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IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 9, September 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
September 2017 publication has started and publication will continue till 24th September 2017
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th September, their paper will publish in September edition latest by 24th September or before.
Online print version will release latest by 30th September. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th September and minor corrections are accepted till 26th September 2017.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Amirul Mustofa, Arlina Dewi

Abstract: Regionalization policies and tiered referral systems are issued to meet the availability of health facilities and satisfaction of National Health Care Insurance (JKN) participants. This study was conducted to determine the difference in the number of visits and the level of satisfaction before and after the referral regionalization policy enacted. This research type is quantitative research with Cross Sectional Study approach. This study used secondary data of JKN participants who came both in outpatient and inpatient at Bantul Regency Hospital. Data analysis using paired t-test paired test and Analysis of variance (Anova). Based on the Test of Normality's output that visit data and satisfaction are normally distributed.



      Amirul Mustofa, Arlina Dewi

Abstract: Regionalization policies and tiered referral systems are issued to meet the availability of health facilities facilities and satisfaction of National Health Care Insurance (JKN) participants. This study was conducted to determine the difference in the number of visits and the level of satisfaction before and after the referral regionalization policy enacted. This research type is quantitative research with Cross Sectional Study approach. This study used secondary data of JKN participants who came both in outpatient and inpatient at Bantul Regency Hospital. Data analysis using paired t-test paired test and Analysis of variance (Anova). Based on the Test of Normality's output that visit data and satisfaction are normally distributed.



      Chikamnele T. Amanze, Paul C. Oguike and Roseta C. Eneje

Abstract: Improper land use causes soil degradation with its resultant negative effects on agricultural production. A study was conducted at Ndume-Ibeku, in southeastern Nigeria to ascertain the variability in some physico-chemical properties ofUltisol under four differentland use types. Theland use types were continuously cultivated land (CC), forest land (FL), 1-year grass fallowland (GL1) and oil palm plantation (OP). The layout was a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Stratified random sampling method was applied by partitioning each landuse into three segments according to differencesin topography. Soil samples were randomly collected at 0-15cm depth within each segment and bulked to obtain a composite sample.



      H. A. P. L. Perera, W. D. N. Aruppala, M. D. P. Kawshalya, N. K. L. Silva, P. R. M. R. Perera, N. L. C. Silva, P. Divassini

Abstract: With the evolution of the digital era, internet and eLearning tools have become more popularized among educational institutes. Educators in all over the world increasingly combine e-learning tools with traditional learning to enable a blended learning environment.



      MH. MuflihatulUlfa, Sri Sundari, EkoriniListiowati

Abstract: The completeness of medical records is very important in the provision of health services, especially to improve the quality of service and patient safety. As an effort to improve the quality of service Muhammadiyah Hospital of Ponorogo has followed the KARS 2012 accreditation with a plenary achievement in August 2016. Although the status of accreditation plenary has been achieved but efforts to maintain improvements in patient care and patient safety should still be done. This study aims to determine the description of medical record completeness at Muhammadiyah Hospital of Ponorogo. This research is an observational analytic, quantitative approach with cross sectional design. Data analysis using univariate and bivariate analysis with Chi Square test. In the sample prior to the accreditation survey, the standard that was not achieved was PFE (Patient and Family Education) 2.1, while for samples after the accreditation survey, the unreachable standards were PFE 2.1, MCI (Management of Communication and Information) 19.3 and ACC (Acces to Care and Continuity of Care) 3.2.1. There are some standards that have statistically significant differences in the completeness of the medical record between before the accreditation survey and after the accreditation survey ie PFR (Patient and Family Right) 6.4 (p = 0.001), ASC (Anasthesia and Surgical Care) 7.1 (p = 0.018), AOP (Assesment of Patient) ( 1.6 (p = 0.020) , ASC 7.4 (p = 0.005), MCI 19.3 (P = 0.001).



      Sasui, Watcharin Jinwuth,Sirimas Hengrasmee

Abstract: The construction of houses with adobe brick is common practice among the developing communities of the world. The adobe is well known to have good compressive strength, according to the researches the compressive strength value varies and depends on the factors therefore soil proportion, curing age, form and dimensions. In order to examine the influence of these factors the experiment has been performed by conducting compressive strength test on five adobe masonry specimens of same soil texture, same curing age and of similar dimensions and shape. The experiment shows the greater variation in the compressive strength of each brick. The strength values shows 59.21% coefficient of variation ‘CV’. By comparing the experimental results with the reviewed researches the study concluded that the adobe is a handmade brick; the variation in strength value may still occur, even though the bricks are prepared under similar factors.



      Jonathan O. Obande

Abstract: In this study, an investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of condensed moisture on refined bleached and deodorized palm oil as an alternative dielectric transformer coolant. Dielectric response measurements were carried out temperatures of between 20°C to 140°C. The breakdown voltage and dissipation factor (tan δ) of the oil samples were systematically investigated under the influence of moisture and results compared using ASTM, VDE and IEC standard procedures. Owing to comparable results in the RBDPO and mineral oil (Shell Diala D) studied, it is suggested that treated vegetable oils is a suitable alternative to mineral oil.



      V.Sathiyaseelan, K.Niranjan

Abstract: Siddha system of Medicine has so many preparations for diseases. Siddha drugs are herbal based medicine. We use the herbal plants for preparing the drugs. All the plants are the backbone of Siddha Medicine. Several medicinal plants are used in skin disease. Siddha drugs are very effective for skin diseases. Piththa thosam is imbalanced from itsordinary level in skin disease and also raththa thaathu (blood) is affected by particular causes. We should give the causative and symptomatic treatment. The drugs can liberate the toxin from the body, purify the blood and neutralize the thosam.



      Nanda Surya Febrianta, Sri Sundari, Dwi Pudjaningsih

Abstract: The increasing number of patient visits in the Outpatient Pharmacy Installation of Pku Muhamadiyah Hospital Bantul in 2016, impact on the number of recipes that should be served by the higher staff. This leads to long queues due to the slow service process that also affects long waiting times. Knowing the picture of waiting time of outpatient pharmacy service, Identify model of queuing system, and identify any factors influencing waiting time of outpatient pharmacy service.



