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IJSRP, Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2013 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
December 2013 publication has started and publication will continue till 14th December 2013.
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th December, their paper will publish in December edition latest by 14th December.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th December.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th December 2013.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 15th December and minor corrections are accepted till 14th December 2013.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Dr.Nitin Bansal, Dr. Nidhi Uniyal

Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disorder which causes serum liver enzyme elevation. Elevated homocysteine levels were demonstrated in fatty liver disease and chronic liver failure. However, enough data related with homocysteine levels in patients with NAFLD is not available. We aimed to find out whether there is an association between homocysteine levels and NAFLD.



      Jamali Firmat Banzi, Xue Zhaojun

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the morphological nature of cancerous cell by employing image processing algorithms so that they can be used to automate diagnostic techniques, reducing the cost and increasing the accuracy of epithelial biopsy procedures. The approach taken combines a mix of image processing techniques and methods such as (median filter, unsharp mask and threshold). Next an averaging was done to remove noise and to distinguish between the two cells so that it can be easily identified which one has some abnormality. Lastly an improved future work of line plot in which will clearly identify the abnormality of a cell and hence recognize a cancerous cell accurately was proposed in this research.



      Shumaila Bhutto, Imran Umer Chhapra

Abstract: This exploratory study has been conducted with the core intention to understand the emergence of inquiry approach on constructivism as an important and thriving learning theory in the field of education. This paper first focuses on a concise account of different perspectives under recent investigation on constructivism in the educational ground, generally established currently by recent theorists, academic and intellectuals, point toward the practical implication of constructivist theory, Various aspects of study critically examine their belief to what extent they are going to act on the theory, and if they do so then view how they manage or maintain constructivist uniqueness and ideology of learning.



      Dušan Regodić, Marija Samardžić, Gojko Grubor

Abstract: In this paper review of roll-damping measurements in the T-38 blow-down wind tunnel is presented. Fundamental elements of the mathematical model for stability derivatives measurements are shown. Measurements are based on rigidly forced oscillations method. Apparatus for stability derivatives measurements in roll oscillations tests and data reduction procedures used in VTI are described. Roll apparatus is designed and produced with regard to high requirements in stability derivatives measurements.



      Gojko Grubor, Nenad Ristic, Natasa Simeunovic

Abstract: A new field of forensic accounting has emerged as current practices have been changed in electronic business environment and rapidly increasing fraudulent activities. Despite taking many forms, the fraud is usually theft of funds and information or misuse of someone's information assets. As financial frauds prevail in digital environment, accountants are the most helpful people to investigate them. However, forensic accountants in digital environment, usually called fraud investigators or fraud examiners, must be specially trained to investigate and report digital evidences in the courtroom. In this paper, the authors researched the case of financial fraud forensic analysis of the Microsoft Excel file, as it is very often used in financial reporting.



      Dr Ayman Mohamed Afifi

Abstract: Summer Egypt hot, and characterize by weather day strongly heat , which increase inflammation and hotter with the passage of summer days , but a little breeze refreshing , and increase weather suffocate Egyptians to the inability of most of them to go to the resorts as a result of the summer in the intense heat . The problem with research in high temperature in summer and especially in open spaces outside the home so that the sun shines strongly the length of the day and open spaces difficult to control or deodorants out , causing harass the people and their sense of tension during the walk may cause overheating damage greater for patients chronic diseases.



      Shiva Kumar K.L, Shankare Gowda V.S., Basavarajaiah D.M.

Abstract: HIV is a scourge people living with HIV/AIDS were more exposed to different kinds of OIs due to the low absolute cd4+ T-lymphocyte count, poor drug adherence, co morbid conditions and lost to follow up of ARV drug. In Indian prospective a very limited literature were documented on correlation of CD4 count with respect to Oral candidaisis. In this context Present study aims to determine the incidence of oral Candida albicans infection in HIV positive patients and correlate with age matched CD4 count in Government tertiary care hospitals. A cohort prospective study conducted at Department of ENT, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore .All Eligible recruited patients meet their inclusion and exclusion criteria. Laboratory parameters like CD4 count, Hb, ESR were collected with lesser error and more accuracy. Total 1063 patients screened for the oral candidiasis. Confirmed and suspected patients recruited for the study. Overall prevalence was 25(2.35%) and statistically significant with the sex and age matched frequency. More number of patients acquired candidiasis between 50-200 micro/Dl, the emphasis of lower CD4 count is likely to prove and expressed the opportunistic infections and Oral candidiasis. Early inception of HAART, Good ARV drug adherence can reduces the incidence rate.



      G.Balamurugan, Dr.P.Perumal

Abstract: This experimental study presents the variation in the strength of concrete when replacing sand by quarry dust from 0% to 100% in steps of 10%. M20 and M25 grades of concrete were taken for study keeping a constant slump of 60mm. The compressive strength of concrete cubes at the age of 7 and 28 days were obtained at room temperature. Also the temperature effect on concrete cubes at 100oC on 28th day of casting was carried out to check the loss of strength. From test results it was found that the maximum compressive strength is obtained only at 50% replacement at room temperature and net strength after loss due to hike in temperature was above the recommended strength value due to 50% replacement itself. This result gives a clear picture that quarry dust can be utilized in concrete mixtures as a good substitute for natural river sand giving higher strength at 50% replacement.



      Jacob P. George, V.R. Pramod

Abstract: For the development of any modern economy, steel is crucial and is considered to be the backbone of human civilisation. The domestic steel industries are facing new challenges. Some of these relate to the trade barriers in the developed markets and certain structural problems due to the high cost of commissioning new projects. Thermo Mechanically Treated (TMT) steel bars are presently used for reinforcement, which are produced in Steel Re Rolling Mills (SRRMs). Presently, in India there are more than 1200 rolling mills are there since 1929. Modernisation of such mills is going on. Since the cost of production of the steel bars is increasing day by day, it is necessary that a good quality monitoring system has to introduce to reduce the waste without affecting its cost. Hence a quality awareness with good maintenance is very much essential. The producer must have a clear awareness about their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).



      Fayyaz Yaseen Bhidal

Abstract: The present paper, besides taking stock of the struggle for the creation of a socially accountable governance system in Pakistan, briefly focuses on to the challenges, gaps, opportunities and the way forward for the success of the phenomenon. Building on the relevant literature available, it also highlights civil society organizations work on social accountability in Pakistan and the major stakeholders that can play a role in leading this constructive transition successfully. Moreover, it shares some of the suggestions that may expedite the process towards strengthening peoples voice to call for a governance structure that may initiate inclusive and participatory development while adhering to the values of transparency, decentralization, justice and social accountability.



      Benyada Sinchaloenman, Atcharawan Ngamyan,Ph.D.

Abstract: Shopping malls income mainly comes from rent from the tenants. Other service fees are only small portion of a shopping mall income. Since shopping mall expenses are normally stable. Changing tenant increases operating expense and decreases rental income. This paper explores key factors concerning small tenants, decision making to renew the shopping mall rental contract. The survey data was collected from 4 shopping malls in Bangkok with 215 samples from 460 tenants. The research found out that trust and center management performance are direct factors which impact tenants to renew their rent contract. The indirect factors are empowerment, responsive behavior, cooperate and service quality. Shopping center management should focus on meeting tenants’ satisfaction. If they are satisfied, the probability that they will renew the contract is high. And the shopping mall will get higher income on operation and this will lead to the shopping mall success and sustainability.



      Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Mohammad Abdullah Mahfuz, Liza khanam

Abstract: This paper identifies the incentives preferred by the Chinese firms to invest in Bangladesh. It is mentionable that incentives choice criterion of FDI mostly depends on the socio-economic condition of the host country, strategies followed by that country with the home country, geographical aspect etc. But historically we find most Chinese firm prefers wholly own subsidiaries for investing Bangladesh , faces severe host industry competition, and emphasizes assets seeking purposes in its FDI by using survey data of a sample of 145 Chinese firms. In few cases a joint venture is preferred when the firm is investing in mount in host market. Elsewhere they try to take advantages from the host country because of their widen market share as well as one of the largest economy in the world.



      Shikha Chourasia

Abstract: Decision tree classification technique is one of the most popular techniques in the emerging field of data mining. There are various methods for constructing decision tree. Induced Decision tree (ID3) is the basic algorithm for constructing decision trees. After ID3 various algorithms were proposed by different researchers and authors those are extensions of ID3 algorithm. This paper contains a survey about the improved methods of ID3 decision tree classification and those are FID3 (fixed induced decision tree) and VPRSFID3 (variable precision rough set fixed induced decision tree). In this short survey we will investigate which method is best among all the other methods.



      Herry Darsim Gaffar, Umar Fahmi Achmadi, Syamsu, Ilhamjaya Patellongi

Abstract: This study aimed to find out the risk factors with the most responsible for the death cases among Hajj Pilgrims, and the way in decreasing mortality risk through the effort of improved management of health programs of Indonesian Hajj Pilgrim (IHP).This research was conducted as a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were 531 of Indonesian hajj pilgrims who died in 2011 (Pilgrims 2011). Data were processed from secondary data and was analyzed quantitatively by computerized and manual techniques.



      G.Nirmala, M.Sheela

Abstract: The fuzzy domination number (G) of the fuzzy graph G is the minimum cardinality taken over all fuzzy minimal dominating set of G. The minimum cardinality of a fuzzy k-dominating set is called the fuzzy k-dominating number k(G) .The maximum incident degree of a fuzzy graph is (G).In this paper we prove some theorems that relate the parameters(G),k(G),(G).



      Mr. Amit Sharma, Dr. Ashish Dutt Sharma

Abstract: In this paper we are finding knowledge about the Different strategies of optimization used in Indian Manufacturing Companies. Most Indian companies in the manufacturing functions have been running hard for the past decade to stay competitive and cut costs. They have extended their manufacturing and supply operations to low-cost sources globally, embraced innovations in automation and cost management, leaned out operations without sacrificing quality, and made significant inroads to serving customers in emerging markets.



      Gurpreet Makker

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of selected asanas on the flexibility of wicket keepers in Cricket. A total No. of 30 wicket keepers, ages ranging between 21 to 30 years were randomly selected to act as subject for the study. Sit and Reach test was conducted to measure the flexibility. The asanas were considered as independent variables: Sarvangasana, Matyaasana, Pawanmuktasana, Bhujangasana, Shalbhasana, Dhanuerasana,, Ardhmatsendrasana, Pashchimatanasana, Vajrasana, Ustmasana, Katichakrasana, Padmasana, and Savasana, and on the other hand Flexibility was considered as the dependent variable. Sit and Reach box was used to measure the flexibility of lower hamstring and lower back muscle. The training was designed for nine weeks on alternate days and the duration of one day program had 45 minutes. The data was collected before the training program, after two weeks, four weeks, on the sixth week, and finally on the eighth week of training program. The data was collected and the same was analyzed by computing the descriptive statistics, whereas to assess the significant effect of training program on flexibility repeated measure ANOVA was computed, the level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The results reveals that there was a significant difference wicket keepers in pre and post test as the mean and standard deviation value of the pre test was 32.43 and 7.31 respectively, whereas the mean and standard deviation values of the post test1, post test2, post test3 and post4 were found to be 34.30 and 7.51, 35.60 and 6.95, 36.50 and 6.84 and 38.53 and 7.50 respectively. The values of Repeated Measure One Way ANOVA shows that the F value of assumed Sphericity was found to be 27.62 against the tabulated value of 2.44 which was significant at 0.05 level. The finding of the present study has strongly indicated that asana training has improved the flexibility of the wicket keepers in cricket. Hence the hypothesis previously said that asana training



      Dr Rajneesh Garg, Dr Renu Gupta

Abstract: Background: Different operative techniques used for treating displaced proximal humeral fractures could result in malunion, non-union, osteonecrosis of humeral head, loosening of screw and loss of reduction particularly in comminuted and osteoporotic fractures. Locking compression plate (LPHP) has been proposed for open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures and is associated with less complication rate. Materials and methods: Functional outcomes of 16 men and 14 women aged 18- 72 (mean 44.53) years who underwent locking compression plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures were observed after an average 12 months follow- up. Results: According to constant score, 36.66% had excellent outcome, 46.67% had good functional outcome and 16.66% had moderate outcome. The shoulder range of movement was excellent in 11 (36.66%), moderate in 13 (43.33%), and poor in 6 (20%). In objective assessment it was observed that about 83% regain adequate power to perform activities of daily living and in subjective assessment it was found that 63.33% patients were able to perform activity of daily living without much problem. All fractures healed satisfactorily, except in one patient with a valgus 4-part fracture who had malunion. No wound infections, vascular injuries, avascular necrosis, or loss of fixation ensued. Two patients with axillary nerve palsy recovered spontaneously within 3 months. Conclusions: Locking compression plate (LPHP) is an advantageous implant in proximal humeral fractures due to angular stability, particularly in comminuted fractures and in osteoporotic bones in elderly patients, thus allowing early mobilization.



      Jayashree Roy and Joyati Bhattacharya

Abstract: The empowerment of women is crucial to the process of development of any community. Though women constitute almost half of our population and play a vital role in every sphere of life, their importance is not properly recognized by the society. They are generally suppressed and enjoy limited access to different fields of life, such as, education, society, culture, politics, business and so on. But a nation can not achieve all round development if women are not given equal opportunity of development with their male counterparts. A society moves when women move. Thus, the social status of women is a reliable indicator to assess the development of the society. It can be said that status of women is intimately connected with their economic position, which in turn depends on opportunities to participate in economic activities. SHGs provide women an avenue to participate in economic activities. It gives women an easy access to credit. The members of SHG meet regularly and save an amount of money in a joint account of the group which can be used as a revolving fund to provide credit for the consumption and production purposes. Sometimes, Bank also gives loans with minimum interest to these groups and as a result the SHG members can take money from that Bank loan at very low interest rate which in turn helps women to establish micro-enterprises and meet the crisis situations. The present paper aims to study the relationship between micro enterprise and women empowerment in Badarpur Development Block of Karimganj District.



      Nuzhat Younis, Aamer Akram, Rao Aamir Khush Naseeb

Abstract: The purpose of study is to measure the performance of Pharmaceutical organization Abbott laboratories United Kingdom by career management and development. The study is based on the four key parts of the Human resource strategies which are Planning, Training and Development, Pay and Reward and Organizational Commitment. The motivation behind this study is to understand the concept of career management and development which lead to Human resource planning, succession planning along with Pay and reward along with understand the impact of different level of management in career management and development.



      Nilakshi Goswami

Abstract: Let (,,) be a complete probability measure space and X1 and X2 be separable Banach spaces. For Banach spaces Y1 and Y2, let F1: X1Y1 and F2: X2Y2 be random operators. Using F1 and F2, we construct a random operator F: (X1X2)Y1Y2, which is continuous if F1 and F2 are continuous. We prove that if F1 and F2 are stochastically continuous, then F is also stochastically continuous. Similar result is also established in case of separability of random operators. The fixed points of such random operators on the tensor product of Banach spaces is also studied here.



