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IJSRP, Volume 5, Issue 5, May 2015 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version will release latest by 30th May.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 22th May and minor corrections are accepted till 20th May 2015.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Erni bte Tanius

Abstract: Industrial training program refers to the experience obtains in the real working environment that has been identified as part of aid to prospective employment. This paper reports the perception of 187 industrial supervisors on the 307 business students’ performance and their employment opportunity during industrial training. The results show that the students’ performances are excellent in the areas punctuality, honesty, teamwork, and relations with colleagues. However, there is a sign of lacking in the job related skills such as the ability to identify and formulate the job problems, efficiency in completing task as well as knowledge of current development related to task/job. In term of employment opportunity is high to medium. As an implication, the equal partnerships between university and employers are crucial to increase students’ employability skills and employment opportunity.



      Mahmoud A. Ramadan, Ahmed I. El Seddawy, Ahmed S. El Rawas

Abstract: Today, some twenty-two of the world‘s elite twenty-five research universities are located in one country. [29] He adds that it is not surprising that research on innovation has gained importance, it has become essential to understand why and how certain enabling environments encourage innovation and help optimize its various benefits. Among other things, research can identify how knowledge translates into innovative action and how diversity can drive positive change. In addition, one of the ways in which universities assure quality and acquire recognition in their home countries and abroad is through accreditation and certification. So, universities seek quality certifications differentiate themselves from the many institutions that are offering degrees and diplomas which have become commodities in the market economy. [29 ] say that Higher education institutions, and the people who study, teach and do research in them, are urged to place their intellectual capacities at the service of society, in order to defend ethical values such as peace, justice, freedom, equality and solidarity. And add development addresses the areas which are absolutely central to the future of most higher education institution. Consequently, the changing context for quality assurance innovation performance and enhancement in education presents both an opportunity and a challenge because it offers the possibility of integrating sustainable development into all quality systems.



      Muhammad Salim Garba

Abstract: Due to its small size, light weight, ease of integration, microstrip patch antenna is been widely applied to the fields of mobile radio, wireless communications, radar systems and so on. This paper presents a method of designing the millimeter-wave microstrip antenna which could be use in government and commercial applications, such as mobile radio and wireless communications that have similar specifications. The designed antenna can achieve triple band performance to simultaneously cover the 1.18GHz, 2.42GHz and 4.05GHz frequency with return loss of -12.50dB, -12.60dB and -15.50dB respectively. The simulation results of the designed triple band E-shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna were also presented. The antenna is of low profile, conformable to planar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to manufacture using modern printed-circuit technology. It was proved that the designed antenna is feasible and realizable. Because such antennas have a very low profile, are mechanically rugged and can be shaped to conform to the curving skin of a vehicle, they are often mounted on the exterior of aircraft and spacecraft, or are incorporated into mobile radio communications devices [1]-[5].



      O, D, Mireku, P. K, Acheampong, S, Mariwah, K, Adu-Boahen, & A. K. Mensah

Abstract: Currently, the participatory watershed approach has now become necessary in any developmental activity especially with regards to natural resource management. However, in spite of the numerous advantages of this management approach, there are still major challenges that militate against its successful implementation in most developing countries. This paper explored the need, challenges, and the extent to which the participatory approach has been incorporated into the management of the Inchaban Watershed found in the Western Region of Ghana. Using two non-probability sampling methods: purposive and convenience, a total number of 41 key respondents were selected. With in-depth interviews and focus group discussions guides, information relating to the importance, challenges and the extent of community involvement was solicited from local chiefs, management and user institutions, and individual users in the Inchaban Watershed. The study revealed that the watershed management institutions could not attract the valuable initiatives of the local users in monitoring and evaluation stages because these users were coerced. It is therefore recommended that local communities should be induced to support the conservation of the watershed using public education and workshops organised by the district regulatory institution such as the Forestry Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Mining Commission.



      Ewelum, Johnson Nnadi (Ph.D), Mbara Kingsley Ugochukwu (Ph,D)

Abstract: The central purpose of the study was to identify the mobilization strategies for effective community development in Igbo-Etiti Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study consisted all the community-based organizations leaders in the thirteen communities that make up the area. The sample of the study was 370 community leaders selected through purposive sampling technique. Questionnaire which has three clusters and was validated by two experts in community development was the instrument for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronback Alpha and the coefficient obtained from the three clusters respectively were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.85. Mean was used to analyze the data. Some of the findings include that the major ways people participate in community development projects include financial assistance and manual labour. Among the problems that militate against peoples’ participation in community development projects are lack of funds, poor leadership, inadequate mobilization strategies, embezzlement of money. Some of the mobilization strategies include involvement of people in development programmes, formation of organizations use of persuasion, adequate communication, among others. Some of the recommendations include that people should be involved in all the stages of development, community organizations should be encouraged, etc.



      Ben Bett Tuwai, Cyrus Kamau, Samson Kuria

Abstract: The main aim of this project was to explore the effect of corporate wellbeing programmes on employees’ performance among commercial banks in Kenya since corporate well being programmes used by commercial banks on employees have been an area of interest to researchers lately. However, the main concentration has been performance programmes such as motivation and training and development only. Little research has been done on corporate wellbeing programmes as a way of improving performance among commercial banks in Kenya. Organizations in Kenya are slowly adopting corporate wellbeing programmes though. In this research, the target population is 43 commercial banks in Kenya where Heads of HR were targeted. For inclusion purpose, Census sampling method was used to collect data as sampling method omitted important population. Research instrument were both structured and unstructured questionnaires as major data collection instruments and the researcher mainly used qualitative analysis techniques and descriptive methods to analyze data collected from the organization of study. Data was presented in tables and charts. The study found out that financial, intellectual, environmental, social and physical wellness programs improved employee’s performance. Financial wellness programs to affect employee’s performance. Intellectual wellness programs were indicated to enable employees improve their knowledge and skills which should make the more effective and efficient in the workplace. Most respondents indicated environmental wellness programs to affect employee’s performance. Social wellness programs allows employees to interact with people from different cultures where they share ideas which may be beneficial to their workplace. Physical wellness programs are important to employees as they keep employees healthy, a healthy employee is an asset to the organization.



      Ntegereze Peter

Abstract: Physical domestic violence has been significant issues for centuries in all countries. Women’s rights are violated in myriad ways in the private sphere these include, the continued practice of harmful cultural practices and other forms of physical domestic violence.



      Daniel Jonai Matata and Moses Kimani Wafula

Abstract: A quality management system improves organization’s performance through quality service delivery and production thus enabling organizations to have a competitive edge over its competitors. In order to be successful, Quality Management (QM) practices ought to be an integral part of any organization’s strategic management. Without proper monitoring of projects, poor quality of material use, and lack of proper site supervision due to inconsistent supervision may lead to poor performance in an organization. Communication is a vital tool in managing any form of business as it helps the organization in achieving its objectives. Documentation is also a limitation in the organization which deals with many stakeholders. Poorly kept records results into non-conformity due to delays caused by searching work records which are not well kept.



      Asaph Ngetha Kamau, Moses Kimani Wafula

Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of strategic positioning of service delivery on customer satisfaction a case of Fina Bank Mombasa. Several publications, reference materials as well as some unpublished literature are used to compile the literature review with discussion on the topic under study. At the time of study, the population comprised of customers and the staff totaling to 250 respondents. The researcher issued out 250 questionnaires and received 67. Respondents were grouped into strata’s under their departments. Data collection was through questionnaires. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to analyze the data collected. Majority the respondents agreed that strategic positioning of service delivery within an organization has a positive impact on customer satisfaction.



      Hadi Wahyono, Achmad Djunaedi, Bakti Setiawan, Leksono Subanu

Abstract: In Indonesia, the inter-regions cooperation between the adjacent regions of the cross-border government services, have to be formally performed if the services have cross-regions externalities; and the provision of the services will more efficient if managed together. Therefore, the cooperation utilization of the Springs of Senjoyo between the Regency of Semarang and the City of Salatiga, which has a cross-regions externalities, have to be performed in formal cooperation. However, as there is not any cooperation agreement between, the cooperation is only based on a tradition which is done for a long time ago. The purpose of the research discussed in this article is to examine how inter-regional collaboration strategies are used in the interaction of the parties involved in the management of water utilization of the Springs of Senjoyo, and what matters that influence it. The research used the grounded theory research method, in particular Straussian mainstream, as the method is suitable for the intends of the research. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that the City Government of Salatiga uses functional assertive collaboration strategies in the region interaction, because utilizing resources from neighboring areas, to meet the water needs of the population in the region. Meanwhile, the Regency Government of Semarang uses a strategy of cooperative collaboration between functional areas, because the government gives permissions to neighboring areas to take advantage of the resources available in the region. The strategy is a proper solution to solve the problem that the interaction is not a formal cooperation agreement. Both the interaction regions for the interaction of long-standing and become a tradition.



      Md. Zahid Khan, Md. Razzab Ali, Md. Serajul Islam Bhuiyan and Md. Awlad Hossain

Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the laboratory under the Department of Entomology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from April to July, 2011 to find out the eco-friendly management of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. on stored mungbean using some promising botanicals viz. dried leaf powder of neem @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains (T1), bishkatali @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains (T2), marigold @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains (T3), dholkolmi @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains(T4), chopped garlic bulb @ 1.0 g/kg mungbean grains (T5) along with control (T6). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with four replications. From this study, it was observed that the treatment T1 comprised with dried leaf powder of neem @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains reduced the highest percent of grain infestation by number and weight (43.12% & 41.72%, respectively) over control than other botanicals. Conversely, T5 reduced the highest percent of adult emergence (43.65%) and grain content loss (49.91%) over control, but increased the highest percent of seed germination (25.65%) over control. Therefore, it can be concluded that dried leaf powder of neem @ 2.5 g/kg mungbean grains was the most effective control measure applied against pulse beetle, C. chinensis on stored mungbean.



      Sani I. Alhassan, Paul A. P. Mamza, Aliyu M. Ja’o and Udofia I. Asukwo

Abstract: Gum Arabic exudate was collected from Acacia Senegal trees around Zaria metropolis. The gum was hydrated in double strength chloroform water, purified in 95% ethanol and then washed with diethyl ether. Modification of the gum was performed with ethanol and Acetic anhydride. Densities of the samples were compared with that of the unmodified gum and it was found that both samples were less dense than the unmodified gum. From turbidity measurement, ethanol modified (EGL) gum appears more turbid than both acetic anhydride modification (AAN) and pure gum (PGM). In salinity, conductivity and total dissolved solid (TDS) tests, acetic anhydride (AAN) sample higher values than other samples. The melting point of ethanol modified (EGL) and PGM are only slightly different, 242oC and 245oC respectively while that of AAN was 229oC. The mechanical properties of the samples were measured using Honsfield Tensometer. The AAN sample has the highest modulus at 10, 20, 30 and 40% gum composition. For PGM the modulus drops from 10-30% gum composition then finally increases. The acetolysis (ACT) modification shows decrease in modulus as the percent of gum increases. Modulus of PGM drops at 20, 40, 60 and 80% gum composition. It was found that the tensile strength of the chemical modification formulations reinforced the polyvinyl chloride matrix at 10%/90%, 20%/80% and 30%/70% gum/PVC compositions for AAN and at 10%/90% and 20%/80% gum/PVC compositions. Though EGL showed increase at 30%/70% composition, its tensile strength is similar to that of the unmodified gum (PGM), decreasing with increasing gum concentration.



      Abdulwahab H. Alobaidi

Abstract: The analysis of trends in temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity and evaluating their statistical significance have recently received a great concern for the assessment climate change effects. This research is to analyze a long time record of surface relative humidity for four cities, representing different climate zones, in Iraq using NCEP data. Parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann–Kendall tests were applied for detecting monthly and annual trends in the relative humidity. The monthly time series showed that relative humidity is decreasing during winter, spring and autumn months. The decreasing trend during summer months is relatively weaker. This because summer in Iraq is hot and dry so changes in relative humidity is small. The annual relative humidity also exhibited a decreasing trend for the four cities. The results also illustrated that the deceasing trend in relative humidity is relatively stronger for Mosul because of it rather cooler climate and relatively smaller for the southern city of Basrah.