      Priyanka Dekate, Archana Mourya

Abstract: Background:- Children love to play with mud and sand, which host a lot of germs which can cause illness. Teaching them the significance of proper hand washing is a very crucial step towards living a healthy life. Encouraging children from an early age to wash their hands will help to ensure that this practice becomes a lifelong habit. The transmission of common communicable infections such as colds and flu can be prevented by following good hand hygiene.



      Aisha Ibrahim Ningi

Abstract: This paper takes stock of the role of theory in the humanities away from the usual notion that it has no place in qualitative inquiry. The paper then maps the broader view of qualitative approach in an academic writing, it goes further to diffuse some misunderstandings, analyses the specifics of qualitative research, and outlines some practical significances of theory in the humanities as a paradigm, or that which may inform our understanding of the phenomenon under exploration. The use of theory in an academic writing is seen as that which underpins research design, as a lens which may emerge from studies usually viewed as new knowledge. Some recommendations were made on how best to use a theory when reporting qualitative inquiry.



      Laavanya ,M, Sadeera, S.D.H, Premachandra,W.M.C.M, Priyangani, T.R.A, Dahanaka, D.R.N.S Kartheepan, K, Karthijekan, K, Josepha, J

Abstract: Poor nutritional status is a chronic condition and the adult overweight and obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide due to environmental and behavioral changes such as urbanization and modernization. Data on nutritional status among adults in developing countries including the different regions are needed for primary prevention. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status among adults (above 18 years) in Batticaloa district and to examine the association of socio-economic, nutritional and lifestyle factors with weight distribution. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 adults aged above 18 years. Multi-stage sampling method was approached. Data on socio-economic, nutritional and lifestyle factors were collected and anthropometric measurements of weight, height and waist circumference were measured by using appropriate measuring scales.



      Jocelyne Malakwen

Abstract: County governments are a recent introduction in Kenya which was constituted as a result of the new constitution. They were created through the constitution of Kenya leading to 47 county governments. This number is based on the delineation of administrative districts as created under the Provinces and Districts Act of 1992. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is only possible if county governments who are closer to the people are empowered to work towards poverty eradication and sustainable development. Given that de-centralization and the devolution of power to local governments is now a reality in Kenya, it is this sphere of government which needs to redouble its efforts. This paper aims to enhance the contribution of county governments in achieving the MDGs, in particular in addressing poverty and sustainable development.



      Tizazu W. and Ahmed H.

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2014 to March, 2015 at Assela municipal abattoir to assess prevalence and economic significance of bovine fasciolosis. Out of 349 cattle examined at post mortem, 30.1% (105) were positive for fasciolosis. Age, Sex and body condition of the animal was not found as a significant factor (p > 0.05) affecting the prevalence of disease. The prevalence of F. hepatica was 69.5% (73), which was predominant among Fasciola species, causing bovine fasciolosis in the study areas. Whereas, the prevalence of F. gigantica was 15.24(16), and 15.24% (16) animals harboured mixed infection. There was a statistically significant association (P=0.000) between the different mode of affection of liver and fasciolosis prevalence.



      Kafula Chisanga, Andrew Bosco Mvula, Taban Habibu

Abstract: Climate change is a world wide phenomenon that has huge implications on economic, social and ecological challenges to the global community and to smallholder farmers especially in low income countries. In this paper we seek to provide information on the role of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) to climate adaptation based on the experiences with farmer communities from the climate change research project which was implemented in Sedumbwe Agricultural Camp of Southern Zambia. Data were collected mainly through focus group discussions. The paper points out the common indicators used to predict drought/rainfall and how reliable they are. Possible recommendations are also provided on how the IK weather forecasting could be integrated and operationalized in agriculture policies of many countries in the sub Saharan African region to climate adaptation.



      Ziaullah, Zia Ud Din, Shakir Ullah

Abstract: This study aimed to identify stress factors for nursing students during clinical practice. Descriptive cross sectional study design is utilized for identifying sources of stress in nursing students during clinical practice. Study was completed in six weeks. Study setting was the public hospital (Saidu Teaching Hospital) of District Swat.



      Andi Risma, Achmad Ruslan, Anwar Borahima, Hasbir Paserangi

Abstract: The regulation concerning the utilization of idle state property in the form of lease in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 1 Year 2004 concerning State Treasury jo Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 27 Year 2014 concerning State property Management jo Minister of Finance Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 57 Year 2016 concerning Lease Procedure of State Property jo Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 250 Year 2011 concerning Management of Idle State property has not able to streamline, efficiently managed, and optimize the utilization of idle state property in the form of lease. This is due to the fact that the above four laws stipulated such enormous authority to property user in determining the plan of the utilization of state property, triggering the property organizer to lose its authority to utilize state property. The lack of supervision on the utilization of state property is due to the Minister of Finance as stipulated in the Minister of Finance Regulation Number 244/PMK.06/2012 beside as an official of state property, as well as an internal supervisor in the utilization of state property whose objectivity cannot be guaranteed in conducting supervision, while external supervision has not been regulated in Minister of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 244/PMK.06/2012 concerning the Supervision and Control of State property.



      Yanita Dikaningrum, Ekorini Listiowati, Arlina Dewi

Abstract: The issue of health development in Indonesia is an important issue that exists in today's society.Therefore it needs innovation in medical education. The Academic Health Center conducts coordinated researches , services and health education consist of integrated preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative at all levels, from basic health education, professional education to community in a holistic health service system.This research uses qualitative method done by semi-structured interviews to the respondents of the research face-to-face.



      Dr. Afinisha Deepam. L. S, Jisha. M. J

Abstract: Dioscorea alata (yam), Phyllanthus emblica (fruit) Colocasia esculenta(taro) and Momordica charantia (vegetable) has been used for this study. All are powdered and PE: DA and MC: CE are mixed in various ratios like 1:0, 1:2, 1:5, 1:8 and 0:1. Nutritional analysis were done for all the samples and moisture content, ash content, iron, phosphorous, starch and crude protein, crude fiber, carbohydrate, tannin, crude fat, vitamin c, iron, calcium were determined and are analyzed for DPPH, metal chelating and Phosphomolydenum antioxidant assays. Best of the mixed ratios of PE: DA and MC: CE has been selected for the development of product through extrusion process using two different temperatures 100ºC and 110ºC using a moisture of 12 % and 13% and the sample has been extruded and that extruded product has been analyzed for their functional properties. PE: DA (1:8) and MC: CE (1:8) ratio can be employed as a good nutritional and antioxidant extruded product among all the other ratios.



