IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 5, May 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]
Many studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are more prone to develop diabetic nephropathy.There is interrelationship between trace elements and diabetes. The patients of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into 2 groups, based on the presence or absence diabetic nephropathy. Patients in each group (n=50) were subjected to tests for estimation of Zinc, Magnesium and Copper concentration in serum. Decreased serum zinc levels was seen in all diabetic subjects, but the decrease in levels was more in the group with diabetic nephropathy (81.16+24.34 vs. 92.01+20.17; p<0.05). Decreased serum magnesium levels was also more significant in the group of patients with diabetic nephropathy (1.64+0.67 vs. 2.09+0.56; p<0.001). Increased serum copper levels was seen in all the patients, but the increase in levels was more significant in the group with diabetic nephropathy (140.64+33.61 vs. 116.77+26.22; p<0.001). Decreased serum zinc levels and Decreased serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes is said to be due to hyperglycaemia that promotes increased excretion of these trace elements in urine. The glycated proteins seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients have an increased affinity for copper, leading to Increased serum copper levels . This bound copper is redox active and leads to production of free radicals that cause oxidative stress which, plays some role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.