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IJSRP, Volume 7, Issue 12, December 2017 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]

All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

December 2017 publication has started and publication will continue till 24th December 2017
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th December, their paper will publish in December edition latest by 24th December or before.
Online print version will release latest by 30th December. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th December and minor corrections are accepted till 26th December 2017.
If minor correction required, send email to and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Nurkolis Siri Kastawi

Abstract: This article aims to find out the relationship between the budget of education function and quality of education. The research approach is quantitative descriptive using statistical analysis with percentage and Pearson correlation. The data used are secondary data of education budget to describe the quality of the education quality measure with of teachers competency test results, the rate of literacy, and rate of school participation. The results show that there is no positive and significant relationship between the budget of education function and quality of education.

      Dr. Margaret W. Nyongesa, PhD, Prof. Rosebela O. Onyango, PhD * , Prof. James H. Ombaka, PhD.

Abstract: Quality is the ability to deliver services that satisfy the consumer’s needs whereas service quality is the ability to meet or exceed customer expectations, providing quality healthcare is an ethical obligation of all healthcare providers and receiving quality care is a right of all patients. Africa Countries including Kenya has witnessed general deterioration in health indicators due to rapid population growth, child nutrition problems, poverty, HIV/AIDS, acute respiratory infections, malaria, diarrhea, and poor quality health facilities and services. Nairobi city with high population and Kiambu a neighboring County, the Public and some Faith-based hospitals in these two counties experience shortage of drugs and medical supplies, unaffordable out-of-pocket costs for health services’ consumers, poor quality of care due to overcrowding of the patients, thus services provided are considered unsatisfactory.

      Paulini, Sudiarso, Budi Prasetya, Aminudin Afandhi

Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock sector are one of the large contributors of greenhouse gas. The objective of this research is to determine ammonia emissions at three broiler farmings in Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, emissions measurement was conducted at the top and bottom of the poultry house using NH3 sensor conducted in the morning, afternoon and evening. In addition, the measurement is also conducted to the climatic factor, i.e. air temperature, humidity and wind speed. An analysis of the sample of chicken manure is also conducted to determine N and crude protein contained in chicken manure and ration used by poultry farmers during the study. The result of this study reveals that a number of ammonia emissions of the three farming measured on the top of the poultry house is 20,55 ppm, 14,61 ppm and 15,85 ppm, while at the bottom is 18,81 ppm, 15,50 pm and 14,91 ppm. A lot of ammonium emissions of those three farming are influenced by the lack of waste management, crude protein in the ration is not well-digestible so the content of N in the chicken manure is still high and the factor of climatology and humidity surrounding.

      Danfulani Mohammed, Gele I. Haruna, Ma’aji M. Sadisu, Saidu A. Sule, Muhammad A. Musa

Abstract: Choanal atresia is a rare malformation in newborns and infants. It could be a life threatening condition in neonates. We present a 15 year old female with history of recurrent right sided nasal discharge since birth. With Computed Tomography (CT) and CT Choanography, she was diagnosed to have unilateral (right sided) membranous choanal atresia which was treated by simple puncture transnasally with post-op stenting.

      K.M. Bamunawita, J.M.D.Y. Jayawardena, W.J.B. Thissera, S.H. Meegahapola and V.N. Vithana

Abstract: Technology expansion has numerously contributed to marketing. The researchers built “ShopPal” to provide hassle-free shopping experiences to users. This is a mobile application displaying advertisements of individual shopping areas, not shopping malls. It also consists of billboards in shops that would display promotions in the shopping place based on age category of majority present in the area at a given time. A stored procedure was used to find preferences of given age categories. It is used to provide suggestions when consumers select product choices, when registering. Customized offers based on location, tracked using Global Positioning System (GPS), are sent to users. Customer connects to billboard via Bluetooth. Clustering is used to identify age category of majority of gathered customers and promotions are displayed accordingly. The system would be greatly beneficial to consumers and shop owners. “ShopPal” is an ideal location-based offer advertising system that gives consumers a hassle-free shopping experience.

      Huynh Thanh Toi, Nguyen Thị Hong Van

Abstract: Artemia were reared, under zero water exchange, on four different microalgae feeding regimes: standard ad libitum feeding (SF1), half of SF1 (SF1/2), one third of SF1 (SF1/3), and a quarter of SF1 (SF1/4). In additional treatments, for each of these feeding regimes nitrogen waste from Artemia in the cultures was converted into bacterial biomass by addition of carbohydrate to produce carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio 10. The objective was to investigate what the contribution of bacteria to the Artemia diet was at different degressive algae feeding rations. After 15 days of culture period, the results of survival and biomass production (WW g/L) indicated that stimulating bacterial growth increased survival and biomass production of Artemia in all feeding rations when compared to the corresponding control treatments with algae only. Particularly, manipulating the C/N ratio in the SF1/3 treatment induced the improvement of Artemia biomass production equal to that obtained in the treatment where Artemia were offered solely algae at SF1 ration. Moreover, the results of fatty acid assimilation and especially 15N accumulation in Artemia indicated that Artemia utilized relatively more bacteria for the treatments with the lowest algae supply. These findings open perspectives for using bacteria to substitute or supplement microalgae in Artemia biomass production.

      K.I.L Perera, B.C Weerasooriya, N.C Abeysundera, L.M.A.H.B Thennakoon, G Fernando

Abstract: There are many applications that are capable of making personal daily tasks convenient, but there is no application which includes the features of an intelligent alarm, Item tracker, Navigation, Health reminder. The application explained in the paper is an integration of all the features mentioned. The goal of this research is to play the role of an assistant, so called a Virtual Assistant capable to perform on its intelligence to make the daily chores convenient. “AssistME” application will be built on the technology of Bluetooth and Global Positioning System which enables the application to track the presence of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags attached to the personal belongings of the user.

      Jibril Lawal, Abubakar Usman Mohammed, Mansur Muhammad, Musa Murtala Abubakar

Abstract: The rapid increase in population in Nigeria has brought the need for a massive increase in agricultural produce to cater for the population. In view of this, traditional farming only during the annual rainy season cannot suffice to cultivate enough farm produce for the nation. Therefore, irrigation farming that allows farmers to plant crops throughout the year is now embraced across the country. However, lack of knowledge about the crops that can grow best in a particular land and the exact amount of water and fertilizer needed in the farm is leading to poor output. This study proposes intelligent irrigation software system to improve irrigation farming in Nigeria by acquiring and sharing information about crops requirements (soil, quantity of water and fertilizer) with farmers. With the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) and expert agricultural information, data is capture by the software, analyzed and shared with the selected farmers. The final output is generated and sends to the Farmer via Short Message Service (SMS) describing the accurate farmland size, suitable crops to plant, as well as the agrochemicals needed in the farmland.

      Gopal Krishan

Abstract: Breathing is simple inhaling and exhaling of air, which we all are doing 24 hours continuously. It is a process which goes on unconsciously. PEOPLE DON’T KNOW WHETHER THEY ARE BREATHING PROPERLY OR NOT. No one is breathing consciously. Our saints, sadhus & preachers practised this and got the knowledge of proper breathing, so they enhanced their ages and lived for hundreds of years.

      Panjiyar RK, Twayana RS, Laudari S, Gupta M, Dhungel S, Dubey L, Subramanyam G

Abstract: Heart failure is growing epidemic condition and nearly half of the patients have preserved ejection (EF>50%). We aim to observe the baseline clinical characteristics and factors affecting hospital stay and outcomes after 28 days of follow up. An observational study was conducted among 200 patients who presented clinical features of heart failure according to Framingham Criteria, with Left ventricular EF > 50%, in College of Medical Sciences in the Department of Cardiology over a period of June 2015 to January 2017.Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS 20.0 and descriptive and inferential analysis was performed.

      Mulugeta Tegegn, Akalu Dafisa

Abstract: Globally, agriculture takes center stage as the engine that can transform nations’ economies. Smallholder farmers, who produce the majority of agricultural products, face various challenges, including access to adequate information, services, and key value chains. ICT is believed to play a pivotal role in disseminating information and linking farmers with clients in the agricultural value chain. The latest information and training tool, which many famers already carry in their pockets, is the mobile phone. Information plays a vital role in agricultural development and production and their effective communication will help facilitate mutual understanding among farmers, agricultural scientist and extension workers. Increasing production is a major challenge facing present agriculture. Smallholder farmers which dominate the landscape of developing world need to improve farming through acquiring adequate knowledge and information. The objective of seminar is to review the potential of mobile phone usage by farmers for dissemination of agricultural information in Ethiopia. Main factors that influence the use of mobile phone as: high cost of available technologies, inadequate infrastructure and low ICT skills, poor and expensive connectivity, inappropriate ICT policies, language barriers, low bandwidth, inadequate and/or inappropriate credit facilities and systems. The ministry agriculture when designing strategies for effective and efficient use of mobile phone for disseminating agricultural information, they have to consider those identified factors of mobile phone usage.