      Dimacha Dwibrang Mwchahary

Abstract: As the Health for All programming goal of the World Health Organization is gaining popularity around the world, the health inequality has risen up as a burning topic of research in the field of health studies. Since the goal cannot be achieved without eradicating the health disparities among different sections of the people, researchers are trying to find out the ways and means for the purpose. The plainly observed health disparity between the populations of forward area and remote area has been identified as one of the obstacle in meeting the goal.



      Daban Sabir

Abstract: The cost of corruption on societies is heavier than estimated before. It does not only threaten economic, development, rule of law and the values of our democracy. Corruption could affect the prosperity of individuals and cause catastrophic humanitarian damages to countries. The Iraqi humanitarian crisis demonstrates a good example on the harmful effects of corruption on the safety and well-being of its citizens. This study sheds new light on two main issues; firstly, corruption is the inducer of instability and conflicts, and secondly the hitchs imposed by corruption during the delivery of humanitarian aids.



      Naila Khalid

Abstract: The research is all about the “EFFECTS OF ABSENTEEISM ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE”. Author was collected data from the department of Lahore school of Nursing “The University of Lahore” the total population of the department is N#170. 119 survey questionnaires were distributed to the students of the LSN department. Answers were collected on 5-Likert scale which was based on options; 1 for strongly agree and 5 for strongly disagree All female and male, below 20 years to above 30 years were included .They filled the questionnaire after consents. The results of findings show that there are three main factors or indicators which are badly affecting by absenteeism i.e. class participation .coordination of students with teachers and peers and the third is the Grades of students. Out of 119, 82 females and 37 male participant’s opinions were recorded and it is concluded that 84.5% agree for the effects of class participation, 68.67% agree for the effects on student’s coordination. 69.40%.agree for poor GPA. As shown in table (4.1, 4.2, 4.3) respectively. It is recommended that University should take effective measures in order to control the absenteeism. Attendance teams should recognize barriers of absenteeism and deal with them through interventions, such as work in partnership and find needs students. Attendance policy makers should provide incentives or rewards to motivate the students for the good percentage of attendance hence the academic outcomes of the students and the organization can become outstanding.



      Janet J. Kipsanai, Saul S. Namango, Alex M. Muumbo

Abstract: Refractories are essential for all industrial processes using elevated temperatures. They play a triple role of providing mechanical strength, protection against corrosion and thermal insulation. The essential goal in the development of refractories is to obtain a useful lining life that will provide maximum furnace availability for the operators to meet production requirements at the lowest possible cost. High quality refractory at a cheaper cost is the main requirement. The aim of this study was to find out the possibility of using Kenyan anthill, as a major raw material in the production of refractory linings. Anthill clay has not been utilized in Kenya. Anthill clay was collected from Cheptebo, in the rift valley, crushed, sieved and the chemical composition determined. The samples were moulded into rectangular shaped bricks of 40mm height, 40mm width and 80mm length, allowed to dry and later fired up to a temperature of 10000c. Refractory properties like Compressive strength, Hardness, Linear shrinkage on firing, Apparent porosity and Density were determined. The result of chemical analysis indicated that the clay was composed of Silica (SiO2), 52.18%; Alumina (Al2O3), 15.79%; Iron Oxide (Fe2O3), 9.41%; Calcium Oxide (CaO), 4.30%; Potassium Oxide (K2O), 2.30%; Sodium Oxide (Na2O), 2.81%; and other traces. The chemical analysis suggests that the clay deposit is mainly made of kaolinite and free quartz. The physical and mechanical tests show that the bricks had Cold Crushing Strength of 6,019kPa, Hardness of 17.81GPa, Linear shrinkage of 8%, Apparent Porosity of 35.21% and Bulk Density of 2.46g/cm3. Anthill clay can make better local refractory raw materials.



      Dametew Tessema Deneke

Abstract: This article provides a comparative analysis on the post-1974 crisis leadership of Ethiopia. For this purpose, the 1989 coup d'état and the post-2015/16 protracted instability were selected. Methodologically, descriptive analysis has been employed based on the data gained from an array of secondary and primary sources of data. The 1989 coup was plotted by the military chiefs of the armed forces against Mengistu Hailemariam`s regime. The regime had considered this crisis as a threat. As a result, the crisis decisions had emphasized on defusing blames, and defending the status quo. Negotiations and power sharing scheme were discredited. The systemic problem had denied both in problem analysis and crisis responses. On the other hand, in post-1991, ethno-nationalism has been recognized to be the vortex of the political norms. The extreme politicization of ethnicity constrained the shared vision of the people. The spaces for democratic struggles have banned which resulted in the formation of nominal opposition groups. Generally, the problems were both systemic and implementation though the government did not recognize the prevalence of a systemic problem. In its decisions, the regime has considered the crisis as a threat—not as an opportunity—though it has certain deviances from the former in its attempt to use legal and political measures. Therefore, it is recommended that the incumbent government need to consider the crises as an opportunity to adopt systemic reforms.



      Dr. WoroWinandi, TutiekRetnowati

Abstract: Transportation is an instrument that we can not simply ignore, because it is a means of public needs, trade,and business circles, so that needed a fast service and guaranteed services both in transporting goods and passengers to the destination, but also accelerates needs of the community which in the sense of closer distance between villages and towns where workers who travel out of town due to residence and work far enough.Based on the geographical location of Indonesia as the largest country of 13,667 islands and clusters of large and small islands.Which may be required to build adequate transportation or carriage as well as support in providing services to the community in far provinces in Indonesia by land, sea, and air. The condition of three-way transportation is encouraging and is a reason for the use of adequate transportation so not prevent the progress and development of this all-modern things becauseit will impact our nation will be left behind with other nations whose have advanced.



