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IJSRP, Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2018 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
October 2018 publication has started and publication will continue till 26th October 2018
Authors who paid publication fee after 2nd October, their paper will publish in October edition latest by 26th October or before.
Online print version will release latest by 30th October. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 26th October and minor corrections are accepted till 26th October 2018.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Faiza Ikram, Mrs Sadia Waheed

Abstract: Western Media has always propagated incidents of honour-killings in order to tarnish the image of Muslim communities in the West without taking into account the actual social and psychological aspects that instigate the crimes. The present research will study the socio-psychological factors that motivate the perpetrators. This qualitative research work will employ the psychoanalytic literary criticism of the characters of ElifShafak’s novel Honour, especially Iskender, the matricide. The research aims at exploring the psyche of the character involved in order to determine the root-cause of his actions and behavior. The methodology adopted in this research work is analytical-cum-critical for psychoanalysis of characters with conceptual framework of theories of inferiority complexproposed by Alfred Adler. The research will be significant, as it will shed new light on Iskender’s character, from the unique perspective of the matricide.



      HUSSAIN, Azeez O. and SULAIMON, Hakeem O.

Abstract: Sustainable food security is every nation’s goal. For a nation to achieve sustainable food security, the food supply must exceed the demand. Using trend analysis, this study is an attempt to compare the nature of food security from 2000 to 2014 in Nigeria to selected African countries in each region. These countries are Angola, Ethiopia, South Africa and Egypt. The paper shows that Nigeria is food insecure in comparison to the selected African countries in terms of their population and food productions. The index used to select the other African countries from each regions are based on GDP and population. The parameter used for food demand are Food production index, Crop production index and Livestock production index. Meanwhile the parameter used for food demand is population density.



      Dr. Ruchi Jain, Ms. Tanya Kailay

Abstract: In the world glance as per technology changes, suitable changes should be adopted by the economy. And among all the changes in economy lead to some drastic changes in to the transaction. The payments business in India is on the cusp of a revolution. With rapid growth and modernization of the economy, there is little doubt that a majority of India’s 1.2 billion plus citizens will demand and get modern financial services that are far superior to what their parents’ generation enjoyed. Nowadays in any payment transaction plastic money becomes inevitable part of the transaction and with it life becomes easier and development would take better place. Plastic money is a term that is used for the hard plastic card used by the consumers’ everyday in place of bank notes. Plastic money is available in 5 forms: credit cards, debit cards, cash card, pre-paid cash card and store card. Basically it is the alternative to the money.



      Marei M. A. Almontasr

Abstract: The study focuses on the measurement methods in the evaluation of banks performance in a Libyan context. It is the first study in Libya which involves three major Libyan banks The aim of the study is to realise the fitness of applying the measurement methods in the evaluation of banks performance to Sahara Bank, Gumhouria Bank and the Al-Umma Bank and the objectives are to: recognise dimensions of the measurement methods with the strongest impact on the level of the evaluation of banks performance, try to identify the financial performance assessment of the banks and the indicators used in the criteria, interpretation and knowledge of trends and developments and recent studies in this area, clarify that the indicators and methods in one of the financial and economic institutions have a very important impact in improving the performance and efficiency and develop conceptual framework for the measurement methods in the evaluation of banks performance in a Libyan banking sector context, employs from Arab and Western literature and the findings of the study.



      Eng. Ibrahim Salem Aldajeh, Eng. Mahmoud Ali Okour, Eng. Suhad Ali Jumean, Dr. Ayat Khuzaai Khassawneh, Eng. Mohamed Fowzi Ababeneh

Abstract: Lately, researchers are firmly believing that quality control is one of the key requirements to provide reliable and accurate data recording and measurements for patients tests and treatment plan.



      Raafat Hani Aburumman MD, Malik Mansour Al-alwan MD, Najib Elbert Alqsous MD, Ruba Fawaz Bani-mustafa, Alaa Mohammad Alsalhi

Abstract: This study aims to explore the preferences of mental illness patient regarding to the age and gender of their therapists. A sample of 261 patients with mental disorders were involved in this study. Statistical information was obtained from a survey which categorized the participated patients according to their age, gender, current relationship, education and socioeconomic level. Finally, the output results was expressed graphically to provide a clear situation and evaluation which is describe the preferences for patients with mental illness regarding to the age and gender of their therapists.



      Rika Hari Lestari, Muhammad Rusdy, Sema, and Syamsuddin Hasan

Abstract: The objective of the research was to determine the effects of liquid organic fertilizer and defoliation interval on growth characteristics and quality of elephant grass cv. Taiwan. The research was assigned in completely randomized 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 replications.



      DR. NANDESH KUMAR; DR. SHASHI KUMAR; DR. J.KUMAR

Abstract: Background:- Liver abscess continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. However, recent advances in interventional radiology, intensive care, progress in antibiotic therapy, liberal use of sonography and computerized tomography scanning of abdomen have led to early diagnosis and treatment of patients of liver abscess, thus improving the patient outcome.



      Kadek Wiwik Indrayanti

Abstract: The existence of legal void in marriage law for Indonesian citizens who engage in inter-religion marriages raises legal uncertainty. Meanwhile, perhaps due to the fact that Indonesia has plural society, the number of potential couples who engagee to inter-religion marriages increases. The purpose of this study is to formulate the concept of legal norms protection for inter-religion marriages in Indonesia. The material of legal components consists of primary and secondary legal which obtained from literature study. We found that the state should provide a space which is recognized by every citizen to exercise his or her rights including the right to raise a family and the right to have freedom related to religion and belief. The basis of the recognition is that inter-religion marriage is philosophically justified because of human rights and it is legally required to provide legal certainty. Meanwhile, sociologically it is increasing in society.



      Abhijeet Singh

Abstract: A black hole is a region in space-time. It’s a region from where nothing can escape not even time. Some physicist believes that this is due to the strong gravitational force exhibited by the black hole. It can also be observed that not even electromagnetic radiation such as light can’t escape from black hole. But I have a different view at this behavior of black hole and will also explain about the existence of more than one cosmos in this paper. Cosmos is very beautiful if we perform thought experiment, look inside it and concentrate we can observe things that can answer lots of our questions that have disturbed us from centuries. Like how many universes are there and how big is our cosmos. How time changes its speed at different positions in space and which phenomenon works behind it. What happens if we go inside a black hole? Where the antimatter did came from?