      Fatma Y. Abdou, Ezz El Din El Denshary, Esmat A. Shaaban and Marwa A. Mohamed

Abstract: In the current study, the lethality as well as the immunological, biochemical and histological effects of Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra) venom at a sublethal dose has been investigated before and after exposure to gamma radiation (1.5KGy and 3KGy). Data revealed that the toxicity of irradiated venom (1.5KGy & 3KGy) decreased as compared to that of the native one. The LD50 for native and gamma-irradiated (1.5KGy & 3KGy) Naja nigricollis venom was 0.440 mg/kg, 4.79 mg/kg and 5.38 mg/kg, respectively. Irradiation of the whole venom with (1.5kGy & 3kGy) reduced its lethality 10.8 and 12.22 times as compared to its native venom, respectively. The immunodiffusion technique showed same number of precipitin bands against polyvalent antivenin with the native and the two dose levels gamma-irradiated venoms. There was no change in the antigenic reactivity between both native and irradiated Naja nigricollis snake venom. As for the biochemical responses of Naja nigricollis venom, the effect of half LD50 of native or irradiated (1.5KGy) was studied on the activities of heart enzymes: CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST after (1, 2, 4, 24 hours) of envenomation. The present study showed that snake venom envenomation caused significant (p ≤ 0.05) elevation in serum CPK, CK-MB, LDH and AST levels. In contrast, the 1.5KGy gamma-irradiated Naja nigricollis venom recorded no significant changes compared to that of the non envenomated normal rats. These results are in accordance with the histological findings of the heart that showed severe degeneration of the cardiac muscle with loss of striations and extensive haemorrhage inbetween the myocardial bundles. These results indicate that 1.5KGy gamma irradiation of venoms offer an effective method for reducing the chronic toxic effect of venom in immunized animals for preparing the best toxoids and vaccines, facilitating antisera production and extending the useful life of immunized animals.



      Ahmed I. Hanafy, Omar M. Ali, Zeinhom M. El-Bahy and Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

Abstract: Copper (II) complexes of three phosphonate ligands were prepared and fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and thermal studies. The IR spectral data showed that the phosphonate compounds behave as bidentate ligands coordinating to the copper ion through the P=O and NH groups. The electronic spectroscopic data support a distorted octahedral geometry around copper ion. The activity of the phosphonate ligands and their copper (II) complexes as small molecules were investigated towards DNA cleavage. The phosphonate ligands showed no activity, while the copper complexes showed DNA cleavage. The copper (II) complex of Diphenyl (3-hydroxyphenylamino)(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonate showed the highest activity towards DNA cleavage.



      Abdulwahab H. Alobaidi

Abstract: The analysis of trends in temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity and evaluating their statistical significance have recently received a great concern for the assessment climate change effects. This research is to analyze a long time record of surface relative humidity for four cities, representing different climate zones, in Iraq using NCEP data. Parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann–Kendall tests were applied for detecting monthly and annual trends in the relative humidity. The monthly time series showed that relative humidity is decreasing during winter, spring and autumn months. The decreasing trend during summer months is relatively weaker. This because summer in Iraq is hot and dry so changes in relative humidity is small. The annual relative humidity also exhibited a decreasing trend for the four cities. The results also illustrated that the deceasing trend in relative humidity is relatively stronger for Mosul because of it rather cooler climate and relatively smaller for the southern city of Basrah.



      Sarabjeet Singh

Abstract: Communication between Secure Elements and the Service providers have always been a matter of concern in terms of security for exchanging sensitive information in secure manner. Most common requirement for this information exchange is the protocols that are supported by different applications on secure elements or applications that interact with the secure elements. This paper describes how protocol discovery mechanism proposed by global platform works with SIM based applications (for example NFC application interacting with SIM and other applications) or application interacting with the cards to exchange information about supported protocols in the applications and provide/deny access to services based upon discovery of protocols.



      Dr. L. Muralidhar, M.D; Dr. D. Sridhar, M.D; Dr. G. Balaraju, M.D; Dr. Deepika, M.D

Abstract: Background: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) cause 40%−50% of deaths in developed countries with CVD causing 10%−12% of deaths. Though increased Lipoprotein (a) is a risk factor in developing CHD, its role is poorly defined in etiopathogenesis of CVD.



      Smita Jain, Dr. Purnima Swarup

Abstract: This paper is providing the power factor profile of undoped bulk Nickel Oxide. Nickel oxide is a transition metal oxide having many interesting properties and also has application in various fields such as thermoelectric power generation. In thermoelectric power generation the efficiency of the material is depend upon the figure of merit (ZT) of the used material. Figure of merit of the material is expressed as ZT= (S2σ/k) T where S2σ is known as power factor and k is the thermal conductivity of the material. Thus in this paper we have analyze the power factor of the nickel oxide at different temperature ranges and with the help of this we can find out the figure of merit.



      P.Thenmozhi

Abstract: Life is precious. All should live happily. For that people must know preventive measures to lead a healthy life without any disorder. People should take balanced diet. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of mankind throughout the world. General observation shows that lifespan of people with diabetes mellitus is better than other condition. Until European settlement of Australia 200 years ago, Aborigines lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers all over the continent under widely varying geographic and climatic conditions. Successful survival depended on a comprehensive knowledge of the flora and fauna of their territory. Available data suggest that they were physically fit and lean, and consumed a varied diet in which animal foods were a major component.



      Arpita Dey, Tushar Kanti Maiti and Pranab Roy

Abstract: Extracellular lipase producing psychrotrophic Pseudomonas ADT3 (NCBI GenBank Acc.no.JX914667) isolated from soil sample of Ny- Alesund, Svalbard, Arctic region produced maximal lipase activity of 527.8U/mg after 48 hours at pH 8.5 and temperature 22°C in presence of 1.2mM lead as cofactor. It was partially purified 2.9 folds by ammonium sulphate precipitation (80%). Enzymatic performance was improved by immobilization of enzyme on various carriers viz. Alginate and polyacrylamide gel. The immobilization yield of enzyme immobilized in polyacrylamide gel was low (40.0%) in comparison to that immobilized with alginate (70.0%). Different concentrations of alginate and calcium chloride were studied to acquire stable beads. Optimum concentration of alginate and calcium chloride was 2% and 0.12M respectively. The immobilized enzyme was found to be stable in alkaline pH. The maximal activity for immobilized enzyme was found at pH 8.5. Broader pH tolerance could be achieved by immobilization. Temperature optima of the enzyme showed no changes before and after immobilization i.e. 22°C. But the thermal stability was enhanced after immobilization. Immobilized enzyme remained active up to 50 °C while the activity of the free enzyme started to decrease from 40 °C. Even at 70°C immobilized enzyme retained 25% of residual activity but free enzyme totally loses enzyme activity. The storage stability of entrapped lipase up to 50% was found after 5 days at 4°C, while at 30°C the enzyme lost 60% of its activity after 2 days. The enzyme can be reused up to 5 cycles which is a promising technique for large-scale preparation of immobilized lipase for industrial applications.



      Sandhya Nagaraj, Ramesh Hosmani, Ravi Shankar J C

Abstract: Aim: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of Topical Negative Pressure (TNP) dressing using a locally constructed TNP device and comparing it with regular gauze dressings for large wounds. Materials and Methods: 28 patients were recruited from the in patient ward, Dept of Surgery, KIMS, Hubli, Karnataka, India during the period of June 2014 to November 2014. Of the 28 patients 14 patients received TNP dressings, 14 patients were treated with regular saline dressings.



      Dr. P. Shravan Kumar, M.D, Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D, Dr. D. Sridhar, M.D, Dr. P. Shakuntala, M.D, Dr. Sitaram, M.D, Dr. S. Manohar, M.D

Abstract: HIV affects all the systems of the body which may be due to HIV infection itself or due to opportunistic infections or malignancies. The clinical and pathologic findings in various organ systems including the pulmonary, integumentary, gastrointestinal, hematologic and neurologic systems have been well described. Reports of cardiac abnormalities in HIV and AIDS patients, however, have been less well documented. : The cardiovascular diseases in HIV/AIDS are increasing in the developing world. The Present study is to evaluate Cardiac abnormalities in HIV infected adult patients with noninvasive investigations like electrocardiography , echocardiography and correlating with cd4 count .



      Deepapriya. S and Ravanan. R

Abstract: The study of survival analysis involves censoring which is an important feature of the clinical data. This paper deals with the analysis of non-parametric and parametric estimates of survival function and median survival time of UMARU Impact Study (UIS) data. The Survival probabilities S(t) are estimated by Kaplan Meier product Limit method under non-parametric approach and the survival functions are estimated through Weibull distribution, Exponential distribution and lognormal distribution under parametric approach. In modelling the survival data, most of the time we have no prior information about the theoretical distribution of survival time and graphical tools are employed to fit a better distribution using R Software.



      Dr. Ila Upadhya, Dr. Mithun Jain

Abstract: Oral tongue cancers are very aggressive, known for skip metastasis, high recurrence rates and poor salvage results. Strong et al [3] stated that 60% of patients died of neck recurrence when they were managed by only resection of primary and observation of neck [3]. SOHND [Supra omohyoid neck dissection] is not adequate enough for complete pathological evaluation of all neck nodes at risk for patients of oral tongue malignancy. [2]



      Dr. Ramesh Chandra Pathak

Abstract: The Hate groups on internet are using internet to promote hate contents. Internet is now created by some anti-immigrant, anti-muslim, black separatist, christian identity, general hate groups, holocaust, neo-confederate, neo-nazi, racist skinheads, radical traditional Catholicism and white nationalist as powerful tool for spreading hate. Hate groups are using internet for their own sociological, business and political use. Their main aim is to spread hatred message. It has been often seen that internet hate groups are operating across the world and mostly used in the field of social media. The main objective of this research is to do evaluative study of Internet hate groups and to find out the role of global media in possible solution. At present we have powerful global media and they can pay attention towards this global crisis which is mainly based on racism, hate speech, hate comments, hate internet status and hate ideologies. There may be some possible link between the viewing of hate sites and hate crime. Terrorists, moist and other extremists have taken advantage of Internet to promote their polluted agenda. Terrorist organizations like ISIS, Al-Quida and others are using digital online media for spreading their hate monopolies. This research is an effort to examine comprehensive role of global media for stopping of the manipulation of Internet hate groups across the globe.



      Angana Mukherjee

Abstract: The case study illustrates the management of a young female, referred to as “Amrita”, who presented with features of depression along with death wishes and decline in her personal, social and occupational performance. Assessments through Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) revealed features of moderate level of depressive features. Nine sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) was conducted including one follow up session. Amrita’s progress throughout the treatment sessions is illustrated in detail in the following case study report. Results corroborate to the previous studies of efficacy of CBT for use with depression. The purpose of the therapy was exploration and resolution of the maladaptive thoughts, feelings and behaviour for a greater sense of autonomy, well being; achieving higher levels of functioning and problem-solving along with developing insight and personality growth. The purpose of the case study report was also exploration of the reasons for discontinuation for the booster sessions.



      Kidanemariam Gaim, Girmay Gebru, Sunday Abba

Abstract: Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and are mainly caused by the use of the pesticides, industrial activities and mining operations. One of them is arsenic that accumulates in the liver tissue to toxic levels and cause changes in the activities of several liver enzymes and cellular damage. Enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase are found predominantly in liver tissue and cellular damage as a result of arsenic exposure releases these enzymes into the blood stream and the plasma levels of these enzymes indicate hepatotoxicity. The objective of this project is to review the several research works on the effect of arsenic on liver tissue of fishes and rats at different time of exposure.The resources used for this review were obtained from published work in several peer review journals. ALT activity has shown an increase of 6.03%, 13.61% and 27.75% at different doses of exposure and the AST has shown also an increase of 9.04%, 16.32% and 38.08% at different doses in fishes. The GDH activity has shows an increased level of 9.61%, 23.72% and 34.62% at different doses when compared to control groups of fishes. Varied degrees of changes (mild to severe) were also observed in groups of fishes and mice exposed to different doses of arsenic and results in necrosis of the hepatocytes, central vein and sinusoidal spaces expansion due to shrinkage. Other result has shown that fish exposed to different concentrations of NaAsO2 have shown varied degrees of changes i.e. death in high concentration; however, as the concentrations decreased, the survival period increased gradually. The FTIR spectra revealed also significant differences in absorbance intensities in the amide bands between control and arsenic intoxicated liver tissues. Among the results reported most of which have shown increment and some of them have shown decrement when compared to the control groups up on the exposure of different concentration of arsenic i.e. (28.30 mg/L



      Vidya D. Ahire, D. V. Ahire and P. R. Chaudhari

Abstract: Fertilized black soil samples are prepared by mixing desired amounts of fertilizers in the black soils having 10% gravimetric moisture content. Two black soil samples were collected from two different locations of Maharashtra State (India). Three different chemical fertilizers viz., Urea, Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Potash are used. Measurements of complex dielectric constants of these soil samples have been carried out at C-band microwave frequency 4.6 GHz by using waveguide cell method. The average values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of two unfertilized moist black soil (10% MC) samples at frequency 4.6 GHz are 7.6 and 0.43 for sample A and 9.6 and 0.38 for Sample B, respectively. The variation in values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of these moist black soil samples mixed with different fertilizer contents are then measured at fixed frequency 4.6 GHz. The concentrations of fertilizers in the soil samples are varied over a range from 0 to 0.12 %. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss are found to increase with increase in fertilizer contents. Out of these three fertilizers, relative increase in dielectric properties is found highest for Urea and lowest for Potash. Other electric parameters such as a. c. conductivity () and relaxation time () also show increase in their values with respect to increase in the fertilizer concentrations. The physical and chemical properties of the black soil samples are also provided. Possible applications and extensions of this study are also outlined.