      JacqulineTham, Abdol Ali Khatibi and S.M. Ferdous Azam

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand how banks can build revolutionary breakthrough in virtual banking innovation by understanding customers’ future banking needs and future banking trends by using Porter’s generic strategies to build competitive advantage to maintain relevance and staying profitable. This paper will be a conceptual survey of literature and implications in implementation of generic strategies in banking industries.



      Sanjay Rizal

Abstract: Although the term Mental Accounting sounds strange to many people but knowingly or unknowingly every people is aware about mental accounting. Every human being allocates their budget mentally before attempt a purchase. Mental accounting plays a decisive role in purchase decision making. Thus after considering this psychological fact of people, the present study tries to explore the importance of mental accounting in purchase decision. The present study doesn’t confine to only exploration of importance of mental accounting in purchase decision but also tries to place mental accounting as a vital stage in buying decision making process. The findings of such a study is expected to hold much importance in better understanding the basic and analytical manner in which the customers’ minds work while deciding on their purchases; which, in turn, would be helpful in developing various marketing strategies in respect of timing of offers, pricing, payment aids, product launches, transaction facilitation, so on so forth. Moreover, this paper tries to add some more ingredients in mental accounting theory which was propounded by Richard H. Thaler.



      Vishal Yadav and Vivek Garg

Abstract: The use of reinforced concrete buildings has become a general scene in the contemporary world. The analysis, design and construction processes have been idealized through various building design codes and design philosophies. Buildings are designed to withstand all the loads that may occur with a certain degree of probability during its entire lifetime. Different categories of loads have been classified by codes in accordance with the purpose and location of the structure. Among all the loads, imposed load has the moving tendency and can translate from one span to the other forming different patterns of loading. In present study, a G+1 storey, 5 bay x 5 bay frame subjected to an imposed load of 5 kN/m2 located in seismic zone II, has been taken as a base frame and analysis is done using STAAD Pro software. The member forces of a building are compared between conventional loading (i.e. seismic and all span gravity loading) and pattern loading (i.e. conventional loading plus 5 patterns of imposed load) to determine the necessity of pattern loading. In beam members the values of bending moment are significantly higher for pattern loading as compared with conventional loading. This increase in moment is found more in beam sagging moment compared to hogging moment. The effect of pattern loading is felt more on the upper storey exterior beams compared to the lower storey beams. Pattern loading causes insignificant changes in the beam shear force and column axial force.



      Suelen Anacleto Coelho, Jose Tadeu Madeira de Oliveira, Mauro Fontes Perestrelo, Edgar Santos Coelho Júnior, Nelson Ayres Barradas, AntonioNeres Norberg

Abstract: Despite many efforts in preventing the transmission of pathogens in health care facilities, little has been done related to the potential of contamination and transmission of microorganisms between users on health services. Fungal elements may be important sources of contamination in physiotherapy ambulatory. The aim of this research is to identify fungal elements on physiotherapy clinic stretchers. Methodology: sterile swabs embedded in sterile saline solution were used to collect the material, which were rolled in zigzag movements over the entire surface of 60 stretchers from the Clinic of the UNIABEU University Center Physiotherapy School. The material was seeded in Petri dishes containing the media Sabouraud dextrose agar and Mycosel culture. The plates were sealed with adhesive tape and maintained at room temperature (±30°C). Colonies of filamentous fungi in microcultures were identified by cultural and morphological characters and yeasturiform fungi by Gram staining and biochemical tests.



      Nishra Banu .S , Noorjahan C.M

Abstract: Water used in domestic and industrial application can become polluted to varying degrees. The dairy industry is an important part of the overall food industry which contributes materially to fluid wastes. Hence an investigation had been carried out to study the physico chemical parameters of dairy effluent and its effect on biochemical constituents present in different organs of fish, blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus). The results of analysis of physicochemical parameters revealed that industry treated dairy effluent was greyish black in colour with disagreeable odour. pH was alkaline with low organic load such as EC, TSS, TDS, BOD and COD, indicating high pollution potential of the effluent. The results of impact of industry treated dairy effluent on biochemical constituents present in different organs of fish, blue gourami showed that among the different organs of fish such as gills, liver and muscle studied for biochemical estimation, gills was most affected organ which showed decreased amount of biochemical constituents than that of liver and muscle of fish and also carbohydrates was decreased drastically than lipid and protein.



      Abdul Rahman Mohammad Saleh, Dr. Mustakim Bin Melan

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of attitudinal construct and satisfaction towards household broadband penetration (HBP) in Malaysia. Information and communication technology (ICT) is the most efficient way to develop the literacy of knowledge and skills among its users, and broadband is the key factor to spread the ICT infrastructure. By understanding the factor of continuance of broadband intention (CBI), the researcher explores the factors that affect HBP as well. Furthermore, this study will gauge the effectiveness of the Universal Service Provision (USP) projects especially 1Malaysia Internet Center1Malaysia (Pi1M) towards CBI. The findings will provide evidence and suggestions for policy makers and service providers to improve the implementation of USP projects or to suggest any better projects to ensure a sustainable growth of broadband penetration in Malaysia. The study adapted the model of adoption of technology in household (MATH) and the information system (IS) continuance usage model using a cross-sectional, survey-based study. The relations among the constructs of the proposed model were then hypothesised according to the literature findings and examined using SMART PLS 3.0. The population and samples of the study were drawn from the users of Pi1M in six regions of Malaysia (northern, central, southern, east coast, Sabah, and Sarawak). The cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2016 and involved 406 respondents. The results indicate that attitudinal construct is the key factor that has shaped customers’ continuing behaviour intentions towards broadband usage and subscription. On the contrary this study find negative association between satisfaction and CBI among Pi1M users. Despite the growing number of studies on intention and adoption of technology, little research has been done on theory-building and the linkage between CBI and the two aforesaid factors: attitudinal construct under the MATH model and sati



      Aqeel Abd Al-Hamza, Dr. Kafi Mohammed Nasir Al-Asadi

Abstract: To assess pediatric nurse's knowledge about managing of Respiratory Distress Syndrome, to determine the effectiveness of the educational program through comparing nurse's knowledge in pre and post education program. And to find out the association between nurse's knowledge and their demographic data.MethodologyA pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental study design was carried out in order to evaluate theeffectiveness of an educational program on nurse's knowledge about management of newborn babies with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in pediatric units at Al Diwaniyah teaching Hospital. The study began from September 20th 2016 to August 6th, 2017.A quasi-experimental design was carried out from March 12th to June 22nd, 2017.