      W.S.P. Coonghe, W.M.D.S. Dayananda, M.S.H. Livera, K.G. Bataduwa Arachchi and S.G.S. Fernando

Abstract: Addict on to new technologies lead the children away from educational activities. The main problem is that will mainly affect to child’s future because of the early childhood does not developed on correct way. Considering about this problem project development team implemented an educational base gaming application based on how to use technologies toward to better future by navigate children to educational activities and reducing time wasting for useless things through the modern technologies.

      Abeera Tariq, Ayesha Khawar, Fatima Amin

Abstract: Objectives: the aim of the study was to observe prevalence of hepatitis C, the effectiveness of sofosbuvir in treating hepatitis C, various signs and symptoms of hepatitis C and their prevention, plot between the risks & benefits ratio associated with the use of sofosbuvir.

      L. Jayatilake, C. Darshana, G. Indrajith, A. Madhuwantha and N. Ellepola

Abstract: Chat applications have become a powerful media that assist people to communicate in different languages with each other. There are lots of chat applications that are used different people in different languages but there are not such a chat application that has facilitate to communicate with sign languages. Sign languages are used by deaf and dump people to communicate among them but those Sign languages vary from nation to nation as American Sign Language, British Sign language, Japanese Sign language etc. The developed system has based on Sinhala Sign language. The system has included four main components as text messages are converted to sign messages, voice messages are converted to sign messages, sign messages are converted to text messages and sign messages are converted to voice messages. Google voice recognition API has used to develop speech character recognition for voice messages. The system has trained for the speech and text patterns by using some text parameters and Signs of Sinhala Sign language is displayed by emoji. Those emoji and signs that are included in this system will pave a new way for the normal people to be more close to hearing disable people and also hearing disable people to be more close to normal people.

      Fabiano Gibson Daud Thulu, Estiner Walusungu Katengeza, Malazi Mkandawire

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rainfall trend for El Niño seasons over Malawi and its impact on electricity and agricultural production from 1970 to 2016. Monthly and annual rainfall time series of over 45 year period to 15 meteorological weather stations across Malawi were constructed for all El Niño rainfall seasons. This study reveals a high variability of both monthly and seasonal El Niño rainfall seasons. From the selected rainfall stations, 34.7% had rainfall above normal in the south, 39.2% in the central and 52.6% in the north. Substantial rainfall was recorded in the months of December, January, February and March. 70.4% of the stations in the southern half Malawi showed decreasing November rainfall, while the northern half of the country had decreasing December rainfall for 63.7% of stations therein.

      Abeyrathna R.M.R.D., Amaratunga K.S.P.

Abstract: Chili, a potential cash crop in the world is considered as one of the most important spices due to its multiple uses and vital role in most of the cuisines. Traditional drying systems use direct sunlight or indirect heating sources and hence difficult to control the drying conditions. Convective drying systems use hot air and because of high temperature, volatile compounds tend to remove from the product leading to a quality reduction. Use of dehumidified air for drying has been suggested as one of the solutions as drying can be done at relatively lower temperatures while preserving the volatile compounds. In this study, a heat pump drying (HPD) system was designed, evaluated and then validated to be used as an alternate method of drying chili in the industry level. Weight and the bulk density of the evaluated sample were 8,000 kg and 98 kg/m3 respectively. The Specific Moisture Removal Rate (SMER) value of the evaluated HPD system was 1.027 kg/kWh. The moisture content of chili was reduced from 10.8% to 5.05% (wet basis) within three hours. The relative humidity of the dehumidified room was reduced to 8% from 55% and the temperature of the dehumidified room increased from 29°C to 41°C within three hours. Average water condensed rate was 5.2kg/h. Results suggested that the developed heat pump drying system has performed well serving its purpose and hence it can be concluded that the established closed cycle heat pump drying system can be effectively used to dry chili in industrial level.

      A. Nirojan, V.N.Vithana

Abstract: Mobile applications and services make things simpler fulfilling people daily needs. There is a lack of applications, which can be really useful for the professionals to improve their working capabilities. Though mobile phones are used by people living in rural areas, but there are hardly any relevant applications for them to improve their productivity. In this paper research team proposed one such mobile application “Smart Cultivation Partner”, which can be operated on their mobile phones. In Sri Lanka Farmers Faced many problems because they do not know such technical and technology skills. They cannot find the actual merchants, they do not know the actual prices, they do not know the suitable market for their sales, and also they cannot predicate the price of their cultivated products.

      Hayden B. Siegel

Abstract: By utilizing proper technique one can produce a harmonic tone equal to a minor third from the fingered note.

      Galal A Ali, Yousif Mohamed Osman

Abstract: The environmental characteristics of the roads and the behavior of the drivers are the most important performance factors of signalized intersections highway capacity manual provide factors that may not correspond to the nature of local traffic.

      Haris Ali Khan, Dr. Danish Ahmed Siddiqui

Abstract: This research study investigated the impact of rule of law and other macro-economic variables on the performance of the stock markets. The independent variables for the study are rule of law, real interest rate, consumer price index inflation, gross capital formation, gdp per capita and trade. In the study, some of the advanced and emerging countries are selected. The data is examined annually from 2005 to 2015 in panel form. The measuring variable for the study which correlates the performance of stock markets with the economy is stock market return. To estimate the relationship Pearson correlation, regression analysis and descriptive statistics tests have been used. Regression analysis is performed in two models, one with rule of law and one without it. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between real interest rate and the stock market return and a significant relationship between the stock market return and the inflation rate is also observed, this shows that whenever there is an increase in inflation and interest rates of an economy that will inevitably lead to the increase in the stock market performance of that economy. Rule of law makes an expressive impact on the research, a significance between rule of law and stock market return is seen which means that whenever the law and order is implemented the stock market performance tends to be increased. On the other hand, GDP, gross capital formation and trade shows insignificance with the stock market return. Most of the results are supporting the theories and literature.

      Sumaiya.M, Anchana Devi .C & Leela K

Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface-active substances produced by microorganisms. They are amphiphiles and consist of a polar (hydrophilic) and non polar (hydrophobic) group. Due to their amphiphilic structure biosurfactants tend to increase the surface area of hydrophobic water-insoluble substances and this makes surfactant an excellent emulsifier, foaming and dispersing agents. They are environmental friendly, biodegradable, less toxic and non-hazardous. Because of their potential advantages, biosurfactants are widely used in many pharmaceutical and industrial applications.

      G.Nirmala, M.Sheela

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of fuzzy in-dominating set ,fuzzy out-dominating set ,fuzzy characteristic function of fuzzy digraph .The theorems based on fuzzy kernel ,fuzzy absorbant ,fuzzy characteristic function are proved.

      Suman Kunwar

Abstract: The interest in digital image processing is growing at an enormous place in last decades. As a result, different data compression techniques has been proposed which are concerned in minimization of the information used for representation of image.

      Edward Kwaku Armah, Emmanuel Kweinor Tetteh, Bright Boafo Boamah

Abstract: Renewable energy could replace the conventional sources of energy such as fossil fuel and oil, serving as an alternative source of energy. Non-renewable energy sources have been found to pose various environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions as they tend to deplete at faster rates. Biological processes such as fermentation and anaerobic digestion for the past decades have given rise to the production of biofuels such as biogas and bioethanol. Biogas production is environmentally friendly and simple to produce although some drawbacks have limited its full exploitation in the past decades such as the physical and chemical treatment techniques required in the process.

      Eshetu kibret , Alem Amsalu, Aschale Tadege , Gebeyaw Teshager, Molla Bekalu

Abstract: Persistent high dropout rates of secondary school students generate huge social and private costs. Thus, this study was intended to identify the status and causes of secondary school students’ dropouts in East Gojjam administrative zone. To achieve this objective descriptive survey research design with mixed approach was employed. From 18 woredas of the zone, six woredas were purposively selected to conduct the study. From these six woredas, six secondary schools were selected using simple random sampling techniques. 175 teachers were selected through systematic random sampling technique to fill questionnaire and 168 of them were properly filled and returned the questionnaires.

      Anshul Sarin, Aatish Goel, Tushar Sharma, Abhishek Misra, Shivam Tyagi

Abstract: This paper presents our research to utilize the otherwise waste heat of a domestic refrigerator. Through this investigation we want to suggest a method to improve the efficiency of the current system.