      Dr.D.Ponmozhi

Abstract: This present investigation is carried out to find the ICT need (Information Communication Technology Need) of the teacher educators. 100 respondents from 12 Education Colleges in Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu was randomly selected. ICT need assessment scale (2017) developed and standardize by the researcher is used to collect data. The collected data were analysed with the help of SPSS IBM19 and results were interpreted. Most of the teacher educators ICT Need is moderate. Experience and gender show significant relationship with ICT need score of the teacher educators. Gender, Subject handling and Experience show positive significant correlation but Marital status shows negative significant correlation with ICT need of the teacher educators.



      A.K. Yusuf, P.A.P. Mamza, A.S. Ahmed and U. Agunwa

Abstract: Flexible castor oil-based polyurethane foams were produced by the one-shot method of foam synthesis. Foam formulation involved pure castor oil/castor oil modified with heptachloroheptadecane (HCHD), a novel C-17 chlorinated hydrocarbon internal plasticizer, 80:20 mixture of 2,4 - and 2,6 - toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at room temperature (30 - 350C). Foam reaction took place in presence of stannous octoate and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) catalysts, methylene chloride (physical blowing agent) and silicone oil (surfactant).



      Kalicharan L, Seecharran D

Abstract: Studies on coastal biodiversity of agro-ecosystems in Guyana are limited. The agriculture sector contributes significantly to Guyana’s economic growth and most of these agricultural activities are concentrated on the Low Coastal Plain of Guyana. This study assessed the impacts of agricultural activities mainly rice and sugarcane farming on freshwater fish diversity within Mahaicony and Enmore areas, located in Region 4 of Guyana’s Coastal Plain. It was hypothesized that agricultural activities would adversely impact fish species diversity within the disturbed sites by lowering species richness and species evenness compared with undisturbed sites.



      Muhib Ahmad Roshaan

Abstract: Since decades, verbal harassment of women is a concerning topic throughout the world. Also in Afghanistan, women employees are faced with verbal harassment at workplaces. This study is conducted to examine the presence of verbal harassment of women and its kinds at workplaces of Kandahar city, Afghanistan. In order to discover the presence of verbal harassment, a quantitative approach, snowball, and purposive method, in particular,were employed and the data was gathered through the questionnaire from a sample of 120 respondents of governmental and private sectors.



      Japhet Ringo

Abstract: The application of risk sharing mechanisms, is seen by many in developing countries as a remedy for lessening effects of disasters. However, this notion has not been thoroughly tested in the context of floods in Kilosa District. The focus of this research, was to assess the effectiveness of both formal and informal risk sharing mechanisms, applied in flood management and control, as well to examine challenges confronted the effective operation of them. Four sub-villages were selected for the study in Magomeni and Mbumi Wards. Several methods were used to provide an indication of the performance of the mechanisms. Ninety householders and 10 key informants were interviewed.



      Oswin F. Linuma and Joan Tang’are

Abstract: Forests are vital resources in the earth ecosystem. They play an important role in the survival of human beings and the whole ecological system. The effective community based conservation and management of these resources is a necessary step to their sustainability. This paper assessed the Community Perceptions towards Participatory Forest Management at Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve (KFR). A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the Community Perceptions towards Participatory Forest Management by using questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, field visits and documentary review. The study was carried out in Kazimzumbwi and Chanika villages which are among the five villages surrounding the reserve and a total of 100 households were participated during questionnaire



      Zacchaeus Mboche Wanyoike, Pontian Godfrey Okoth, Kennedy Onkware

Abstract: The Traditional Somali Justice Based Conflict Resolution Mechanisms have been an important aspect of peace building processes among members of the Somali community of northern Kenya. Based on this systems of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms members of this community have lived together in harmony for a long time. However, modernity the system has faced a variety of challenges hence calls for improving the sustem. This study therefore is aimed at improving effectiveness TSJBCM to make more effective. The study was conducted in Dujis constituency in Garissa County where the respondents were mainly ethnic Somalis. The results of the study reveal that the system can be strengthened if among other things there is structured cooperation with formal government conflict transformation mechanism, training TSJBCM practitioners in some conflict areas and defining specific areas of competence for TSJBCM and formal conflict transformation actors.



      Abdelmoneim Dodah and Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to assess the causes of decline of gum Arabic production, its effect on socio-economic and environmental settings and to identify the appropriate strategies to develop this subsector after the breakout of 2011 war. Gum Arabic is an important agricultural product in Sudan economy, and it is considered the main livelihood for many people in Kordofan, particularly in Abujebeaha locality-South Kordofan State. Following the breakout of the war in 2011, the production of gum Arabic has rapidly deteriorated, consequently, the socio-economic has negatively influenced.



      David Kamotho Mwangi, Dr. Kepha Ombui

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to investigate on the factors affecting the financial performance among deposit taking SACCOs in Kenya with specific reference to SACCOs in Nairobi County. The independent variables were investment decisions, funds misappropriation, loan defaults and membership withdrawal. The study was anchored on the agency theory, financial literacy theory, stewardship theory and the modern portfolio theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design in which the opinions of employees in the Saccos were sought. The study targeted a population of 654 management employees working in the registered Saccos in Nairobi County.



      Setyawan, Arif Nugroho

Abstract: The development of accounting has become more widespread, technically accounting has been able to describe things that have not been studied before. Conscious or not, accounting has developed further not only as a means of recording, reporting, and decision making, but also as a representative God in providing justification. Accounting gradually becomes a living guide to market behavior, few even of companies and even countries that have a crisis or even die because of the loss of market believe.