      R.M.U.R.K. Rathnayaka, W.H.T Madhuhansi

Abstract: In the era of crafting needs and wants rather satisfying customer needs and wants, the concept of marketing plays a vital role in differentiating their offering to the customers in order to develop a unique perception of the consumers’ mind for their brands and products. In such a scenario visual merchandising can be identified as one of the emerging considerations of the retail stores especially in the supermarket stores with the purpose of attracting new customers in to the stores and promote existing customers for a more purchase.



      L. P. Himali

Abstract: Work-family conflict occurs when work related demands interfere with home responsibilities and Family-work conflict arises when family responsibilities impede work activities. Both types of conflict have been negatively related to employees’ satisfaction. In Sri Lankan context the values and believes of family has been socially and ethically appreciated. But today the market demands of a worker and the family demands being a wife and a mother, a worker is getting the trouble of balancing the both career and the family. The consequence of work - family conflict is a deviation from the existing psychological condition of human life. Therefore, it is important to recognize the variables related to work-family conflict. The population of the study is the dual career couples of private sector garment industry in Horana area in Kalutara district and 10% of the population is taken as the sample. The principle method of the primary data collection will do through standard questionnaire; the random sampling technique will have administered for the study. The variables will have evaluated by the percentage analysis, coefficient of correlation, chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression. The study revealed that role overload, number of leaves, having children whose age less than 5 years and child care arrangements emerged as significant predictors of work-family conflict and family-work conflict of dual career couples.



      Sanjay Surya

Abstract: Taj Mahal was completed almost 350 years back by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to house the remains of his cherished wife. It is one of the world’s wonders and depicts India’s rich history.



      Nurul HidayuShafie, Syed Sakhi Ahmad Sultani, Siti Sarah Roselan, Abdullah Noori

Abstract: In the journey of writing a dissertation or a thesis, the supervisor of a student plays an important role in guiding and helping the student to complete his or her work. The mentoring style of a supervisor might affect a student’s progress either directly or indirectly in completing the paper. This study aims to investigate the supervisors’ styles in mentoring the students from the perspectives of the students themselves. A qualitative method was conducted by interviewing two postgraduate students regarding their supervisors’ mentoring styles. The results of the study showed that both supervisors use different styles when mentoring their students. The discussions with the supervisors are very important to the students, as well as the supervisors’ understanding towards their ideas and work. The mentoring styles of the supervisors affect the students’ work as well as their personal growth.



      Egbivwie E.A., Ughwumiakpor V.O., Agbonavbare G

Abstract: This paper presents the environmental implications of climate change on the coastal areas of the Niger delta located in the southern part of Nigeria. It gives a general overview of global climate change and predicts its consequences and examines how it has made the coastal areas of the Niger delta vulnerable to natural disasters such as flooding and others. The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to an enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect. It is however deduced that human-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect is of concern because ongoing emissions of greenhouse gases have the potential to warm the planet to levels that have never been experienced in the history of human civilization. Such climate change could have far-reaching and/or unpredictable environmental, social, and economic consequences. The Global warming has the tendency of establishing favorable atmospheric conditions for disease carrying vectors and making it possible for these organisms to spread diseases that are realized more harmful to beings.



      E. A. Egbivwie, V. O. Ughwumiakpor, A. P. Ayinuola

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the design of a computer-aided off-grid solar photovoltaic system which involves a dynamic computation using visual basic 6.0 programming tool. The components of the design interface of the visual basic programming solution involves calculating the load, solar panel sizing and specification, battery selection and size specification, charge controller sizing and inverter specification. So many household occupants the world over do not have access to an electrical energy supply. Majority of these buildings are in remote areas and are not connected to the national grid due probably to the high capital expenditure costs involved in expanding the national grid as well as low electricity demand from the inhabitants of these areas.



      Ughwumiakpor V.O., Obanor A.I., Aliu S.A

Abstract: Crumb rubber production is an energy intense process that requires proper monitoring to avoid energy waste. Owing to the high cost of energy and its impact on production cost, an energy audit of Imoniyame Holdings Limited is necessary for production cost reduction and to remain relevant in a competitive environment. A one year energy audit of the plant was carried out. Detailed performance data were collected for the major energy consuming sections of the plant. These were the oven, production lines and the lighting sections. From the work, the energy consumed by the oven for the period of audit was 9,472.32GJ which was 53.6% of the total energy of 17,614.343GJ consumed for the period. The oven is therefore recognized as having the highest energy saving potentials. The specific energy consumption and the specific energy cost of the plant were 4.298MJ/kg and N13.87/kg of crumb rubber respectively. The heat losses through the stack can be recovered by the introduction of a heat exchanger between the stack and the circulating water. It was shown that when this is done, an annual savings of N3,204,929.56 will be made from the cost of diesel fuel. It was also ascertained that the specific energy consumption and the specific energy cost will be reduced to 3.99mJ/kg and N13.09/kg of crumb rubber respectively.



      Arun Magadum, Dr. S.N.Sridhara

Abstract: There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.



      Arun Magadum, Dr. S.N.Sridhara

Abstract: The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of high refractive index material coating on piston head of a two stroke petrol engine. The experiment was based on comparison of Performance & Emission characteristics of a two stroke petrol engine (0.81 Kwh at 5500 Rpm) with a conventional piston and modified piston (coated piston head). Performance parameters such as brake power, specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency & emission parameters such as HC, CO are calculated and compared for conventional and modified piston engine .The resultant values are plotted for



      Hassan Ullah Shah, Muhammad Nadeem, Qazi Fawad ur Rehman, Engr. Waheed ur Rehman

Abstract: This research paper aims at the development of new type of concrete block by introducing frog in the traditional solid concrete block. The main objectives are to improve the bond shear strength, diagonal shear strength, improve handling ability and reduce the weight of the optimized block to counter health injuries during construction process. Intensive comparative assessment of solid and frog concrete block was conducted. Final results concluded that frog concrete block was far superior in structural, economy, quality and handling performance.