      Alejandro G. Pineda-Martínez, Israel Hernández-Medrano, Guillermo Tapia-Tinoco, David Granados- Lieberman, Francisco J. Ortega-Herrera

Abstract: In this work the implementation of a real-time emulator operating under the principle of Power Hardware in the Loop (PHIL) is presented. The system developed is a great tool for the study of electrical anomalies such as harmonics in smart grids. The general structure of the emulator, control scheme, sensors, instrumentation and amplification stages are described, which provides flexibility in terms of power ranges, topologies and control techniques. The algorithms of control and execution of the simulation models in real time are implemented in the platform dSPACE DS1103. The results of the real-time emulation with purely sinusoidal voltages and with harmonic content are presented, which show excellent performance and versatility to analyze study cases with diverse loads; besides, smart grids with different topologies and non-linear loads.

      Ossama Fazal, Sonia Kanwal

Abstract: The study intellectualizes to define the aspects that has impact on the brand loyalty of mobile phones brand in market of Asia. A Questionnaire has been designed in a layout of 7 point Likert scale for the purpose of data collection. Respondents varied between strongly agree and strongly disagree. Sample size of the study has been taken upto 250 respondents including customers having mobile phones of different brands using more than past 2 to 3 years in market of Pakistan. The study investigated that the customers are loyal to their brand attitudinally plus behaviorally. Brand loyalty is positively affected by the Brand trust of customers. Further it has been found that the satisfied customers are the loyal ones. In Pakistan customer preferred the price comparison among brand which influence their loyalty with their brand.

      Nur Laily , Dewi Urip Wahyuni

Abstract: The biggest responsibility of current teachers in this globalization era is to increase their knowledge so that they could give high contribution to better students’ characters. One of the best ways is to really comprehend rigidly the curriculum goals for preferable and optimum classroom settings.

      Nurul Aini, Soegeng Sutejo, Basuki

Abstract: This study aims to identify the role of corporate social responsibility in mediating the effects of foreign operation on tax aggressiveness. The sample used in this study was taken from Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2012-2016 period based on predetermined criteria set by the writer. The number of final samples was 33 corporations or 165 firm years. The analysis using Warp PLS 6 finds that CSR significantly mediates the effects of foreign operation on tax aggressiveness. Corporations with high foreign operation tends to have low CSR and low tax aggressiveness, meaning that these corporations are not performing tax aggressiveness.

      Ohnmar Zaw, Nang Su Le, Mya Thwin

Abstract: This paper deals with the strengthening of deteriorated reinforced concrete building by externally bonded carbon fiber composites. Four storied reinforced concrete residential building is selected for case study. It was constructed in 1992 and various deterioration symptoms are found. Static and dynamic analyses are performed by E-Tabs software using the various strength of members obtained from rebound hammer technique. The overstressed members are strengthened by externally bonded carbon fiber sheet. Experimental work for compression test on concrete cylinders externally bonded by carbon fiber sheets is performed. Compressive strength increment depends on the number of composite layers and percentage of wrap on concrete specimens. The required areas and thickness of carbon fiber wrapped sheet for the members are calculated by using Sika Carbodur FRP analysis software. For flexural strengthening, the maximum area required is 92 mm2, for shear strengthening and confinement the maximum thickness of FRP required are 0.35 mm and 0.18 mm respectively.

      Heshani Maheshika & Rev. Pinnawala Sangasumana

Abstract: Landslide is a geophysical event that has become one of the most calamitous natural hazards in Sri Lanka. Approximately, over 50000 people have been directly affected by landslide during the last five years and thousands of people are living at risk situation today particularly in the Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Galle, Matara, Kandy, Kaluthara districts. Since many unexpected adversities are emerged during and after the landslides, it is very important to have a proper mechanism of post disaster management in order to address the resettlement and rehabilitation phases.

      Leonardo Bastos Moraes, Maria Viviane Gomes Muller, Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

Abstract: Since polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be obtained by utilizing organic waste as a substrate, they form one of the most suitable classes of organic acids with many applications, ranging from medical supplies to energy and biorefinery products. In total, PHAs are found in at least in 150 different molecular forms, with the basic differences determined by the length of the carbon skeleton (4 to 14 C-bonds) and the radicals, which are formed by many organic groups. These characteristics make up their unique physicochemical properties, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Many new approaches are now being developed to obtain PHAs and modify these molecules into new green chemicals as well as renewable alternatives for petroleum and other non-sustainable compounds. This mini review gives insight into the genetic characteristics of PHA synthases, the most important enzyme group related to this compound. This review addresses chemical techniques to modify PHAs to obtain compounds with a high market value. Therefore, this work shows new applications and possibilities for PHA, such as drug-delivery systems, building block chemicals, new polymeric structures for tissue scaffolds and certain energetic compounds, such as n-butanol..

      Charmon Mohammed, Amanda Carrington, Carol-Anne Stephens, Karen Pierre

Abstract: The Inaugural Caribbean Cancer Survivorship Conference held on October 21-22, 2016 provided a forum to discuss strategies and solutions to reduce the burden of cancer on both the patient and their communities. The event was structured around seven short presentations delivered by experts from the Caribbean and internationally, testimonials from cancer survivors, and question and answer sessions to encourage the audience to interact with the presenters, as well as a conference evaluation questionnaire.

      Qurratulain Munawar, Ramsha Zafar, Mariam Zaka

Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this activity were to study causes, prevalence and management of hypovitaminosis D and its extent in males and females.

      Sajid Hussain Raza

Abstract: Artificial Intelligence has the ability to represent the Highly-Autonomous Artificial Intelligence system that must be designed in such a way to return reactions and achievements which guarantee to align much similar to human values throughout their actions. In this paper, Alignment-based CPM is presented. The CPM does not impose restrictions on the process notation.

      M.Noor Alam, Sajid Hussain Raza

Abstract: Automated and having self-thinking sense of the machines are now become the focus point to the engineers as well as to the computer scientists. AI has the core development procedure for the automated machines which just not only thinks like a human being but can do the task more accurately through environment retrieving methods. The system is developed for the ease that the robot cleaner will sense to the dust by the sensor used e.g. sonar so that I’ll clean the dusty area, during the cleaning process if the battery of the machine gets down then it will go to its charging station by itself and let it be charged after the charging process I’ll get to work again so that in this way machine can work all the time. Data will be collected and stored to the system whether of the most dusty areas of the house and as well as about the low areas so that in next wave the machine will go and check the most dusty area first and then to the other areas. AIDL(Artificial Intelligence Description Language) is used for this problem solving technique, moreover the system based on AI and therefor as the system learn more from the environment the more the system will be able to improve its abilities to do the proposed work.

      Abhishek Bajpai, R.S. Goswami, Aayush Goswami, Shrikant Garde, Preeti Phadnis

Abstract: Ef-Chlor is a product manufactured by Hind Pharma containing Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) as its major component, which is an effective compound used for water purification, disinfection and sterilization. Ef-Chlor ensures maximum protection against a wide range of disease-causing pathogens. This paper provides information on different areas where Ef-Chlor tablets containing NaDCC can act in an effective manner and could substitute the old methods, formulations and compounds still used for purifying water. This paper summarizes the effectiveness of NaDCC (major component of Ef-Chlor) over of all other traditional formulations with emphasize on its good antimicrobial activity, more safety, better stability, long shelf life, prolonged protection and affordability.

      María de la Luz Pérez-Arredondo, Ricardo González-Barbosa, Juan Antonio Ramírez-Vázquez, Jóse J. N. Segoviano-Garfias

Abstract: The mimicking of natural processes and the development of alternative methods to obtain clean fuels such as H2, have been of great interest in recent years. In nature, the hydrogenase enzymes at some bacteria and algae are responsible of the fermentation and biophotolysis processes.

      Manlian Ronald A. Simanjuntak, Cucun Sunarsih

Abstract: Indonesian construction industry currently does not have a regulation concerning the applicable contract standard. But in practice, some of construction contracts used either refers to presidential decree (Perpres No 54/2010) and its amendmnets on procurement of government goods/services or international contract standards such as FIDIC, JCT etc. Case study in this research was conducted at an oil and gas company called PT X. It is one of the joint venture company whose majority shares are owned by one of the biggest Indonesian state-owned entreprises. PT X uses technical guidelines called Juknis as guidance in the procurement contract of good/services in which some of regulations used as reference are FIDIC and Perpres No 54/2010. Once construction contract is created and signed by employer and contractor, the important thing that must be conducted by both parties is to carry out contract administration. Some cases occurred in PT X were due to undisciplined of contract administration implementation, even though the construction contract had been well prepared. In the past ten years, the company has been experiencing dispute with several contractors which requires assistances of either court or dispute adjudication board. Besides such disputes result in substantial material losses to the company.

