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IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

February 2016 publication has started and publication will continue till 18th February 2016
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th February, their paper will publish in February edition latest by 18th February.
Online print version will release latest by 28th February. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 24th February and minor corrections are accepted till 22nd February 2016.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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Abstract: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is most common endocrine disease and metabolic disorder in adolescence and reproductive women. In PCOS women insulin resistance thought to be the uniting pathogenic factor in the development of glucose intolerance, obesity, lipid abnormalities, HTN and coronary artery disease .This study is under taken to measure insulin resistance in PCOS and to see the relationship of insulin resistance with lipid profile. Case control study was done taking 60 women PCOS and 60 age matched healthy women as controls. In all the subjects, concentrations of fasting plasma glucose, serum TG, serum TC and HDL were estimated using enzymatic methods in semiautoanalyser. Fasting serum insulin and measured by CLIA using Lumax-CLIA microplate reader. HOMA IR, serum LDL concentration, were calculated from estimated parameters. The mean concentrations of all the parameters were significantly increased in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome when compared with healthy women except serum HDL concentration, which was significantly decreased. Insulin resistance was significantly positively correlated with serum lipid profile and except with serum HDL, which was significantly negatively correlated. This study suggests that insulin resistance in PCOS is associated with dyslipidemia. Hence in PCOS women if measurement of insulin resistance and serum lipid profile is done early, the disease progression can be prevented and prevent future complications.

      Balamurali R. S, Sanalkumar M.G and Nandakumar S

Abstract: Population density, diversity, and species association of soil groups in general and species association of a soil isopod Phyloscia javanensis in particular was studied. The monsoon season has maximum soil animal group density followed by post monsoon and summer. The vertical migration and thermal sensitivity of most of the soil animals contributes to the decrease of population density of most of the groups in summer in both ecosystems. The species under special study showed maximum association in monsoon in both ecosystems and least during summer. This species has low association ability when compared with others micro-arthropod groups. This is because the soft bodied animal often happens to be the prey of many of the soil macro arthropods and Gastropods. So they always go to the seat of safety in the crevices of pebbles and stones. So their density will be always low in the collecting samples.

      Dr.Debesh Bhowmik

Abstract: The paper studied that India’s agricultural share in GDP has been steadily declining at the rate of 1.69% per year , the industrial share in GDP in India has been catapulting at the rate of 0.93% per year and the service sector share in GDP in India has been increasing at the rate of 0.747% per year from 1950-51 to 2013-14 which are statistically significant. The sectoral shares have weak cointegration but the shares showed the bidirectional causality with growth rate. The VAR model is stable showing significant relation with previous period but impulse response functions are diverging and the residuals are not normal which was tested by Doornik-Hansen normality test.VECM showed that errors have been correcting speedily and the model is stable since AR polynomial roots lie inside the unit root circle. The sectoral shares and GDP growth rate have significant Beta convergence but insignificant sigma convergence in India during 1950-51-2013-14 which is not suited for sustainable development in India.

      Isaac Edunyah

Abstract: Tyres are one of the active safety components on vehicles and also considered an important component in the legislative instrument in Ghana. As far as safety is concern, several studies have found out that tyre failure has impact on road traffic accident. This research looked into causes and effect of tyre failure on road traffic accidents on commercial vehicles in the Takoradi Township in the western region of Ghana as a case study. Survey research method was used in collecting data. Four hundred and fifty (450) questionnaires were personally administered to commercial drivers in the study area. The study found out that there were four major causes of tyre failure: over-inflation, under-inflation, wear and overloading of vehicles. The result further shows that tyres fail on the road, because more than 89 percent of drivers in the metropolis are not familiar with tyre information and most especially legal requirement on the minimum tyre tread depth in millimetres as enshrined in the legislative instrument in Ghana. It is recommended that the National Road Safety Commission intensify its campaign on the need for all commercial drivers to understand the importance of knowing and adhering to the Legislative instrument on tyres and how it can reduce Road Traffic Accidents, in order to achieve the Vision 2020 which aims to reduce road traffic accident by half by the year 2020.

      Ekeleme Uzochukwu G, Kama Ugochukwu H., Otutu Elijah A, Ajunwa Kelechi V, Oha Ndubuisi, Onuigbo C. Martin, Ndimele Eugene C

Abstract: Background: Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, human immunodeficiency virus types-1&2 (HIV-1&2) are among the most important agents causing health problems worldwide while hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most important infectious agents causing acute and chronic morbidity worldwide. Objective: Studies on the infections of malaria, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus among Secondary School Students in Enugu West was investigated.

      Dr. KBR Sastry, Dr. L Suneel Kumar, Dr. P. Anuradha, Dr. Bhageerath Raj, Dr. M. A. Mujeeb Afzal

Abstract: Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia, which is caused by different etiologies and it leads to morbidity and mortality.

      Rawaa Mahmoud Hussain

Abstract: The aim of this article is to launch the way for philosophy and human thought to start thinking with toleration as a science, which represents one of the basic approaches to counter extremism, intolerance, narrow-mindedness and stagnation. In this article, I want to be out with tolerance to the level at which it becomes a science. In order to achieve this transformation of toleration to be Tolerationology, I have briefed philosophy of toleration history, John Locke’s philosophy of toleration. I have submitted the proof that we are all looking for toleration, the religious toleration is possible. The article also contains a discussion of identity, difference, and responsibility.

      Kamran Khan, Syed Karamatullah Hussainy, Habibullah Khan

Abstract: E-commerce has strongly emerged as a new pillar of International Trade in recent times, not only Business to Customer (B2C) but also Business to Business (B2B) market places have made an impact globally as new channel of revenue generation engine. Now Global trade is far more dependent on such portals which have provided easy access to buyers and suppliers to interact and trade with each other. Since the industry is new and dependent on advance technology which is changing very frequently that is not allowing businesses to maintain the required satisfaction levels.