      Shifna ULB, Dilaxshan V, Nasmy MNM, Sandamali AAK, Sugandika RKDE, Waththage CN,Welgama WRSD, Senarath MKID, Bandaranayake DW

Abstract: Background:Physiotherapy interventions in antenatal health care provide many benefits to pregnant mothers. Adequate awareness of physiotherapy interventions in antenatal care is important to practice it during pregnancy. The quality of life during pregnancy in pregnant mothers and the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in quality of life has not been investigated previously in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to explore the level of the awareness of physiotherapy interventions in antenatal care and effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions in quality of life among pregnant women in Gangawatakoralle division, Kandy.



      Mohammed MoawadAlenazi

Abstract: The purpose of this project is to develop a voice recognition system that distinguishes different emotions. Innovative headways have made it conceivable to make various software applications for speech recognition. However, currently available software – commercial as well as research-based voice recognition - is not advanced enough to correctly discern and categorize the emotional status of a speaker (Wheeler et al., 2017). The aim of this project is to create software using MATLAB that will not only identify and categorize the emotions of a speaker but also provide appropriate feedback by the determined moods/emotions.



      Martin Gyambrah, Priscilla Hanson, Harriet Nottinson

Abstract: Over the years Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have played a vital role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The study examined the HRD practices of NGOs in Ghana with particular focus on NGOs in the health sector. The study combines mixed research methods. A sample size of 30 NGOs registered with the Department of social welfare and members of the Ghana Coalition of NGOs in Health was used. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The study observed that although NGOs in Ghana health sector employ some HRD practices in their operations, much attention is not giving to these practices. The study therefore recommended that Human resource development need to be introduced properly to the NGOs as it helps maintain talents in workers due to the capacity trainings attended.



      Ellah, K. E., Ita, P.M.

Abstract: This study was to determine the correlational relationship between school location and students’ academic performance in English language in secondary schools in Ogoja Local Government Area. It adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprised all the 836 senior secondary two (SS2) students of the 2016/17 academic session in all the 46 public and private secondary schools in Ogoja Local Government Area. Through stratified random sampling, a sample of two hundred (200) students was drawn for the study. Out of this number, 124 representing 62% were males; while 75 students representing 38% were females. The instrument used for data collection was achievement test tagged English Language Achievement Test (ELAT) carved from 2015 English Language Mock Examination. The data obtained was analysed using independent t-test. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in students’ academic performance in English language on the basis of school location. It was recommended that government should close the gap between the rural and urban location through the provision of social amenities to rural populace which will enhances better academic performance of students in their final examination like SSCE.



      Archana Adhikary

Abstract: Teacher education is that integral part of education system of a country which determines the success of whole process of education. Education is the powerful instrument of bringing chance. Education moulds the society, develops the nation. But it is the teacher who makes it possible to happen. The students are the future man-power. Teacher trains them up in such a way through the education that they are able to bring positive changes in the society. But this is possible when the teacher have the adequate power of training others. It is the teacher education program which equips the teacher with all those knowledge, skills helpful in bringing change among the students by the teachers. NCTE is the regulatory body of teacher education, performing functions and making decisions in all the aspects of teacher education including B.Ed, M.Ed, Integrated B.A/B.Sc/ B.Ed. etc. As per its regulation NCTE make B.Ed , which is an important program of teacher education ,a two year duration program. As a results all educational institutions in India providing B.Ed course have extended one more year for B.ed which was earlier one year duration course. In this paper, the investigator have tried to study the perception of the trainee for this new structure of B.Ed course. With 100 sample trainees the investigator has made a small study. The result reveals their mixed reactions.



      Benaihia Kiptoo Bett, Omondi Aguok Yudah

Abstract: This study aimed at examining the contribution of iTax system as a strategy for revenue collection at Kenya Revenue Authority, Rift Valley Region, Kenya. The study was guided by the following hypothesis: Ha1:There is a contribution of online taxpayer registration on revenue collection at KRA Rift Valley Region ;Ha2: There is a contribution of online tax return processing on revenue collection at KRA Rift Valley Region ; Ha3: There is a contribution of online compliance and monitoring activities on revenue collection at KRA Rift Valley Region.; Ha4: There is a contribution of electronic tax payments on revenue collection at KRA Rift Valley Region.The study was guided by Resource Based Theory. The study employed correlational research design. The target population was the domestic taxes department employees at KRA Rift Valley Region.



      Khairi Kleab

Abstract: A supply chain, as opposed to supply chain management, is a set of organizations directly linked by one or more upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, or information from a source to a customer. Supply chain management is the management of such a chain.Supply chain management is a cross-functional approach that includes managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the end consumer. As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and become more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other firms that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively.



      Kazi Rahamat Ullah

Abstract: Amla is an amazing gift of nature . It has good antimicrobial property . I treated cotton fabric with amla juice by pad batch method in acidic condition . The antimicrobial activity on the cotton fabric was evaluated against AATCC 147 method . . I found there is antimicrobial activity on the fabric after doing test . The aim of the project was to check the antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric after application of amla juice in the fabric.