      Sumitra Twayana, Ram Hari Adhikari

Abstract: Health is a fundamental human right and essence of productive life. Hospital is the part of social system which provides health care services to the sick people. The services at hospital is mostly depends on the nursing care because they spend more time with patients care for their better health. The study objective is to assess the patients’ perception regarding nursing care in Inpatient Department off Hospitals in Bhaktapur District. A descriptive cross- sectional study was used to study patients’ perception on nursing care at hospitals in Bhaktapur District. A total of 140 respondents were selected for the study by questionnaire including Likert Scale was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistic (Chi – Square Test) was used to identify the association between the variables by using SPSS version 21. Results: The results of the study showed that the mean age of respondents was 43.21 with SD (+) or (-) 18.9. The total mean score of patients’ perception of nursing care on Likert Scale was 97.32 out of 115, with a standard deviation of (+) or (-) 13.45 and 63.6 % of respondents (n=89) had positive perception whereas 36.4% of respondents(n=51) had negative perception on overall aspect of nursing care. There were 33.6% of respondents (n=47) who had negative perception in the dimension of Physical Environment and Facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation: The finding showed that there was no association between demographic characteristics with the levels of perception with the nursing care. Recommendation: In order to provide quality health care services and facilities to the patients the patients’ perception towards nursing services should be monitor routinely at the hospital



      Ms. Amita Pandey

Abstract: Wireless network consist of wireless node without any administration. Due to present of mobility of nodes, the network is easily personated by several attacks. In 1980’s Mobile ad hoc network s have been widely researched ` for many years. Ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies .The infrastructure less and dynamic nature of these network demands new set of networking strategies to be implemented in order to provide efficient end to end communication. Wireless devices are constantly grooving in communication field having more computing speed and a number of features, while shrinking in weight and size. The ad hoc network is made up of multiple nodes connected by links since link can be connected as well as disconnected at any time. The ad hoc network inherits the some traditional problem of mobile communication as well as wireless. Routing in mobile ad hoc networks in challenges task due to its frequent changes in topology. We discuss in this paper routing protocol, challenges and security of ad hoc network



      Guruprasad Chavan, Amit Sharma, Ajay Kumar Nirala

Abstract: Money is the prime importance in case of road projects as huge amount of funds (in trillions) is involved in such projects. The construction industry in India suffers from cost overruns. Various parameters affecting the road project cost. These parameters affect the cost in vast manner so they are responsible for deviation of cost of road projects. Regression analysis is simple technique for determining the influence of these factors on cost of road projects. Identifying and evaluating the factors that influence cost are critical issues faced by construction managers. It is therefore important that factors affecting cost of the road projects are well identified so that efforts can be made to improve the situation. So purpose of this work is, to study the parameters that affect the cost of the road project and to suggest regression analysis technique for evaluating these parameters from the point of view of judging their influence on cost.



      Amit Kumar

Abstract: Banking business in India is largely governed by the banking regulation act 1949 section 5(b) “a bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities either directly by loaning or indirectly through capital markets. A bank links together customers that have capital deficits and customer with capital surplus.” Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have healthy economy. The banking system in India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new challenges posed by technology and any other external and internal factors. Banking plays a significant role in financing the economic needs of the country. To compete effectively in present day competitive world banks have been permitted to undertake new activities such as investment banking securities trading insurance business etc. Private banking is all about personal service and relationship built around you. It is about delivering sophisticated solutions to complex financial problems seeing your affairs in totality and offering individual advice and tailored solutions. “One claiming to be a banker must profess himself to be one and the public must accept him as such his main business must be that of banking from which generally he should be able to earn his living.



      Megha Bhatt, Ekta Patel and Y.T. Jasrai

Abstract: The soil carbon stock can surely be taken as one of the important parameter in deciding strategies for management of different soils falling under different physiographic region of the country. In this paper, a soil database of topsoil estimates of soil organic carbon and soil organic carbon stock for Marine National Park, Gujarat is highlighted. Along with soil organic carbon stock, its correlation with the texture of the soil is also established.



      Esayas Welday Tekle, N. P. Sahu, Makesh M.

Abstract: Aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the leaves, flower, stem bark and pod/fruit (AL, AF, AB, AP, ML, MF, MB, MP, EL, EF, EB and EP),respectively, of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their anti-oxidantive activities and anti-microbial properties. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hyarazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (%), total phenolic contents (TPC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as a means of evluating the in vitro anti-oxidantive activities of the extracts. All the extracts showed a dose-dependent activity with each method. There was a significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between DPPH values and TPC (r2 = 0.76) as well as between TPC and FRAP value (r2 = 0.93). With the DPPH and FRAP methods, EL and AB showed highest and lowest (P<0.05) overall activity, respectivly. Moreover, EL exhibited highest activity with all the three methods starting from the lowest concentrations. At the higher two concentrations (7.5 and 10 mg/ml), EF showed highest activity (P<0.05) as compared to all the other extracts and a standard anti-oxidant, BHT. Anti-microbial susceptibility test using the disc difusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay revealed that ethanolic extracts from all parts of moringa showed highest activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Micrococcus luteus on concentration dependent manner than the aqous extract counterpart. Although all the extracts exhibited considerable anti-oxidant activities with either one or both of the assays, EL and EF showed the best results and can be recommended as natural anti-oxidants in food/feed preparation and formulation.



      Ms. V. V. Kamble, Mr. S. V. Kamble

Abstract: Frequent pattern mining from sequential datasets is an important data mining method. It has various applications like discovery of motifs in DNA sequences, financial industry, the analysis of web log, customer shopping sequences and the investigation of scientific or medical processes etc. Motif mining requires efficient mining of approximate patterns that are contiguous. The main challenge in discovering frequently occurring patterns is to allow for some noise or mismatches in the matching process. Existing algorithms focus on mining subsequences but very few algorithms find approximate pattern mining. In this paper we have presented a new method for finding frequently occurring approximate sequences from sequential datasets. Proposed method uses suffix trees for discovering frequent pattern with fixed length, maximum distance & minimum support.



      VivekchandKharwar, MukeshPatel, SunnyNahar

Abstract: A new concept of pc is coming now that is Advanced Desktop computer Concept pc. The Advanced Desktop computer is a sphere shaped computer concept which is the smallest design among all the laptops and desktops have ever made. This PC concept features all the traditional elements like mouse, keyboard, large screen display, DVD recorder, etc, all in an innovative manner. Advanced Desktop computer is designed to be placed on two stands, opens by simultaneously pressing and holding the two buttons located on each side. After opening the stand and turning ON the PC, pressing the detaching mouse button will allow you to detach the optical mouse from the PC body. This concept features a laser keyboard that can be activated by pressing the particular button. Advanced Desktop computer is very small, it is having only 6 inch diameter sphere. It is having 120×120mm motherboard.



      Irwandy, Syahrir A.Pasinringi, Noer Bahry Noor, Annisa Faradina A, Andi Silviyah, Nurandini Pratiwi, Nurul Athifah A.

Abstract: It is believed that in order to reduce the number of adverse events, hospitals have to stimulate a more open culture and reflective attitude towards errors and patient safety. The objective of this study was to compare the patient safety culture in South Sulawesi Province hospital in urban, sub urban and rural areas.



      Rajendra N. Kankrale, Mahendra B. Gawali

Abstract: Cloud computing has gained a lot of publicity in the current IT world. After the internet, Cloud computing is the next big thing in the computer world. Cloud computing is the use of the Internet for the tasks performed on the computer and it is the next- generation architecture of IT Industry. Cloud computing is related to different technologies and the convergence of various technologies has emerged to be called cloud computing. Cloud Computing moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. This unique attribute, however, poses many new security challenges which have not been well understood. In this paper, we discuss the design mechanisms that not only protect sensitive data with encrypted data, but also protect customers from malicious behaviors by enabling the validation of the computation result.



      Dr Shashikant Sharma, Dr Sameer Mehrotra

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify, study analyse and improve the various functional flows in a Dietary Service of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in India. This observational and descriptive study is based on the concept of improvement through Process Reengineering to map the As-Is and To-Be processes. The study identifies key areas of concern and recommends improvement measures for improvement of quality of services provided by applying principles of process reengineering.



      Deepti Bansal, Megha vij

Abstract: AODV is used to find out the path of the data transfer. But simple AODV has the problem when the nodes move. Enhancement in AODV is required so that to overcome the problem of link failure during data transfer from host to destination. First of all mutual authentication is required between the mobile nodes to prevent the various inside and outside attacks. When the mobile nodes are mutually authenticated, it leads to the reliable data transmission between the mobile nodes. But the main problem occurs during the failure of the link. Due to link failure packet is lost easily. In proposed work, enhancement in AODV concept is important. This protocol is designed to provide best path according to signal strength. The path which has maximum signal strength will choose as a final path. This work will helps to reduce the problem occur in link failure and packet lost problem. Now the performance degradation problem will also improve. In new AODV, route selection is based upon the signal strength. The maximum signal strength nodes are considered as final routes.



      Ikram DAOU, Omar ZEGAOUI, Rachid CHFAIRA, Hammou AHLAFI and Hamou MOUSSOUT

Abstract: A Moroccan Benonite taken from a geological site in the North-Eastern Rif of Morocco has been characterized by XRF, CEC measurements, XRD, IRTF, SEM and N2 adsorption/desorption at -196 °C. The results showed that the structure of the purified bentonite (PB) is constituted exclusively of monmorillonite and some Mg2+ and Fe3+ cations replace Al3+ in the octahedral sheet. The specific surface area developed is of 74 m2 g-1, and the diameters of pores are superior to 38 Å indicating the presence of mesopores. The adsorption study of methylene blue (MB) onto PB showed that the percentage removal of this molecule can reach 99.6%, and the amount of MB adsorbed depends closely on adsorbent dosage, pH and solution temperature. The results of the adsorption tests showed that the experimental data fitted very well the pseudo second order model. Also, it was found that for temperatures ≤ 45 °C, the adsorption process proceeds by surface adsorption followed by an internal diffusion into the particles with Ea=49.7 kJ.mol-1; while for temperatures ≥ 55 °C, it is governed by an internal diffusion into the particles with Ea = 2.3 kJ.mol-1. The low Ea values are characteristic of physical adsorption.



      Dr. Balwinder Kaur

Abstract: The study covered Punjab state at District level. The Punjab, called Pentapotamia by the Greeks, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an aab (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country).Punjab also spelt Panjab, is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. To the north it is bounded by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The population is 24,289,296 (Census 2001)



      Monika Gope, Md. Ariful Islam Khandaker, Mehnuma Tabassum Omar

Abstract: Transferring data between two points is very crucial, also for some vital applications the precision of the transferred data is extremely important, however an error throughout the transmission of data is awfully familiar [1]. Error correcting codes are very valuable in transfer information over lengthy distances or through channels where errors might take place in the message. They have become more common as telecommunications have expanded and developed a use for codes that can auto-correct. Reed–Muller codes are a family of linear error correcting codes used in communications [2].For bit error correction, the Reed-Muller code is one of the efficient algorithms, on the other hand, its high-computation prerequisite innate in the decoding process interdict its use in handy applications [3].This paper describes a new method to detect and correct a single bit in the data message using Reed Muller matrix. The aim is to provide error-free information through transmitting and receiving by detection and correction a single bit in a big data very efficiently. The design detects and corrects all single bit errors in a 16, 32, 64, 128 bit data, and used 4, 5, 6, 7 check bits respectively. In the proposed method, it is feasible to detect the precise place of single bit error and correct that using least check bits.