      Rajat Bhardwaj

Abstract: Gypsum is a naturally occurring mineral produced in many parts of the India and the world. Chemically it is hydrated calcium sulfate. The chemical formula for pure gypsum is Ca(SO4)•2(H2O). In the chemically pure form, gypsum contains 23.28% calcium (Ca) and 18.62% sulfur (S) in the readily available sulfate form (SO4). However, the typical gypsum sources that are commercially available for agricultural often contain impurities which result in a Ca level between 16%-23% Ca and 15%-19%.Rajasthan produces 99% of the total mineral Gypsum production in India. And most promising depostis occurs in Bikaner Distt. As demand is increasing so there is need for prospecting new promising areas of Gypsum/Gypsite . This research paper would help in meeting the increasing demand of natural Gypsum with the search of new deposits in Bikaner Distt.It would also help in generating revenues to the Govt.

      Sushil R. Kamlapurkar

Abstract: The identification of disease on the plant is a very important key to prevent a heavy loss of yield and the quantity of agricultural product. The symptoms can be observed on the parts of the plants such as leaf, stems, lesions and fruits. The leaf shows the symptoms by changing colour, showing the spots on it. This identification of the disease is done by manual observation and pathogen detection which can consume more time and may prove costly. The aim of the project is to identify and classify the disease accurately from the leaf images. The steps required in the process are Pre-processing, Training and Identification. The disease considered are Powdery Mildew, Downey Mildew which can cause heavy loss to Grape fruit. For identification of disease features of leaf such as major axis, minor axis etc. are extracted from leaf and given to classifier for classification.

      Erlah Shermaine L. Roble, Rochelle Haidee D. Ybañez, Ryan S. Yandug III, Adrian P. Ybañez

Abstract: The highly infectious Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is globally known as the leading viral cause of enteritis in domestic dogs. In the Philippines, clinical signs of infected dogs and information on owner’s perspective on CPV have not been reported. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of CPV cases, find significant associations, and qualitatively analyze owner responses on selected questions about CPV in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 45 CPV-suspected dogs were selected from different veterinary establishments. Presenting clinical signs were recorded. Hematological examinations, fecalysis and CPV fecal testing using a commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA)-based antigen test kit were performed. Owners of CPV-positive dogs (70%) were subsequently interviewed. The median age of infected dogs was 4 months. Lethargy, inappetence and vomiting were the most observed clinical signs. Common hematological observations include panleukopenia, neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Case fatality rate was 29%. Multivariate analysis revealed that neutrophil and total WBC counts, age category and vaccination status, and the presence of lethargy, inappetence and vomiting were found significantly associated. Absolute neutrophil count (p-value=0.009) was a significant predictor of ICA test result. Half of the owners (51%) claimed to be unaware of the disease and the vaccinations against it.

      Meena Gyawali, BN, MPH, Rama Pahari, BN, Safala Maharjan, Bsc Nsg, , Dr Ravi Roshan Khadka, MS Urology

Abstract: Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) continue to be the leading cause of acute illnesses worldwide and remain the most important cause of infant and young children mortality in developing countries like Nepal.

      Vanya Plachkova, Alexandra Zhelyazkova, Latchezar Avramov, Chavdar Zemyarski and Petar Petrov

Abstract: Four different samples have been tested by fluorescence spectroscopy. Three of the tested samples are of different ruminants: goat, sheep and cow. The fourth sample is a mixture of cow's milk in several different breeds of cow. It has been found that the most appropriate excitation wavelength fluorescence method for investigate of milk in ruminants is 255 nm. This is due to the fact that only at this wavelength there is little difference in emission wavelengths between goat and sheep milk. Emission wavelengths of small ruminants vary considerably in emission wavelengths with that of the cow, which belongs to a class in cattle. In this case, an essential point in the fluorescence spectroscopy with respect to testing cow's milk is that the milk taken from a cow breed differs in wavelength of fluorescence with that which is a mixture of several breeds. This fact means that the method of fluorescence spectroscopy is suitable for determining the quality of milk from the selected breeds, if that is the desire of farmers. We consider that an efficient analysis of the raw milk of ruminants separately proven method of classical fluorescence. With analysis by synchronous fluorescence not observed shift in emission wavelengths in comparison between the goat and sheep milk.

      Nirmalendu Das

Abstract: Electronic configurations of the elements already established in the subject of material science. These were determined by the system of (1s) for Hydrogen (IA group, Period 1), Helium (8A or zero group, Period 1), these numbers added to next to next element with the series of (2s, 2p), (3s, 3p, 3d), (4s, 4p, 4d, 4f), (5s, 5p, 5d, 5f), etc. for other elements up to atomic number 118. There are huge numbers of electrons with respect to atomic numbers. This system is one of the wonder systems in the modern science. Though here in this script I tried to find the 1st ionization energy by using relative numbers which derived from couple system [1] and periodic numbers, both are new attempted in this field of material science. Relative numbers are very unique, these numbers are able to find the series of Pi [1], series of ½ [2], cells functions of mind [3]. There is no relation between number of electrons and relative numbers (r1 and r2), although I observed that, [(r2 – 2) + r1] = Atomic Number of the elements = Z, [r2 > r1 and r2 = (r1 + 2)]. For example, relative number of Hydrogen r2 = 2 and r1 = 1, then [(r2 – 2) + r1] = [(2 – 2) + 1] = 1 = Z. For Helium, r2 = 2, r1 = 2, then [(r2 – 2) + r1] = [(2 – 2) + 2] = 2 = Z. Therefore, relative number is related to atomic number of element. Also, relative numbers of element almost ½ of atomic number.

      A.S. Mahaliyana, M.F.A. Fasmina, G.M.G.M.M. Wickrama and A.M.T.B. Alahakoon

Abstract: Alternanthera sessilis Var. Rubra is a colourful foliage plant which has a high demand in ornamental aquatic plant industry. This study investigated the best N: P: K ratio to obtain maximum growth performance of Alternanthera sessilis Var. Rubra in order to cater the demand by cost-effective application of fertilizer. As per the results obtained (p<0.05), plants treated with 2N: P: 2K fertilizer ratio show the highest growth performance in terms of shoot length, fresh weight of roots, total leaf area and number of leaves. The plants that were treated with 2N:2P: K fertilizer ratio showed the highest growth performance for the growth parameters of root length, fresh weight of shoots and number of new nodes. Most of the growth parameters that are important for ornamental aquatic plant industry such as shoot length, total leaf area and number of leaves were given by the 2N: P: 2K fertilizer ratio. Hence, 2N: P: 2K fertilizer ratio is the best for Alternanthera sessilis (Var. Rubra) to obtain optimum growth performance for ornamental aquatic plant industry.

