants.

      Dr. Naveed Shibli psa, Ph.D.

Abstract: The factor ‘similarity’ is important in multiple ways in interpersonal relations and can be relevant to globalization, the study of similarities among Judaism Christianity and Islam, if exist, can help to facilitate globalization. To study such similarities a questionnaire based on the similarities mentioned in Torah (Jews) Gospel (Christians) and Quran (Muslims) was prepared and disseminated to the similar groups belonging to all the three faiths and after commuting the scores on similar choices the scores compiled. It was found that above 80% of the respondents from all the three groups irrespective of gender, religion and knowledge about religion maintained similar attitudes towards the hypothesized statements based on ‘similarity’. A very large p-value within the groups confirms the hypothesis that the proportion is same in all the three groups and the homogenous behavior exits among the groups in case of ideologies.

      Mohini D Patil, Dr. Shirish S. Sane

Abstract: Classification is undoubtedly gaining major importance in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition genetic engineering and bio medical sciences where it can be used for automated decision making. Mostly these areas contain datasets having large number of dimensions which require some preprocessing. Thus dimension reduction is a preprocessing step carried out prior to classification so that the classifiers can be designed in an easy to compute way. However while doing so, it must also retain the accuracy and must not lead to loss of information. Thus effective classification must be carried out by employing proper dimension reduction techniques. The paper discusses in brief about the dimension reduction techniques. It also describes the system developed for dimension reduction and use of the tool WEKA for dimension reduction and preprocessing. Finally a comparative study of the results obtained by the system and WEKA is done.

      R. Karthik, Prof. S. Karpagarajan, R. Gopi

Abstract: This paper clearly explains about the safety and control systems in the car . Most of the accidents are occurred because of violation of rules . Result of this major accidents happened .In our day-to-day life we are careless in our safety while driving in vehicles for this we have to introduce some techniques to do these precautions compulsory . Such a new technique is explained in this paper. While driving car wearing seat belt is important that can safe our life during accident periods .But most of us are careless to wear seatbelt.

      Raghupati Bhatt

Abstract: Sis the title of John Updike’s unusual novel. This novel was the third in the Scarlet Letter Trilogy. The title itself arouses curiosity. Why only S? What does it stand for? One gets the answers only after reading the novel. The novel is in the form of letters sent by a woman to her husband, daughter, mother and a friend. She signs the letters by different names. To her husband she is simply S. To others she is either Sarah Worth or Kundalini or simply K. She is the protagonist of this novel.

      Perera, K.T.G.K, Weerasinghe, T.K

Abstract: Maize or Corn (Zea mays L.) is the most important cereal in the world after wheat and rice. It possesses high nutritive value and is important as a coarse grain. In Sri Lanka, this crop has cultivated, around 30,000ha and local consumption is around 200,000mt annually. Further, Maize is an easily grown crop and the cultivation has been popular among farmers as a cost effective crop with limited fertilizers. This Crop earns a reasonable foreign exchange as it is used as infant foods. Maize has a higher leafy mass and higher vegetative growth within shorter period of time than the other monoculture crops.

      Ms. Sujata Bhadoria, Ms. Lakshmi Nishad, Mrs. Lalita Tongue

Abstract: Wireless Ad hoc network is a set of wireless devices which move randomly and communicate with other node via radio signal. Ad-hoc networks may be logically represented as a set of clusters by grouping together nodes on the basis of different criteria such as 1-hop and k-hop that are in close boundary with one another. Clusters are formed by diffusing node identities along the wireless links. Different heuristics employ different policies to elect cluster heads. Several of these policies are biased in favour of some nodes. As a result, these nodes should greater responsibility and may deplete their energy faster, causing them to drop out of the network. Therefore, there is a need for load-balancing among cluster-heads to allow all nodes the opportunity to serve as a cluster-head. In this paper, different cluster head election mechanism are discussed in the one hop clustering approach.

      C. Binu Jeya Schafftar

Abstract: Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC) system is an automated train control system to ensure the safe operation of rail vehicles using data communication. Bidirectional wireless train–ground communications is used to transfer control data between trains and wayside equipment. Wireless local area network (WLAN) based CBTC has impact on train control performance while taking handoff decisions. This may leads to communication interrupt and long latency. Inorder to minimize the handoff latency and to improve the performance, a handoff scheme in CBTC system based on WLANs with multiple-input-multiple-output is proposed. In this channel estimation errors and the tradeoff between MIMO multiplexing gain and diversity gain are considered in making handoff decisions. Handoff decisions and physical layer parameters are optimised to improve the train control performance in CBTC systems. The handoff problem is formulated as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), and the optimal handoff policy can be derived to minimize the handoff latency. The handoff decision and physical layer parameters adaptation problem is formulated as a stochastic control process. Simulation result shows that the proposed approach can significantly improve the control performance in CBTC systems.

      Muhammad Arifin, Veny Hadju, Nurpudji Astuti, Sitti Wahyuni

Abstract: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a global problem requiring 6-month MDT-DOTS continuous treatment. This time based treatment along with the combination of VCO nutritional supplement and/or Catfish-extracted albumin has shown a significant benefit on improving immune response, accelerating the conversion of BTA sputum, increasing nutritional states and improving chest X-ray imaging in people with active pulmonary TB. This study aimed to compare the changes in pulmonary TB patients treated MDT-DOTS combined with supplemented VCO and/or albumin with that in the MDT-DOTS placebo group. The experimental study was designed by using two pre and post test groups with double blind randomized controlled trial. Eighty (80) participants met with study inclusion and were randomly distributed in the experimental groups. The study result has shown significant improvements in all observed variables among the experimental groups receiving the combination of MDT-DOTS with VCO and/or Catfish-extracted albumin. These are including accelerating the conversion of BTA sputum (VCO i.e. p<0.00; Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.04; and VCO + Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.00), increasing nutritional state (VCO i.e. p<0.03; Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.003; and VCO + Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.01) and improving chest X-ray imaging (VCO i.e. p<0.04; Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.003 and VCO + Catfish-extracted albumin i.e. p<0.001). MDT-DOTS treatment combined VCO nutritional supplement and/or Cat fish - extracted albumin capsules could accelerate the conversion of sputum smear, could improve nutritional status and improve chest X-ray imaging.

      Ranawake A.L., Amarasinghe U.G.S.

Abstract: Days to flowering determines the agronomic traits of rice cultivars. One agronomic trait of rice may effect on another trait in different degrees in yield determination. The quantitative effect of one agronomic trait on another trait is not constant in different days to flowering (DF) groups of rice. In the present study more than one hundred traditional rice cultivars with different days to flowering were grouped as 70- 80-, 90- and 100- days to flowering. Agronomic traits of 80 plants in 4 plots of individual rice cultivars were evaluated in field conditions. Path analysis was done to understand the effect of one trait on another trait in different DF groups of rice cultivars. It was found that effect of number of total tillers on number of fertile tillers and effect of number of total spikelets/panicle on number of fertile spikelets/panicle were equally higher in each DF group. Effect of bio mass, number of tillers, panicle length and number of spikelets/panicle on the final yield greatly varied with the DF groups. The negative effect of plant height on harvest index was also varied in DF groups. Effect of panicle length on panicle weight was exceptionally highest in the 80 DF group while the effect of bio mass weight on harvest index was the highest in 90 DF group. It can be concluded that effect of a trait on the yield and on other traits in rice could not be discussed without considering the age group of the rice cultivar.



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