      K. Raveendran, A.D.U.S. Amarasinghe and W.S. Botheju

Abstract: Drying characteristic of Orthodox broken type tea was examined using a laboratory-scale fluid bed tea dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at loading of 29 kg/m2 and moisture content of tea was reduced from 106% to 7% on dry basis. Hot air temperature was varied in the range of 108 - 127 °C as applicable for industrial type tea dryers. Semi-theoretical thin-layer drying models of Lewis, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Modified Page and Two-term exponential model were tested. Page model gave better predictions than other models, and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of Orthodox broken type tea. Results suggested that internal mass transfer resistance has fully controlled the drying process after 4 minutes of drying. The effective diffusivity of water in tea during latter stage of drying was found to be 3.796 x 10-11 (m/s) and 5.062 x 10-11 (m/s) at hot air temperatures in the range of 108–121 °C and 124–127°C respectively. An empirical model was proposed to describe the variation of moisture content with tea-bed temperature and the predicted values were in close agreement with the measured data. The bulk density of the tea bed was found to increase with time and that might have reduced the channeling effect during latter stages of drying.



      Radhey Shyam, Pushalata Sachan, Munna Lal Patel, Shradha Singh and Sunita Tiwari

Abstract: Background: Diabetes is a metabolic condition with inappropriate hyperglycemia either due to deficiency of insulin secretion or resistance to insulin or both. It is also associated with disturbances concerned with protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. Thus we had estimated the Level of serum Uric Acid and it’s association with neuropathy in pre-diabetics and diabetics from northern India.



      Riju koruth and J. Mohamed Zeyavudheen

Abstract: In an agriculture based economy like India, farmers face several risks in the agricultural process such as rise in prices and low yield. The present study is an attempt to overview agriculture commodity financialisation in India by taking into account, various results and findings of studies on agriculture commodity financialisation. This study has been classified into three sections i.e. growth and performance of the derivative commodity market, agriculture commodity financialisation and price movements in India and relationship between spot market prices and future prices. The paper brings out the growth in agricultural commodity financialisation in India and how the agricultural commodity financialisation influences the price movements and also shows a relationship between future prices and spot market prices.



      Odaiyappan Kannappan, Stanley Mathew, Ravikiran Naalla

Abstract: Introduction: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a great masquerader and misdiagnosis has serious implications for the patient. Methods and materials: We reviewed 21 patients with histopathologically proven SRUS at our tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Results: Bleeding per rectum and constipation with passage of mucous were the common symptoms at presentation. Endoscopy revealed a single ulcer in 16 (76.19%), multiple ulcers in 5 (23.8%), polypoidal lesion in 1 (4.7%) and circumferential ulcer in 2 (9.5%). 3 (14.28%) patients had rectal ulcer resembling malignancy on endoscopy such as everted edge 1 (4.7%) and hard growth 2 (9.5%). Endoscopic biopsy from one such patient was reported as adenocarcinoma for which abdominoperineal resection was done. The final histopathological report of the resected specimen was SRUS. Conclusion: SRUS is a misnomer with a potential for misdiagnosis as carcinoma. Under reporting may result in progression of disease and over reporting is disastrous for low rectal lesions.



      Sharma Hemlata, Vyas Shalini, Dr. Vyas R.K.,Dr. chhaparwal Amit

Abstract: Present study conducted on coronary heart disease patients. plasma homocysteine concentrations and relationships to vitamin B9 that serve as coenzymes in homocysteine metabolism. Results showed that homocysteine exhibited strong inverse association with plasma folate. plasma homocysteine level varied from 6.8 to 18.7µmol/L with mean as 12.92±3.61µmol/l in normal control male subject. The mean plasma homocysteine level was increased to 18.89±2.24µmol/L with a range of 14.0 to 21.51µmol/L in normal control males subjects aged between 46-70 year ,increase in the homocysteine level was statistically significant as compared to that of normal subjects above stated as evident by P-value (P<0.001). The mean plasma Homocysteine level was found to be 23.48±1.62µmol/L with a range of 20.64 to 25.54µmol/L in CHD male subjects aged between (25 to 45 years).The increase Plasma homocysteine concentration in CHD patients was statistically significant as compared to normal control more subjects with age difference as evident by P-Value (P<0.001) .The increase was statistically highly significant as compared to control group. while it ranged from 6.80 to 21.51µmol/L as evident by P-value (P<0.001). CHD.The mean serum folic acid (vit.B9) level was found to be 6.98±1.54ng./ml with a range of 4.82 to 9.12 ng/ml in normal control male subjects aged between 25 to 45 years.Plasma homocysteine and vitamin B9 was estimated by high performance liquid chromatogrphy. Estimation of homocysteine and serum vitamin B9 is reliable, economic and sensitive and it can be used in proper management of chronic complications of coronary heart disease.Hplc grade kits.



      Dahanayake Nilanthi and Alawathugoda CJ

Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max L: Fabaceae) is a mycotrophic (mycorrhizal) legume grown commercially for human consumption. It is a major grain legume cultivated in Sri Lanka. The greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of mycorrhizae as a substitute for inorganic fertilizer on growth and yield of Soybean (Glycine max) and observe how mycorrhizae inoculation affect to yield of soybean and soil microbial activity in drought condition.



      Perera, P.C.D. and DahanayakeNilanthi

Abstract: Weeds can be defined as unwanted and undesirable plants which are growing out of place. For an example, Eichhorniacrassipes (Waterhyacinth) is beautiful in floating gardens but can rapidly log waterways, cause to flood and making navigation impossible. Sri Lanka climate is suitable for weeds to adaptand to persist for survive. Their pattern of spread and adapting features are help to grasp cultivated lands. Sri Lanka has a poor record of managing weeds, largely due to inadequate mechanisms to deal with them early or prevent their entry through border protection. Recent stakeholder consultations identified insufficient funding for on-ground works and for research and the absence of a central coordination mechanism as major constraints. Control options are also limited (i.e. limited array of herbicides or biocontrol agents) and experience is also lacking in implementing large scale integrated weed management programs. To effectively tackle invasive species in Sri Lanka, a National Weed Strategy has been developed. This national framework aims to provide increased weed science education at tertiary level and increased training for government officials and farmers. It also aims provide a mechanism for efficient information sharing and effective multiple stakeholder cooperation and participation in managing weeds across landscapes. This review considers the major weeds in cultivated lands in Sri Lanka and it helps farmers to identify the weeds in their lands and to select weed management techniques according to the morphology of plant.



      Ms. Rekha K.G

Abstract: One of the early definitions of the ambush marketing was developed by (Meenaghan, 1994) and it was described as “the practice whereby another company, often a competitor, intrudes upon public attention surrounding the event, thereby deflecting attention toward themselves and away from the sponsor”. The sponsorship of any event is expensive action which requires planning and execution to get the expected financial reward. The brand or company which gets the official sponsorship contract is relieved to make its plans a reality. But the ambushers are spoiling the fun and reward of the official sponsors. They are making use of any and every opportunity to exhibit their logo and brand names within the event. The study aims to identify the technique of marketing used in popular sports events called ambush marketing. The application of the technique was visible during the popular cricket league tournament Indian Premier League during its 2013 season. The official sponsors of the tournament were beverage giant PepsiCo. An invasion of the arch rival Coca Cola was noticed. It also made Pepsi to act and take counter-measures. The research paper focuses on the application of the marketing strategy by the competitors.



      Aniruddha Dekate, Pradip Ramchaware

Abstract: An uninterruptible power supply, commonly called a UPS is a device that has the ability to convert and control direct current (DC) energy to alternating current (AC) energy. It uses a conventional battery of 12V rating as the input source and by the action of the inverter circuitry, it produces an alternating voltage which is sent to the load. This particular UPS is designed for a small scale load like a personal computer and hence only a basic power rate is generated by the UPS. Standard Untint eruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems are connected in series between the ac mains and the critical load. A phase controlled rectifier feeds a battery-supported dc bus and an inverter supplies the load. These systems require two conversion stages. Input power factor is poor and large harmonic currents are injected into the ac mains. The proposed model will acknowledges the person from upcoming faults and suggest its remedy via SMS. If possible apply the remedy steps and avoid the fault.



      Bhupendra Kumar Pandya, Umesh kumar Singh, Keerti Dixit

Abstract: The collection of digital information by governments, corporations, and individuals has created tremendous opportunities for knowledge- and information-based decision making. Driven by mutual benefits, or by regulations that require certain data to be published, there is a demand for the exchange and publication of data among various parties. Data in its original form, however, typically contains sensitive information about individuals, and publishing such data will violate individual privacy. Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) tends to transform original data, so that sensitive data are preserved. In this research paper we analysis CAMDP (Combination of Additive and Multiplicative Data Perturbation) technique for k-means clustering as a tool for privacy-preserving data mining. We can show that K-Means Clustering algorithm can be efficiently applied to the transformed data and produce exactly the same results as if applied to the original data.



      Gokul.M, M.Tech, J.Caroline El Fiorenza

Abstract: Cloud computing is a promising technology able to strongly modify the way computing and storage resources will be accessed in the near future. Cloud systems offer services at three different levels: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS). In particular, IaaS clouds provide users with computational resources in the form of virtual machine (VM) instances deployed in the provider data center. PaaS and SaaS clouds offer services in terms of specific solution stacks and application software suites Performance evaluation of Cloud Computing. An infrastructure is required to predict and quantify the cost-benefit of a strategy portfolio and the corresponding Quality of Service (QoS) experienced by users. In a market-oriented area, the cloud computing requires an accurate evaluation of these parameters is required to quantify the offered QoS and opportunely manage SLAs. There are several performance metrics have been defined, like availability, utilization, and responsiveness, allowing us to investigate the impact of different strategies on both provider and user point of views. A resiliency analysis is also provided to take into account load bursts. We can also include the analysis of autonomic techniques able to change on-the-fly the system configuration to react to a change on the working conditions. We can also extend the model to represent PaaS and SaaS cloud systems and to integrate the mechanisms needed to capture VM migration and data center consolidation aspects that cover a crucial role in energy saving policies.



      Prof. (Dr.) Solanki Sandip P, Sheth Jaydeep H

Abstract: India is the world’s second largest producer of food next to China and has potential of being the biggest with food and agriculture sector. The Food Processing industry is the 5th largest industry in India in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth. Among the various sectors of Food Processing industry, packaged food industry is growing at the fastest pace of 16 % p.a. There are nearly 100 international, national and local players already operating in industry and equal numbers of players are likely to enter in the market in coming years due to its huge growth potential. Packaged food products being product of low involvement category, a little differentiation exists among the products produced by various players of the industry so to differentiate their products companies make use of various marketing tools. One of the most prominent tools used in the industry is packaging. The companies make use of various packaging elements to differentiate their products. This study is undertaken to analyze the impact of animated characters provided on the packages of packaged food & beverage products on the product liking & preferences of children and on perceptions of parents. To attain the aim of study, a sample of 300 respondents was taken. The research paper is structured into five sections. The first section focuses on the introductory part of the paper. It highlights the international, national and local scenario of Food processing industry. The second section focuses on the aspects like definition of packaged food, segments of packaged food product category, importance and role of packaging in the category and main objectives of the study. The third section discusses the previous studies parallel to the current study. It also highlights how the current study is different from the previous studies. The fourth section reveals how the research has been undertaken. The last section i.e. fifth section narrates the findings of the paper, limitations of t



      Saminath.V

Abstract: Android is one of most popular open source operating system for smart devices like phones, tablet, set-top box, Android TV, Android Auto, and Android Wear. Most of the Smart devices has hardware capable of video processing and wireless streaming. This paper explains streaming of live camera content from Android Wearable Device like Watch to Handheld Mobile Phone/Tablet device. This Streaming content used for variety of Application in day to day life. Android Smart Device Consume and produce Live Video streaming and share video to another device. Bluetooth is more cost-efficient and power-efficient wireless communication layer to transfer media content between the devices. Bluetooth, making it ideal for small, light mobile devices, but not suitable for traditional media encoding and Real-time transmission due to limited Bandwidth, High degree of error rates, and the time-varying nature of the radio link. The media streaming over Bluetooth stances many challenges. This paper explains the protocol for media transmission content for Bluetooth, Camera and Bluetooth configuration, compressing technique on Wearable devices.



      Neelam, Jyoti Gupta

Abstract: In this paper, an algorithm for identification and classification of four different varieties of rice, using the color and morphological features is presented. The proposed algorithm consists of several steps:- Image acquisition, Image Segmentation, Feature selection and Extraction, identification and classification. The identification and classification is done by the Mahalanobis distance. The color features i.e.,( Red Green Blue) and morphological features i.e.,( Area, perimeter, MajorAxislength, MinorAxislength, eccentricity) are used for identification and classification purpose. RGB color modal is used. Mahalanobis distance is used as a identifier and also classifier.