      H.Sushma, Jagadeesha.K.B

Abstract: Internal combustion engines in now a days is the best available reliable source of power for all domestic, large scale industrial and transportation applications. The major issue arises at the efficiency of these engines. Every attempt made to improve these engines tends to attain the maximum efficiency. The performances of the diesel engines are enhanced by proper design of inlet manifold, exhaust manifold, combustion chamber, piston etc. The study is about the effect of piston configurations on in- cylinder flow. Here a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine is used for study. For obtaining swirl intensity helical-spiral combination inlet manifold is used. Increase in swirl intensity results in better mixing of fuel and air. Swirl Velocities in the charge can be substantially increased during compression by suitable design of the piston. In the present work, a study on the effect of different piston configuration on air motion and turbulence inside the cylinder of a Direct Injection (DI) diesel is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 13. Three dimensional models of the manifolds, pistons and the cylinder is created in CATIA V5 and meshed using the pre-processor Hypermesh 10.0.



      K. Thriveni, Dr. B.Jaya Chandraiah

Abstract: The crankshaft is an important component of an I.C engine. This converts the reciprocating displacement of the piston in to a rotary motion of the crank. An attempt is made in this paper on a single cylinder 4-stroke I.C engine. The 3-d modelling of the crankshaft and the analysis is to done by using CATIA-V5 software. And applying the boundary conditions on the crankshaft. The modal analysis is to be done in two cases i.e free-frequency and frequency analysis. Then the results are in free frequency analysis the resonance frequency is 1150.967Hz occurred at the 7th node. In frequency case minimum frequency occurred at the fillet areas is 890.735Hz maximum frequency is 5539.023Hz.



      Kaur Harpreet, Dr. Sharma Lalit

Abstract: When the high performance in sports is discussed, the concept of Athletic Intelligence originates; because of the gap in understanding which skills representing athletic performance these conceptions are wide. So, the researcher has made an effort to assess the athletic intelligence attributes in selected sports. The study was conducted on a total of one Hundred sports persons, but for the final evaluation only fifty four subjects were considered, those who have played at least college level using purposive sampling studying in the Delhi University with age ranged from 17 years and above.



      Jadhav Arvind Uttamrao

Abstract: Tree Based Association Rule Mining (TBAR) algorithm decreases the number of data base scans during frequent item set mining to improve association rule mining process. In this paper, we present parallel version of TBAR algorithm. Parallel version of TBAR algorithm decreases the time required for association rule mining process by making candidate item set generation, frequent item set generation and association rule generation process parallel.



      Shanimon.S, Dr.M. Shahul Hameedu

Abstract: Disability is an important public health problem especially in developing countries like India. The problem will increase in future because of increase in trend of non-communicable diseases and change in age structure with an increase in life expectancy. The issues are different in developed and developing countries, and rehabilitation measures should be targeted according the needs of the disabled with community participation.



      Girish Garg

Abstract: Retailing is the interface between the producers and individual consumers buying for personal consumption or use. As such retailing is the last link that connects consumers or customers with the manufactures and distribution chain. Whether it is manufactures, distributors, wholesalers, if they sale the goods and service directly to buyers then they are called retailers and their trading activity come under retailing.



      Humera Yaqoob

Abstract: Bureaucratic power is a fact of life in the present political and administrative processes throughout the world. It is inherent in all administrative systems and so is the case in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Bureaucracy in J&K emerged as an offshoot of the British Colonial rule in India. The rule ended but the legacy still persists. Over-bureaucracy in the system led to the undue increase in the bureaucratic power. This excessive power became unacceptable to the common masses in J&K. The situation got aggravated due to the increasing inaccessibility of this bureaucracy and its recognition as elitism. The public in J&K, being vulnerable economically, socially and psychologically, due to the past political turmoil of two decades and undue discrimination at the hands of the central government, portrayed a feeling and attitude of awe, fear and disgust towards the rising bureaucratic structure. The bureaucracy in J&K needs to desist from rampantly using its power, which draws its vitality from the resources allocated to it. At the same time, it needs to make a judicious use of these resources. The present paper depicts the rise of bureaucratic power in J&K, with its inherent pitfalls, if used indiscriminately. This paper also portrays the probability of its decline in case the reins are taken over by the citizenry as a result of an administrative revolution.



      Haimanti Chakraborty, Dr. Durga Misra

Abstract: In today world, life without electronics is unthinkable. It has been studied that for electronic devices to provide better efficiency and reliability in terms of speed, power-loss and cost, the fundamental component of each Integrated Circuit (IC) chip, namely the MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) needs to be reduced or ‘scaled’ down in size. Device scaling has produced remarkable results until further scaling beyond the 22-nm technology node has resulted in undesirable leakage currents in the MOS device by means of direct tunneling of electrons through the gate dielectric. Due to this leakage, the battery of any electronic gadget can be drained in minutes and the excessive heat produced by all the MOSFETs will reduce the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, materials like the oxides of hafnium and zirconium with a higher value of dielectric constant K are being used to replace the previously used silicon dioxide, so as to facilitate more device scaling with negligible leakages.



      Haimanti Chakraborty, Prof. (Dr.) Prabir Banerjee

Abstract: With the advancement in technology, the number of electronic devices in our day-to-day lives has increased to make life simpler. So a necessity to construct a Universal Remote System that will easily control all these devices from a distance will not only reduce the complexity of handling the number of devices simultaneously, but also save power.



      Ms Swaleha Chougale, Mrs. Anis Mulla, Mr.Sandeep Sutar

Abstract: In today world seeing is no longer believing- the technology that allows for digital visual data to be manipulated is developing at great speed. The quick advance in image editing techniques has enabled people to synthesize realistic images conveniently. Some legal issues may arise when a tampered image cannot be distinguished from original one by visual examination. In this paper Scale Invariant Feature Transform algorithm is used to extract interest points of an image. Voting procedure algorithm is used to determine transformation with respect to X-axis and Y-axis. Final results differentiates tampered image from original image



      Md Faisal Hussain

Abstract: O Mankind, keep your duty to your Lord who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate (of same kind) and from them twain has spread a multitude of men and women...He (God) it is who did create you from a single soul and therefrom did create his mate, that he might dwell with her (in love).... Chapter (4) sūrat l-nisāa (The Women)



      Jacob P. George, V.R. Pramod

Abstract: Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is one of the well-established methodologies for identifying relationships among specific items, which define the problems of an issue. This approach has been increasingly used by various researchers to represent the interrelationships among various elements related to the issue. . In general, there exists a direct correlation between various customer receptivity aspects. Thus it makes more natural approach to this kind of problems. ISM approach starts with an identification of variables, which are relevant to the problem or issue. Then a contextually relevant subordinate relation is chosen. Having decided the contextual relation, a structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM) is developed based on customer receptivity of variables. SSIM is then converted into a reachability matrix (RM) and its transitivity is checked. Once transitivity embedding is completed, a matrix model is obtained. Then, the partitioning of the elements and an extraction of the structural model called ISM is obtained. In this paper, key concept of ISM approach is discussed about the hazardous situations of Steel Re Rolling Mills (SRRMs) in detail.



      Deepali Mahobiya

Abstract: Arbiters are a fundamental component in systems containing shared resources, and a centralized arbiter is a tightly integrated design for its input requests. In this study, we propose a new centralized arbiter, which may be used in arbitration of a crossbar switch in NoC routers. As fabrication technology continues to improve, smaller feature sizes allow increasingly more integration of system components onto a single die. Communication between these components can become the limiting factor for performance unless embodying the correct scheduling algorithm. In this paper, we design iSLIP arbiter using iSLIP scheduling algorithm with mesh router for NoC. An iterative, round-robin algorithm, iSLIP can achieve 100% throughput for uniform traffic, yet is simple to implement in hardware. Prototype and commercial implementations of iSLIP exist in systems with aggregate bandwidths ranging from 50 to 500 Gb/s. When the traffic is nonuniform, iSLIP quickly adapts to a fair scheduling policy that is guaranteed never to starve an input queue. This new arbiter is fair for any input combinations and faster & it is designed using ModelSimSE 6.3f for simulation of code and xilinx for synthesis.