      Kathryn Chepkemoi Langat, Prof. Pontian Godfrey Okoth, Prof. Crispinuos Iteyo

Abstract: Land displacement is a contentious issue affecting many countries in the world. In Africa It has caused numerous Land conflicts dating back to colonization by the Europeans where public land was declared crown by the Her Majesty the Queen of England. It was during this period, when Land Tenure was introduced in Kenya, which led to socioeconomic challenges, land conflicts, dispossessions, displacement and emergence of squatters. Many communities like the Kikuyus, Maasais and Coastal people in Kenya lost their ancestral land to white settlers. However, this research study focused on Talai clan living in Kericho County because it has suffered one of the longest historical land injustices in Kenya. Therefore, the general objective of the study was to examine socio economic effect of land displacement on Talai households living in Majengo-showground in Kericho township location. The study adopted a conceptual framework guided by relative deprivation theory.



      Philip S Kongoley-MIH, Umar M Lahai –MSLIE

Abstract: This study critically examined the factors affecting the performance of Polytechnic Institutions in Sierra Leone; the study takes in to considerations both internal and external factors hindering the performance of Polytechnic Institutions. There were 200 respondents drawn from four Polytechnic Institutions including males and females. Meanwhile, the study was preceded by a pilot study and specifically focusing on performance of Polytechnic Institutions. Questionnaire informed by instruments used in earlier studies Klass (2007) and Samuel (2008) were adapted and modified to suit the pilot study. A questionnaire constitutes questions on performance of Polytechnic Institutions and its effects on the educational standards in Sierra Leone. Results indicate that polytechnics are essentially paramount and contribute significantly to the sustenance of Sierra Leone’s economy. The study found out that polytechnic Institutions performance is hindered by both internal and external factors.



      Md. Al-Fahad Bhuiyan, Md. Ripon Hossain

Abstract: This study has been conducted to provide a better understanding of party-based local government election that is an integral part of the body of politics in Bangladesh. Local government was always there in Bengal but its’ forms differed from time to time. The governments of ancient and medieval Bengal were heavily dependent on village institutions, which made the structure of the local government. This study is an effort specifically to investigate about the political participation of local government; its problems and comprehensive solution.



      Opilo B. Nasambu, Neyole E. Masinde, Kiluva V. Mwikali

Abstract: Flooding continues to be a common environmental hazard in both developed and developing countries. Crops, settlement and infrastructure are usually impaired wherever flooding occur. The severity of damage as a result of floods has been documented to have a relationship with the flood magnitude, flood frequency and settlement of population on flood prone areas. Whereas various intervention measures have been implemented, the problem still persists. This is partly due to lack of adequate information on the extent of Lower Nzoia River Basin Flood Flows.



      LORO Emmanuel Ladu Legge, Lu Zhibo

Abstract: In view of the environmental impacts of crude Oil exploration and production, it has caused more adverse impact than its beneficial desired end in the oil-bearing enclaves of Melut basin in the Republic of South Sudan. Crude oil exploitation has had and continues to have a deleterious impact on the environment in the region adversely impacting on the people inhabiting the area ever since its discovery in the 1970s. This review paper dwells much on the analysis of secondary source data such as gray literature, journals and primary data (field reports) on the environmental and social impacts of oil exploration and production on Melut basin.



      Roland I. Nwonodi, Choja Ojanomare

Abstract: This study examined vertical compaction of depleted reservoirs in a new way. From Hooke`s laws of elasticity, we generated polyaxial compactions in the rock by applying the Lagrange averaging technique, which gave a result for the stress-path parameters in the maximum horizontal stress direction. The formulation considered the pore pressure depletion in the reservoir.



      Vanlalpeka

Abstract: In the traditional Mizo context, tribalism in the form of centralized political and sociological force was almost absent, since life was mainly based within one single village. People were connected by their cultural practices, geographical proximity, their evolving lingua franca and their ethnic bond. During the rule of the British, especially after conversion to the Christian faith, people began to experience tribal consciousness as a sociological factor, including the sense of belonging to one community, one nation and one people, especially among the Lusei clans who were former citizens of Sailo chieftainship. However, in the absence of any political platform and common political agenda, a sense of tribal identity lacked a political harmony. On the eve of Indian independence, the Mizos began to be sensitized to the political stirrings characterized by political dreams and aspirations. After the signing of the Peace Accord between the Mizoram underground government and the Indian Union, tribalism became characterized by an economic turn and almost all aspects of tribal consciousness became economic in nature, and so it remains today.



      Sungkono, Sukoso, Abdul Makhsud, Rudy Sulistyono, Juhana

Abstract: Coastal city is an area that is still strongly influenced by sea breeze. Characteristics of the sea breeze is blowing during the day from the sea to the land every day, it can be utilized to improve the air quality in urban areas. This study aims to assess the physical characteristics of the coastal city to assess the quality of air. This research was conducted in Makassar, in three locations of city regions which were selected as the observation units to be studied, each area have a radius of 100 m. To support this research, the measurements of wind speed and direction had been conducted in those three regions. Measurements of microclimate conditions at all measuring points were simultaneously carried out five times, since morning to evening in the fair-weather. The aspects of physical characteristics of the environment studied; including building mass, environmental density, building materials, land cover material, and landscapes. The analysis was carried out quantitatively using a formula by Edward Ng (2006) as the indicator and statistical analysis. Air quality was mapped using the ENV-Met V.3.1 software. The result of the analysis shows that the physical characteristics of coastal city had a significant effect on the utilization of local wind to improve air quality.



      Oluyori, P. D., Ono, M. N. and Eteje, S. O.

Abstract: Consistency is an important characteristic in height systems which the mean sea level (msl) surface cannot guarantee. Only a geoid surface can provide height consistency. The quality of geoid undulation (N) will obviously affect the resulting orthometric height (H) determined from GNSS. The geoid undulation may be global, regional/national and local. Online software CSRS-PPP was used for post processing rinex data. N^EGM2008was computed from AllTrans EGM2008 geoid calculator while h was used to compute N^GPS from the relationship N= h-H. H is the existing orthometric height. Twenty-four controls with FCT 260 P as base reference station were used for this study. The computed standard deviation of differences inN^GPS- N^EGM2008 (σ) is used as accuracy indicator and σ



      Gayatri.Y, Shailaja Raj.M, Sreedhar.B

Abstract: Industrialization has revolutionized the quality of life but also led to the increase in environmental pollution in the form of industrial waste. The effluents released from the industries include toxic compounds which get accumulated in soil and persist for years if not treated properly. These persisting, non-degradable compounds include the heavy metals which are mostly released into the soil from electronic industries in the form of E-waste. Electronic industries are the fast growing industries and the amount of the waste released from them is considerably high.