      B.S.Srikanth, Dr.S.Sekar,Dr.R.Ramasamy

Abstract: The thermodynamic and acoustical study elucidates the nature of interactions between molecules in liquids and solutions. Also ultrasonic parameters are directly related to a number of thermodynamic parameters. As the different liquid state theories are based on thermodynamic considerations, the study of propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid systems is established as a simple and effective tool in determining the nature of interactions between molecules in liquids and solutions. Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, Adiabatic Compressibility, Rao’s Constant, Wada’s Constant, Specific Acoustic Impedance and Intermolecular Free Length are evaluated and the variations are analyzed. Structure making and Structure breaking nature of solution is studied using Internal Pressure variations.



      Abdul Mannan, Nasir uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Sumaira Yousuf

Abstract: The price factor is a direct index of profitability for any process which produced the items the cost adjustment is a mathematical technique which when implemented gives a better return an investment by keeping extra cost away from main process costing the mathematical method used in this paper is a system of equation relating fixed parameters of structural expenditure like machinery, transport, raw storage material extras with the main variable parameters like raw material such as natural gas produced from fertilizer.



      Amandeep Kour

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of Data warehousing, Data Mining, OLAP, OLTP technologies, exploring the features, new applications and the architecture of Data Warehousing and data mining. The data warehouse supports on-line analytical processing (OLAP), the functional and performance requirements of which are quite different from those of the on-line transaction processing (OLTP) applications traditionally supported by the operational databases. Data warehouses provide on-line analytical processing (OLAP) tools for the interactive analysis of multidimensional data of varied granularities, which facilitates effective data mining. Data warehousing and on-line analytical processing (OLAP) are essential elements of decision support, which has increasingly become a focus of the database industry. OLTP is customer-oriented and is used for transaction and query processing by clerks, clients and information technology professionals. An OLAP system is market-oriented and is used for data analysis by knowledge workers, including managers, executives and analysts. Data warehousing and OLAP have emerged as leading technologies that facilitate data storage, organization and then, significant retrieval. Decision support places some rather different requirements on database technology compared to traditional on-line transaction processing applications.



      Feyera Deresa, Tsetadirgachew Legesse

Abstract: Land degradation in most developing countries is becoming a major constraint to future growth and development of rural livelihoods. About 40-75% of the world’s agricultural land’s productivity is reduced due to land degradation (Baylis et al., 2012; UNCCD, 2013). This has strong impact on the livelihood of the most population living in the rural areas; Majority of the primary data of this study was collected through household survey questionnaires, field observations and key informant interview. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency, percentage, and tabulations were employed to compute the land degradation and anthropogenic factors of land degradation. Multiple linear regressions was deployed for this work in order to know the relationship between the anthropogenic factors of land degradation on Crop Productivity of rural households .A key finding of this study is that the farmers pursue a diverse range of livelihood strategies in addition to agricultural activities. Experience of HHs, farm land hector size, amounts of fertilizer used and sex of HHs are each uniquely explained 8.9%, 1.6%, 1.9% and 0% of the variance in total crop production. Variables such as, education level and family size of HHs are insignificant because the p-values are greater than 0.05, whereas the four variables are significantly determining the crop production. Use land degradation risk to prioritize investments and build donor commitment plus grassroots participation to long-term engagement in the Study area:



      Yuseni Ab Wahab, Abd Samad Hasan Basari

Abstract: Hostel Facility Maintenance (HFM) is essential to prolong the hostel building life cycle and reduce the company loss. When hostel buildings are neglected, defects can occur which may result in extensive and unavoidable damage to the building fabric or structure. The objective of this study is to identify Higher Education Institution in Malaysia (HEIM), case study Kolej Universiti Islam Melaka (KUIM) focus on preliminary finding in hostel facility maintenance problems. As such, the chosen facility maintenance building needs to be identified before the research start. The defect and the problem face will be collected and noted in a check list. This will be done by questionnaires and distributed to all service users in KUIM building maintenance management office and student hostel. Interview sessions and site visit are also conducted to understand the problem encounter. Hence, this paper is focusing on the maintenance management system which the aim is to reduce the downtime of plant items taking into account the possible impact of a failure in terms of cost. The analysis shows that the Hostel Facility Maintenance contributed to the most problematic area in KUIM. Based on the preliminary finding, it shows that there is a need to propose a systematic in Hostel Facility Maintenance.



      Mehran Qadri, Zubair Ahmad, Jamaludin Ibrahim

Abstract: The concept of data mining has been around for a while now. It is a process of extraction of useful patterns and information from huge data sets. Many tools and techniques have been developed to make use of the data mining concept in various industries. However before implementing data mining techniques or making any other key decision relating to their I.T infrastructure, the top management of a business would usually consult with an I.T consulting firm to determine the feasibility of adopting new techniques such as data mining into their business operations. An I.T consulting firm, in turn will provide the client with valuable feedback in the form of advice, or cost estimations and potential profits, or even a full-fledged plan on how to implement techniques like data mining into their business. However, the question does arise as to whether I.T consulting firms themselves should implement data mining techniques into their business operations and whether such techniques can help them to provide better services to their clients. I.T consulting firms advise clients on a range of areas related to I.T such as strategic planning, security consulting, networking, systems integration etc. This means that an I.T consulting firms has to manage and sustain a huge network of clients, partners, and service providers. This, then naturally results in a huge amount of data that is to be stored and maintained by the firm. This paper will discuss the concept of data mining, the use of data mining in other industries and its benefits, its potential use by I.T consulting firms, and whether it can help improve I.T consulting operations.



      Anjum Ara Ahmad

Abstract: The Economic Wealth Index (EWI) is created using the principal component analysis (PCA) method on the amenities data of Census 2001.The first principal component is used to create the index. An attempt is made in this research to the economic health of the districts of some selected states like Kerala, Maharashtra and Bihar/Jharkhand. The selected states represent almost all the regions of India i.e. Kerala from South, Maharashtra from West and Bihar/Jharkhand from North-East. I have used Principal Component Method for creating this index. The districts of the selected States are ranked based on the values of the index. When I compared the district level value of this index with the Human Development index value, I found that the two values are highly correlated with each other for the State of Maharashtra. Hence this method can be used to study the economic conditions of the districts of the States and can be used as an alternative to HDI values as district level HDI values are not available for all states.



      Othman Aref Al-Dala’ien, Badri Abdulhakim D.M. Mudhsh, Ayman Hamid Al-Takhayinh

Abstract: The paper discussed the concept of mental lexicon or mental dictionary and some other studies related to the area of mental lexicon. How lexical items are accessed, acquired and ordered in the mind is a controversial area for both linguists and psychologists. The mental lexicon is a complicated structure organized in many ways. This paper discusses the notion of mental lexicon and what are the similarities and contrasts between mental lexicon and physical dictionary, methods and ways used for inquiry and the role of mental lexicon in case of learning and acquisition of language as well as an overview on the language and memory. The paper covers research findings in this area.



      Dr. Musa Khan, M.D., Dr. P. Sakuntala, M.D., Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D., Dr. B. Sudarsi, M.D.

Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus being panmetabolic disorder is characterized by alteration in lipid profile. Although diabetes and hyperlipidemia represent different genetic disorders, each of these disorders is common in the general population and the two disorders may co-exist in the same individual.



      M. Anil kumar, S. Kishore, N. Karthik, K. Chandra sekhar, Shaik Shafi,M.C.Chinnaiah

Abstract: For people who have been are suffering from epileptic seizures, a real time system is developed which is helpful in detecting such cases, is Smart epilepsy detection and alert system is an advanced technology by which we have developed a electronic gadget. Using that kit we can save the life of the person who is really effecting with the condition. It will do the help in both the ways means not only checks the condition but also sends an SMS to the concerned doctor for the patient’s live saving sake. To implement all the above process we have used mainly four modules micro controller KEIL module, ARDUINO module, GSM module to send an SMS, and LABVIEW.



      Farhana Hanim Mohsin

Abstract: Over the last decade until recent years, work engagement has captured a lot of interest among many; academician, industry, consultancy and the like for its positive impact towards work attitudes. To add compendium knowledge on the area, a lot of previous studies have made attempt to conduct work engagement studies on numerous work variables and also in different settings. Despite numerous studies, only few studies have made attempt to posit work engagement as a mediator role. Moreover, with the growing concern on the increasingly crucial aspects of work variables; career growth and organizational citizenship behavior, little is known on how work engagement can propose linkage between the two. In this article, I review sets of literature to propose possible linkage on such relationship. To offer explanatory device, I review and discuss related theories and concepts to provide direction and sense of the possible linkage.



      Abdullah Mohammed Rashid & Ali Taha Al-Oqaily

Abstract: Mobile devices such as mobile phones have become one of the most needed and important device for everyone living in the 21st century. This is due to their ability in accommodating people with information and effective communication that make people’s life easier and more meaningful. However, the conveniences offered by the devices come with security concern: mobile malware. There are many incidents caused by mobile malware that downgrade organization’s reputation or financial lost. The mobile malware represent a security threats to mobile devices, there are many types of mobile malware compromising the security platform. This paper discusses techniques to effectively detect and prevent the mobile malware and propose an improvement towards current techniques which gives better mobile malware detection and prevention.



      Md. Zahid Khan, Md. Razzab Ali, Md. Serajul Islam Bhuiyan and Md. Awlad Hossai

Abstract: The experiment was conducted in the laboratory under the Department of Entomology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from April to July, 2011 to find out the eco-friendly management of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. on stored mungbean using some promising fumigants viz. Camphor @ 1.0 g /kg mungbean grains (T1), Phostoxin tablet @ 200 mg /kg mungbean grains (T2) and Naphthalene @ 500 mg /kg mungbean grains (T3) and control (T4). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with four replications. From this study, it was observed that the treatment T1 comprised with Camphor @ 1.0 g /kg mungbean grains reduced the highest percent of grain infestation by number and weight (49.65% & 49.54%, respectively) over control than other fumigants. Conversely, T1 reduced the highest percent of adult emergence (77.66%) and grain content loss (95.18%) over control, but increased the highest percent of seed germination (26.57%) over control. Therefore, it can be concluded that Camphor @ 1.0 g /kg mungbean grains was the most effective control measure applied against pulse beetle, C. chinensis on stored mungbean.



      Ranjeet Daroga, Nishantraj Pandey

Abstract: In this paper we worked on a new type of technology which is going to be soon launched in the market .Its name is the sixth sense technology. It’s a wearable interface that augments the physical world around us with the digital information. It’s just born concept which allows user to connect with the internet seamlessly. Without use of keyboard, mouse we can see videos access, change, move data simply.



      Dr. Shrikrishna A.Dhale

Abstract: Critical investigation were carried out to study the effect of silica fume on the compressive strength of cementitious grouts. The silica fume was added in different percentages of total mix, the percentages were 2%, 3.5%, 5%,6. 5%, and 8%. Cement component in the grout mix was varied between 30% to 50%, 13% water and 0.7% Salphonated naphthalene-formaldehyde condensate (SNF) were added in all mixes. Cemetitious material like plaster of paris and aluminium powder were also added in fixed percentages of 3% and 0.005%. Total number of mixes studied was 25. Increase in cement component is found to have increased the compressive strength, however the addition of silica fume in different proportions have contributed to compressive strength development. It is observed that 2% of silica fume and 3.5% of silica fume has resulted in better compressive strengths. The results obtained are critically analysed and are presented and discussed in this paper.



      Hesti R.Wijaya, Keppi Sukesi, Henny Rosalinda

Abstract: A social protection policy model is engineered for the Indonesian women workers migrating internationally for employment as house-maids in Hong Kong. At the work place, various kind of problems have been encountered. However, regardless vulnerabilities they faced, and the fact that their number is the highest among other migrant workers as such from other countries, hardly any social protection from the country of origin is available. Officially the protection policy of the Indonesian-government is supposedly provided by Law No. 39/2004 regarding placement and protection.However, most of its content is directed almost solely to placement issues. This research is aimed at a social protection model for the Indonesian migrant workers at the work-place, using research methodology for Women’s Studies with feminist perspective. It is a qualitative study, based on grounded issues faced by the migrant women in Hong Kong, participatory, and it is action-oriented one. The findings indicate that in the work-place, the problems experienced by the women domestic-helpers have been ongoing at a wide range. To mention several are the impact of the authoritarian agents with respect to placement and objectification on women migrant workers, superior - inferior employer-employee relationship resulted in abusive violence against women workers, exploitation, sexual harassment, unilateral contract breaking by employers, unpaid labor and underpayment.



      S. Manikandan and K. Sivasubramaniam

Abstract: The present Investigation was carried out to elucidate the storability of drip fertigation resultant seeds of pigeonpea (cv.VBN 3).The laboratory studies were conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, during 2011. The study on resultant seed storability revealed that, among the 13 treatments, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11 and T12 were good storers, while T1, T2, T3 and T13 were medium storers. Whereas seeds stored in polyethylene bag maintained a germination of 93.0 per cent after nine months of storage and the seed quality characters in terms of physiological and biochemical parameters decreased with ageing irrespective of treatment and containers.