      Rajesh Kumar Singh, Dr. S.N Hiremath

Abstract: There are numerous herbs growing in India, some are cultivated and others are growing wild, among these herbs is well known name Garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is cultivated and consumed almost across the globe. People use Garlic as a spice / pickles. Garlic contains medicinally active compounds like Alliin/Allicin, Di-allyl Disulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1, 3-dithiin, Ajoene. Alliin /Allicin is cholesterol lowering and antihypertensive (Ref. see Sukhdev, 1997, Sculz et al, 1998 and Hung, 1999). Alliin is an amino acid, in presence of enzyme Alliinase, Alliin converted into Allicin and it has produce characteristic smell of garlic. Various samples of Garlic (varieties) collected from various locations (Climatic Condition) and Alliin estimated.



      Faiz Hussain, S.R.K. Prakash Rao, Shazia Parveen

Abstract: Breast is the second commonest site involved by cancer in Indian women. It is the commonest cause of death in many developed countries in middle aged women and is becoming frequent in developing countries. Breast cancer is probably the most feared cancer in women because of its frequency and its psychological impact. Psychological trauma has lessened in recent years because of earlier diagnosis, more treatment options, the greater availability of reconstruction and rehabilitation programs including psychological counseling. The present study is the study of the risk factors (modifiable and non modifiable) in a rural population in south India.



      Jamuna K.V., Rathna H.

Abstract: Over the last three decades, eating habits/ pattern and physical activity levels of children have also changed. The changed social environments associated to the increased incidences of malnutrition obesity and possibly micronutrient deficiencies. The changed social environments associated to the increased incidences of malnutrition and possibly micronutrient deficiencies. In this backdrop, this research attempts has been made to study the nutritional and health status of the school girls belonging to different socio-economic groups Representative sample of one hundred and twenty school girls each belonging to low and middle income group, in the age group of Eleven to Fifteen years were selected by simple random sampling technique. Results revealed that, Low income group girls consumed fewer nutrients when compared with middle income group. Somatic statuses of the children indicating that, height of the children of 11-13 ages from both the groups were slightly higher than NCHS standards but decreased in older children showing the long term nutritional deficiency. The BMI remained almost constant despite a significant increase in terms of increment in height and weight over the age of 11-15 years. Morbidity status of respondents indicated that, Low income group girls showed the high percent of clinical symptoms than middle income group. It was observed that, low income group girls were more prone to infections and diseases than the middle income group girls. Thus, the findings of the study are indicative of the fact that the prime reason for nutrition and health status of present day school girls is quality and quantity of food.



      Swati Pal, Pallavi Singh Bondriya, Yogesh Pahariya

Abstract: The problem of quality electrical energy provided to the users has arisen. This is due to the increasing presence in network of nonlinear loads.They constitute a harmonic pollution source of the network, which generate many disturbances, and disturb the optimal operation of electrical equipments. This work, proposed a solution to eliminate the harmonics introduced by the nonlinear loads. It presents the analysis and simulation using Matlab Simulink of a active power filter (APF) compensating the harmonics and reactive power created by nonlinear loads in steady and in transients. The usefulness of the simulation approach to APF is demonstrated , have a better power quality insight using Matlab Simulink in order to develop new fuzzy logic controller based active power filter.



      Seethal Lal. S., Dr. Jaya D.S. and Dr. Sherly Williams E

Abstract: The survey was undertaken during the period from October -2012 to September -2013 in the Vattakkayal, Sakthikulangara panchayath, Kollam district. The major objective of this study was to find out the Biodiversity status of fishes in Vattakkayal of Kollam district, South India. Fishes were collected from the study area and the Meristic and Morphometric characters were measured and fishes were identified up to the species level, with the help of standard keys given by Day (1967), Jayaram (1999), Talwar and Jhingran (1991). Conservation status of fishes from the Vattakkayal was assessed by following the CAMP and IUCN conservation status. The survey of the studied stretch of river resulted in recording of of 22 fish species belonging to 10 orders and 17 families. IUCN (2011) and CAMP (1988) conservation status of each fish was listed. It was found that out of 22 species reported in the present study, 13.63 % are Vulnerable, 4.54 % are Endangered, 4.54 % are at Lower Risk And Near Threatened, 27.27 % are at Lower Risk and Least Concern,31.81% are Least Concern, 4.54% are Critically Endangered, Data Deficient for 4.54 % species and 9.0 % are Not Evaluated as per IUCN Red list category (2011). As per CAMP (1998) evaluation status, 9.09 % species are Critically Endangered, 36.36 % are Vulnerable, 4.54 % are at Lower Risk And Near Threatened, 4.54 % are at Lower Risk, 9.09 % are data deficient 36.36 % are not evaluated. This is a pioneer study on the fish diversity of Vattakkayal, a part of Ashtamudi lake and would help in adding some additional species to the previous diversity studies conducted on the diversity of fishes in the water bodies of Kollam district,South India.



      Mohammad Arshad, Mohd. Amir Ansari

Abstract: In this paper, the performance of 10 Gbps optical communication system with the dispersion managed RZ pulse has been reported. The return-to-zero (RZ) pulse is efficient for long-distance, high-bit-rate, wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmission dispersion-managed systems. In RZ pulse, the power is transmitted only for fraction of bit period. The effect of varying the dispersion parameter of single mode fiber on optical communication system has been noted.



      Ms.Ankita O.Andure, Prof. P. P. Deshmukh

Abstract: Traffic load computation for real time traffic signal control system has become a challenging problem as well as the need of hour to make road traffic decent, safe, less time and fuel consuming. CCTV Cameras can prove to be a robust and sufficient solution in this direction. Images of the traffic captured with the help of CCTV Camera, can be processed to retrieve the required output about current traffic. This presents a model to count the traffic load by some parameters such as edge detection, histogram equalization, labeling and removing the noise with the help of median filter. The load computed can then be used to control the traffic signals.



      Ms.Sushama H.Bailmare, Prof. A.B.Gadicha

Abstract: Vehicle number plate recognition is the most interesting and challenging research topic from past few years. It is shown that the number plates are different shape and size and also have different color in different countries. In India the most common vehicle number plate used yellow or white as background and black used as foreground color. In this paper we proposed a system to localization of number plate mainly for the vehicles in West Bengal (India) and segmented the numbers as to identify each number separately. This presents an approach based on simple and efficient morphological operation and sobel edge detection method. We also presents a simple approach to segmented all the letters and numbers used in the number plate. After reducing noise from the input image we try to enhance the contrast of the binarized image using histogram equalization. We mainly concentrate on two steps; one is to locate the number plate and second is to segment all the number and letters to identify each number separately.



      Manas Arora, Neha Maurya

Abstract: MPEG stands for MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP is a standard for video and audio compression for eliminating the noisy signals from the transmitted signals from the satellite. Audio compression is a basic method defined under MPEG-1 and MPEG-4 which by coding techniques compress audio signals to filter out undesired signals.This paper focuses on the MPEG technology, need and coding technique for audio compression.