      Dr Senevirathna Bandara

Abstract: School Based Teacher Development (SBTD) is a new concepts in Sri Lankan education system, in 1980s and 1990s decades of 20th century, this School Based Teacher Development concept (SBTD) was introduced to the general education system in the country. However the importance of the School Based Teacher Development was emphasised by the government in 2006 under Program of School Improvement (PSI) project.



      Ismed Wahidi and Nursyahra

Abstract: The shape, amount, and distribution of starch granules are specific to each plant. Different plants will have different shapes, quantities, and distribution of starch granules. Based on the shape, amount and distribution of starch, the types of starch producing plants can be classified. Taro (Colocasia esculenta L .) is a starch-producing plant that has the potential to be developed in the future. Colocasia esculenta L is distributed in a wide area in West Sumatra, Indonesia so that genetic variations and variations in anatomical structure are interesting to know.



      Felix. Igede, Abiona Olaide Temitope

Abstract: The aim of this study is to expand on the role and relevance of Geoscientists in improving economic development and national security through nuclear resources exploration, exploitation, supply, application, safety assessment and security. Geoscientists follow paths of exploration and discovery in quest to finding solutions to some of the societys most challenging problems which include sustainable energy supply, climate change, food insecurity, crime and high poverty level amongst others. When nuclear and radioactive materials are not properly explored and exploited they can have adverse effect and security implications on people, property and the environment. In the light of the above, the mission of nuclear related organizations including the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA) amongst others and the role of the Geoscientists in the domestic and industrial applications of nuclear and other radioactive materials will be enumerated. Nuclear and other radioactive sources are used in key sectors of the world economy.



      Rahmatullah Katawazai

Abstract: This study is conducted to explore the artistic values of William Shakespeares most well-known play: Romeo and Juliet and for indicating all the possible sides of the play including characters, setting, plot summary, historical background, themes and other literary figures perspectives about the play critically. Romeo and Juliet has been praised as one of the interesting plays of William Shakespeare not only in English Literature, but worldwide. All the elements of a play has been used scholarly by William Shakespeare. As Connolly (2000) mentioned that “Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet early in his career, between 1594-1595, around the same time as the comedies Loves Labours Lost and A Midsummer Nights Dream. Scholars often group these plays together because they explore the themes of love, courtship, and marriage.”



      Nofriansyah, Anisa Martiah, Rendika Vhalery

Abstract: This research aims to know how the effect of learning model logan avenue problem solving heuristic to the students learning activity of the social programme X.I at SMAN 1 Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatera. The methodology of the research which is used in this research is experimental research. The population of this research amounts 151 students. The sample used in this research is cluster random sampling. So that the sample of social programme XI class is 30 studends. The technique of data analysis is observaion data analysis, pretest and hypothesis test. Based on the research done , it consists of significant effect of using learning model logan avenue problem solving heuristic to the students learning activity of social programme X.I at SMAN 1 Bukit Tinggi, West Sumatera.



      Lata Misra

Abstract: The Binomial Theorem has since long been of paramount importance in mathematics in varied forms. It was known to the ancients and in the hands of Leibniz, Newton, Euler, Galois, and others, it became an essential tool in both algebra and analysis. In this paper we have collected the Multiple Proofs of Binomial Theorem.



      Muhammad Syahlan Shafie, Mohd Izzat Amsyar Mohd Arif, Hisham Hanapi, Fareed Mohd Hassan

Abstract: This article discusses on the definition of subsidiary legislation in Malaysian administrative law, its advantages and how to challenge it. Subsidiary legislation is part of Malaysian legal sources that supplements the legislative function of Malaysian legal system. Although the Parliament and State Assembly are the main bodies that have been vested with the legislative power in Malaysia, other non-elected members are also conferred to exercise the same function to assist the Parliament and the State Assembly in their law making roles. The abundance of subsidiary legislation in the legal systems serve a great deal of benefits and advantages especially to ease the burden of the legislative bodies especially in dealing with the details of the law and also to gain expert views on certain issues. However the power mandated in the hands of these authorised bodies comprising of non-elected civil servants could also result in illegality and abuse of power, thus, this article attempts to outline grounds on which the subsidiary legislation can be challenged.



      Dr. Kagendo J. Francis, Prof. Leonard M. Kisovi and Samuel C.J.Otor

Abstract: Responsibility for uptake of maternal and child wellbeing (MCW) services are a responsibility of both parents however men often play a passive role. Such programmes are doomed to fail in societies where men control family resources and are the family decision makers. This has resulted to high maternal and infant mortality and morbidity rates especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kiambu County low male partner participation in the MCW programmes was identified as a challenge to successful implementation of the programmes.



      Sayed Azharul Islam, Prosenjit Tarafdar, Mohammad Bin Amin

Abstract: The aim of this study is to understand the present disciplines and areas of Business and Management education in Bangladesh as well as future prospective areas. This study basically uses secondary data from different sources and some primary data have been used which were collected through face to face and over phone interviews with the scholars of business and management. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been used in the study.



      Adamu Adamu Alhassan

Abstract: Conflict and conflict circumstance are by nature impossible to avoid in as such humans interact with different identify and race. This make peace process to be a complex state of affairs because of the win attitude of human existence. The state of resolute and peace building are vital for society and humans to strive, which springs development and society of today desert the role of women in conflict management due to customs, traditions, culture and gender. Data were basically collected from existing literature to demonstrate the role women play in conflict management. The paper concluded women should be involved in conflict management for the society to attain a holistic conflict management and peace building. The paper recommends that women should be giving more training to education which will deepen their understanding in conflict and in peace.