      Dr. Tushar Dani, Prof. L. Ramachandra, Dr. Rajesh Nair, Dr. Digvijoy Sharma

Abstract: Peritonitis is defined as inflammation of the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and the organs contained therein. Most cases of peritonitis are caused by an invasion of the peritoneal cavity by bacteria, so that when the term peritonitis is used without specification bacterial peritonitis is implied. Peritonitis is one of the most common infections, and an important problem that a surgeon has to face.



      Meraj Alam

Abstract: In this paper, AT Command, which is used to instruct the modem, is discussed. AT Command as a Proactive Command (command that is being executed by SIM) will also be discussed in this paper. In addition, several applications that are being used to instruct the modem are discussed.



      Prakash M. Mohite, Aakash C. Karoo

Abstract: Cold formed steel are nowadays used for building construction especially non-load bearing partition, curved walls, etc due to its flexural strength and good appearance. The cold formed steel enhances the mean yield stess by 15% to 30% as compared to hot rolled steel. In this paper detailed parametric and comparative study of cold formed steel sections by different codes is carried out for prediction of flexural strength of beams. Various codes predict different strength. The flexural strength of cold formed steel beam is carried out and presented using CUFSM software which uses Direct Strength Method for prediction of flexural strength and this flexural strength is compared with IS 801-1975 and experimental results.



      Sarabjeet Singh

Abstract: Near field Communication (NFC) technology provides many possibilities in consumer application domain other than just payment applications as it provides characteristics such as contactless communication and exchange of information between devices. But it has some limitations and restriction on data storage and security. To overcome these limitations a combination of CLOUD as SaaS services and secure element can be used. This paper describes how the combination of ‘Software as a Service’ feature of Cloud technology and Secure Elements (SIM cards) can be used to overcome these limitations.



      Jintu Sarma and Ashalata Devi

Abstract: Biodiversity is an important gift of nature that provides all basic requirements for human existence. But due to modern development of human races nature is under great threat. Since time immemorial plants have played an important role in human civilization. It has been observed that large numbers of plants are being used for the worshiping of gods and goddesses by different indigenous communities, which serve as a useful tool for conservation of plants. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world and dominant in Indian subcontinent. The present paper analyzed different plant species that are used in worshiping of gods and goddesses in Hindu tradition in two districts of Assam viz. Nalbari and Sonitpur. A total of 54 species under 51 genera and 30 families were recorded during the study. Among these, Cynodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Ocimum sanctum, Piper betle, etc. are exclusively used in all worship. Prasad is one of the most important elements of all worship which is prepared with different varieties of fruits and cereals. Vigna radiate, Cicer arietinum, Mangifera indica, Musa sp., Saccharum officinarum, Cocos nucifera, Zingiber officinale, etc. are some important species used for the preparation of Prasad. In fact, the Prasad are rich in nutrients and considered very healthy.



      Dr. Vijay Koduru, Prof. Annappa Kudva, Dr. Ravikiran Naalla

Abstract: Laparotomy performed for surgical access usually heals quickly and without complications, leaving a stable scar. An exception to this is the rare (< 1%) occurrence of acute separation of the sutured abdominal walls during the postoperative phase – known as acute wound dehiscence or burst abdomen – and the more frequent (> 20%) occurrence of chronic wound dehiscence with the formation of a hernial sac and canal months to years after surgery. This is known as incisional hernia. Incisional hernia is receiving greater attention in the medical community than in previous years, due to the increasing use of ultrasonography as part of follow-up after abdominal surgery, increased long term survival even after oncological surgery, and demographic developments which permit longer follow up. Incisional hernias and ventral hernias larger than 2 cm are preferably repaired using prosthesis, because primary repair has an unacceptable high rate of recurrences.



      Anupam KHAJURIA

Abstract: Electronic waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. Due to the absence of effective and suitable treatment technology, this waste can pose a serious health and environmental hazards. Developing countries such as India is facing enormous challenges and problems related to the rapid generation and disposal of electronic waste. The present study attempted to identify the current challenges and constraints of electronic waste in India. This paper also identifies and analyze the significant role of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) policy in handling and effective management of electronic waste.



      Ankit Garg, Ashima Garg

Abstract: The present paper is based on the objective of impact of ICT on small scale Industrial Units of India. An attempt to discuss the different challenges in the sector and overcoming them to make the Small Scale Industries competitive. SMEs play a central role in the overall growth of the industrial economy of the country. Rather, Small and medium Enterprises in India are known as the backbone of the economy. The reason behind is that these enterprises are employing about 40% of India's workforce and contributing 45% to India's manufacturing output, they play a significant role in generating millions of jobs, especially at the low-skill level. The country's 1.3 million SMEs account for 40% of India's total exports. The current scenario clearly states that the growth of our economy is impossible without the growth and development of these enterprises but these enterprises are far behind the large counterparts in the economy.



      Jahnovi Brahma, Tribeni Mandal, P. Gajurel, B. Singh & P. Rethy

Abstract: Bodos have a rich, multi-faceted and distinct culture of their own. The agricultural practices, food habit and belief systems of the Bodos reflect a conglomeration of features from both the Aryan and Mongoloid culture. Folk music is a traditional music of unknown authorship, which is transmitted orally generation to generation from the beliefs, and customs of ordinary people of this community. “Kham”, “Siphung”, “Serja”, “Jotha”, “Jabkhring”, “Gangona”, “Bingi” and “Thorkha” are eight musical instruments used by the Bodos of Assam. All these instruments represent various forms of traditional songs accompanied by folk dance. The plants mostly used to make these musical instruments are Bambusa assamica Barooah & Borthakur (Poaceae), Bambusa tulda Roxb. (Poaceae), Bambusa pallid Munro (Poaceae), Alstonia scholaris L. (Apocynaceae), Sterculia villosa Roxb. (Sterculiaceae), Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult.f (Agavaceae) and Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae). Detailed description of the instruments is given below as revealed by the Bodo tribes.



      Dr.Ravikeerthy.M, Dr.Tejaswi Nataraj

Abstract: Obesity by definition is a state of excess adipose tissue mass. Obesity is a global epidemic becoming a threat to healthy populations in increasing number of countries. . Numerous studies have documented that obesity and, more particularly, central adiposity as indicated by an enlarged waist circumference (WC), is associated with the presence of systemic hypertension, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as an increased mortality risk. The cardiovascular disorders due to obesity result in increased mortality from complications such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias and sudden death(8). This study was done to study the importance of cardiac parameters in obesity which is a preventable condition which in turn reduces the morbidity and mortality.



      Titus Wachira Kihanya, Moses Kimani Wafula, Evans Ojiambo Onditi, Ambrose Muriithi Munene

Abstract: Strategic sourcing is growing at a rapid rate throughout the world because organizations view it as a way to achieve strategic goals, improve customer satisfaction and provide efficiency and effectiveness services. This study was guided by the following objectives: to determine the role of quality of goods and services on organization’s performance; to establish the role of cost of goods and service; to establish the role of supplier relationship; the role of timely delivery of goods and services and to determine the role of effective procurement plans on organizational performance.Descriptive research design was used in conducting this study. The target population for the study were the employees of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Main Campus. A sample size of 89 employees, with stratum of top level management, middle level management, first line management and low level management was selected from the various departments. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS. To test the validity of the research instruments, the researcher sought expert’s opinion and reliability was done to a few employees who were not included in the final study. The study findings were interpreted and discussed. The findings were presented using frequency distribution tables and charts to clearly show the response from the respondents.



      Stephanie Kadzo Kombe and Moses Kimani Wafula

Abstract: Financial institutions have been in the process of significant transformation. Despite this transformation, even though there’s a richness of information on the nature and scope of internet banking, there is a scarcity of evidence about the impact of internet banking activities among banks that have adopted it compared to those that have not done so. The research aimed at determining the effects of internet-banking on financial performance of financial institutions in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population comprised of 31 employees of KCB, Treasury Square in Mombasa Kenya. Data collection was done through the use of questionnaires and analyzed using statistical tool. From the study, it was revealed that the impact of ICT adoption on the performance of banking sector mainly refers to time reductions and quality improvements, rather than cost reductions as reported by many authors.



      Pingale Prerna Rambhau, Prof.Rokade S.M

Abstract: The introduce of finger spelling two hand gesture with the real time stereo vision hand tracking for implementation and analysis, used for interaction purpose. Many researchers have proposed methods that hand posture estimation. We have propose on two hand gesture recognition system using real time video image, the hand of fingers is extracting using contour with its features like finger shape with static and dynamic image, motion hand etc. The input of the system as BSL finger spelling which is recognition by using contour analysis and extraction. The experimental performance of system is tested in real time hand tracking world, which present results around 60% recognition rate efficiency.



      Sunitha , A Madhav, Meera M

Abstract: Background: Passive post exposure prophylaxis for rabies is life saving. Equine rabies immunoglobulins (ERIG) are readily available and much cheaper compared to human rabies immunoglobulins (HRIG). Not only several studies conducted across the globe to assess the impact of Skin sensitivity test (SST) but also WHO recommend that, ERIG needs to be administered mandatorily irrespective of SST result. An effort was made in the present study to have hands on experience regarding the usefulness of SST before administering purified ERIG.



      Fatimetou Zahra Mohamed Mahmoud, Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud , Jamaludin Ibrahim

Abstract: As a matter of fact, the rising awareness in organisations to not focus only in the physical assets in the organisation but also in other paramount assets such as knowledge was the launching point for organisations to go to the implementation of knowledge management and creating knowledge management strategies codified or personalized in order to overcome issues and plan for its future sustainability and development. Actually, the implementation of knowledge management strategy is the strategic consulting company internal asset and external mean to get value. Although, after the implementation of knowledge management strategy in some companies they face the problem of the low revenue and efficiency of the strategy implemented. That’s why the combination of the codification and personalization make the organisation able to create, share, save and re-use knowledge and exchange it in the organisation using technology or informal communication networks in order to raise the innovation in the work environment and the creation of new ideas and services. Also, this knowledge stored and codified especially about the organization customers can be considered as the basic knowledge to take the strategic decisions and by KM the organisation will be able to extract, understand and well use this knowledge in order to strengthen the relation with its customers and allow them to become the organisation’s partners and advisors. Indeed, that’s mean that the organisation strategy must be renewable and in corporation with the overall business model and focus on the core competence in the organisation and the management of the customer knowledge and interactions, this will influence positively and upgrade the organisational performance in any organisation.



      Dr. Swapna A. Ambekar, Dr. Priya P. Wattamwar , Dr. Azhar A. Siddiqui & Dr. Hussain R. Zuberi

Abstract: Thyroid is a highly vascular endocrine gland which is placed anteriorly in the neck. Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one thyroid lobe with or without an isthmus fails to develop. We are presenting such a case detected accidentally during routine cadaveric dissection. This condition usually is undiagnosed as it leads to symptoms only when it is associated with other conditions. It is one of the contributing factors for hypothyroidism. It may develop as a sporadic case or familial or due to some genetic abnormalities. Four different genes were identified for development of thyroid but every case of hemiagenesis was not associated with mutations of these genes. Molecular mechanism of development of hemiagenesis needs to be explored.