      Pallavi Suryawanshi, Vaishali Sonone, Ashish Jadhav

Abstract: OFDM has several distinct challenges in the underwater channel environment. The underwater channel is known to be highly frequency selective with large delay and Doppler spreading as well as fast time variance. To overcome the poor communication environment between the underwater acoustic signal transmitter and receiver, previous research applied underwater acoustic OFDM communication system which had efficient bandwidth capacity and could mitigate multi-path delay spread effect via guard interval. Concurrently with this OFDM signal, additional data could be transmitted through spread spreading technique, which was called water-line technique. However, this decreased the performance of the OFDM modulation because the water-line signal degraded OFDM signal. An essential feature of this system is that it offers greater power and schemes with significant error protection for the transmission of sensor data information requiring a higher quality of service (QoS). The proposed underwater acoustic multimedia system employs high power, low speed modulation, and schemes providing significant error protection for the transmission of sensor data messages requiring a stringent bit-error rate (BER). In contrast, low power, high speed modulation, and less capable error protection schemes are provided for messages that can tolerate a high BER.



      Kishwar Jhan Ali, Rajesh Sahu

Abstract: This paper review analysis of the performance of a fuel cell energy source based Multi Level Inverter topology. Multi Level Inverter topologies are suitable in high power application due to their ability to synthesize waveforms with better harmonic spectrum. The Multilevel inverter circuit analysis and selection of proper references discussed based on the formulation switching patterns. A Single phase five level cascaded inverter is used to explain the methods. The method can be easily extended to an m-level inverter. The cascaded inverter is subjected to a new modulation scheme, which uses multiple modulating signals with a single carrier. In order to justify the merits of the proposed modulation scheme, harmonic analysis for and measured THD and output voltages are compared and discussed.



      S.Chitra, K.S.Jayanthan and S.Preetha

Abstract: Internet became a platform for fast communication and information transactions. Web pages undergo constant dynamic transformations. Due to this reason, it has become attackers preferred pathway for installing illicit products. It also made the intruders to use World Wide Web to hack or attack a client’s system. Malwares may be installed to the target system to disclose the user information. Malicious web pages are created using code attacks, finding system vulnerabilities and other methods. It contains potential threats. Number of web pages and malicious content in it, is increasing proportionally. Thus, it requires a large security concern in the Internet. Various approaches have been made to detect maliciousness. Evolutionary computation reached its top notch in recent years. Fuzzy systems are used in solving issues in various application domains. This paper proposes a novel approach using genetically evolved Fuzzy rules. Every web page contains its own features which may differ for a malicious web page. Using this factor, the system is implemented.



      Manas Arora, Neha Maurya

Abstract: Mars Rovers are the unmanned machines on planet MARS which are send to analyze and provide details about the planet. GPU and Genetic Algorithms are upcoming technologies used in Mars Rovers for analyzing and sending the data back to the Earth base station. GPU stands for Graphics Processing Unit in which Image compression is the basic layout of the technology. Image compression involves WAVELET transform and Image segmentation involves genetic algorithm. This paper focuses on introducing the GPU technology and Genetic algorithm and methods involved in it which are key for space communication in the near future.



      Sirinya Sunthorncheewin, Supeecha Panichpathom, Atcharawan Ngarmyarn, Niti Ratanaprichavej

Abstract: Real estate developments in Thailand, particularly housing, contribute to economic and national development. Almost all housing in Thailand is provided by the private sector. However, due to high competition and also negative factors affecting housing market such as economic downturn, political instability, high interest rate, etc., developers have to increase their competitive potential to survive in this market.



      Msaakpa, T. S., Obasi, M. O., Kalu, B. A.

Abstract: A field study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, in 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons. The objective was to determine the effects of six selected growth regulators viz: 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), aluminum tetraflouride (AIF4), fusicoccin, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) – both at 200mg/L; coconut milk and potassium nitrate (KNO3) at 15% each, on the growth of four castor accessions namely; LAF-4, LAF-11, AKW-5 and AKW-7. Observations on growth were recorded on leaf area index (LAI), absolute growth rate (AGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), number of leaves and plant height – all per plant at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 weeks after sowing. The technique of growth analysis described by Steel and Torrie was adopted for data collection. Results showed that all the growth parameters were significantly affected by growth regulators and castor accessions at all growth stages, and were higher when castor accession were treated with 15% of coconut milk. Castor accessions varied significantly in growth being higher in AKW-5 at early growth stages and LAF-4 at latter growth stages. The 15% of coconut milk and AKW-5 interaction produced significantly higher growth at 8 to 24 WAS than other growth regulators and castor accession interactions. AKW-5 showed greater growth response to application of 15% of coconut milk.



      Julius Kilonzi Charles, Nicodemus Abungu Odero

Abstract: In present times, the use of DG systems in large amounts in different power distribution systems has become very popular and is growing on with fast speed. Although it is considered that DG reduces losses and improves system voltage profile, this paper shows that this is not always true. The paper presents a GA-IPSO based approach which utilizes combined sensitivity factor analogy to optimally locate and size a multi-type DG in IEEE 57-bus test system with the aim of reducing power losses and improving the voltage profile. The multi-type DG can operate as; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power). It further shows that though the system losses are reduced and the voltage profile improved with the location of the first DG, as the number of DGs increases this is not the case. It reaches a point where any further increase in number of DGs in the network results to an increase in power losses and a distortion in voltage profile.



      Lakhimi Gogoi

Abstract: Degradation of natural resources and environmental pollutions are most concerning subject in present day context among the social scientist as well as the environmentalist. As the population increase day by day the amenities are not improve simultaneously. With the advancement of science and technologies the needs of human beings has been changing rapidly. As a result different types of environmental problems have been arising. Guwahati the capital city and the gate way of north east India is also not exceptional on it.



      Ivaan Jaison

Abstract: Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors [1] [5]. In this paper we present the performance analysis of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters, considering two typical load balancing approaches static and dynamic. The analysis indicates that static and dynamic both types of algorithm can have advancements as well as weaknesses over each other. Deciding type of algorithm to be implemented will be based on type of parallel applications to solve. The main purpose of this paper is to help in design of new algorithms in future by studying the behavior of various existing algorithms



      Aakanksha Pimpalgaonkar, Mansi Jha, Nikita Shukla, Kajol Asthana

Abstract: The objective is to design and implement an automated Temperature control system using embedded system design in order to control the temperature of a system. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associate with this area. My paper will include the design and construction of a microcontroller-based automated temperature control system along with a temperature display using LCD. A working system will ultimately be demonstrated to validate the design. The system made is only a prototype. A larger system can be made using this prototype as a model.



      A.Pasupathy, S.Nirmala, M.Raja, P.Sakthivel

Abstract: The inhibitive effect of congo red was examined as corrosion inhibitor for the corrosion of zinc in 1N HCl by conventional weight loss and gasometric methods. Results obtained show that congo red exhibited high inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the zinc metal surface obeyed Temkin adsorption isotherm.



      Vallamkondu Arun Kumar, Setty Kalyan

Abstract: Now a days accidents are increasing more and more, so safety has acquired a priority. Improper usage of brakes is also one of the problems for accident. The project idea is to improve the safety parameters regarding to brakes. Sudden recognition of any object in front panics the driver, at that situation normal drivers fail to use brakes correctly this leads accident, taking the driver reaction time into account we will try to assist the driver by doing this we can avoid accidents and hence can increase safety.



      E. Sumathi, Mrs. P. Raja Rajeswari

Abstract: Using a Multi-objective evolutionary granular algorithm is proposed to match face images before and after plastic surgery. The algorithm first generates non-disjoint face granules at multiple levels of granularity. The granular information is assimilated using a multiobjective genetic approach that simultaneously optimizes the selection of feature extractor for each face granule along with the weights of individual granules. On the plastic surgery face database, the proposed algorithm yields high identification accuracy as compared to existing algorithms and a commercial face recognition system. Our evaluation results obtained using genetic algorithm with data sets.



