IJSRP, Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2013 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]
Haimanti Chakraborty, Dr. Durga Misra
In today world, life without electronics is unthinkable. It has been studied that for electronic devices to provide better efficiency and reliability in terms of speed, power-loss and cost, the fundamental component of each Integrated Circuit (IC) chip, namely the MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) needs to be reduced or ‘scaled’ down in size. Device scaling has produced remarkable results until further scaling beyond the 22-nm technology node has resulted in undesirable leakage currents in the MOS device by means of direct tunneling of electrons through the gate dielectric. Due to this leakage, the battery of any electronic gadget can be drained in minutes and the excessive heat produced by all the MOSFETs will reduce the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, materials like the oxides of hafnium and zirconium with a higher value of dielectric constant K are being used to replace the previously used silicon dioxide, so as to facilitate more device scaling with negligible leakages.