      John Ng’ang’a Karihe, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of staff motivation on the performance of employees at the public universities in Kenya. Specifically the study seeks to find out the effect of motivation stress factors on the performance of employees in public universities in Kenya. The study employed a cross-sectional evaluation survey approach. This used both qualitative and quantitative methods in the selection of the participants and collection of data. Cluster sampling was employed to select 384 respondents. Data collection instruments included interviews, questionnaires and document reviews. The collected data was captured in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 24 (Statistical Package for Social Scientists). Linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were run to determine relationship between stress factors and workers performance. The analyzed data was presented in suitable graphs, charts and tables. By correlating the determinants of stress with performance, the study found out that the determinants of stress include movement, motivation, workers relationships, management and working facilities. The study found a significant relationship (F (3,342) =57.717, p<0.05) between Motivation and Management and employee performance. The nature of the relationship was found to be positive in the sense that unit increase in Worker’s relationship, Worker’s movement, Workplace facilities and Management leads to an increase in Employee performance as demonstrated by the equation: Employee performance= 2.286+.096 Management+ .277 Motivation



      John Ng’ang’a Karihe, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of occupational stress and how it affects employee performance in the public universities in Kenya. Specifically the study seeks to identify the influence of workplace relationship stress factors on the performance of employees in public universities in Kenya. This used both qualitative and quantitative methods in the selection of the participants and collection of data. Cluster sampling was employed to select 384 respondents. Data collection instruments included interviews, questionnaires and document reviews. The collected data was captured in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 24 (Statistical Package for Social Scientists). Linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were run to determine relationship between stress factors and workers performance. The analyzed data was presented in suitable graphs, charts and tables. By correlating the determinants of stress with performance, the study found out that the determinants of stress include movement, motivation, workers relationships, management and working facilities. The study found a significant relationship (F (3,342) =57.717, p<0.05) between Worker’s relationship, Worker’s movement, Workplace facilities, Motivation and Management and employee performance. The nature of the relationship was found to be positive in the sense that unit increase in Worker’s relationship and Management leads to an increase in Employee performance as demonstrated by the equation: Employee performance= 2.286+.126Worker’s relationship+.096 Management



      John Ng’ang’a Karihe, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of occupational stress and how it affects employee performance in the public universities in Kenya. Specifically the study seeks to determine the effect of working facilities stress factors on the performance of employees in public universities in Kenya. The study employed a cross-sectional evaluation survey approach. This used both qualitative and quantitative methods in the selection of the participants and collection of data. Cluster sampling was employed to select 384 respondents. Data collection instruments included interviews, questionnaires and document reviews. The collected data was captured in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 24 (Statistical Package for Social Scientists). Linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were run to determine relationship between stress factors and workers performance. The analyzed data was presented in suitable graphs, charts and tables. By correlating the determinants of stress with performance, the study found out that the determinants of stress include movement, motivation, workers relationships, management and working facilities. The study found a significant relationship (F (3,342) =57.717, p<0.05) between Workplace facilities and employee performance. The nature of the relationship was found to be positive in the sense that unit increase in Worker’s relationship, Worker’s movement, Workplace facilities and Management leads to an increase in Employee performance as demonstrated by the equation: Employee performance= 2.286+.115Workplace facilities + .096 Management



      Onekutu, A, Nwosu, L. C. and Nnolim, N. C.

Abstract: Seed powder of Afromomum melegueta, Piper guineense and Xylopia aethiopica at the rates of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/ 20 g seeds of cowpea were assessed for insecticidal activities against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius in the laboratory under fluctuating ambient temperature and relative humidity in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. P. guineense caused the highest toxicity (68.53%) at 1.5 g/ 20 g cowpea seeds after 96 hours of exposure. Oviposition deterrency, larvicidal effect and suppression of adult emergence recorded for P. guineense was considerable but failed to match the conventional synthetic insecticide, Permethrin (P > 0.05). A. melegueta at test concentrations and at short storage duration (< 5 days) was not toxic to the bruchid. However, it significantly (P<0.05) deterred oviposition in C. maculatus females when compared to unprotected cowpea seeds. In the study, X. aethiopica protected cowpea seeds better than A. afromomum and gave minimal support to the bionomics of the bruchid. The study seriously suggests an increased need for search for botanical insecticides that can effectively control the resistant cowpea bruchid. Any natural material that cannot give good control of C. maculatus at an economically justified concentration in 24 hours may not be sustainable.



      M.H. Ali and S. Muhammad

Abstract: A solution to the insertion loss in the Distributed Amplifier configuration is presented. Wilkinson power splitter is employed at the input and wave interference characteristic is considered as the means of combining the transmitted power from active antennas. The overall result of using the power splitter and spatial combination of the signals is found to enhance the strength of the transmitted power by a factor of 16. More gain could be achieved by adding more power splitters and the corresponding active antennas.



      Pavan Kumar Reddy.K, T.H.Prakashappa, H.S.Chandrashekar, M.Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract: Prospective evaluation of functional outcome after Total knee Replacement using Knee Society score(Insall 1989).



      Van-Dycke Sarpong Asare, Emmanuel Gyasi, Bismark Fofie Okyere

Abstract: Azimuthal apparent-resistivity measurements have been conducted using two very common resistivity electrode configurations for the purpose of determining the extent to which each of the electrode arrays could elicit anisotropy information from the subsurface. Apparent resistivity sounding were conducted along four different azimuths about a common center to provide resistivity variation with azimuth. The apparent resistivities are plotted as function of azimuth in radial coordinates to produce polygons of anisotropy for each depth of investigation. On the polar diagrams, anisotropy manifests as variation from near circular to elliptic shapes with ellipses with high eccentricity depicting high anisotropy.



      Manmeet Kaur Virdi

Abstract: Fingerprint Recognition refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify individuals and verify their identity. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. Fingerprint recognition algorithm extract’s primarily uniqueness of the images obtained from the fingerprint. Fingerprint Recognition is a widely popular but a complex pattern recognition problem. Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method which has been successfully used in numerous applications.



      Ravindra P Rajput, M. N Shanmukha Swamy

Abstract: With the future 1 nm Hybrid CMOS technology, we proposed the Future Generation Ultra Supercomputing 256 × 256 Bits Multiplier for Signed-Unsigned Number. The Hybrid CMOS consists of the CMOS and Complimentary Pass Transistor Logic (CPTL). With the 1 nm future technology the various parameters predicted are the critical path delay of 0.1 ns (10 GHz), chip area of 136.23 𝛍m2 and the power dissipation of 1171.4 𝛍W.



      Sushil Palande, Surekha Gangurde, Akshay Pote

Abstract: This paper is about creating a reliable system that takes over the task of identifying free slots in a parking area and keeping the record of vehicles parked very accurately. This project lessens the human effort at the parking area to great extent such as in case of searching of free slot by the driver and calculating payment for each vehicle using the parking area. This system employs ATmega 644 as its heart which comes under AVR family of microcontrollers. The various steps involved in this operation are vehicle identification, free slot detection and payment calculation. Vehicle identification is carried out using RFID and here it is suggested that each vehicle to have unique identity. Free slot detection is carried out using display. Payment calculation is done on the basis of period of parking and this is done with the help of real time clock (RTC). For the system to be more reliable, RTC is powered from a separate dc source.



      Sameer Hayikader, Mohd. Toriq Khan bin Mohamad Niyaz Khan, Abdulrahman Dahlan

Abstract: Using big data in a university is ‘the thing’ today since almost all information today is digitalized. Big data ensures better data processing, analysis and sharing, thus increasing productivity and researchers would have a great time doing their researches. A smart university is a university which uses technologies which could increase the productivity of knowledge management. Changing into a smart university is definitely a smart move because it is important to be competitive in a world full of formidable competitors. Research has proven that smart universities such as Caltech University and Northwestern University which are among the top universities in the world has also endeavored into the big data arena.



      Pei-Yew Lai, Jee-Sin Lee, Yu-Xiang Lim, Ray-Gin Yeoh and Farhana Hanim Mohsin

Abstract: In order to motivate employees to be more engaged at work, there is a need to further examine the work variables that enable such. This study is carried out to identify the factors that affect employee engagement; that is the relationship between training and development and co-workers support towards employee engagement. Data were collected through printed and online questionnaire and distributed to 400 respondents among hotel employees. Data were then analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program to conduct descriptive analysis, reliability test, Pearson Correlation and Multiple Linear Regression to interpret the collected data. The findings showed that co-workers support bring the most significant relationship towards employee engagement in hotel industry. This result is supported by previous studies and several suggested recommendation have also been discussed.



      Dr. R. Nagamani, Dr. B.V.S. Ram Prasad, Dr. P. Shakuntala and Dr. B. V. S. Apoorva

Abstract: The morphologic changes in the scalp which characterizes cutis vertics gyrata was first described by Robert1 in 1848 and McDowell2 and Cown3 in microcephalic idiots. In 1906 Judassohn4 called to the attention of dermatologists the condition was given the name as cutis vertics gyrata by Unna5. Fisher stated the belief that true cutis verticis gyrata occurs as a developmental anomaly, probably atavistic in type, representing a reversion to a lower form of life in which the muscles of the scalp could move at will. This is probably the type originally described as present in microcephalic idiots.



      Kashish Kukreja, Yugal Karamchandani, Niraj Khandelwal, Kajal Jewani

Abstract: In our project we have implemented an intrusion detection mechanism in NFS (Network File System). As NFS is a distributed file system and there is no pre-defined authentication mechanism in NFS, it inspired us to go ahead with this project. Intrusion detection can act as a layer of security as it distinguishes legitimate clients and intruders. In this project we have decided on certain parameters related to the client (for example -used id, password, number of mount requests etc.). These parameters are stored in a log file. Then these parameters are compared to parameter thresholds from the access control list file in order to detect anomalous behavior of the client. The basis for intrusion detection is a parameter named sum. Sum is the combination of all parameters. These parameters are scaled by a particular factor depending on their importance in determining the client’s behavior. If the value of sum for a particular client is greater than threshold then it is identified as a normal client and it is granted access but if the value of sum is less than zero then the client is identified as an intruder and it is sent to decoy.



      Kashish Kukreja, Yugal Karamchandani, Niraj Khandelwal, Kajal Jewani

Abstract: In our project we have implemented an intrusion detection mechanism in NFS (Network File System). As NFS is a distributed file system and there is no pre-defined authentication mechanism in NFS, it inspired us to go ahead with this project. Intrusion detection can act as a layer of security as it distinguishes legitimate clients and intruders. In this project we have decided on certain parameters related to the client (for example -used id, password, number of mount requests etc.). These parameters are stored in a log file. Then these parameters are compared to parameter thresholds from the access control list file in order to detect anomalous behavior of the client. The basis for intrusion detection is a parameter named sum. Sum is the combination of all parameters. These parameters are scaled by a particular factor depending on their importance in determining the client’s behavior. If the value of sum for a particular client is greater than threshold then it is identified as a normal client and it is granted access but if the value of sum is less than zero then the client is identified as an intruder and it is sent to decoy.



      Sada, A. M, Mohd, Z. A., and Adnan, A. and Audu, R

Abstract: Problem-based learning (PBL) has been accepted for instruction in many fields of study since it was first introduced in medical field during the 1960’s. However, this innovative teaching and learning approach is yet to be recognized in technical vocational education and training (TVET) teaching and learning in some countries. This paper discusses briefly the concept, effectiveness of PBL approach in teaching and learning in TVET. Based on the literature review, the paper concludes that, PBL is an essential tool for instructing learners in technical and vocational trades.



      Malik Abu Rafee, Prakash Kinjavdekar, Amarpal, H.P. Aithal

Abstract: Clinical anaesthetic trial was conducted in mixed breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy to observe the effect of dexmedetomidine and dexmedetomidine with butorphanol, as adjunct to midazolam and ketamine anaesthesia, on the clinico-physiological and haemodynamic stability in midazolam and ketamine anaesthesia. Atropine (0.04 mg kg-1) followed by dexmedetomidine (20µg kg-1) after 5 min IM were administered to each animal. Animals were randomised into groups D, DB of eight animals each. In group DB butorphanol (0.1mg kg -1) IM was also administered at the time of dexmedetomidine administration. After 10 min of premedication, anaesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.8 mg kg-1) IV, in all the groups and maintained with 1% ketamine as and when required. Excellent jaw tone relaxation, abolished palpebral reflex with no significant (P>0.05) difference between two groups was observed. Heart rate showed an initial increase followed by a decrease, while respiratory rate decreased below the baseline in all the groups. RT decreased significantly (P<0.05) below the baseline. SBP, DBP and MAP increased initially in all the groups and then decreased until 120 min interval. However, mean arterial pressure remained above the baseline throughout the observation period in all the groups. Addition of butorphanol did not have significant effects on the clinico-physiological and haemodynamic stability; however, it reduced the amount of ketamine required for maintenance and better sedation.



      D.Rama Krishna Sharma, DrP.VijayBhaskarRao

Abstract: The BSCF, Barium Strontium Cobalt Iron Titanate{Ba0.5Sr0.5 (CO0.8 Fe0.2)1-x TixO3-δ,}[Where δis the deficiency of oxygen & x is various compositions ], powders have been synthesized by sol-Gel process using nitrate based powdered chemicals for SOFC applications as these powders are more useful for Cathodes and anodes for SOFCs since these powders are considered to be more promising cathode materials for SOFC. Ionic conduction, Adsorption and desorption rates are the major processes that control the electrode reactions. They contribute to the over potential .To obtain the low potential cathode materials suitable for the electrolytes, SOL-GEL method is used and nano powders are prepared. The Chelating agent used is Acetic acid, Ethylene glycol & Ammonia as dispersant. These powders were kept for calcinations at 9000C for 16 hr and at 11000C for about 6 hr in crucibles of high alumina in furnace .These were characterized by XRD, SEM with EDAX, Densities, TGA and conductivities.XRD results proved the formation of Perovskite phase at all calcinations temperatures and the crystallite sizes were found to be 94.49nm, 103.9nm ,295.29 nm. From SEM, it is found that for some samples, there is presence of extreme porous particles present in nano sizes and conductivities, densities are studied



      Muhammad Mufakkar, Kalsoom Fatima, Huma Faheem, Shakeel Ahmad and Muhammad Hammad Khan

Abstract: Some drink manufacturers do not report how much Caffeine is present in their products. This work was done for the estimation of caffeine in ten different brands of energy drinks available in the market with the help of Ultra-Violet spectroscopy. These result showed that the concentration of Caffeine is much higher than in the different brands of soft drinks. The highest concentration of Caffeine was found in Power Horse (0.754955 mg/mL), so it is strongest CNS (central nervous system) stimulant among all other analyzed energy drinks. The lowest concentration of Caffeine among investigated energy drinks was Big Apple (0.100901 mg/mL). So it is the weakest stimulant among all samples.