      Lena Elfianty, Ricky Zulfiandry, Jusuf Wahyudi

Abstract: Information technology is a field of science that explores data, facts and various information as widely as possible in the form of numbers, text, images, analog and digital signals with a computer as a tool. Various data sources are grouped, modified, transformed and processed into other forms to be used as new data, new facts, new information needed by users, all of which can be referred to as information.



      Anjum Jabeen, Dr.Muhammad Rauf Tahir, Uzma Ramzan, Sidra Nazeer, Zunnu Raen Akther, Dr iram liaqat

Abstract: This study was planned to identifying the Microorganisms are present in oral cavity as normal microflora. However the fact that they become harmful due to some oral infections made us to investigate the inhibitory effect of orange juice extract on them. Total 20 samples were collected. Samples were taken from patients suffering from throat infection. On the basis of morphological variations 6 strains were selected and were tested for their sensitivity against orange juice extract. Some strains are resistant but 3 strains were sensitive against orange juice extract. Aqueous layer of juice extract proved to be more effective in their antibacterial activity on studied strains as compared to methanolic ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of these extracts were also determined. Moreover, these fruit extracts also tested for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates and proved to have significant inhibitory effect on growth of these isolated bacteria, providing an alternative to treat various infections caused by these antibiotic resistant strains. Hence this study also enhances the nutrition value of orange juice because orange juice provides the resistance against some kind of oral bacteria.



      Mwitia J, Wakhungu J.w and China S.S

Abstract: Upland rice value chain development for food security studywas done in Kakamega county to contributeto knowledge on sustainability of new innovative technologies thus achieve food security and overall development as intended. Solutions and suggestions regarding what promoters of new technologies such as upland rice value chain should do to ensure that even after promotion period the value chain continues to be implemented by value chain actors and that the benefits are maintained and well distributed among the direct actors (input suppliers, producers, transporters andtraders).



      Harun M. Gitonga, Joseph N. Karomo, Mukhwami Videlis

Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to establish the statistically significant factors that determine the rate of inflation in Kenya for duration of 30 years from 1987 up to and including 2017. The research considered data in the areas that included money supply, Central bank rates, currency exchange rates, salaries of employed Kenyans, basket prices of foodstuffs, the price of petroleum products, rates of corruption in the country and Political stability as a dummy variable.



      Lawal, I. H, Ibrahim, Iro, I, Yaroson, A. Y, and Idris, J. A

Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the Federal College of Forestry, Jos Biology laboratory to determine the efficacy of selected botanicals against cowpea weevils (Callosobruchus maculatus F.) on stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). The experiment consist of eight treatment laid in complete randomized design (CRD); control, actellic dust 5g, citrus peel powder 5g, citrus peel powder 10g, paw-paw leaf powder 5g, paw-paw leaf powder 10g, annona seed powder 5g, anonna seed powder 10g. Each treatment replicated three times.



      Ishrat Parveen and J.M. Gaikwad

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and abundance of the parasites of fresh water fishes. A total 209 specimen of Cultivable and Catfishes were sampled from Masooli Reservoir of Parbhani District during the period of Oct 2011 to Sep 2012. Recorded parasites were analysed and identified as Senga from Cestodes, Argulus from Branchiura and Lamproglena from Copepodes separately. The total incidence and abundance was observed higher 12.6% and 0.23 in Catfishes as compared to the cultivable fishes1 i.e 11.82% and 0.18.



      Odiase Stephen Ovbeniyekede, Dyg. Siti Quraisyah Abg. Adenan, Mushtaq Ahmad,Kartini Kamaruddin

Abstract: Self-compacting concrete or also known as self-consolidating concrete (SCC), an innovation in concrete technology is being regarded as one of the most promising developments in the construction industry due to numerous advantages that it has over conventional concrete.



      Olajide Tayo Emmanuel, Awoniyi Adeola Mary, Aina Folasade, Ojo Eunice Abimbola, Ope-Babadele Oluwatosin Oyindamola

Abstract: The menace of maternal morbidity and mortality has remained a major maternal and child health problem in developing countries and prominent among the risk factors is inadequate dietary practice in pregnancy. The study assessed factors influencing dietary practices among pregnant women in Adeoyo Maternity Hospital Yemetu, Ibadan, Oyo State.



      Fajar Arif Herjayanto, Suparno, Dewi Rochsantiningsih, Fajar Arif Herjayanto

Abstract: Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) is a strategy used in teaching process by which students work collectively in small groups on a structured activity and it is presumably able to improve their behaviour engagement and learning outcome. Collaborative learning and engagement (specifically behaviour engagement) are something considered important in learning, especially in language learning as they can promote the effectiveness of learning by fostering students active participation in the learning process.



      V.P.I.S. Wijeratne, Lasantha Manawadu, Padmi Ranasinghe

Abstract: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the prominent methods to conduct climate studies and commonly used to analyze the impact of land surface changes all over the world. Due to many anthropogenic activities, natural environment transformed into urbanized areas rapidly. As a result, certain climatic components including land surface temperature has been modified dramatically. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate Land Surface Temperature (LST) in highest population growth cities in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this research was to examine the relationship of rapid urban population growth with Land Surface Temperature using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. The study was conducted in five cities in Sri Lanka and those cities were selected by the population growth rate.



      Naw Naw

Abstract: At the present time, social media has become an important popular communication medium among all online suffers. Twitter is one of the most popular social networking services where thoughts and opinions about various aspects and activities can be shared by the millions of users. Social media websites are rich sources of data for opinion mining. Such data can be applied for sentiment analysis. Sentiment analysis is the study of human behavior by extracting user opinion and emotion form plain text. Among machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machine (S.V.M) classifier and K-Nearest Neighbour (K-N.N) classifier is used in this system. The system provides the analytical results of education, business, crime and health for Educational Authorities, Economists, Government Organizations needs and Health. And then, the system predicts the conditions of selected ASEAN countries (Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam and Myanmar) according to the tweets. In this system, accuracy, precision, recall and f1-score is also compared by using these two classifiers.



      Suzana Dewi, Imam Kholik

Abstract: The implementation of green computing-based information systems in the school environment is still low. This is marked by the use of paper that is still liked by the school. For this reason, it is necessary to design information systems based on green computing to archive letters that have been created or received by schools. The letter that has been archived will make it easier for schools to search, avoid losing files when moving from one person to another. Those who have authority in archiving will certainly be easy to monitor.