      Zeenat Madan

Abstract: Epididymis play a very important role in the male reproduction. It is also the job of the epididymis to bring the sperms to maturity since the sperms that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. Contraceptive efficacy of C. papaya seed extracts have also been well documented in various animal models. This study examines the effect of oral administration of ethanol extract ofC. papaya seeds on the histology of epididymis of the adult male albino mice. 60 healthy adult male albino mice were divided into 4 Groups (Group I to IV) of 15 mice each. 50 and 70 mg/kg/day of the extract were orally administered to Groups II and III respectively while Group I served as placebo (control). The daily administration was carried out for a period of 45 days after which the animals of Group I ,II and III were sacrificed. The epididymis were obtained and processed for light microscopy.



      M. S. Karunarathne, L. D. J. F. Nanayakkara, Kapila Ponnamperuma

Abstract: There is a rapid growth on Information Technology through e-Government concept and the usage of mobile phone is also increasing day by day. The majority of SMS writers in Sri Lanka transliterate messages because of language barriers, which create various communication problems and ambiguity of messages. Computing in Sinhala language is an emerging trend in Sri Lanka. This research is an attempt to predict Sinhala sentences in mobile short messages. This is a timely necessity in Sri Lanka.



      Shashi Kadapa

Abstract: The Indian Premier League - IPL launched in 2008 has achieved a very high level of popularity with more than 140 million TV audiences and a brand valuation of more than 4 billion USD. The high publicity and glamour filled, franchisee owned cricketing event has also seen unprecedented money paid as franchisee fees, players fees and through advertisement revenue along with scandals of match fixing. The business model needs appreciation for integrating a number of complex processes such as entertainment, glamour, marketing, pricing and hard-hitting cricket. However, the recent couple of seasons indicate a decreasing trend in TV Ratings, reduced audience, fall in advertising rates and a withdrawal of franchises. This paper conducts a detailed analysis of the IPL case and examines 10 key issues that threaten the viability of the IPL strategy, the revenue model and if the event can sustain itself. The results indicate that the very high cost burden for franchisee owners means that they undergo losses making their ventures unprofitable. Thus, there is a danger that the event would be forced to shut down or forced to radically alter its avatar. The paper provides some strategic recommendations to overcome these issues and ensure that rational cost structures and expenditures are implemented to make the event viable.



      Mr. Likhesh Nilkanth Kolhe, Prof. Sachin Bojewar

Abstract: Cloud computing is a major change, caused by the underlying commoditization of IT. It is expected to see a future dominance of the open source model in cloud computing, which will solve the major adoption concerns for users. Even a small private cloud built on our college intranet gives us an idea of the dominance of cloud computing in near future. The scope of the cloud built in is scalable, allocate more capacity only when you need it, allocate more instances only when you need them, dynamic Instance Creation and Termination upon receiving a request.



      Rajesh Kumar, Roshan Lal, Yashu Bansal, Saran.K.Sharma

Abstract: This present study aims to find out the impact of technostress on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among IT professionals. For this purpose,Computer Hassles Scale (Hudiburg), Job Satisfaction Scale (Singh and Sharma, 1971), Organizational Commitment Scale (Dhar et al. 2001) is administered to sample of 80 IT professionals from IT park Chandigarh in age range of 20-30 years. Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation is used for statistical analysis of the results. Results clearly revealed that technostress is negatively correlated to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.



      Tsegaye Belayneh, Negussie Bussa (PhD), Sangeeta Rani (PhD)

Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise with carnitine supplementation on reduction of weight, blood pressure and heart rate levels among Haramaya University students subjected to similar intensity, duration, frequency, and type of exercise. Individuals with BMI 25.5 – 30 kg/m2, age 18 - 30 years old, and no impairment or chronic diseases were involved in the study and the training lasted eight weeks.



      Mr.Mathewos Hosiso, Dr. Sangeeta Rani, Dr.Shemelis Rekoninne

Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on improving health related physical fitness components of Dilla University sedentary female community .Twenty females from Dilla university sedentary female community were selected as study subjects and their age range were22-28 years. All Selected subjects were participated in moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 12 consecutive weeks, i.e.3 days per week 60 minute duration per day. Pre, during and post training tests were conducted on the components of health related physical fitness variables The data collected from the study subject was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software.



      Ms. Ipsita Panda, Mr. Durllav Charan Chhatar, Dr. Bulu Mharana

Abstract: The phase Digital Divide has been applied to the gap that exists in most Countries between those with ready access to the tools of information and communication technology and the knowledge that they provide access to and those without such access skills. A further gap between the developed and under developed world in the uptake of technology is evident with in the global community and may be of even greater significant. The relevance of these strategies to developing countries and strategies for reducing the international digital divide are also explored. Libraries have long been essential agents in fostering peace and human values. Libraries are now operating digitally, and their digital services open up a new channel to the universe of knowledge and information connecting cultures across geographical and social boundaries. The phenomenon of digital discrimination prevailing among various social, political and working groups has led to the emergence of digital information rich and digital information poor groups within societies and perhaps in the global environment. This paper discusses how the digital divide can influence to the Indian scenario also to the global world.



      Debojyoti Chakraborty, Sita Ram Sharma and L.K.Mish

Abstract: A number of benzothiazole-2-ylsulfanyl derivatives 2-(1,3-Benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)alkanoylhydrazide (IA – IG) and 5-[1-(1,3-Benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)alkyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-(3H) thione (IIA-IIG) have been synthesised from (1,3-Benzothiazol-2-ylsulfanyl)acetic acid. These compounds were synthesied and characterized from their F.T.I.R, and H-NMR spectral studies. The compound (IIA to IIG) were screened for antibacterial activity and antifungal properties. The compound 2A-2G showed appreciable antifungal and antibacterial activity.



      John Mapfumo, Elliott Nkoma

Abstract: This study sought to determine the guidance and counselling services which Social Science students in one Government-owned university in Zimbabwe had received in high school and the guidance and counselling services that they desired upon entry into university. Variations in services received in high school and those desired at university were by school type of the respondents. More specifically, the study determined type of previous high school and provision of guidance and counselling programmes and attempted to assess if there were variations in guidance needs at university by previous school type. A survey research design was used. A self-administered questionnaire with mostly closed questions was given to first year students at the end of their second month at university. A sample size of 90 (M = 41; F = 49) volunteered, through informed consent, to participate in the study. Data were analysed using a t-test for independent samples, chi-square and bar graphs. Results showed existence of guidance and counselling in all former school types with mission, government and private schools having in-class lessons and services well known to their students. There is no significant difference between male and female students (t = -1.18; df =88; α = 0.05) but females indicated more favourable responses than males. Former school type and existence of programme (chi-square = 6.1; df = 6; α = 0.05) and type of school and curriculum areas (chi-square = 3.31; df = 6; α = 0.05) were independent. At university most students from former government, mission and private schools preferred guidance on learning in large classes, adjustment difficulties, career and large workloads while those from rural schools mostly preferred personal/social counselling.



      Hamad Mohammad Abouhenidi

Abstract: The Abouhenidi Gas Station was founded by my father, Mohammad Abouhenidi, in December 1999, in Yanbu Albahar, a small city in the west of Saudi Arabia (Figure 1). Only one type of gasoline was sold in Saudi Arabia at time, when the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs had many rules for gas station owners and entrepreneurs. For instance, a certain distance between any two gas stations had to be observed in order not to create an excessive concentration of gas stations within one single area. This aim has now been translated into a policy according to which gas stations have to be located at a minimum of 500 meters distance from each other within a city, and 5 km if on a highway.