      Krishna Mochtar, Manlian Ronald. A. Simanjuntak, Yulius Adhi Wibowo

Abstract: Regulations in Indonesia requires foreign companies to have local partner in a joint operation if they want to enter Indonesia contruction industries. This study will examine company ”X”, who frequently get join operation project offers from foreign companies. Within that joint operation, beside many advantages, there are also some risks to manage. Risks in a joint operation project will be more complex than projects in general, because it involve two or more companies with different culture. The purpose of this study is to indentify important risk factors in joint operations project by company ”X”. The instruments of this study consist of primary data (interview and questionaire) and secondary data (books and journals of relevant studies). The datas gathered then analyzed using risk analysis method with Risk Significance and Relative Importance Index as to obtain the risk variables with significant influence on these three porjects in this study. Based on the study, it is found that the important risk variables in a joint operation projects with foreign companies by company ”X” are distrust between employees of each company (X9) and language limitations (X30). Therefore, it is recommended to set a minimum standard of language skills (especially English) for the staff who will assigned in the joint operation project with foreign company also to provide language skills training and it is recommended that the directors from each parent’s company could ensure staff commitment, coordination, and trust by enhancing communication quality and a conflict resolution technique. Carefully selecting a staff for joint operation proyek and employing unbiased and experienced staff are effective measures to remove the distrust within the staff

      Biplob Ozah, Niharika Sharma, Like Geiyi , Tana John Tara

Abstract: Nutritional status or nutritional health status refers to the state of health of an individual as it is affected by the intake and utilization of nutrients. The main purpose of this nutritional assessment was to find out the facts about nutrition and health status of Nyishi adults of Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The various parameters that were selected to assess nutritional health were socio-economic status, dietary habit and anthropometric parameters which were implemented with the help of food and health frequency questionnaire and other anthropometric tools. The study also showed that education, occupation as well as family pattern directly affects the food budgeting of the people that ultimately shades impact on health. The anthropometric measurement was done among 100 adults of both sex of the rural and urban area and BMI were calculated. Results showed prevalence of 14% chronic energy deficiency in rural adults whereas it was only 4% in urban. Likewise, 60% people were found to be as normal in rural against 52% in the urban. On the other hand, 14% rural adult found to be normal (optimal) and 26% adult found to be in prehypertension (normal) against 8% urban adult found to be normal (optimal) and 24% adult found to be in prehypertension (normal) condition. So, it may be concluded that the results of the epidemiological study with basic comparison of socio-economic, dietary and anthropometric parameters of the adult of same tribe of different conditions with a hope to have further exploration of this topic using other parameters and different age group.

      Samson Guantai Raiji

Abstract: Television content is engineered primarily for these roles in society; information, agenda setting, entertainment and education among others. While people consume this content there are other effects that are reached consciously or otherwise. These effects are studied under theories and scholarly debates popularly known as media effects. Most media effects theorists point out that these effects will mostly affect children negatively as they do not have a well developed capacity to guard against harmful content. It is for this reason that media policies are put in place; to safeguard or protect children against any harmful content on television.

      Abdelmajid Moh. Ali Alhwije

Abstract: All organizations, staffs, foundations and universities in this age depend completely on information and data to convoy the technical and scientifically development, and as its known today that this age we live in is called or known as the age of information or the age of technology , and we can say that having a greater amount of information means having control over several fields and the development of information systems has already done a huge qualitative leap in the field of information technology

      Manlian Ronald. A. Simanjuntak, Fitri Maulidya

Abstract: Observing the portrait of South Jakarta and Tangerang City environmental conditions is very solid, it is necessary infrastructure that can anticipate the risks that occur every day. One solution is to provide infrastructure for the public interest, in this case the construction of roads for public transport, which is expected to reduce and break down the congestion that occurred. Therefore, it is necessary to study Risk Management in preventing and mitigating the impact of the risk of fly over Non-Toll Ciledug-Tendean-Indonesia.

      Gayathri Rathnayake, Usha Hettiaratchi, Rasika perera

Abstract: Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Usage of measures of obesity including anthropometric parameters and body fat percentage assessment, in general practice is scarce in some counties except for body mass index.

      Nifal M.N.M, Logine.T, Sopitha.S, Kiruthika.P

Abstract: A code based analysis of the user’s performance in selection tasks using a space mouse in comparison with a standard device is presented in this paper. A new contact free gesture based human interaction with declared point to point accuracy has been used in space mouse. Systematic evaluation of this new system as not been done prior to this point. Accurate tacking of hand fingers, and the track movement was proved testing, accuracy is last when the hand moves in to a position obstructing the controller’s ability to view.

      Lusiana Idawati, Manlian Ronald A. Simanjuntak, Lukman Afif

Abstract: As a growing metropolitan city, Jakarta has to provide for the growing needs of its inhabitants for facilities and city infrastructures. Facing the fact that land for new constructions is limited, the construction of high-rise buildings becomes one of the most possible alternatives. However, the construction of high-rise buildings is more complicated compared to low-rise buildings in general. Considering the complexities and the impact of the construction to its environment, most high-rise building owners prefer to utilize the service of a construction management consultant to ensure the performance of the construction project, as measured in time, cost, or design specification.

      R.M.B.N. Siripala, M. Nirosha, P.A.D.A. Jayaweera, N.D.A.S. Dananjaya, Ms. S.G.S. Fernando

Abstract: It is a universally accepted truth that raising a child is an extremely responsible task. One of the major problems faced by parents/guardians nowadays is monitoring their children while they are away at work. To monitor them constantly, there should be a system that can be easily handled, user friendly and smart in accordance with the rapid advancements in technology. Though the applications of Internet of Things (IoT) are diverse, this system is based on IoT which will be implemented by using Raspberry pi technology.

      Melisa Garcia, Toni DiDona, Ivan Santos, Yaris Gonzalez and Waleska Garcia

Abstract: Organizations throughout the world are faced with understanding the importance of having a culturally diverse workforce. Research on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) may hold the key to cultivating the next generation of proactive and involved workers, yet the literature on the cultural components of OCB is lacking. This potential inspired the purpose of this study, to add to the literature of cross-cultural differences as it relates to the display of OCB. Participants were recruited through a convenient snowball sampling method and limited to employed individuals 18 years or older.

      Rojali Rokhman H, Hermanto Siregar, Tubagus Nur Ahmad Maulana

Abstract: This study aims to analyze the influences of three factors: (1) interest rate of KUR Micro loan, (2) interest rate of Non KUR loan and (3) proportional migration of outstanding and borrower bank XYZ, on migration of non KUR loan. Analytical method used is multiple linear regression. The results of the study showed that all the three independent variables have significant negative effect on migration both of outstanding and borrower. The effect of Non KUR loan interest rate on migration differ from the hypothesis. This can be explained because of the difference in the maximum amount of loan that can be borrowed. Non KUR loan product is a credit granting service with the amount of loan up to 200 million, whereby the KUR Micro loan plafond is only up to 25 million. Therefore, it is expected that if there is an increase in interest rate of Non KUR loan will not cause migration.

      Adam Adoma Abdalla

Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the impact of the funds offered by the Microfinance institution in Sudan and administrated jointly between the Sudanese Agricultural Bank (ABSUM) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) on the development of rural women in Dindir locality in Sinnar state. Specific objectives were set to identify the socioeconomics characteristics of the beneficiaries (loan receivers), assess the effect of microfinance on increasing the cultivated land and animal holding, assess the effect of microfinance on improving the productivities, identify the benefits generated by the microfinance on crop production, identify the benefits generated by the microfinance on the livestock production, determine the types of most effective loans offered by microfinance, assess the overall revenue of microfinance compared to revenue prior to microfinance, and to assess the effect of microfinance on the life of the beneficiaries.

      Prof. Priya U. Thakare, Kote Shubham, Pawale Ankit, Rajguru Ajinkya, Shelke Om

Abstract: Physical movement is one of the biggest challenges for the visually impaired. People with complete blindness or low vision often have a difficult time in self-navigating unfamiliar environments. Traveling or simply walking down a crowded street may pose great difficulty. So, many people with low vision tend to bring a sighted friend or family member for assistance. It also becomes difficult for them to keep a track of their routine environments .This system proposes conglomeration of technologies like Image processing, Speech processing etc, so the problems faced by blind people can be reduced to certain extent. Object recognition methods in computer vision , Image processing, Text to Speech conversion can be embedded in a single object : SMART GLASSES (spectacles) .

      K A B Wicaksana, N W Yuniasih, and L N C Handayani

Abstract: This research aims to explore the relation between company’s board diversity and earning management in Indonesian Listed Companies. As independent variable, board diversity measured by index of variation of the diversity of gender, nationality, age, and educational background. While as dependent variable, earning management measured by discretionary accruals. This research also used company’s size and type of industry as controlling variable. Data collected from Indonesian Stocks Exchange (IDX) for the past 6 years using purposive sampling method producing 298 observations, then analyzed using multiple linear regressions. The result of the research shows that board diversity have negative effect on earning management, means the higher board diversity, the lower earning management. Other finding suggested that both industrial type and company’s size does not affect earning management. Therefore it is hope that this result can be used as a consideration to maximize the company good corporate governance practice.