      Agung Budi Sardjono, Gagoek Hardiman, Eddy Prianto

Abstract: The pressures of globalization encourage the search for local values to achieve specific advantages, this is an attempt to be able to perform in the global competition. The Nusantara region has rich in local cultural diversity which specific and have not been studied and developed. Traditional houses as a basic element of settlement is the result of a culture that is loaded with local values. Order forms and traditional house are the result of the fulfillment of the special needs of the local community that is maintained across generations. Kudus is the part of the subculture of Java called Pesisiran culture. Cultural traits related to religious aspects as a devout Muslim and livelihoods as a trader.

      PS Ghalaut, Sudhir Kumar Atri, Naresh Gaur , Suvrit Jain, Arvind Chahal, Isha Pahuja, Divya Sahni

Abstract: This cross sectional, observational study was performed in 170 adult patients with splenomegaly who reported to Department of Medicine, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak from may 2014 to april 2015, over a period of 1 year. The patients were evaluated for their complete clinical profile & etiology of splenomegaly. Grading of splenomegaly was done by Hacket's grading. Thorough relevant investigations were carried out. Most patients were below 45 years of age. Most common etiological category of splenomegaly was hematological (54.7%) followed by congestive (24.5%), infectious (15.88%) and other (4.7%) causes. Most common splenomegaly patients belong to hacket’s grade II (55%), followed by grade III (28%), grade I (13%) & grade IV(4%). Among hematological etiology chronic myeloid leukemia was most common cause(25.29%). Malaria was the commonest etiology among infectious causes. On clinical examination pallor was present in 87% cases. 44% of patients had hepatomegaly, 26% of patients had icterus., lymphadenopathy was present in 13% patients. We compared the results of our study with other studies & concluded that clinical profile & etiological spectrum of splenomegaly varies from region to region.

      H.K.S. Hanasini Athapaththu

Abstract: To determine the mission and the objectives of an organization it is very important to understand what are its current situation and the types of barriers the firm would have to be faced from the existing environment. Through successfully deploying strategies an organization can realize its mission and the objectives. So the firms should know about strategic planning and strategic management. Strategic planning which requires a great deal of strategic thinking is one of the most important management tool which helps managers to recognize the priorities and determine the main actions necessary to realize the mission and objectives of the organization. Nowadays strategic management has become one of the primary topics in management of organizations because of the dynamic business environment. This paper entails the concepts of strategy, strategic planning, strategic thinking, strategic management and the importance of strategic management.

      Abhishek Singh, Krishna Kumar Sahani, Akshyaya Pradhan

Abstract: Hypertension is diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high blood pressure(≥140/90). Traditionally, this requires three separate sphygmomano-meter measurements at one monthly intervals. Ambulatory BP monitoring devices are usually programmed to take readings at set intervals; 15–30 minutes during the day and every 30–60 minutes at night, to obtain numerous measurements while limiting interference with activity or sleep.

      Elvis O. Oyugi, Walter Otieno, Jane Githuku, Dickens Onyango, Venny C.S. Nyambati

Abstract: Mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remains a significant public health problem in Western Kenya. Male partner testing at the antenatal clinic (ANC) has been cited as a key strategy to reduce MTCT. The Western Kenya region has a high MTCT rate of 15% but low rate of testing for men at the ANC. We sought to describe the strategies for improving this low level of male partner testing. We conducted a facility-based cross sectional study in four health centres between February and April 2015.

      Shabudin Shenura, Ashenafi Haile, Emnet Negash

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to assess Challenges inhibiting the flourishing of entrepreneurial competencies of MSEs in Jimma zone.

      Jasim Mohammed Saleh, Norsida Man, Majeed Hadi Salih, Salim Hassan, Nolila Moha Nawi, Sarah Jasim Mohammed

Abstract: This paper examines the training needs of extension agents in Iraq agriculture, specifically, the practice of different extension approaches, activities, methods and principal problems of extension agents in their fieldwork. Training in any form is intrinsic to organizational effectiveness and efficiency training. The type of training given to an individual who is gainfully employed but requires certain knowledge and skills to improve his efficiency.

      Sameer Ahmad Bhat

Abstract: Nationalist and Marxist historiography in India have tended to assume that the British colonial politics of land tenure, taxation and commercialisation which led the conditions for the formation the princely states in Indian Sub-continent. According to the available literature, there were about 565 princely states in Colonial India and their administration was run by the British through their appointed agents. Among these princely states, Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh were the important Princely states. At the time of partition and independence all these states were given the choice either to accede to India or to Pakistan or to remain independent. The foundation of Kashmir as a modern state was laid by the treaty of Amritsar, signed on 16th March 1846, between Maharaja Gulab Singh and the British, by which Gulab Singh had to pay seventy Five lakh rupees to the British. Up to 1947 the administration was run by the Dogra descendants on the lines of the British and finally Kashmir was acceded to India by signing the Instrument of Accession on 16th October, 1947. The main aim of the paper is to analyse the steps that were taken by the Dogra Maharajas in order to extend their territorial control and also the paper will also focus on Dogra state craft.

      Akash Kaintura, Manish Gusain

Abstract: The problem of emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere is inevitable but the amount of carbon dioxide prevalent in the atmosphere today is menacing. The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere being almost 400 ppm is itself a threat to the future generations. The world had come together to fight the rising level of co2 but with no watershed achievement apart from setting some international forums. The techniques available to us for keeping a check on rising level of carbon dioxide; Scrubbing Towers, Artificial Tree, Bio char, STEP, have been successful to certain extent but have been warped by the capital involved with the particular technique. The funding involved in these techniques is way too high which has led to the question: What if the non-renewable source of energy can be used to capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and provide us with a cleaner air? The best answer would be the use of solar powered carbon capture device.

      Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis, Sri Pujiyati, Totok Hestirianoto, Pratiwi Dwi Wulandari

Abstract: Bioacoustics is the science that combines biology and acoustics and refers to the production of sound, dispersion and reception by/to animals and humans. This study used acoustic and behavioral observations of dolphins to see the different patterns of sound, and describe behavior physiotherapy pool at Safari Park Indonesia, Cisarua Bogor. Power Spectral Density (PSD), the frequency range of the whistle sound different from one another. The highest intensity values that are at the sound of the whistle 3 after eat show pool with an intensity value of 25.57 dB at a frequency of 14470 Hz. Test result F before eating physiotherapy pool have in common (Homogeneous) contained in the relationship between the time 500 to 600 with the results of the whistle 1, 2, 3, and 4 are Reject Ho (Fhit> F table). Position of dolphins in a pool physiotherapy more dominant and often located in the bottom of the pool.

      T. Suseela, R. Chandrasekha, V. Vijaya Bhaskar, D. R. Salomi Suneetha and K. Umakrishna

Abstract: An experiment was laid out with four spacing’s (30x20cm, 30x30cm, 45x20 cm, 45x30 cm), three bulb sizes (<2.0 cm, 2.0-3.0 cm and >3.0 cm) and two depths of planting (2.5cm and 6.0cm) in a randomized block design with three replications to study their individual and interaction effects on vegetative growth and flower yield in tuberose cv. Suvasini. All vegetative growth parameters except total chlorophyll content and all spike quality parameters spike for girth were found significantly influenced with wider spacing (45x30cm). Longivity of the spike on the field was found significantly maximum (15.77 days) with wider spacing (45x30cm), whereas, spike yield per plot (107.83) and per hectare (2.72 lakh ha-1) were found significantly maximum with optimum spacing (30x30 cm). The large bulb size (>3.0cm) recorded significant increase in all growth and spike parameters and spike yield per hectare. Planting the bulbs at shallow depth (2.5cm) resulted in the early sprouting, flower spike emergence, floret opening and spike girth. The length of spike, number of spikes per plot and hectare and longevity of spike in field increased significantly at deeper depth (6.0 cm). The bigger sized bulbs (more than 3.0 cm) planted at optimum spacing (30x30 cm) and at 6.0 cm depth of planting was found best to get maximum commercial advantage for achieving higher flower yield.

      Siddharth S. Ghosh, Dr. M. M. Gupta

Abstract: Today the world is highly competitive. In order to be successful in today’s world it is essential to be highly productive. Productivity can be improved in many ways. In this paper the scope for implementation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) in a fabrication industry are presented. Using Overall Equipment Effectiveness one can determine the present condition of the machines, worker-skill and utilization of machine in the industry and also identify the scope for improvement. Two critical machines have been identified and studied and the results are presented.

      Siddhi Desai, Kavita Joshi, Bhavik Desai

Abstract: There are many unsolved problems that computers could solve if the appropriate software existed. Many real time problems are currently unsolvable such as Flight control systems for aircraft, automated manufacturing systems, and sophisticated avionics systems, not because current computers are too slow or have too little memory, but simply because it is too difficult to determine what the program should do. If a computer could learn to solve the problems through trial and error, that would be of great practical value. Reinforcement Learning is an approach to machine intelligence that combines two disciplines: Dynamic Programming and supervised learning to successfully solve problems that neither discipline can address individually. Encouraged by this emerging technique, this document briefly reviews the basic study of reinforcement learning, its various techniques and applications of it in various fields.

      Rosephine Nyiva Mwinzi, Dr Hellen K. Mberia, Dr Ndeti Ndati

Abstract: Internal communication in the public sector is an important factor in the improvement of service delivery especially in institutions of higher education hence this study to describe the communication methods used by public universities to disseminate corporate identity messages to employees. The research was carried out through the mixed methods design which comprised a descriptive survey for the qualitative data, in-depth interviews and documentary analysis for qualitative data. The target population consisted of ten public universities in Kenya. The sample size was 386 participants which included lecturers, administrative staff, registrars and public relation managers drawn from three older universities and seven recently charted universities. The findings indicated that the communication methods are top-down and one way. The recommendation was that universities create a communication policy that included a formalized way for information to move from the bottom-up.

      Mokhtar Karami, Abbasali Dadashi Roudbari, Mehdi Asadi

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the autocorrelation spatial variations of heat Islands of Tehran. For this purpose, network database of minimum and maximum temperature of Tehran was created. Then, the database was used to consider a 33 years statistical period in daily interval of 1/1/1983 to 31/12/2013. Based on the present study and a cell with dimension of 18×18 Kilometres was developed on under study region. The modern methods of spatial static such as global method of Moran spatial autocorrelation, and local Anselin Index of Moran and Hot spots were used to gain with year changing by programming software of GIS. The results of the study showed that spatial variations of heat Islands of Tehran have up word cluster pattern. Among them , according to the local Index of Moran and Hot spots heat Islands have positive spatial autocorrelation pattern (hot heat Islands) in East and Northeast of Tehran and west and South west parts of Tehran have negative spatial autocorrelation pattern (cold heat Islands). In most cases, a large part of province in almost half of total area of province didn’t have any significant pattern or spatial autocorrelation during under study period. Moreover, it was founded that heat Islands are generated and controlled by affecting from two systems: 1- local factors controlling the place (geographic arrangement of Islands), 2- external factors controlling the time (the region of heat Islands).

      Temesgen Yadeta Dibaba

Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges of preprimary education provided in the primary schools of selected districts of Jimma zone. In so doing, descriptive survey method was employed as an appropriate methodology. Teachers teaching preprimary classes, primary school directors, and pertinent experts from districts education offices, preprimary classrooms and outdoor play areas were used as a source to secure relevant data. Simple random, available and purposive samplings were employed. Questionnaire, observation and interview were the main tools of data collection. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were employed.

