County governments are a recent introduction in Kenya which was constituted as a result of the new constitution. They were created through the constitution of Kenya leading to 47 county governments. This number is based on the delineation of administrative districts as created under the Provinces and Districts Act of 1992. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is only possible if county governments who are closer to the people are empowered to work towards poverty eradication and sustainable development. Given that de-centralization and the devolution of power to local governments is now a reality in Kenya, it is this sphere of government which needs to redouble its efforts. This paper aims to enhance the contribution of county governments in achieving the MDGs, in particular in addressing poverty and sustainable development.