      Muhammad Mushtaque Kumbhar, Syed Shahzad Ali, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Irum Kumbhar and Reema Veesar

Abstract: The study was carried out at pulse section of Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Tandojam. Chickpea crop is significantly important and rich in protein considered as major pulse crop in Pakistan and its surrounding and is attacked by number of insect pests, especially pod borer. The results declared that the control plot showed maximum population of Helicoverpa armigera throughout the study period. Whereas, after spraying novel pesticide (Radiant) at 100 ml/acre, results were maximum found as (0.75, 0.70, 0.80/plant) after 24 hours, (0.86, 0.80, 0.91/plant) after 48 hours, (0.91, 0.97, 0.94/plant) after 72 hours, (1.03, 1.08, 1.14/plant) after one week and (1.41, 1.68, 1.98/plant) after two weeks. Whereas, after the spraying of (Belt) at 50 ml/acre results (0.75, 0.80, 0.75/plant) after 24 hours, (0.80, 0.75, 0.91/plant) after 48 hours, (0.86, 0.91, 0.96/plant) after 72 hours, (1.01, 1.10, 1.05/plant) after one week and (1.41, 1.71, 1.98/plant) after two weeks were depicted. The result further revealed that (0.75, 0.70, 0.75/plant) after 24 hours, (0.86, 0.80, 0.86/plant) after 48 hours, (0.96, 1.01, 0.89/plant) after 72 hours, (0.98, 1.17, 1.10/plant) after one week and (1.42, 1.68, 1.98/plant) after two weeks after the application of (Steward) at 90 ml/acre. In conclusion our study resulted that Radiant pesticide showed maximum effects on the population reduction of H. armigera in Chickpea crop followed by Belt and Steward, respectively.

      Amine, J.D.; Injor, O.M. Okosu, O.M. and Orok, S.A.

Abstract: University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria was mapped into eight noise zones using Google Earth zoomed to 50 meters above each of the locations and marked 001 - 008. At each of the locations, the noise level was recorded for 60 minutes at 5-6am, 1-2pm, and 7-8pm using a Calibrated B & K 2230 or Rion NL-11 Integrating Precision Sound Level Meters, and the experiment was repeated for fourteen days. The data generated was complied, the mean, mode, and standard deviation was calculated using SPSS version 17. Results showed that the University of Agriculture Makurdi has a mean of ±85 the noise level at convocation square and junior staff quarters was the highest at 90db, and the lowest of 52db at academic block B. Comparing with the standard noise level required for educational institution, University of Agriculture Makurdi requires immediate intervention to reduce the noise level to the acceptable limits for educational institutions.

      Maria Khaliq, Amber Abid, Dr. Mariam Zaka, Dr. Munazza Ryaz

Abstract: Background: caesarian section also termed as C-section may be associated with surgical site infection or in severe cases with systemic infections. Because of problem associated with C-section most of the people prefer natural vaginal birth. Ethical practice to perform C-Section involve consent of patient to perform C-section, providing information on benefits and risk associated with C-section.

      K. G. Hapugoda, T. G. Maddage, S. C. R. Ravichandran, O. V. D. Gavindu Saranga

Abstract: Retailers in supermarkets lacks sufficient information at their fingertips when they are in need of determining the placement of products, designing promotion strategies and hence improving the profit of the supermarket and customer satisfaction. This study presents a web based system and an android application required by retailers to make their decision making process more feasible. A set of data items were obtained from a local supermarket and are mined from association rule mining method using Apriori algorithm in order to generate association rules. The system will predict the optimal price of a product using linear regression algorithm, when to host the next product promotion and which product should be promoted. The goal of this research was to design and implement a web based application to view required information on sales predictions and promotion dates in order to make the decision making process effortless for the retailers in supermarkets. A prototype application is designed and implemented using open source tools and technologies.

      A. Ogunsesin and E. A. Aiyelari

Abstract: In order to study the effects of swine manure with Terminalia catappa leaves compost and NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer on growth and yield of pepper, an experiment was conducted in the Screenhouse of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan in 2010. Five treatments: control (without fertilizer), 13.0, 16.3, 19.6 t/ha swine manure + almond leaves (SA) compost and 0.3 t/ha NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer were each mixed with 5 kg soil in experimental pots. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. Data were taken on fruit yield (FY), number of fruits (NF), plant height (PH), stem girth (SG), number of branches (NB) and number of leaves (NL) of pepper. Shoot dry matter (SDM) and nutrient uptake (NU) of pepper were determined at 18 weeks after transplanting (WAT). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α0.05.

      Ana Abigail Márquez-Vargas, María de la Luz Pérez-Arredondo, Juan Antonio Ramírez Vázquez and José J. N. Segoviano-Garfias

Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate metabolism, metformin is a drug widely used in the treatment of this disease. However, its mechanism of action has not been know yet, although several theories have been proposed to explain its hypoglycemic activity. A recent theory suggests a relationship between metformin and mitochondrial copper. On the other hand, glucose is the most abundant carbohydrate working as energy source; this carbohydrate has an important role in Diabetes Mellitus. In the present research work is reported a UV-VIS study with the purpose of analyzing the in vitro interaction between the ionic copper, metformin and glucose or mannose. The formation constant of ternary complexes of copper with metformin and glucose or mannose and its calculated electronic spectrum of each species in methanol solution, are reported. Hopefully, this information can be used in order to predict some of the possible interactions in vivo.

      E. K. Tetteh, K. O. Ansah Amano, D. Asante-Sackey & E. K. Armah

Abstract: There is an increasing global demand for energy crops and animal manures for an eco-friendly and renewable energy to supplement fossil fuel, aid in heat and electricity production. In order to meet this demand, this study aimed at optimizing the anaerobic digestion of Miscanthus Fuscus for biogas production at mesophilic temperatures in a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. Methane production was measured for 20 days in a 500mL schott bottles in a batch mode and controlled at 37 ± 1°C. Miscanthus Fuscus was characterized in the batch reactor to enable the inoculum activity and the biogas volume reported during the 20 days. The cumulative volume of biogas (L/day) for the five biodigesters labelled as sample IDs 1-5 is reported as 0.67, 1.16, 1.01, 0.57, and 1.17 L/day respectively. Highest methane yield was reported on the 16th day of the BMP test at 27% v/v of biogas produced.

      Samson Shimelse, Tamrat Bekele, Sileshi Nemomissa

Abstract: Converting degraded free grazing lands into exclosures is one option to promote natural regeneration of plants and to restore degraded ecosystems in Ethiopia. The present study was initiated with the objective of assessing the determinants that affect the sustainability of exclosure establishment and management practices at the household level. A total of 180 households were systematically selected and a structured questionnaire was provided to these households to collect their perception. Ten in-depth interviews with key informants 9 FGDs were also carried out. Determinants of farmers’ sustainability of exclosure establishment and management practices were assessed.

      Anshul Garg and Rachna Jain

Abstract: Cloud computing is an emerging and promising technique for allowing users to handle and access data from remote locations. However, with the technology getting matured, the users’ privacy and the security of user’s statistical information is progressively challenged. The traditional centralized access control scheme uses a symmetric key approach and does not support validation. We aim to illustrate the vital issues of identity revocation in this paper. Here we introduce the concept of an instance of outsourcing computation into Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) which trails to a revocable IBE scheme in the server-aided0 setting. Most of the key generation related operations during key-update and key-issuing processes are removed with this scheme, leaving only an invariant number of elementary operations for Public Key Generation (PKG).

      Moranga Getii Kevin, Dr. Job Omagwa

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of debtors management on the financial performance of selected microfinance institutions (MFIs) at Nairobi County in Kenya. The independent variables for debtors management were: debt collection policy, internal control systems, client appraisal and legal framework. On the other hand, the dependent variable was financial performance of selected MFIs at Nairobi County in Kenya. Primary data was collected by the aid of self administered questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were determined. The nine licensed MFIs in Nairobi City, Kenya by the CBK as at 31st December 2014 were the target population of the Study. In each of the 9 MFIs, four individuals were purposively selected to participate in the study as respondents; these were the Branch Manager, Credit Officer, Debt Recovery Officer, and Finance Officer and hence the sample size was 36 Officers in the 9 MFIs. With the aid of SPSS version 21.0 and Excel software, quantitative results were tabulated and presented in the form of charts, bar graphs, and narratives.

      Moonmoon Malik

Abstract: The shareholders are an entity of the company and it is a concern issue that the shareholders need to get their rights. The companies need to keep in mind that setting up a company not only to earn profit and to achieve the aim but also take other issues into consideration.