      Tangudu Nagabhusana Rao; Guntuku Girija Sankar; Lade Jyothi Rani

Abstract: A high throughput, sensitive, selective, and rugged liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of Pioglitazone and its active metabolites, M III and M IV, in human plasma was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from plasma by solid phase extraction technique using Waters Oasis HLB 96 well plate 30 µm (10 mg). Isocratic elution of Pioglitazone and its metabolites were achieved in 5.5 min

      Akerele, Adebimpe O, Etiene Moses

Abstract: Building Information Modeling represents the development and use of computer-generated n-dimensional (n-D) models to simulate the planning, design, construction and operation of a facility. It represents a new paradigm within the construction industry, one that encourages integration of the roles of all stakeholders on a project allowing the architects, engineers and constructors to visualize what is to be built in a simulated environment and to identify potential design, construction or operational issues.

      DishaChavan, PoojaSoni, Harshvardhan Tiwary, Rekha Sharma

Abstract: An important aspect of localizing the user interface of any interactive application in a computer system is the translation of a large amount of text, usually English language text, consisting of words, phrases and sentences that occur as part of the interaction. As can be expected there is a lot of commonality in these text items across applications and even across platforms. Automated assistance in the generation/translation of these text items would enable and encourage more localization efforts. In this paper, the description of a multiple language such as English – Hindi, Hindi – English system that can be used to provide such automated assistance. It is a common desktop application which is simple to use, extensible and scalable to other languages as well.

      Sandeep Rajta, R.S.Jhobta, A.K.Malhotra, D.K.Verma, A.K.Kaundal, Gopal Singh

Abstract: Objective: To determine the efficacy, safety and outcome of the single stage management of gall stones and common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era.

      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Trans urethral resection of prostate (TURP) is the most frequently performed surgical treatment for patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia. This retrospective observational study was design to evaluate the occurrence and the characteristics of incidental prostate cancer (IPC), in patients underwent TURP for clinically benign disease. In histopathology of TURP specimens 14.9% showed incidental prostatic carcinoma concluding that TURP has additional benefit of early diagnosing of prostatic carcinoma.

      Omar W. Maher, Raslan Y.A, Amany A.E. Ahmed, Eman M. Raafat, Gehan S. Georgy

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of ellagic acid, and rosemarinic acid on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Therefore, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups, control group, ellagic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.) group, rosemarinic acid (75mg/kg, p.o.) group, combined ellagic and rosemarinic acid for 14 days. Cardio-nephrotoxicity was induced by doxorubicin injection (5mg/kg, i.p.) every 3 days. Doxorubicin administration started on the fourth day of ellagic or/and rosemarinic acids treatment. Animals were scarified on 15th day.

      Sameer Ahmad Sofi

Abstract: Kashmir since the establishment of Muslim rule had remained an important Centre of Sufism. It acquired fame as Raeshwar (valley of Rishis). Among the sufi saints of Medieval Kashmir, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi occupies an important place. He was a man of international repute for his learning, scholarship and piety. The present paper throws a brief light on the life and times of Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and his literary contribution and apart from that the paper discusses in detail the role of sufis particularly Shaikh’s role in the Mughal conquest of Kashmir.

      Ahmed Al-Arafati

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of change management when implementing Customers Relationship Management (CRM) system in Nonprofit Organization in Oman. In this research we are going to take Information Technology Authority (ITA) as an example of Nonprofit Organization in Oman.

      Smita Rout, Asit Kumar Behera, Aliva Patnaik

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess and ascertain the physico-chemical properties of Mahanadi river water from five different locations of (Binakhandi, 500 m upstream of Binakhandi, 500 m downstream of Binakhandi, PC bridge and Dhanupali) Sambalpur city of Odisha during the month of March and August, 2014. The analysis was carried out by taking certain important parameters like pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Chloride, total dissolved oxygen (TDS), Nitrate, Sulphates, total hardness (TH), electrical conductivity (EC) and Fluoride. Analyzed parameters like pH, DO, TH, Chloride, Sulphate, and TDS were found within permissible limit prescribed by IS 10500 except Nitrate and Fluoride content which exceeds at some sites. COD values were invariably higher than BOD indicating the presence of considerable amount of chemically oxidizable matter which were non-biodegradable.

      Prof.N.Meenakumari, Dr. Clay Warren Chauncey M. Depew

Abstract: A Descriptive study was done among 120 adolescence to explore Gender differences in family sex communication Quotient at salawas Village, Rajasthan,India. Participants were selected from village at bus stops, shops, and roads by Convenience sampling technique. Level of sex orientation was assessed by Family Sex Communication Quotient (FSCQ) scale. The study findings revealed that adolescence girls perceived that they can openly share and discuss about sex in family also they can learn more about sex in family compared to adolescence boys, but in contradictory Adolescence boys perceived that family plays an important role in sexual learning compared to adolescence girls. The study findings suggested that (1) Encourage the parents to educate their own children on sex and sexuality (2) Formulate the common platform to discuss about sex in family.(3)Spill about the myths and fallacies about sex, and provide adequate information on sex.(4)Empower our children to abstain from sex(5)Provide a conducive environment for sharing and discussing about sex in family.(6)Provide positive value on sex among adolescence.(7)Parents are to be encouraged to allow conversation on sex with children in family.

      Khin Zezawar Aung

Abstract: Opinion mining is a process for tracking the mood of the people about any particular topic by review. Sentiment analysis tries to determine the sentiment of a writer about some aspect and also the overall contextual polarity of a document. This paper presents the sentiment analysis in collaboration with opinion extraction, summarization, and tracking the records of teachers. This paper modifies the existing algorithm in order to obtain the collaborated opinion result. The aim of this paper is to analyze the students’ text comments using lexicon based sentiment analysis to predict teacher performance. A database of sentiment words is created as a lexical source to get the polarity of words. In this study, students give their comments on their teacher. Finally, the result of opinion about the teachers are represented as very high, high, moderate, low and very low by evaluating the feelings expressed by students.