      Showkat Ahmad Wani

Abstract: The worst feature of the Dogra rule was its communal outlook. It discriminated the Muslims on the basis of their religion and also interfered in their religious affairs. The Dogra State was actually a Hindu State and its rulers tried their best to broaden its Hindu nature, with the result Kashmiri Pandits as a co-religionists’ class found it easy to get associated with it and the Muslims were marginalised. Regarding the nature of the Dogra Government, P. N. Bazaz, declared in 1941: “Speaking generally and from the bourgeois point of view, the Dogra rule has been a Hindu Raj. Muslims have not been treated fairly, by which I mean as fairly as the Hindus.



      Shampa Sarkar

Abstract: Gaseous pollutants have now become an atmospheric component. The reason behind this is the presence of all gaseous pollutants like CO, O3, NO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere in varied levels. The rapid industrial and economic activities and the use of poor technologies in the developing countries cause discharge of these gases which lead to air pollution. The site of Jabalpur is residential in nature but the presences of these gaseous pollutants are noticeable. The study of the comparative presence of these gases in the three years 2012, 2013 and 2014 infers that CO concentration was higher in the year 2014 (0.35ppm), in the other hand O3 and NO2 concentration was greater in the year 2013 (55 ppb and 11.45 ppb) whereas the concentration of CH4 was higher in the year 2012 (2603ppb).



      Sreekala P, Arpita Dan, Elizabeth M Varghese

Abstract: The emergency department is the most critical area of any hospital. The time taken for each patient for triaging, consultation and referral can affect the disease outcome of the patient. The present study was undertaken to determine the average waiting period of patients visiting a tertiary level emergency department. The present study comprised 38 emergency admissions for duration of two weeks. A participatory observational method was used to collect data. The study revealed that the average total waiting period from entry till disposal was 2.46 Hours with a mean deviation of 1.26 hours. The key factors responsible for the delays are examination of patient, time taken for consultation, emergency investigations or imaging, unavailability of vehicles for transport, admission procedure etc.



      Osayuwamen Ogboghodo

Abstract: The investigation of the signal intensity and plasma temperature parameters involved with steel structures experiencing early stage rust are described. A simple laboratory set-up involving a ruby laser, mirror, focusing lens, collecting optics and a miniaturised spectrometer were used to conduct the experiments. The spectra from the first two shots on the rust steel sample correlates to that of the rust layers where Carbon (C) was the only sensitive element detected. However, the significant presence of C in subsequent shots could be as a result or a combination of: material alteration due to the rust layer, presence of the analyte line in both the layer and underlying bulk material; and residual rust particles still present in the crater or perimeter of the ablation region. Investigating the temperature parameter for both the rust layer and regular surface showed no significant distinction in the values.



      Cynthia Mito Mukopi, Dr. Amuhaya Mike Iravo

Abstract: The research project examined the effect of inventory management on performance of the procurement function of sugar manufacturing companies in the western sugar belt. The first objective established the significance of a lean inventory system on the performance of the procurement function of sugar manufacturing companies in the western sugar belt. The second objective found out how strategic supplier partnerships in inventory management affect the performance of the procurement function of sugar manufacturing companies in the western sugar belt. The third objective investigated the effect of information technology in inventory management on the performance of the procurement function of sugar manufacturing companies in the western sugar belt. The fourth objective examined the effect of the legal policies on inventory management in the sugar industry on the performance of the procurement function of sugar manufacturing companies in the western sugar belt.



      Laurine Muyuka Mukopi, Dr. Amuhaya Mike Iravo

Abstract: The study assessed the factors influencing the use of alternative methods of procurement in public hospitals in Vihiga County. Specific objectives guided the research. The first objective determined the influence of public procurement policies on the use of alternative methods of procurement in public hospitals in Vihiga County. The second objective found out how e-procurement affects the use of alternative methods of procurement in public hospitals in Vihiga County. The third objective established the effect of the staff skills on the use of alternative methods of procurement in public hospitals in Vihiga County. The fourth objective determined the effect of funding on the use of alternative methods of procurement in public hospitals in Vihiga County. The literature relating to the study was reviewed and a conceptual framework developed. Descriptive research design, specifically a survey study was employed in carrying out the research.



      A. Sakthi Saranya, G. Ravi

Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETS) consists of distinct devices that communicate with the help of infrastructure created instantly. When these devices are used in the areas like battlefield, emergency and rescue operations, the battery power must be efficiently used to prolong the life of each device as human intervention is not possible in such areas. There are number of ways that are used to reduce the power consumed by the nodes in the network. In this paper, the three effective methods that reduce the power to considerable extent are seen. The three methods are given as: by using variable transmission power, by using power aware routing protocol and the power management technique. These methods deal with different layers like physical, network and MAC layers respectively.



      Isaac Kosi, Ibrahim Sulemana, Janet Serwah Boateng, Robert Mensah

Abstract: The study investigated the influence of motivation and job satisfaction on teachers’ intention to quit teaching in public senior high schools in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaire from 203 teachers in selected schools in Tamale Metropolis. Cross-sectional survey design was used with questionnaire as the main data collection instrument using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Regression analysis and descriptive statistical analysis were employed in discussion of the data. The results revealed that job satisfaction made the most significant but negative contribution to intention to quit. Motivation made the least but significant contribution to intention to quit. It is recommended that training and development programmes as well as offering of more extrinsic motivation variables by all stakeholders in the education sector is required to retain more teachers in public schools.



      J P Mehta, Shreshthamani and V P Bhatt

Abstract: The present paper reports the regeneration potential and distribution pattern of natural forest in Taknaur Reserve Forest of Uttarkashi forest division of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. A total of 29 tree species were recorded from the area. Density and distribution of seedlings, saplings and trees were assessed along the gradient of altitude using the quadrat size 1x1m (for seedlings) 5x5m (for saplings) and 10x10m (for trees). The numbers of individuals, frequency were recorded and height of the species in the quadrat at 100m drops in altitude. Seedling densities varied markedly among the species and altitude. Lower elevation was dominated with Pinus roxburghii and Quercus leucotrichophora was found co-dominant species whereas, Buxus wallichiana and Quercus floribunda was dominant and Taxus baccata was co-dominant species in site two (1900-2500m asl). While upper elevations were dominated by Buxus wallichiana, Quercus floribunda and Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, respectively, for site 3rd and 4th . However, the highest (10000 ha-1) seedling density , was reported for Pinus roxburghii at site 1 followed by Cedrus deodara (9000 individuals ha-1 ) at site 2, Buxus wallichiana, Taxus buccata, Quercus floribunda Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara (4000 individual ha-1 of each species) at site 3 and 4, respectively. It is remarkable that economically and ecologically valued species Acer accuminatum, Ulmus wallichiana, Betula utilis Acer oblongum which are already in vulnerable in their status were found absent in seedling stage. These species were also reported as regularly distributed in tree and sapling stratum, which is very alarming for the conservation point of view. In tree layer the most of the species (65.16%) were distributed contagiously and remaing (34.84%) were distributed randomly.



      Singh Rajesh, Bahukhandi Kanchan, Mondal Prasanjeet, Singh Satendra

Abstract: The present project ‘Water Quality Assessment of river Ganga Health Hazard Identification and control’ includes tests for, pH value, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolve Solid, Hardness, Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Iron, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. Result was compared with drinking water standard prescribed by BIS 10500-2012 and all parameters satisfied the prescribed limit given in BIS standard for drinking water. Water Quality of river Ganga from Gangotri to Haridwar is found Pollution free. Spatial variation in river water quality is shown by Quality Contour Map by using Surfer Software 9.0 version. Maximum water quality deviation from mean value is observed at Haridwar which shows the adverse impact of Industrialization, Urbanisation and Rapid growth of population on the river water quality.



      Onifade, O. A, Ruth Adio-Moses, Ologele, I, Adigun, J. O, Ogungboye, R. O, Abikoye, A. I, Oguntunji, I. O

Abstract: The study examined awareness and consequences of human immune deficiency virus disease among undergraduate students of University of Ilorin. Four research hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level. The research design adopted for the study was survey type. Through simple random technique, five (5) departments were selected and a sampled size of four hundred and twenty was drawn from selected departments with the use of stratified sampling technique in the University of Ilorin, Kwara State. Data were collected with the use of researcher’s structured questionnaire already validated by the three experts in the field of Human Sexuality, Health Education and Sociology and tested with the use of test re-test reliability technique. A reliability coefficient of .75r was obtained. Demographic data collected were analyzed with the aid of frequency count and simple percentage while the postulated hypotheses were tested with the use of inferential statistics of Chi-square. The result of the study revealed that undergraduate students are significantly different in their awareness on causes, transmission routes, consequences and control of HIV/AIDS. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that undergraduate students should abstain from indiscriminate sex, it is also recommended that HIV/AIDS education should be carried out by professional concerned in the universities.



      Jignesh H. Trivedi, Wu Min, Young Huang and Harikrishna C. Trivedi

Abstract: An unreported photo-initiated graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto sodium salt of partially carboxymethylated psyllium (Na-PCMPSy, = 0.13) was studied using uranyl nitrate (UN) as a photo-initiator. The Optimal reaction conditions for affording maximum percentage of grafting were evaluated by successively varying various reaction parameters viz. concentrations of photo-initiator, nitric acid and monomer as well as reaction time, temperature and amount of substrate. At the optimum reaction conditions the maximum values of the grafting yields achieved were %G = 219.62 and %GE = 99.85. The influence of various reaction parameters on the grafting yields was studied. The reaction mechanism for photo-initiated synthesis of Na-PCMPSy-g-PAN was proposed. The photo-induced grafting copolymerization process was confirmed and the products were characterized by using FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques.



      Jignesh H. Trivedi, Wu Min, Young Huang and Harikrishna C. Trivedi

Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) grafted sodium salt of partially carboxymethylated psyllium (Na-PCMPSy-g-PAN, %G = 219.62 and %GE = 99.85) was prepared using the established optimized reaction conditions in the case of ultraviolet-radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto Na-PCMPSy ( = 0.13) using uranyl nitrate (UN) as a photo-initiator. The saponification of the graft copolymer, Na-PCMPSy-g-PAN (%G = 219.62), was then performed in 0.7N NaOH solution at 90-95oC to yield a superabsorbent hydrogel, H-Na-PCMPSy-g-PAN. The swelling behaviour of the hydrogel was studied by carrying out its absorbency measurements in low conductivity water, 0.15M salt (NaCl, CaCl2, AlCl3) solutions and simulated urine (SU) at different timings. The average salt sensitivity values of the superabsorbent hydrogel were also calculated and compared. The tendency of the absorbency for the hydrogel in salt solutions is found to be in the order Na+ > Ca2+ > Al3+ for NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3 aqueous salt solutions. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogel in different swelling media was found to obey second order kinetics. The values of the various swelling characteristics of the hydrogel were also reported. FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques were used to characterize the products.



      Tewelde Fisahaye Meles

Abstract: As economic environment is rapidly changing and customers are becoming more demanding and sophisticated, it has become important for financial institutions to determine the feature which are pertinent to the customers’ selection process. Though, there are still no conditions allowing foreign banks to enter into the financial sector, particularly in banking, in creating substantial competition, domestic banks in Ethiopia will strive to provide services to their customers. This makes customers to prefer one bank than another. Hence, this paper aims to assess a feature that influences customers in selecting their banks with specific reference to united bank Mekelle branch. A cross sectional survey data in the form of both qualitative and quantitative data was used in this study. For the purpose of the study primary data was collected through field survey from customer’s united bank through questionnaire consisting of both open and close ended questions. The study has identified feature such as pleasant and friendly bank staff, availability of ATM services, service quality and speed of the bank, number of branches and bank proximity as important bank selection criteria as perceived by customers. Thus banks should give proper consideration to those features to be preferable and survive in competitive markets.


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