      Caroleen Murunga Saya, Oriaro C, Murgor A

Abstract: Over the past five years, Girls performance in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) Examination in primary schools in Navakholo Sub-County has been dismal. Poor KCPE performance hinders placement of girls in National Schools, quality extra County schools and by extension, admission for good professional careers. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of socio cultural practices on girl child KCPE examination performance in primary schools in Navakholo Sub-County. This was a descriptive study that employed a mixed methods designs approach. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 360 standard eight girls recruited through Stratified Random sampling. Interview guides were used to collect data from 15 Key Informants and 6 Focus groups purposively selected. Quantitative data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics with the aid of SPSS computer software program. Qualitative data was analysed by content analysis. The study established that stereotypic gender role dispositions are the major socio cultural factors that lead to girls’ poor performance in KCPE Examination. The study recommends that parents be encouraged to minimize domestic chores for girls, and that Policy decisions should focus on increase Free Primary Education Funds to so that schools’ can cater for girls needs as well to enhance girl child KCPE Examination performance.

      Arfa Hameed, Iqra Zafar, Dr. Bushra Ali, Dr. Munazza Riaz

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the current prescribing pattern, affordability and compliance rate to osteoporosis pharmacotherapy in Public and Private sector hospitals of Lahore.

      Nagwa B. Elhag, Somiya Gutbi Salim Mohammed

Abstract: Fresh fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, mineral salts, proteins, carbohydrates and fiber. All these nutrients are very essential for health maintenance and diseases prevention. Also they play an important role in neutralizing acidic substances produced during digestion. These products will be used either fresh or for culinary purposes. Recently, fruits and vegetables free of heavy metals contamination have a great concern by the consumers worldwide. Long-term use of contaminated fruits and vegetables with lead will be a health threats for humans.

      Melvie Paramitha, Dian Agustia, Noorlailie Soewarno

Abstract: The quality of human resources is determined by the learning process in educational institutions, especially higher education. In Indonesia, the process of managing education in higher education is regulated in Act no. 12/2012. The quality of higher education can be determined by aspects of governance and organizational culture that exists in organization. With good governance and good culture, it can support the performance of educational institutions. This is a literature review research to describe conceptual framework between good governance to organizational culture and organizational culture to organizational performance especially in higher education in Indonesia. This conceptual framework has not been widely discussed by researchers. The researcher hopes that the results of this study can serve as a guide for further research to prove empirically the conceptual framework.

      Apurv Kantilal Pandya, Prof. CK Kumbharana

Abstract: Image processing is one of the widely used computation problem specifically identifying, understanding, beautification and compression. Today wide variety of image file formats is available with different clarity and size. This paper describes the basic process of compressing the bitmap image file and then comparing the compressed file with original one. The process involves lossless compression. Entire process is implemented in programming language and tries to understand various segments of bitmap file. Based on the number of unique colors in bitmap file, it compresses the file to store only single value for each different color and then comparative study of both the formats is applied using different charts to reach to a specific conclusion to achieve the desired performance criteria in form of size of the compressed file. File is compressed at some level of different colors and then after the technique applied is not suitable. To find out these criteria experiments are made on different colored image to reach to a conclusion. At last paper is concluded with future scope and enhancement.

      Maria Gasouka

Abstract: Ethnography is the research method that describes a culture and its “wisdom” as its members share implied common meanings in their habits, attitudes, beliefs and values systems and symbols i.e. in everything that composes their culture. Ethnography is also interested on the reasons for changing the culture and/or the ways of disrupting and restoring the dominant cultural class. So it is obvious that every folk group is ideal for ethnographic analysis.

      Adikali Kaba Sesay, Alpha Bassie Mansaray, Javed Soomro Ali

Abstract: The study focuses on examining the effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system. A sample size of twenty athletes and non-athletes were chosen of which we have five regular or seasoned athletes who were male, five regular or seasoned athletes who were female, five non regular athletes male and five non regular female athletes. These non-regular or untrained athletes and trained athletes were put together to have ten weeks session of training so as to see the effect that exercise will have on their cardiac output. After this exercise, the data generated were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics technique and physiological calculation of the stroke volume and the Heart rate to arrive at the cardiac output. It was realized that the cardiac output of both groups varied as some had a reduced hate rate while others had an increase in heart rate that leads to the various results on the cardiac output.

      Angela R. Bova

Abstract: Palliative cancer care is the integration into cancer care of therapies to address the multiple issues that cause suffering for patients and their families and have an impact on the quality of their lives. Palliative cancer care aims to give patients and their families the capacity to realize their full potential, when their cancer is curable as well as when the end of life is near. Toward the end of life, specifically in with a terminal diagnosis, when curative therapies are no longer being pursued, family and caregivers may experience tensions as the shift happens in accepting the terminality of a disease. By potentially improving the quality of life, the overall cost of care is reduced by eliminating frequent hospital and emergency room visits, and even a slight increase in survival rates of patients with metastatic cancer, palliative care has an increased relevance in the healthcare system. The introduction of community based palliative care could play a key role in providing this essential form of healthcare for the aging population, as the numbers increase of people who not only have cancer, but are also living with long term chronic illness.

      M. R. Ahmed, R. Inthusan, M. N. Samhan, M. I. Roshan, S. G. S. Fernando

Abstract: In the modern times pollution is a common issue faced by the people. One of the most troublesome form of pollution is the water pollution. Since Sri Lanka is a country that relies a lot on agriculture, the farms and field mainly use the water from the lakes and other water reservoirs. Therefore it has become necessary to protect those. This project is intended to produce a Water Drone which will help to monitor for water pollution such as chemical dumping and disposing garbage in water bodies. This project will also help to monitor the fish population to ensure that their habitat is not threatened. The Drone will be equipped with GPS for tracking as well as remote controller for manual control.

      A.T.Thenbadu, Bawantha A.T.P, Madhuranga I.K.M.C, Janawani A.K.T, Chinthaka A.J

Abstract: In urban life style traveling inside and outside of the city takes a major role. Because cities have, high density of population and high density of vehicles, and this will lead to the problem of city traffic and scheduling. This problem will cause big interruptions to working class citizens and undergraduates like being late to work, missing appointments, and missing lectures.

      Lokender Singh, Neelam Sharma, S. P. Joshi

Abstract: In developing nations agriculture is the bone of economy, which is directly related to livestock farming. Fodder resources are key factor in the hilly area where the economy of local people is much more dependent on their livestock. More than 65 % of fodder requirements of animals met out from pasturelands and forests in hilly regions. A sound understanding of utilizations and availability of resources and the impact of herbivores on grassland landscapes is essential for long-term sustainable pastoral production, implying of management practices and for both on-and off-reserve biodiversity conservation.

      Manlian Ronald. A. Simanjuntak, Rezi Munizar

Abstract: Infrastructure development is an important aspect in the process of accelerating national development. The availability of adequate infrastructure is needed in support of various economic, industry, and social activities in the community. The main weakness of both central and local government in the implementation of infrastructure development is the management of infrastructure assets. Good asset management will certainly be the right solution to optimize the functioning and sustainability of existing infrastructure assets.

      Umaira Zaheer, Mayasara Iqbal and Fatima Amin

Abstract: Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to assess knowledge, behavior and attitude towards antibiotics use among adult population of Lahore Pakistan.

      Areeba Pervaiz, Shumaila Zahoor, Saleha Sadeeqa

Abstract: AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To observe the treatment of hepatitis C and to compare the oral drug therapy with interferon . Methods: An cross sectional study was conducted in outpatient departments of different hospitals of Pakistan including( Jinnah hospital Lahore, Services hospital Lahore, Sheikh zayed hospital Lahore, Mayo hospital and Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur). Data of 100 patients within 20 years-70years of age, diagnosed with hepatitis C, was collected using convenient sampling technique during face to face interviews with patients .Then data was compiled, analyzed and presented in tabular form.

      Prof. D. S. Salgude

Abstract: This research was performed to understand waste generation rate & its consecutive management approach using qualitative technique in the Nashik city area. Waste is a continually growing problem at global & regional as well as at local levels. Solid waste arises from human activities that are normally discarded as useless or unwanted as a result of rapid increase in production & consumption, urban society rejects & generates solid material regularly which leads to considerable increase in the volume of waste generated from several sources .the simplest way to reduce waste & needs to be treated as a resources that can be reused or recycled this will help to conserve resources , reduce pollution , save energy , & help the earth cope with human demands . In future there could be drastic reduction in waste, if more manufactures design & produce more durable goods that are made easily taken apart , repaired , reused or recycled

      Jadhav Shilpa Y, Shinde Pratiksha P

Abstract: The investigation was conducted to find out the fungal diversity in soil sample collected from Kadegaon tehsil, Dist- Sangli. During investigation 18 isolates of fungi obtained from the soil samples. Among the 18 isolates 16 were identified with standard key & microbial expert. From the fungal isolates the most of the species belonging to genera Aspergillus.