      Zhang Safeng; Zhang Yuanpei; Wang Shan

Abstract: Throughout the history of human development, pace of social development, competition between countries, companies, even during the human beings, innovation plays an invaluable role. Human developing actually is ongoing process of innovation. In the contemporary, with the science and technology advances, new inventions, new technologies, new materials, new techniques spawning, society, driven by the rapid development of science and technology, and innovation and make the speed continues to accelerate. There is no doubt that technological innovation has become a contemporary theme. As the new generation of high-tech talent in the 21st century, the wheels of the times push young generation people into the information economy. Students innovation ability has become the country developing needs, society developing needs and the times needs(Sun, 2006) .



      Anuma

Abstract: The topic which I have taken for my term paper is about the depiction of wives and widows in Bankim Chandra Chatterjee novels Krishnakanta will, Bishabriksha, Devi Chaudhrani and Indira. I am mainly focusing on the way how Bankim is writing about the condition of women in contemporary Bengali society and at the same time also describing the conflict between their personal desires and social expectations.



      G.G.G.M.N.Hemamali, G.R.A.Kumara

Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to create functional dye-sensitized solid state solar cells using natural pigments extracted from the blood red Anthurium as the electron donating species. Natural dye was extracted and adsorbed onto a nano-porous titania substrate.



      Belal Rashed, Hala Abd El Kader, Hanaa Rafaat, Mohamed sharaf, Mohamed shehata

Abstract: Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) has many applications as (highway electronic toll collection, Police applications, Average Speed Enforcement, Bus Lane Enforcement, Parking Management Systems, Journey Time Systems, detection of stolen vehicles, etc.).It is worth mentioning that there is a scarcity in researches that introduce an automatic number plate recognition which depends on Arabic language. In this study, a smart and simple algorithm is presented for Egyptian vehicle’s number plate recognition system. The proposed algorithm consists of two major phases: plate region extraction and plate recognition. For extracting the plate region, edge detection algorithms and the alignment algorithm are used. And finally DCT or LDA is used for plate recognition.



      Banavar Ravi Spoorthi, Chippagiri Prashanthi, Rohit Pandurangappa

Abstract: Aim and Need- Current breed of students live in the tsunami of information. Which means that the students problem is less of obtaining information & more of retaining and organizing all the information that they require to ingest both during studies and afterwards to keep themselves updated. To achieve this, many students use numerous learning strategies like mnemonics, flow charts, abbreviations, maps etc. One such technique that help students in this task is called “Mind Mapping”. Unfortunately this technique has received little attention since its invention, an attempt was also made by us in utilizing this concept on Dental undergraduate students in teaching and evaluating them. The results were encouraging. We recommend this technique for all teachers/students. This review details the potential of mind mapping in learning, organizing and retrieving vast information that students acquire during their course.



      Banavar Ravi Spoorthi, Gurram Shankar Vidya

Abstract: Background: Mast cells have been studied for decades due to their prominent role in normal homeostasis and various pathologies. They display a diversity of roles and are proposed to be a part in the pathogenesis of various pathologic lesions. Aims and Objectives: To histologically evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral inflammatory lesions, potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinomas. Methodology: 10 cases each of inflammatory lesions, potentially malignant disorders and carcinomas were considered. Tissue sections were stained with H&E to confirm the diagnosis & 1% toluidine blue for evaluation of mast cells. Cells were counted manually in a stepladder fashion and were expressed as an average number of mast cells per 30 high power fields. Results: Inflammatory hyperplasia among the inflammatory lesions and lichen planus among the potentially malignant disorders showed an increase in number of mast cells. While oral Squamous cell carcinoma showed an average of 48 cells/ 30 high power fields. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is significant evidence on the presence and increase in the number of mast cells supporting the biologic effect these cells have on the individual lesions.



      Ashish Agrawal, Malay Tripathi, Sadhana Singh, L.S.Maurya

Abstract: Agile software development or agility is a sound concept of todays scenario which comprises the methods like scrum, Kanban, pair programming, extreme programming etc...Agile methods work with collaboration, competence, predictive planning and achievement and so that they let a project to be completed in its optimum state i.e. within time and cost and with producing best results. Agile methods are not bound to apply only in field of software development but they can be used in each and every field for getting best results in least efforts. This paper is an attempt to provide a study on agile methods as well as the chances to use them in other fields of engineering.



      Namrata Singh, Rajlaxmi Srivastava, Rajni Rastogi

Abstract: In the recent years the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility is spreading very rapidly in India in all the sectors.Corporate Social Responsibility is to contribute towards the society while working with in ethics. In developing country like India, banking sector plays a very important role in upgrading the economy of the country not only by lending money or increasing the liquidity in the country but also by imposing a new practice called corporate social responsibility (CSR).RBI played a important role in supporting the concept of CSR by passing a circular in the year 2007,December, directed banks to undertake CSR initiatives for sustainable development .The Banking sector is in a leading position in discharging CSR in the country.



      Edison D. Macusi, K.H.M. Ashoka Deepananda

Abstract: Experiments in tropical rocky intertidal habitats across the globe have identified various effects of biological and physical factors on algal assemblage. High- and mid-intertidal rocky shores in tropical areas are exposed, with varying degrees, to the same physical factors such as temperature, heat, desiccation, shore height, supply of sediment and nutrients that affects temperate rocky shores. The degree of exposure to physical extremes however determines the structure of assemblage in most tropical rocky shores. The low shore is often controlled by biological factors, i.e., grazing and predation by mollusks, fishes, amphipods, crabs, and iguanas, while the high shore is mainly controlled by physical factors. It appears that the keystone species concept may not apply to tropical rocky shore communities. Reasons for this include indirect effects, overlapping food requirements and a diffuse predation due to a diverse set of assemblage that may mask the effect of one species. Present paper compare the several studies carried out in Hong Kong and Panama on tropical rocky shore consumer interactions. Studies on the effects of physical disturbances in coastal areas such as storms or typhoons are rare and there were little studies dealing with interactions of the sub tidal coralline algae and the low shore algae in tropical areas. More experimental work across a variety of spatial and temporal scales are therefore needed to determine significant biological and physical processes affecting the structure of algal assemblage across broad areas in the tropics.



      Dharam Vir, Dr.S.K.Agarwal, Dr.S.A.Imam

Abstract: The expansion in information technology and the need for large scale communication infrastructures has triggered the area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Network is a collection of wireless nodes these are communicates with each other without using any offered infrastructure, access point or centralized administration. Wireless sensor networks may consist of hundreds or even up to thousands of small dense devices, equipped with sensors (e.g. acoustic, seismic or image), that form a wireless network. Each sensor node in the network collects information from its surroundings and sends it to a base station, either from source sensor node to destination sensor node, i.e. multi-hop, or directly to the base station. This paper presents performance comparison of four popular wireless sensor network routing protocols i.e. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Fisheye State Routing Protocol (FSR) and Location - Aided Routing (LAR) in variation of nodes and random waypoint mobility. We used well known network simulator QualNet 5.0 from scalable networks to evaluate the performance analysis of above protocols. The metrics used for performance analysis of End to End delay (s), Average Jitter (s), Power consumption in receive mode, transmit mode, idle mode and battery consumption.



      T.Mathavaraj Ravikumar, R.Saravanan and N.Nirmal

Abstract: Positioning of mobile robots basically calculated using odometry information. Odometry from the wheel’s encoder is mostly used for simple and inexpensive implementation for determining the relative localization of a mobile robot. This paper deals with the estimation of better relative localization of a two wheeled differential drive robot by means of odometry by considering the influence of parameters namely payload, speed, diameter of wheel and thickness of wheel. Experiments have been conducted based on central composite rotatable design matrix. A mathematical model has been developed for the robot using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with the help of MINITAB software. An optimum relative positioning was obtained by using Excel Solver.