      P. A. D. Dilrukshi, H. D. I. M. Nirmanamali, G. H. J. Lanel, M. A. S. C. Samarakoon

Abstract: The National Hospital of Sri Lanka is a major healthcare service provider in the country. The hospital has been expanded with many healthcare facilities. The out-patient department (OPD) is the main division of the hospital which provides their service to over two thousand patients daily. Queuing is a major challenge for healthcare services all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. This study investigates the application of queuing theory to reduce the patients’ waiting time at the OPD of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. In this study, consultation and pharmacy at the OPD were only considered. The secondary data were collected under the patients’ arrivals and doctors’ roster. The primary data were collected through direct observations during seven weekdays. Data were analyzed and used to model channels for each section of the OPD.

      Subhash N. Ariyadasa

Abstract: Elections are plays a vital role in modern democracy. It is the form of transferring power of citizen in to their representatives. Sri Lanka, being the oldest democracy in South Asia, is still using old traditional paper-based election system. But the modern technology is improved to provide faster, better, cheaper vote counting, and have stimulated great interest in managing the election process through the use of electronic voting systems. In nowadays, many democracies have adopted electronic systems, and the number of deployed systems is rising. Although the electronic voting process has gained popularity and users, it is a great challenge to provide a reliable system. The time is come for Sri Lanka to replace the current paper-based election system from paperless e-Voting systems. Electronic voting system have many advantages over traditional hand-counted paper ballots, therefore it will be a needful replacement for the future of Sri Lankan democracy.

      Dr. Al-Khulaidi Abdualmajed Ahmed Ghaleb

Abstract: The paper deals with s the Analysis of existing software packages on the cluster systems, comparative characteristics of the existing cluster systems. There are problems of parallel computing, arising from the use of the cluster package MPI / MPICH. Unlike other systems, this package lacks integration with the queue management system, thus, it requires a modification that takes into account the peculiarities of a specially distributed environment.

      Dr. Shweta Mathur, Dr. Asha Goswami

Abstract: In present study cotyledonary nodal segments and nodal shoot segments were used for regeneration. Nodal segment explant as well as cotyledonary nodal explant were incubated on basal MS medium and showed very poor percentage of shooting, explants inoculated on MS medium supplemented with either BAP (0.1-3.0 mg/L) or Kn (0.1-3.0 mg/L) alone produced multiple shoots. Best response of multiple shoot induction was obtained on MS medium supplemented with both BAP (2.0 mg/L) and NAA (0.5 mg/L) and the least responsive combination for multiple shooting in nodal segment as well as cotyledonary nodal explant was 0.1 mg/L Kn. MS medium supplemented with cytokinins alone (BAP or Kn) produced shoots in both the explants but MS medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP or Kn) + auxins (NAA or IBA) both, produced more percent of shoot regeneration as well as number of shoots / culture. Increased rate of multiplication or shoot induction in cultures supplemented with cytokinin (BAP or KN) and auxin (NAA or IBA) may be due to enhanced rate of cell division by cytokinin (BAP and Kn).

      Dr.Khurshida Pervin

Abstract: In our Bangladesh Smoking problem is one of the most serious problems as like as the World. Smoking is nothing but inhaling deadly poison. It kills the smoker not at a time-but little by little. Cigarette smoking is an intractable public health problem that posses threat to the health of the entire population. Smoking is considered as the single largest risk factor for a variety of malignancies, including lung cancer. So every year many people are dying before their expected life time for smoking. It is sad reality. Yet, why do people smoke and kill themselves. The prevalence of smoking is gradually increasing among the students in Bangladesh. Considering this view conducted this study at a selected Private University of Bangladesh. The objectives of the study was to assesses the status, roles and of the smokers to investigate economic activities of the smoking population to find out the result status of the smoking respondents and to identify the bad effects for smoking and others problem.

      K P Rao

Abstract: Six Sigma, despite of far flung success and wide spread applications, has some limitations like any contemporary new change methodology, both in Theory and Practice as well as tools and methods available to achieve the Six Sigma performance. One such weakness is that, Leadership. A failure to achieve success in change is directly correlated to ineffective leadership. A subject which can help leaders overcome this weakness is regular participation in the Quality and Excellence Awards.

      Chandrakant D. Shete and Punam D. Patil

Abstract: World Wide Web has transformed society to ‘knowledge society’. The whole globe is now dependent on WWW. The thirst of precise and most relevant piece of information is flooding the web with vast ocean of data. This data is required to be processed and structured in a consolidated product and for this ‘semantic web’ is the advance tool being used today. Our paper concentrates on the basic concept of ‘Semantic Web’, followed by the ‘goal’, ‘architecture’ and ‘applicability of semantic web services in libraries’. The paper offers a detailed platform for ten most effective services and operations in libraries, to satisfy the information quest of the information seekers. And thus concludes that libraries are the small scale sharing points for the advancement of semantic web in nurturing and in increasing the efficiency of library services.

      Zahraa N. Mohsen

Abstract: Evaporation is one of important parameter to determine crop water requirement especially in arid and semi-arid regions, therefore the accurate calculation of this factor is employed for research's such as water balance, irrigation system design, and water resource management is very important for these applications, In order to calculate the daily evaporation values, direct measurement or neural network models can be employed for the regions which there is no direct measurements tools. In this paper the daily evaporation has been estimated by using daily temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, sunshine hours, and evaporation data in Abu-garib Automatic weather station employing Neural Network training using daily data used four years and network testing takes one year. In this approach , a MLP layer network with a hidden layer and sigmoid function has been employed. The results show the powerful capability and high accuracy of artificial neural networks in calculating of daily evaporation. Best model for estimation of evaporation is neural network have MSE (0.1515), AE (0.2892) and R (0.9909).

      Eliaza Mkuna and Andrew E. Temu

Abstract: Intra-Africa trade is one of the most upcoming approaches of economic growth within the continent of Africa through regional economic integrations established. East Africa Community is one of the newly upcoming strong regional integration with the aim of creating harmonious trade environment among its member countries and propels economic growth among them. This study was done to compare the trading costs and benefit between Tanzanian small and medium agro-enterprises (SMAEs) trading to EAC countries and those trading locally within Tanzania. The study collected a sample of 105 SMAEs trading to EAC countries and 105 SMAEs trading locally. Costs and Benefit Analysis tool and descriptive statistics were used and three regions of Tanzania namely Arusha, Kagera and Mwanza were involved with three types of agricultural crops Beans, Maize and Rice.