      Eny Sendra

Abstract: Village Ngadiluwih is one of the 7 villages in Kediri District who has five toddlers with KPSP irregularities. The purpose of this research was to develop the questionnaire Investigation results of developments (KPSP) in the village of Ngadiluwih. Research methods design using cross sectional with a total population of 93 toddlers. This sampling using Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling, obtained 49 mothers who had a Toddler aged 3-24 months the respondents. This research used the form of a questionnaire about the mother 's knowledge of 3 - 4 months and KPSP 3 - 4 months ages. The research found that the mother's knowledge about the early development of the stimulation of a toddler aged 3-24 months mostly have a good knowledge of 87.75% and from the examination of the majority obtained KPSP toddler aged 3-24 months as having a dubious development as much as of 48.97%. This research uses statistical tests of Spearman Rank correlation with the value ρ = 0.084 (ρ >0.05), Because the number of samples was over 30, it was compared to their significance and obtained t count = 0.577 and t table = 2,01 so t count (0.577)


      Abraham L. Saad, Cesar S. Cuenca

Abstract: In developing countries such as the Philippines, many patients rely on humanitarian aids to meet the expense of treatment for long bone fractures of the lower limb. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we reviewed the midterm and long term outcomes (radiographic and clinical) of patients who were recipients of free implants from SIGN Fracture Care International, who have undergone open reamed interlocked intramedullary nailing of long bone fractures of the lower limb using the SIGN intramedullary nails with a minimum of 12 months follow-up. Radiographic results were scored using the Radiographic Union Scale for Tibial fractures (RUST) score and Functional outcomes were determined using 3 different patient-reported outcome measures. A total of 139 patients were included in the study of which, 100 (71.9%) patients involved the femur and 39 (28.1%) involved the tibia.



      Anita Rao and V. N. Pandey

Abstract: The present investigation deals with the preliminary phytochemical estimation of bio-functional partsi.e.Leaves and Tubers. Aquatic starchy tuberous plant Sagittariasagittifolia L. belonging to family Alismataceae, commonly known as Arrowhead. The biofunctional parts were extracted with five different organic solvents viz. Ethanol, Methanol, Acetone, Petroleum Ether, Chloroform and Distilled Water for their primary and secondary phytochemicals and their active constituents like Tannin, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Glycosides, Protein, Amino-acids, Starch, Reducing sugars and Alkaloids. The results show the 31.1±0.08 extract of leaf and 35.7±0.15extract of tuber shows higher extractive value. The presence ofmaximum phytochemicals viz. glycosides, steroids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, and phenols in ethanol while minimum presence in acetone followed by aqueous.Thesephytochemicalsare useful in medicinal and therapeutic system as well as in traditional and modern medicinal system.



      Raji M. T , Adejumobi, C. A and Adeniran, P. O

Abstract: The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) estimates the worldwide ICT market in 2002 to be almost $2.1trilion, which they segmented as Telecon Services (39%), Software services (31%), and Hardware(30%). This comes to nearly 6.6% of the gross World Product. Surprisingly, in developing countries. ICTs share in GDP is not low. ICT can be considered to be built on the 4Cs: Computing, Communication, Content and (human) Capacity. The recent World Summit on the Information Society(WSIS) focussed extensively on 3C’s: Communication, Content and Capacity building and less so, on Computers. They concluded that when considering the use of ICT for development, conventional wisdom is that even if the hardware is free (e.g donated), Communication, software and training make ICT expensive. Finally, this paper explores into ICT situation in Nigeria. It highlights the various activities of the government in relation to ICT development and progress recorded so far.



      Bharath LV and Himanth M

Abstract: The scope of the article is to review various types of fuel adulteration detection sensors using various sensors based techniques. Petrol and diesel are major fuels used for transport and electricity generation globally. Now a day’s huge number of consumers are facing the fuel adulteration threat. Adulterants are added to these base fuels with other inexpensive boiling point range hydrocarbons containing more or less similar composition leading to modify and degrade the base fuel quality. These adulterants are added by the business vendors for their monetary profits. Sensing such adulterant in fuels is a principal task in the interest of the end consumer. We believe that this is first literature reviewing the sensor based techniques to estimate the adulteration in fuel samples.This review summarizes the various fuel adulterated sensors design and their function in detecting adulteration in fuel samples.



      Subedi P, Thakur D, Khadka R, Paudel BH

Abstract: Nerve conduction and surface electromyography of lower limbs of barbers: effect of anthropometric variables. Background: Nerve conduction studies (NCS) are conventionally performed with electromyography (EMG), which is electro diagnostic studies, provides a comprehensive evaluation of suspected nerve, muscle and/or neuromuscular impairment. Several studies had shown a significant effect of anthropometric variables on nerve conduction variables while their effects on surface EMG variables are hardly known.



      Abdullah Noori, Hashmatullah Tareen, Hazrat Usman Mashwani

Abstract: The objective of the current study was to examine library anxiety level among Universiti Technologi Mara (UiTM) undergraduate and Post-graduate students. Furthermore, the study also aimed to correlate students’ library anxiety with constructs such as age, gender, the highest qualification, the frequency of library visits, CGPA, the field of study, and mode of study, which are believed to influence students’ levels of library anxiety. The study used a quantitative, descriptive survey method using Library Anxiety Scale questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. The data through the questionnaire was collected from a sample of 146 respondents of which 56 were male and 90 were females. Meanwhile, 65 of them were undergraduate and the other 81 were postgraduate students studying in 17 different faculties of UiTM. The participants were randomly selected and participated voluntarily in the study. The data gathered through the questionnaire was analyzed using Statistical SPSS v.23 where both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as t-tests, One-Way ANOVA, and correlation were used to test hypotheses. The results of the study reveal a moderately low level of library anxiety among UiTM students. In addition, the results of the study indicate that students’ demographic profiles did not have any significant effect on their levels of library anxiety.



      Md. Abdur Rouf, Dr. Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Atiya Sharmin Mitu, Mominul Haque Rabin, Prince Biswas, Md. Abdullah Al Masud

Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka during the period from June to November 2013 in aman season to find out effect of fertilizer and manure on the yield of T. Aman rice in different soil. BRRI dhan33 was used as the test crop in this experiment. The experiment comprised of two factors- Factors A: Soils from different location (soil from 2 locations), S1: SAU soil, S2: Shingair soil (collected from Shingair Manikgonj) an Factor B: Levels of fertilizers and manures (5 levels)- T0: Control condition i.e. no fertilizers and manures; T1: Recommended dose of fertilizer (N120P25K60S20Zn2), T2: 50% NPKSZn + 5 ton cow dung ha-1, T3: 50% NPKSZn + 5 ton compost ha-1 and T4: 50% NPKSZn + 3.5 ton poultry manure ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Due to the interaction of soil from different location and fertilizers and manure, the highest grain yield (134.97 g pot-1) was found from S2T4, whereas the lowest grain yield (32.03 g pot-1) was recorded from S1T0. Shingair soil and 50% NPKSZn + 3.5 ton poultry manure ha-1 performed better in relation to yield contributing characters and yield of BRRI dhan33.