      Binisha Sinha, Rojana Bachracharya, Saraswati Pandey, Sobhita K.C, Sumitra Koirala, Manoj Prasad Kushwaha

Abstract: Background & Objective: The nursing profession is an occupation with a high level of emotional labor. So, it is important to identify the level of emotional intelligence among nursing students for an effective nursing leadership and quality nursing care. Thus, this study aimed to assess the factors associated with emotional intelligence of undergraduate nursing students.

      Mustafa M. Abdel Hafeez, Ashraf A. El Mokadem, Marwa M. Ahmed, Heba A. Ahmed

Abstract: This study aims to identify the real users of public health services within Greater Cairo. This can help in reducing service delivery to non-beneficiaries, thus, prevent resources’ abuse and promotes economic efficiency. Moreover, it makes the needy -who are deprived of the service and cannot afford private surgery and private medical treatment- feel justice. In this study, identifying the users of public health services depends on: defining the basis on which services will be provided and the factors affecting it, identifying the validity of these factors and how to measure them, constructing factors’ index and testing it.


Abstract: Introduction: Respiratory distress, an a acute emergency situation requires mechanical ventilatory support and tracheotomy. Rehabilitation with residual pulmonary and neurological means needs critical analysis when adopting customized physical therapy. Aims & Objectives of this original research was to evaluate the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life of this subject. Materials & Methodology: After gradual weaning and the subject getting discharged to home daily domiciliary physiotherapy from 10.02.2017 to 28.05.2017 and he was getting treated at the rehabilitation centre as an outpatient from 1.06.2017 till 30.09.2017 with twice a week frequency in Chennai with principles of pulmonary rehabilitation. Results of pre and post PR were analyzed on QOL SF 36 P<.01 Conclusion: periodical evaluation, feedback, functional activity based exercises, combining pulmonary and neurological therapy can facilitate due rehabilitation in a shorter time frame.

      Kudenga Mugove

Abstract: This is part of a broad study that investigated bullying behaviours in boarding schools in Zimbabwe. This particular paper focuses on some of the possible causes of bullying behaviours in boarding schools in Zimbabwe. The study used descriptive survey design. The research participants were pupils in boarding schools in Zimbabwe and members of schools disciplinary committees. The sample of research participants consisted of twelve members of school disciplinary committee and forty children in boarding schools.

      Kudenga Mugove

Abstract: This part of a broad study that sought to investigate the psychological effects of the presence of street children in Harare Central Business District to business operators. This particular study focused on possible ways of improving the perception of Business Operators towards street children in Harare Central Business District. The study sought to identify ways that could be employed by society at large so that there is mutual coexistence between the street children and the Business Operators. The study used the qualitative approach to get business operators’ experiences with street children.

      Sajitha.A.V, Dr.A.C.Subhajini

Abstract: Today’s Cloud data centers consist of thousands of physical machines (PMs)including large number of computing, storage devices and network resources for the cloud applications are hosted in numerous networked Virtual Machines which are subjugated by complex applications including numerous computing and data modules with solid correspondence correlations between them. Out of these resources, network resources uphold adding complexity and claim for scalability and elasticity. Thus Virtual Machine Placement (VMP) demands a critical discussion in present scenario. Hence, proper VM placement helps to achieve energy efficiency via reduce the CO2 emission to ensure a green computing environment for eco friendly. This paper evaluates the literature on network-aware Dynamic VM placement in cloud data centers.

      Yuli Ana Wati, Dian Ayubi.

Abstract: The school-aged children immunization coverage in Tangerang City in 2014 was low on coverage during School Immunization Month program reaching only 90.84% which was lower than the national target. The complete immunization status for the children was affected by mother awareness. This study was conducted to find out the dominant contributing factors that influenced mother awareness of immunization for their school-aged children in the city of Tangerang using cross-sectional analysis.

      Md. Zibon Ahmmed, Sahinur Rahman, Md. Easin Ali, Mst. Tanzila Akter Shawon, Sheikh Md. Monzurul Huq

Abstract: Hygiene practice, knowledge and behavior are the driving force of health. Health is considered as the physical mental economic and social condition and satisfaction of a man and hygiene is the constitution to attain it. There are various types of diseases which directly or indirectly depend on hygiene practice. The people of the rural areas suffer from health and hygiene related diseases. This study attempts to assess the relationship among hygiene practice, behavior, attitude and knowledge about health. This study conducted a questionnaire survey on 78 respondents living in Happania mauza.

      ALLOUKO Jean-Renaud, BONY Kotchi Yves, KONAN Koffi Felix, ASSEMIAN Nguessan Emmanuel

Abstract: We studied the dynamic of aquatic snails populations in relation to environmental variables in the Aghien lagoon. Snails and physico- chemical variables were sampled monthly from July 2014 to June 2015 at eleven sampling site. Samplings were performed by the kick sampling technique and Van Veen Grab methods.. A total of 1316 individuals divided into 16 taxa belonging to 4 orders and 10 families were identified. Stations located on the banks were more diversified.

      Willy Kipkoech Langat, Dr. Isaac Naibei, Prof.Clifford Machogu Getare

Abstract: Insurance plays a major role in the life of the humanity. The citizenry has gradually come to realize the necessity of insurance and these needs are unending as long as life exists. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of consumer behaviour on the uptake of insurance service in the Cooperative Insurance Company (CIC), Kericho branch. The specific objectives of this study were to determine demographic, economic, social and psychographic factors that influence consumer behaviour in insurance uptake. The study used descriptive research design.

      Ana Marafuga, Toni DiDona, Jamila Paradas, Antonio E. Cortes, and Mercedes Perera

Abstract: Research regarding discrimination is plentiful with a general understanding that it can induce stress, prevent access to opportunities, and affect interpersonal relationships (Jang, Chiriboga, & Small, 2008; Miller & Kaiser, 2001). However, research has not yet clarified a relationship between perceived discrimination with other constructs such as work motivation, teamwork/citizenship, and locus of control (LOC). For that reason, the purpose of this study will be to explore those relationships. A sample of 443 participants completed an online survey containing a series of demographic questions, a set of questions regarding the participant’s perception of having been discriminated against, as well as valid and reliable measures of the constructs: work motivation, teamwork/citizenship, and LOC.

      Abtihal Sattar Qasim , Shukria Shadhan Jied AL-Ageeli,Ph.D

Abstract: Background: Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy has been a known factor to have significant impact on pregnancy outcomes, especially on birth weight. The study aims :It is to assess the nutritional status of displaced pregnant women in Thi-Qar governorate ,and to find out relationship between nutritional status and other factor such as (demographical variable &reproductive variable ) .Methodology: A descriptive analytic study has been conducted on non-probability purposive sample of (100) displaced pregnant women select from primary health care centers at Thi-Qar governorate .This study has been conducted during the period of 1st April until (10)th June 2017.

      Chaudhary Anish, Routray Abhisek, Madhavan Radha

Abstract: Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic nosocomial pathogen. It is responsile for most of infections associated with medical devices, e.g. vascular catheters, cerebrospinal fluid shunts or Foley catheters. It causes several types of infections including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for treatment but now resistance to these group of drugs is spreading. Mechanism of resistance may be due to production of carbapenemase enzyme or due to biofilm production.

      Ziasmin, Mohammad Mahbub Islam, Kamal Uddin Ahmed, Shahidul Islam, Suraya Parvin

Abstract: Pot experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of salicylic acid (SA) to wheat during November 2015 to March 2016. In this experiment three different levels of SA were used. The different levels of SA were; S0 = 0 mM, S1= 0.2 mM and S2 = 0.4 mM. The experimental results showed that different levels of SA showed significant influence on morphological, yield contributing character and yield of wheat. The foliar application of SA in higher doses at S2 = 0.4 mM increased plant height (63.60 cm), leaf number (10.94), tillers number (2.71), effective tiller numbers plant-1 ( 2.22 ), Membrane Stability (71.53%), spike length (10.45cm), number of spikelet spike-1 ( 18.10 ), number of effective spikelet spike-1 (14.63), number of grains spike-1 ( 35.78 ), grain yield plant-1 ( 1.9 g) and 100 grain weight (4.20 g) compared to S0 = 0 mM and S1= 0.2 mM doses of SA. Therefore, it is suggesting that higher doses of SA increased yield of wheat by improving morphological and yield contributing character.

      Stephen Ameyaw, Felicia Safoa Odame

Abstract: A good sanitation practice is very imperative in human lives. Hence, defecating openly is a bane to human health killing children under five years in every 15 seconds. Efforts made by philanthropists to ameliorate this canker proved futile while there are still one billion people defecating openly globally despite the pragmatic strides. In Ghana, for instance, US$290 million is spent on open defecation yearly when the government needs US$79 million to combat the menace.