      Victoria Jovin Mugula, and Eliaza Mkuna

Abstract: This study was done to assess farmers’ perceptions on climate change impacts in different rice production systems in Morogoro Tanzania. In specific the study analyzed farmers socio-economic characteristics in different rice production systems in Morogoro Tanzania and also examined farmers perceptions on climate change impacts in different rice production systems in Morogoro Tanzania. Both secondary and primary data using a structured questionnaires and focus group discussion were collected from Morogoro rural and Mvomero Districts in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design by which data were collected at one point in time. However the sample size involved was 150 respondents. The analyses were done using descriptive statistics to analyze farmers socio-economic characteristics and Likert scale was used to assess respondents’ perceptions on the climate change impacts in different rice production systems. The results indicate that socio-economic factors such as age, education level, household size and main activities of the household affect the climate change adaptation and coping strategies perception of rice farmers. Moreover small number of respondents believed that the climate change is threat to future food security, and also majority of farmers perceived that climate change might lead to crop failure, unpredicted seasons, drought and floods. The study suggested that there is a need for upscalling of awarewness, education and capacity building on good agricultural practices which will assist farmers to cope with climatic changes.

      Ewelum, Johnson Nnadi

Abstract: The main focus of this study was culture and beliefs: Social implication on education of women in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. To guide this study, three research questions were formulated. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of all the business women at Ogige Main Market, Nsukka LGA with first School Leaving Certificates. The sample consisted of 250 business women selected through multi-state sampling technique in which simple random sampling and proportional sampling techniques were used. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection which was dully validated by two experts in Adult Education and one expert in Measurement and Evaluation.

      Deni Iskandar, Haselman, Hasniati, Gita Susanti

Abstract: One of the methods in the success of the role of government that are currently considered relevant in the context of governance is the recognition of the role of CSR provided by the private sector in helping the government tackle the various problems the public sector. With the legislation on corporate social responsibility (CSR ) under Article 74, No. 40/2007 on limited liability company (PT), the Government indicated kepeduli anya on issues in the field of CSR in Indonesia.

      Bachtiar, Sangkala, Haselman, Muhammad Yunus

Abstract: Research on the collaboration between the two institutions namely South Sulawesi Provincial Government with Regional Military Command (Kodam) VII / Wirabuana in order to increase of rice overstock 2 million tons extremely relevant to study collaboration related to the implementation of management undertaken by both parties. In order to Achieve the objectives of the study, the research approach used is qualitative. The results Showed that the implementation of management collaboration that took place between the Provincial Government of South Sulawesi with Regional Military Command (Kodam VII) / Wirabuana to reach 2 million tons of rice overstock sustainable in the province of South Sulawesi has been underway since 2010 to 2015. Therefore, management collaboration that took place not pure based on instructions from the central government, but a continuation of the policy of the Government of South Sulawesi province that already exists. If the look and Analyzed both in terms of the definition, characteristics and the process is conducted in collaboration management Generally that the substance has met the elements of collaborative management.

      Md. Ashrafudoulla, Feroz Alam, Syeda Sahanaz Naznin

Abstract: In diabetes, insulin remains the most effective of controlling blood glucose levels. Since 1946, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) has been used as the predominant basal insulin .Absorption may be variable for re-suspension need and time action profile (peak activity 4-6 h after sub cutaneous administration) confers an increased propensity for between meal and nocturnal hypo glycaemia. In 1980s, recombinant DNA technology modified the insulin molecule resulting in the soluble long acting insulin analogues, glargine and detemir . Detemir and glargine are indicated for administration once daily. Long subcutaneous multi hexamers are formed by the latest prolonged acting insulin and delay absorption is Degludec .Glargine V300 and LY2605541 are new developmental agents. LY2605541 is combined with polyethylene glycol and increase hydrodynamic size with absorption from subcutaneous tissue. From glargine a new formulation glargine U300 is produced which has time action profile. Including a critical appraisal of the degludec trials this article reviews recent advances in basal insulin analogues.

      MVG Pinto, Anula Kariyawasam, Bhagya Thenuwara, Prabuddha VB Jayasinghe, Sasika K Weerabahu, Senani U Dunukearachchi, Dhanoja LR Wijesinghe, AHMAH Abayasinghe

Abstract: Introduction: There are areas of the lung which have differences of ventilation and perfusion and certainly there are different degrees of ventilation and perfusion matches and mismatches, which can contribute to the final outcome of oxygenation (1). The lung functions can change by the position (2). It is a known fact that an individual adapts different positions to sleep (3). This probably may be related to the most well ventilated areas and probably the best matched perfusion as well. Finding this relationship might have importance in clinical practice to improve oxygenation in respiratory compromised patients.

      Roof Ahmad Mir

Abstract: This paper focuses on a very crucial and important issue that took place in 1975 between Indria Ghandi and Sheikh Abdullah the ruler of Kashmir. It was this agreement or accord which made the Kashmir a part of India .After working about five years on the said project I have reached to conclusion that this development was land mark in the history of India .I have started with the background which was set by then prime minister of India Indria Ghandi and its acceptance by then tallest leader of Kashmir and its repercussions which he faced there after all has been discussed in this paper.

      Israel Kofi Nyarko, Matthew Opoku Agyeman-Duah, Vincent Asimah

Abstract: This paper sought to discuss the concept of loyalty of customers to organizations and brands. Loyalty is defined as the extent of the faithfulness of consumers to a particular brand, expressed through their repeat purchases, irrespective of the marketing pressure generated by the competing brands. The authors adopted an interpretive literature approach in discussing the three cardinal denominators for measuring loyalty: repetition, advocacy, and patronage. The study revealed that loyalty is important for several reasons. First, it reduces the cost of production because the sales volume is higher. Second, companies with brand-loyal customers don't have to spend as much money on marketing the product, which will permit the company to either retain more earnings or to invest resources elsewhere. Third, companies may use premium pricing that will increase profit margins. Finally, loyal customers tend to recommend products that they like. It is also important to observe that the study brought to the fore the fact that patronage, advocacy, and repetition are key to examining loyalty.