      Md. Abubakar Siddik, Mohammad Mahbub Islam, Md. Ashabul Hoque, Suraya Parvin, Bijoy Kumar Shaha, Mominul Haque Rabin, Prince Biswas

Abstract: The experiment was undertaken in the Farm laboratory of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, during Kharif 1 season, April to July 2013 to examine the response of different levels of nitrogen on morpho-physiology, yield contributing attributes and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) variety BARI Til 4. In this experiment, the treatment consisted of three different N levels viz. N0 = 0 kg N/ha, N1 = 60 kg N/ha and N2 = 120 kg N/ha. The experiment was laid out in a factors Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The total treatment were 3 and plot (3x3) 9. Results showed a significant variation among the treatments in respect of the majority of the observed parameters. The N significantly increased morpho-physiological characters - plant height, number of leaves plant-1, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root; yield contributing characters - number of pod plant-1, pod diameter, pod length, seed weight plant-1, seed weight plot-1,thousand seed weight compared to control. The maximum seed yield (1.26 t/ha) was obtained from 60 kg N/ha, whereas (1.01 t/ha) was from 120 kg N/ha which was better than control (0.88 t/ha). Based on the present results, it can be suggested that the use of 60 kg N/ha increased plant morpho-physiological parameters and seed yield of sesame than 120 kg N/ha due to excessive use of this element may produce too much of vegetative growth or toxicity, thus seed production decreased and failed to give highest yield.



      Cynthren L. Bernabe

Abstract: The study aimed to determine the socio-demographic profile of employees as to sex, age, civil status, monthly salary and length of service; ascertain the level of work ethics of employees of CapSU-Mambusao Satellite College when classified according to variables and as a whole; and is there a significant difference on the level of work ethics of employees of CapSU-Mambusao Satellite College in terms of selected variables. The main instrument of the study was questionnaire consist of three parts. Part I was gathered information on socio-demographic profile, Part II was a 20-items statement that enabled to evaluate the level of the work ethics they possessed and Part III was a 4-items questions that measured their work productivity. Results of the study will be analyze using frequency count, percentage, standard deviation and mean. T-test and one-way ANNOVA was used to determine the significant difference on the level of work ethics of the government employees. Correlational analysis was used to find out the relationship of level of work ethics to productivity of employees. Most of the employees were married age within 21-30, 31-40, 41-50 and within 14 years and below in service. Most of the employees have a high level of work ethics when classified as to age, gender, civil status, length of service and monthly salary. There is no significant difference in level of work ethics when employees are categorized as to age, gender, civil status, monthly salary and length of service.



      Freden S. Delgado

Abstract: This descriptive-correlational research was conducted with the following objectives:to determine the attitude towards English of the high school seniors as an entire group and when classified according to sex, grade in English, type of school, level of mass media exposure, and parents’ educational attainment; to determine the English proficiency of the high school seniors as an entire group and when classified according to sex, grade in English, type of school, level of mass media exposure, and parents’ educational attainment; and to find out if attitude towards English is significantly related to the English proficiency of the high school seniors. A questionnaire composed of four parts was used in the gathering of data. The findings are as follows: (1)In general, the attitude towards English of the high school seniors is “somewhat positive;” (2)Generally, high school seniors have “very satisfactory” level of English proficiency; and (3)The high school seniors’ attitude towards English is significantly related to their English proficiency.



      Felyn Mae G. Yap, Freden S. Delgado, Virginia J. Magbanua, Lalaine E. Ricardo, Merlyn F. Filosofo

Abstract: This survey-correlational study was conducted at Capiz State University- Mambusao Satellite College to determine the level of usage of teacher’s code-switching practices as perceived by the students and its relation to their English Language Proficiency. Specifically it sought answers to determine the level of usage of teacher’s code-switching practices as perceived by the students when taken as a whole and when classified according to the profile of the respondents in terms of course pursued, year level and type of high school graduated from, to determine the English Language Proficiency of the respondents when taken as a whole and when classified according to the profile of the respondents in terms of course pursued, year level and type of high school graduated from, to determine the significant differences in the level of usage of teacher’s code-switching practices as perceived by the students when taken as a whole and when classified according to profile of the respondents in terms of course pursued, year level and type of high school graduated from, to determine the significant differences in the English Language Proficiency of the respondents when taken as a whole and classified according to profile of the respondents in terms of course pursued, year level and type of high school graduated from and to determine if the level of usage of teacher’s code-switching practices as perceived by the students significantly related to the English Language Proficiency of the respondents.



      Qadeer, M.A., Usman, K., T, Bobbo, A. A and Hassan, M

Abstract: This study compares the Prevalence of Ixodid Ticks on Some Selected Sedentary Farms and Trade Cattle in Adamawa State. The purposive data sampling technique was used to select 240 cattle from four locations (2-sedentary and 2 trade cattle), from Mayo Belwa, Fufore and Yola South Local Government Areas for four months periods (September-December, 2014). Ticks were collected from half of the body of each sampled cattle using hand-picking and preserved in a sampling bottle with 10% formaldehyde. Ages of the cattle were determined using dentition method. Breed, sex, age of cattle and collection date were recorded on each sampling bottle. The samples were then transported to National Veterinary Research Institute Laboratory for identification. Ticks collected were identified using Soulsby identification key to genera and species level. The data collected were analyzed using chi-square and t-test at 0.05 confidence level. The results showed 79.0% and 94.0% prevalence for sedentary and trade cattle respectively which showed significant differences (p<0.05) while other variables (i.e breeds, sex and ages of cattle) showed no significant differences. The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is most prevalent which also infest all breeds except white fulani, while Amblyomma variegatum and Hyalomma truncatus were found prevalently infesting Bunaji. Both sedentary and trade cattle suffered tick infestation and therefore needed to be controlled.


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