      Ochieng Nyangute Dismas, Nyamwange Callen and Winga Maureen Adhiambo

Abstract: HIV and AIDS, is decimating African society, most specific Sub-Saharan Africa, dismantling family systems and resulting into millions of orphans and child headed households. Having lost parents and close relatives, child-headed households experience extreme difficulties in accessing basic survival needs. The objectives of the study were to: - determine the psychosocial implications of HIV and AIDS on child-headed households in Seme Sub-County, Evaluate the implications of HIV and AIDS on school attendance and performance among child headed house- holds in Seme Sub-County, Kisumu County and establish the effectiveness of the existing interventions to address the effects of HIV and AIDS on child headed households in Seme Sub-County, Kisumu County.



      Dr. I.I. Weje, Dr. V.C. Obinna, Oboh, F.A

Abstract: As greater percentage of the world’s population become urban dwellers, the issue of housing shortages are bound to continue. Housing constitutes essential human need, whose availability or otherwise affects man’s socio-economic well being. Little wonder then that most government tends to make housing one of the cardinal policies of governance. The present study examines Social Housing programme in Rivers State with a view to identifying the challenges hindering its effective implementation



      Dimla Denny C, Nileena R Kumar, Valsa Thomas

Abstract: The incidence of oral cancer is increasing dramatically over the past years. According to National Cancer Registry Programme of Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR), the mortality rate due to cancer has increased by approximately 6% between 2012 and 2014. The long term survival rates of oral cancer is less than 50%. Increased rate of morbidity and mortality is mainly due to the occurrence of multiple primary tumors and locally recurrent cancers. The concept of “field cancerization” by Slaughter et al. explains the mechanism by which second primary tumors develops. The presence of a ‘field’ with genetically altered cells appears to be a continuous risk factor for cancer. Detection and monitoring of these fields may have profound implications for cancer prevention. Here is a case report of “field cancerization” phenomenon.



      Anjali A

Abstract: A comparative study was conducted to know and compare the different personality traits designated by the students of vedic and formal education system. A differential design is employed in this study. Major findings of the study depicts that, majority of the students of vedic educational system show high level of personality traits like extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience, while the students of formal educational system have shown low level of these personality traits. The results clearly depict that vedic system has succeed in molding the child personality in a desired way as the primary aim of any system of education is to be development of a wholesome personality. But todays modern formal system of education is producing only money making machines, ignoring the development of virtuous qualities and resulting in the development of negative personality traits.



      LORDAN B. ROXAS, PRISCILLA C. VIUYA, OSCAR T. VALLEJO

Abstract: This study was conducted to findout the teachers’ involvement in the community utilizing descriptive type of research using questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument, and was administered to 129 secondary school teachers, using purposive sampling from Northern Aurora, Philippines.



      Olga Ramos B; Orlando Ortiz A; Diosnel Amarilla M. Milciades Melgarejo A and Charles Giese

Abstract: The use of machinery with unsuitable tires and in unsuitable climatic conditions, can affect the development of the plants and consequently the productivity. Soil compaction is one of the factors that most affect the crop, since it can decrease the ability of the roots to penetrate the soil profile in search of water and nutrients.



      Nwalem, M.P, Asogwa, B.C and Ezihe, J. A. C

Abstract: This study made use of Vector error correction model to analyse effect of exchange rate on sesame output in Nigeria from 1980-2016. Secondary data consisting of annual times covering a period of 37 years (1980-2016) were obtained from World Bank development indicators data base, food and agriculture organization. United Nations conference trade and development (UNCTAD), Impulse response and Variance decomposition.



      Thanura Madusanka Silva

Abstract: This case study examined the specific land cover changes of the Kudawa village, which is located on the Sinharaja forest buffer zone of Sri Lanka (SL). Here considered land cover changes within 1986 – 2016. A buffer zone of a forest land undertaken the responsivity of protecting the fragile area and rainforest buffer zone protect most sensitive zones of the world and the local level that scenario also same.



      UNGAYA Cotty Godfrey, Malenya Musebe James

Abstract: The COMESA pact brought together twenty one countries with the aim of easing trade between them. This was aimed at creating more trade in terms of volume flows across the borders within the COMESA region through removal of tariff and non-trade barriers. However, trade volume statistics, with regard to sugar trade in this region indicates that member states do not benefit mutually. Sugar statistics in the region between member states indicate that industries that receive supportive domestic mechanisms had an edge over those that do not in the regional sugar market.



      Someia Mohamed EL hafiz At Elmanan Hassan El bussary, Abubaker Haroun M.Adam, Prof. Mohamed Ali Dawoud

Abstract: This research aimed to detect the urban environmental problems and issues in Nyala city at southern Darfur State in the Sudan. So this research was directed to know the status of the pollution in the said city. This research was mainly directed on how to get rid of the various types of pollution and the different types of waste sources i.e. Agriculture and water, hospital wastes and other types of solid waste in the study area. Data was collected from both secondary and primary sources. The secondary sources consisted of various types of reports shown in the published literature, seminars, workshops, conferences and the worldwide webs (the internet.



      Shadrack S. Kipsang, Dr. Ruth Simiyu, Ombachi N. Kipkorir

Abstract: Floods are one of the extreme disaster events which result in widespread social disruption, trauma, and extensive property damage, loss of life and social economic loss. Several humanitarian organizations including KRCS, USAID, CARE, Handicap International, JICA and OXFAM have always come in handy to help the victims through various interventions. The purpose of the study was to investigate socio-economic factors affecting response to floods by humanitarian organizations in Lower Kano Plain of Nyando Sub-County, Kenya. The sample sizes for the study were, chief, and 8 CBO chairpersons and 388 household heads. Combination of simple and stratified random sampling technique was used to select respondents, while purposive sampling techniques was used to select area chief and 8 CBO chairpersons.