Abstract: Geopolymer is a new development in the world of concrete in which cement is totally replaced by pozzoloanic materials like fly ash and activated by highly alkaline solutions to act as a binder in the concrete mix. For the selection of suitable ingredients of geopolymer concrete to achieve desire strength at required workability, an experimental investigation has been carried out for the gradation of geopolymer concrete and a mix design procedure is proposed on the basis of quantity and fineness of fly ash, quantity of water, grading of fine aggregate, fine to total aggregate ratio. Sodium silicate solution with Na2O = 16.37 %, SiO2 = 34.35 % and H2O = 49.28 % and sodium hydroxide solution having 13M , 10M 15M concentration were obtained throughout the experiment. Water-to-geopolymer binder ratio of 0.40, alkaline solution-to-fly ash ratio of 0.35 and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratio of 2.0 by mass were fixed on the basis of workability and cube compressive strength. Workability of geopolymer concrete was measured by flow table apparatus and cubes of 150 mm .side were cast and tested for compressive strength after specified period of oven heating. The temperature of oven heating was maintained at 60 °C for 24 h duration and tested 7 days after heating. It is observed that the results of workability and compressive strength are well match with the required degree of workability and compressive strength. So, proposed method is used to design normal and standard geopolymer concrete.

      Immaculate Mpuyu Lugwe

Abstract: This paper is based on the need to discuss factors affecting finance management as one of the major problems faced by devolved units. The scope of the research will be County Government of Kwale. The paper explores measures that can be undertaken to impact the effectiveness of finance management. Records have shown that a large number of the devolved units are yet to develop and implement effective finance management, yet these attracts benefits to both the devolved units and the members of public. Hence the development of this research paper to highlight on the best practices. It must be appreciated that the issue of finance management is very sensitive to the members of the public because it affects the living standards of the community members. This is because resources that are well utilized and distributed would be of much benefit to the public. This paper is therefore prepared to analyze the importance of finance management so that organizations and individuals can understand the importance of effective finance management.

      Nassim Salim Hadi

Abstract: Political risk is the risk that an investment's returns could suffer as a result of political changes or instability in a country. This paper seeks to explore the political risks that affect the mining industry in Kenya. Kenya has a wide variety of minerals which are known and mapped, but most of its potential lies in the yet undiscovered mineral deposits. In Kenya mining industry, local government plays not only a role of administrator and supervisor, but also a role of special interests subject in some cases.

      Fatima Jasmine, Mansoor Shazia, Saadia M. Ali, Rehman Masihur and Mustafa Huma

Abstract: Unani medicine is now becoming a strong part of medicinal system and it is now popularly practiced by a large segment of the population. This medicinal system originated in Greece and was brought to the subcontinent by Muslim scholars. However, the unani medicine currently practiced in India is vastly different from its Greek roots. Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) is an important folk medicine which is used in number of ailments. This study was conducted to assess the anti-oxidant activity and phyto-chemical analysis of methanolic extracts of L. royleana seeds.

      Arega Seyoum Asfaw

Abstract: Purpose ─The purpose of this research is to analyze the performance of selected MFIs and their impact on poverty reduction in Ethiopia. To achieve the objectives sought four MFIs were selected randomly and their outreach and financial performance, institutional sustainability and their program impact on poverty have been evaluated in-depth.

      Temesgen Yadeta Dibaba

Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to assess the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in Jimma College of Teachers’ Education. The study employed qualitative case study method. Young people, teachers, health and counseling professionals in the college were the main sources of data. Stratified and purposive samplings were used. Focus group discussion and in depth interview were the main tools of data collection. The data were analyzed thematically using verbatim quotes.

      Sadiya Ahmed Mohamed and Maimunah Ali

Abstract: Supervisor support (SVS) has greater influence on employees’ affective commitment. The purpose of the present study is to address the impacts of SVS on affective commitment of the employees of Malaysian private Telecommunication companies. Variables such as SVS and job satisfaction were proposed to enhance employees’ affective commitment of their organizations. SVS, Job satisfaction and affective commitment were proposed as the independent, intervening and outcome variables respectively. The data of this study have been collected from a group of employees in the telecommunication Malaysian industry through questionnaire survey. The data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that SVS has significant relationship with job satisfaction and affective commitment. Likewise; this study suggested that SVS can improve the employees’ affective commitment by presenting a significant relationship between SVS and affective commitment through mediation of job satisfaction.


Abstract: The latest financial crisis had strong impact on global economy. In European market exists specific situation conditioned with special institutional agreements that deteriorate consequences of financial crisis, and created a doubt about future of European Union. The crisis has deepened the problem of indebtedness within the European Monetary Union, increased unemployment. In these circumstances European Central Bank (ECB) banking had to implement measures to mitigate financial shocks in European countries, and made itself work between its monetary policy and liquidity policy.

      Ermias Girma and Mr.Teshome Worku

Abstract: Pectin can be used as food and pharmatecitical additives. This study investigated the effect of temperature, time and pH on the yield and physicochemical characteristics of pectin extracted from banana and mango peels. Pectin was extracted using acid extraction method. The experimental design was performed using Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methodology for parametric optimization. The optimum temperature, time and pH for the extraction of pectin for both peels were determined to be 82oC, 105min and 2 respectively. The yields of pectin under these optimum conditions were found to be 11.31% and 18.5% for banana and mango peel respectively. Temperature, extraction time and pH showed a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the pectin yield. The equivalent weight, methoxyl content, anhydrouronic acid content, degree of esterification, moisture content and ash content of the banana and mango peel pectin obtained under the optimum conditions were found to be 925.01g/mol, 6.09%, 53.6%, 64.5%, 8.94%, 0.47% and 895 g/mol, 8.89%, 70.65%, 72.17%, 8.82%, 0.915% respectively. In general, the finding of the study shows that pectin, being used as food and pharmaceutical additives, can be obtained from banana and mango peel.



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