      N.A.Sanjeewani and M.H.F.Sakeena

Abstract: An emulsion is defined as a heterogeneous system, consisting at least two immiscible liquids or phases, one of which is dispersed as droplets in the other liquid. VCO is gaining wide popularity in the scientific field and among the public due to its various health benefits and special characteristics. The main objectives of this study were to formulate an emulsion containing VCO as the oil phase and Tween 20® as the surfactant and to optimize the emulsion with appropriate ratio of oil: water: surfactant. The effects of high shear on the optimized formulae and their characterizations were also studied in this project. Based on stability studies the proper ratios of oil, water and surfactant were selected. The optimized formulae were further studied for its characterization such as Droplets size measurement, pH value, Creaming index, Viscosity and Microscopic studies. In conclusion best formulae with and without high sheer homogenization is o/w emulsion and it is consisting with oil 32 % (w/w), surfactant 32 % (w/w) and water 36 % (w/w).



      Marcelinus Kuukang Dogyele Dery, Felix Puopiel

Abstract: The study intended to establish whether political education formed part of this information and education process. Data for the study was gathered mainly from primary sources through the use of questionnaire survey. The main sampling techniques employed selecting respondents for the study were stratified and systematic sampling procedures. On the basis of the analysis the study established the following findings. Firstly, the study found out that radio was a main source of political education to the respondents with each of them listening to radio at least once a week. It was also found that many of the respondents were knowledgeable in the basic political issues. Additionally, the most influencing factor that would make many respondents vote for both presidential and parliamentary candidates was the personal qualities of the candidate.



      Ananth B.R, Divya D

Abstract: A complete blessing in disguise for completely paralysed people with none of their body parts functioning. Virtual human brain is an astonishing technological milestone which allows the quadriplegic patients to control the computer using their thoughts.



      Feroz Ahmed, Md. Reaz Uddin, S. M. Rasel Ahammad

Abstract: Real estate is a fast growing industry in Bangladesh. Earlier this business was concentrated in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Later on, it spreads in various major cities of the country. The present study has paid efforts to explore the future of real estate business in Khulna, a major divisional city of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from Khulna city area.



      Prof. R.T. Nakhate, Prof. S.G. Gandhi

Abstract: Everyone has an opinion on what is cloud computing. It can be the ability to rent a server or a thousand servers and run a geophysical modelling application on the most powerful systems available anywhere. It can be the ability to rent a virtual server, load software on it, turn it on and off at will, or database, Perl, Python, and PHP with the ability to scale automatically in response to changing workloads. Cloud computing can be the ability to use applications on the Internet that store and protect data while Providing a service anything including email, sales force automation and tax preparation.



      Santosh, Th, Chhetry G.K.N

Abstract: Stored grains of five varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) viz. Moirangphou khongangbi, Maipakphou, Chakkhao poireiton, RCM -9 and Daramphou were studied to investigate the effect of some plant extracts and cowdung mixed oil on the occurrence of seed-borne mycoflora using blotter technique. There were 19.73%,17.89%,13.12%,17.29% and 21.89% mycoflora found associated with the seeds of Moirangphou khongangbi, Maipak phou, Chakkhao poireiton, RCM-9 & Daram phou respectively. Ten fungal species namely Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp.,Helminthosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Pithomyces, Aspergillus sp.,Penicillium sp., Nigrospora sp., Rhizoctonia sp were isolated from different test rice varieties.



      A.Vivek Yoganand, Deepan

Abstract: Analyzing of failure size and the issues are attained through failure rate. Failure size is the probability of finding an input that causes a failure in the input domain. As testing progresses, failure size decreases due to debugging. The failure size at the termination of testing is called the attained failure rate. Using this measure, we compare the efficacies of partition testing, random testing, derive conditions that lead to the superiority of partition testing, and obtain optimal time allocations in partition testing. The core findings are presented in a decision tree to assist testers in test management.



      Dr. Jaswinder Singh

Abstract: This work is done under Interdisciplinary Programme in Biophysics. Studies were carried on seeds of 4 socio-economically important Legumes growing on road side.



      C.Bhuvaneswari, R.Rajeswari, C.Kalaiarasan, K.M.S.Muthukumararajaguru

Abstract: This paper introduces a new solar technology that emulates how trees convert sunlight into energy. Trees, shrubs and plants use an inherent structural design to expose their leaves, height dense to sunlight for photosynthesis. They do this determines their survival. Based on this we describe the coconut tree growing u to 30m(98 feet) tall, with pinnate leaves 4-6m(13-20feet) long to design a solar tree. Pinnate refers to a leaf resembling like a feather having the leaflets on each side of a common axis. It can be either even or odd. By this structured pattern that leaves follow to arrange themselves on a tree. With this arrangement we introduce a new idea to design a solar tree using nanowire solar cell.



      Dr.(Mrs.)N.Kanimozhi Ph.D

Abstract: A Value Added Tax is a firm of consumption tax. From the perspective of the buyer, it’s tax on the purchase price. From that of the seller, it’s a tax only on the value added to a product, material, or service, from an accounting point of view, by this stage of its manufacture or distribution. The manufacturer remits to the government the difference between these two amounts, and retains the rest for themselves to offset the taxes they had previously paid on the inputs. The purpose of VAT is to generate tax revenues to the government similar to the corporate income tax or the personal income tax.



      C. Adharsh John

Abstract: People express their mental states, including emotions, thoughts, and desires, all the time through facial expressions, vocal nuances and gestures. Functional MRI or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a type of specialized MRI scan. It measures the haemodynamic response (change in blood flow) related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. It is one of the most recently developed forms of neuro-imaging. Since the early 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate the brain mapping field due to its relatively low invasiveness, absence of radiation exposure, and relatively wide availability.



      Manisha B. Patel, Rajesh S. Patel

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on callus induction of Tecomella undulata (Sm) Seem. The leaf segments were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of auxins such as NAA, 2,4-D, IAA and cytokikinins like BAP and KIN alone and in combinations for callus induction.



      S V Subrahmanyam, M. M. M Sarcar

Abstract: Wire-EDM is a highly complex process, which is characterized by non-linear behavior. Owing to unique capabilities of machining complex shapes and hard materials with high accuracy and fine surface finish, WEDM is used in various manufacturing industries. There has been on-going research to develop automated capabilities for WEDM by understanding the interaction mechanism of various input parameters to get the requisite output measures like MRR, Surface Finish etc.



      Hymavathi Talla

Abstract: The paper deals with the study of steady laminar flow of an incompressible visco-elastic fluid referred to as Walter’s liquid B over an exponentially stretching sheet. The flow is assumed to be generated by applying two equal and opposite forces along the x-axis in such a way that the stretching of the boundary surface is of exponential order in x. Using quasi-linearization technique with a numerical approach, the numerical solution is obtained. The velocity profiles are obtained numerically and these are displayed through graphs for diverse values of visco-elastic parameter. The results are compared with those available in literature obtained through analytical procedures and are seen to be in good agreement.



      Priyanka Aggarwal

Abstract: - In today era of globalization, the corporate world requires a world-class governance system. Corporate governance is about promoting corporate ethics, fairness, transparency and accountability. In recent years, the area of corporate governance has been in limelight and has attracted increased attention of academicians and researchers worldwide due to high-profile scandals and corporate collapses like Enron, WorldCom and Satyam. Despite the intuition that Good Governance would lead to Good Performance by firm, conclusive evidence on this relationship has been lacking.


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