      Kassahun Trueha, Ayele Gebeyehu and Gedif Mulat

Abstract: Delivery care through access to health facilities and skilled health personnel are the main important interventions for safe motherhood and the child. Despite the international emphasis on the need to address the unmet health needs of pregnant women and children, progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow.



      Adebiyi Oyekunle Olusegun, Bulus Tikon And Prof Stephen Sanaah Hamafelto

Abstract: Athletes face many challenges throughout their quest for perfection. The road to excellence, they may face numerous hours of training, injuries, and rehabilitation, stress, anxiety and interaction with coaches. The conceptualization of burnout involves the interaction of a number of different components such as behavioral, cognitive, physical, effective and emotional signs and symptoms.



      Obaalologhi Wilfred

Abstract: Gap junctions are proteins made of connexins which are involved in the regulation of vascular function. Deletion of connexins 43 (Cx43) modifies expression of genes known to be involved in the regulation of the vasculature, differentiation and function of vascular cells. Interestingly, mutant mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been shown to be hypertensive, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the physiological control of blood pressure. It was therefore hypothesised that the endothelial deletion of Cx43 in the pulmonary vasculature induces endothelial dysfunction and causes eNOS impairment thereby reducing NO biosynthesis, thus leading to vasoconstriction and vascular remodelling which subsequently leads to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).



      MK Deshmukh, K. Laxminarsimha Chary, Nitin Sharma

Abstract: Underwater ambient noise is critical to success of naval operations. The underwater noise environment is also an important aspect of habitat for marine mammals and other organisms. Underwater noise is one of the human induced environmental threats to the ocean. Ambient noise calculations have role in the conduct of environmental-acoustic impact assessments. Documenting changes in underwater ambient noise helps in understanding the marine environment.



      Nzenwata Chisom Beauty

Abstract: Early girl-child marriage is a barbaric act, man’s inhumanity to man, is a common practice in most developing countries. Every minute a girl-child is married off against her will, education attainment terminated and dreams aborted by this reoccurring act. This has called for a clarion call and a serious concern to the international community at large.



      Ngo Thi Thu Thao, Cao My An, Tran Ngoc Hai, Kwang-Sik Choi and Yasuhiko Taki

Abstract: The present study investigated seasonal changes in gonad development and proximate compositions of the mangrove snail, Cerithidea obtusa in the mangrove forest of Ca Mau province, Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Our findings showed that gametogenesis of C. obtusa occurred year around, however, the major spawning period lasted from September to November. The highest spawning synchrony was observed in November with 43% collected individuals in spawning stage. The results also showed that in mangrove snails, proteins are the major component (~60%) followed by carbohydrates (~25%) and then lipids (~5%).



      Amin Setyo Leksono, Jati Batoro, Aminudin Afandhi, and Anisa Zairina

Abstract: Organic farming systems in Malang are still limited to areas that have an area of less than 1% of the total area of existing rice fields. This study aims to reveal farmers perceptions of organic farming systems and formulate strategies for developing organic farming systems based on farmer perception and knowledge in Pagelaran Malang East Java Indonesia. This research was conducted in Kademangan village, Pagelaran Subdistrict, Malang District, East Java, Indonesia. Data collection techniques used is through direct observation of farming system, interviews and filling out a list of questions. A series of deep interviews was conducted in order to identify knowledge and attitude of farmer on organic farming system.



      Uzayisenga Josephine

Abstract: Adolescence is a demographic force and its sexual and reproductive health has become an area of focus for many national governments in both developed and developing countries. This study aimed to identify reproductive health issues among adolescents in Nyanza District, in Rwanda. To meet this objective, a cross sectional study was carried out, stratified random sampling technique was used. The study participants were 298 adolescents. Unplanned pregnancy was mentioned by (27%), Abortion was mentioned by (25%) of participants, STIs and HIV/AIDs (24%). Condom use was reported by 18.9% among males and 6.0% among females. Early marriage 35.5%, knowledge about body changes in puberty (24.8%). Alcohol and other substance abuse (56.4%), sex abuse and exploitation (3.0%) among male and (9.0%) among female. School dropout (70.4%). Health facilities with supplies, strengthening, and promoting sexual education in and out of school, and condom and contraception use among adolescents should be intensified.



      Uzayisenga Josephine

Abstract: Diabetes is recognized as a growing public health problem in the world and in Rwanda. One of the critical inputs to the strategies for combating this disease is to create attitudes and build knowledge about it within a population. This study aimed to find out Knowledge and Attitude towards Diabetes Mellitus among Type 2 Diabetes patients attending Biryogo Health centre. A cross sectional study that involved randomly selected 103 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was conducted. The results revealed that the level of knowledge was good for the participants. However this knowledge is not translated into desired attitude. Statistically significant demographic characteristics associated with diabetes knowledge level indicator developed in the course of the study were gender (p<0.05) and duration of diabetes (p<0.01). It was further found out that significant variables associated with diabetes attitude level were respondent’s education level (p<0.05) and duration of diabetes (p<0.05).The fin



      Bishir Gambo Saulawa, Julius Atlhopheng, Michael Bernard Kwesi Darkoh and Bothepha Mosetlhi

Abstract: The paucity of knowledge by the majority of the rural farmers has made information on soil erosion difficult to perceive. The problem, however, can be overcome by using predictive models for planning, assessment and extension purposes. The objective of this paper was to predict soil loss by the methods of USLE and interview the farming families. The study showed that the factors that determined the rate of soil loss in the study area were the Topographical Factor and the Soil Erodibility of the different textural classes.



      Thandar Nwe, Myat Myat Soe, War War Min Swe

Abstract: The main goal of wind turbine development is to increase the power output of the turbine. One of the methods for promising of wind power output is to increase the effective wind velocity by using an augmentation device around the rotor. This paper is an attempt to observe the effect of flat plate acceleration device on the performance of the wind turbine.



      Srijana Chowdhury, Isha Das, Paritosh Bhuria, Balika J.Chelliah

Abstract: This project explains the depiction and execution of an Air Pollution Meter. The innovation grasped here, is a hands-on execution of the idea of Internet of Things. This specific work is an exploration of the probabilities of utilization of this innovation, in this world, where natural well-being is turning into a genuine risk. The work is actualized utilizing Android, iOS and microcontroller board of Arduino. A couple of sensors are likewise utilized, for example, temperature and humidity sensors and a couple of gas sensors to screen changes.