      Nagen Kumar Sahoo

Abstract: Heavy transport is the last transport sector remains dependency over fossil fuel which makes it a leading source green house emission . Due to the expected growth in demand for transport the estimate that global emission from road freight transport will grow from 1.36 to 2.4 co2 by 2050. Now world want electric vehicle to reduce pollution . So have to develop and design new technologies regarding transportation system . In this smart highway project we designed for heavy vehicle transportation system . Heavy vehicle move safely without imbalance of electric overhead lines. In this project we use special light weight design steel rail wheel as front wheel which will move on track rail and back rubber tube wheel as back wheel and electric overhead lines as energy source.

      Danfulani Mohammed, Abubakar Musa, Ma’aji M. Sadisu, Saidu A. Sule, Muhammad A. Musa

Abstract: Achalasia -a rare motility disorder characterized by obstruction of the distal part of the esophagus. Among its symptoms are dysphagia and frequent complaints of chest pain as well as weight loss. We present a 30 year old female with one year history of recurrent low grade fever, cough, difficulty in breathing, chest pain and weight loss diagnosed as achalasia. Plain radiography and endoscopy played a vital role in the diagnosis.

      Mr. Mensah-Brako Bismark, Prof. Wilson Agyei Agyare, Prof Ebenezer Mensah

Abstract: Climate variability is a complex environmental problem facing the world with the smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia been the most vulnerable group. However, farm-level adaptation is considered an important option to mitigate the adverse effect of climate variability on the smallholder farmers. This paper examines farm-level adaptation strategies adopted by farmers in the Offin river basin. A total of Three hundred and ninety eight farmers from eight communities were randomly sampled using a multistage sampling technique. The results showed that about 78.39 % of smallholder farmers have adopted soil and crop management practices to abate the effects of climate variability. The study revealed that soil and water conservation practices, improved food crop varieties, utilization of inland valleys and wetlands, changing planting dates, crop diversification and mixed cropping were the most preferred adaptations practices adopted by the farmers. Educational attainment, farming experience, access to agricultural extension services, access to credit facilities, training on climate information and farmer-based organization were the factors found promoting the adaptations. The paper thus suggests investment in climate information and collaboration between media and research institutions in climate change and variability studies which have a great prospect in promoting adaptation among the farmers.

      Manlian Ronald. A. Simanjuntak, Jujuk Kusumawati

Abstract: DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through Governor Regulation No.144 of 2010 stipulates the Emergency Ambulance of DKI Jakarta Provincial Health Office (AGD DINKES) as a Public Service Agency must be updated in the hope of improving the performance that has been running to be more optimal and more accountable

      Muhammad Rusdy, Sjamsuddin Garantjang, Muhammad Aminawar

Abstract: The low availability and quality of forage for livestock during the dry season is the main problem faced by the farmers in Indonesia. To alleviate the problems, the use of agricultural by-products that their nutritive value has been improved like ammoniated straw as animal feed is recommended. However, most farmers have poor understanding about ammonisation of straw technology. For this reason, an extension on ammonisation of straw technology was introduced to the farmers. However, after teaching on the ammonisation technology, practice of making ammoniated straw and demonstration on the superiority of using ammoniated rice straw as animal feed had been introduced to the farmers, only one of 20 farmers followed the training who adopted the technology. It is suggested that the purpose of raising the cattle is the main factor determining adoptability of the technology by the farmers.

      May Mya Darli Cho, Htay Htay Win, Aung Ko Latt

Abstract: Suspension system in an automobile determines the riding comfort of passengers and the amount of damage to the vehicle. In this paper, the passive suspension system, quarter car model is analyzed to improve handling and ride performance of a vehicle. Two degree and three degree of freedom with and without tire damping is analyzed by using Matlab Simulink. Comparisons between passive suspension system with tire damping and without tire damping are performed by using different damping ratios range from 0.2 to 0.4.

      Hlwan Htet Htet San, Htay Htay Win, Myint Thein

Abstract: Gears are one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems. The bending and surface strength of the gear tooth are considered to be one of the main contributors for the failure of the gear in a gear set. The purpose of this research is to reduce the bending stress and contact stress happing often on gear by changing the different values of face width and three types of materials.

      Ni Ni Aung, Myat Myat Soe

Abstract: The productivity of distilled water is directly proportional to water temperature in solar still. In this work, a single basin single slope solar still is integrated with a salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) to increase the productivity of solar still. The performance of the single basin single slope solar still integrated with and without salt gradient solar pond has been analyzed theoretically, numerically and experimentally.

      Nan Kathy Lin, Myat Myat Soe, Aung Myat Thu

Abstract: Pump as Turbine (PAT) is typically used as electromechanical components in microhydro systems, especially by rural communities in developing countries to reduce initial capital cost. The technology is readily available and easily accessible compared to commercially available turbines.This paper presents experimental design ,the results of an experimental test and performance of a centrifugal pump working as turbine (PAT).

      Thin Zar Thein Hlaing, HtayHtay Win, Myint Thein

Abstract: Manual rack and pinion steering systems are commonly used due to their simplicity in construction and compactness. The main purpose of this paper is to design and analyze the rack and pinion steering system. In this paper analyzed the two components of the steering system.

      DHD Nadeesha

Abstract: The study investigates the dynamic relations between macroeconomics behaviour and all share price index (ASPI) performance in post war economy of Sri Lanka for the period 2009-2016, using monthly series of the corresponding variables. The study considers Average Weighted Prime Lending Rate (AWPR) and Average Weighted Deposit Rate (AWDR), money supply as measure for country’s interest rates which supervise the behaviour of money market, Colombo Consumer price index as measure of inflation and exchange rates as the measure of external sector in economy of Sri Lanka.

      Arunkumar Dharmapuri

Abstract: Money Laundering is an International issue since from the beginning of its evolution. This is a threat to the world economy, because of the fact that the black money is being used for the Terrorist financing and several other illegal activities by various sources of money laundering activities. Such activities are not only impairing the world financial health, but also a threat to the human kind. In order to curb the money laundering the steps taken by India and the principles adopted by United States; should be acknowledged by the world to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

      S.Nirmala, A.Pasupathy, T.Raja2 M.Raja

Abstract: This work deals with the study of the removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbent obtained from the leaves of centella asiatica . Effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the removal of the metal ions was investigated. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Frendlich isotherm models. The maximum removal was obtained for the adsorbent dose of 100mg at 10mg/l metal concentration at pH 5 and agitation speed of 120rpm. The result shows that Centella asiatica leaf could be employed as an effective low cost adsorbent for the removal of Lead.

      Mamoona Khan, Asir Ajmal

Abstract: Music varies form culture to culture, it is manifestation of soul, it conveys our emotions, feelings and the distinction between noise and music is culturally bound. It works like a stimulant which transforms psychological and psychic phenomena like “hypnosis ball”. It is manifestation of grief, happiness, and affection.

      B.Rama, C.Varun Reddy, A.Sneha, D.Niharika, G.Sravani, S.Divya Laxmi

Abstract: The recent developments of Floating drug delivery system which includes the gastric physiology and different variables in formulation affects gastric retention in turn improves the bioavailability of drugs especially which have a narrow absorption window. The aim of the work was to develop and evaluate gastro retentive floating drug delivery of Metformin hydrochloride as a model drug to increase the gastric residence time. The tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared with hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers like HPMC K-15, Ethylcellulose with and without disintegrant carboxy methyl cellulose. Developed formulations were evaluated for the pre compression parameters, post compression parameters, FLT, and in vitro dissolution study. From the results it was concluded the formulation F6 showed comparatively good release which complies with the dissolution requirements.

      Kefilwe P.J. Batsalelwang, Joseph Habulezi

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of mothers of children who live with developmental disabilities with reference to medical health care practitioners. Qualitative research approaches were used to explore the experiences of three mothers of children with Cerebral Palsy and three mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Convenience sampling was used to select the study participants. A thematic approach was used to analyse the stories.

      Dharmawardhana W.M.P, Fernando R.D.D, Silva K.H.N.D, Sameera P.P, Chinthaka J

Abstract: In 21st century, Smart home concept is playing a major role in day to day life and lives also are much more dependent on electronic devices and smart refrigerator is very popular and attention seeking among these home appliances. Home automation has been increasing vastly in the past years due to much simplicity and affordability for home appliances. Earlier home automation systems were based on technologies like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Z wave and remotely controlled using GSM networks. Currently IOT technology is widely used in home automation which will allow users to control hardware devices through the internet. Smart refrigerators are major part of home automation. Current smart refrigerators come as a single component (as whole complete fridge), which is quite expensive and not affordable for everyone.



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