      Donjeta Zejnullahu Pllana, Ph.D. c., Prof. Dr. Hamit Aliu

Abstract: This study aims to determine the impact of consumer ethnocentrism on purchase intentions towards domestic and foreign products. Due to the fact that Kosovo is a developing country, and taking into consideration its last political conflict with Serbia, the emphasis is specifically placed on products imported from Serbia and products from European Union countries. Data was collected through a questionnaire which was distributed online to a representative sample, consisting of 150 individuals. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Factor analysis and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to test the research hypotheses. Study results show that the consumer ethnocentric tendencies are positively related to intention to purchase domestic products and negatively related to products from Serbia and the European Union.



      Nway Ei Hlaing, Ei Ei Htwe, Maw Maw Htay

Abstract: This research focus on the dynamic analysis for inclined belt conveyor system. The aim of research is to improve the reliability and design level. This analysis is done by using Belt Analyst V18.1.6.0 software. This research presents an approach to estimate the velocity time of inclined belt conveyor. The simulations with finite element model are carried out to analyze the belt dynamic behaviors such as pulley resultant force, belt power, tension in transient operation. Further simulations are carried out to get the optimum velocity time for starting and stopping process.



      Sharon Njambi Maina & Crispinous Iteyo

Abstract: Social media is considered to contribute to government accountability and transparency, human rights activism, the development of civil society and practices of citizenship. The use of mobile phones and the Internet, for example, allow for news of any inappropriate government actions to quickly reach the public and to be challenged. If you want to liberate a society just give them the internet. The objective of this study Analyze Social Media Peace Messages Campaigns in peace building since 2007 Elections. Kenyan bloggers became a critical part of the information flow in the country, starting from the three-day ban on live broadcasts, when it is reported that the web traffic from within Kenya shot through the roof.



      Sharon Njambi Maina & Kennedy Onkware

Abstract: Media is considered to be the 4th pillar of the society after legislature, executive and judiciary. The influence of the media continues to grow with time. Because of the influence it has over society, the Media can play a significant role in peace building. In Kenya, media have been a key component during elections. The role of media has becoming so essential in building peace or bringing sustainable solution for the particular incidences or conflicts. The argument is that as it is possible to use the media for mass mobilization in the wartime, they shall also play their contribution for peace building during conflicts.



      Aye Myint Kyi, Ei Ei Htwe, Wai Phyo Maung

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic behavior of elevating screw subjected to time-varying excitation. Transient analysis is performed to know the response characteristics under the rated load of elevating screw. The effect of this vibration varies with time as the nut moves. This paper researched the elevating screw and built the elevating screw model with SolidWorks software. Modal analysis is carried out for identifying the natural frequencies and the transient analysis is applied for obtaining displacement, velocity and acceleration depend on time variation.



      Tarif Hamid

Abstract: International migration is an economic process which involves and affects individuals who move to other countries or choose to migrate and who stay behind (particularly elderly parents) left behind in origin country. It is considered as an increasingly global phenomenon. It is a well-accepted notion that overseas international migration along with different causes which have certain consequences and effects for those who particularly stay behind in origin countries. The focuses of attention in this study are elderly parents who are affected by their migrating adult children.



      V.Chandra Sekhara Rao, Dr. Ajit Kumar Pradhan

Abstract: Every teacher of English practices asking probing questions in the classroom interaction in five key areas instructional goals like lesson clarity, instructional variety, task orientation, student engament and student success. Effective questions are the tools students actively respond and engage in the learning process.The purpose of questions getting students interst and attention, diagnosing and checking, recalling specific facts or information, encouraging analysing, generalizing, differentiating, expanding, applying, problem solving skills and synthesising skills.



      Urfana Amin Moharken

Abstract: School Education is the largest department of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), after Police Department in terms of human resources. Female workforce is found to be greater than males who try to meet the educational needs of student right from early years which is regarded as a challenging job. In this backdrop an attempt is made through this paper to study how much satisfied are the teachers with their job in this sector. J&K has 22 districts out of which 12 districts fall in Kashmir province. Ganderbal is one of the districts of Kashmir province which came into existence in the financial year 2007-08.



      Eddy Hermanto, Sugiono Soetomo, M.Agung Wibowo

Abstract: An increase of value in physical development of construction projects that sustain human life activities has been a major concern for many developping countries around the world, including Indonesia. The country faces an increasing value for project development which resulted in the increasing procurement for government goods and services. Meanwhile, some developped countries such as the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US), and Hong Kong have successfully formulate an integrated policy for construction project partnerships to resolve the issue of project development and technologies value.



      Dr.R.Siddarama, P. Anjali, K. Leelavathi

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: DRPs was defined as events or circumstances that involves a patients drug treatment that actually or potentially interferes with the achievement of an optimal outcome. With respect to older patients with comorbidities and using multiple drugs, DRPs are associated with an increased risk of hospital readmissions, morbidity, and mortality. In Australia, an incidence of between 2.4% and 3.6% was found and in the US. DRPs include adverse drug reactions (ADRs), unnecessary drug therapy, untreated conditions, Wrong drug, and drug interactions and inappropriate choice of drugs.



      Lamis Nader, Arafa Mohamed, Muhammad Nazir, Mohamed Awadalla

Abstract: In the world we are living in today, many crimes such as robbery, rape, murder, genocide, suicides and other fatal activities are emerging resulting in high insecurity globally. The increased instability causes fear and panic to people making it hard to carry out their daily duties. Government and other private sectors have come up with ways to handles this disaster by producing various experts who investigate the causal effects of damage and harm. By use of a collection of tool, materials and scientific measure and theories, the experts can investigate and point out the criminals who then face penalties for their actions.



      Naomi Nduta Njoroge, Prof. Christopher Mwangi Gakuu, Dr Stephen Luketero

Abstract: A common hypothesis is that Monitoring & Evaluation is positively associated with project performance. Whereas the number of empirical studies conducted on this topic is remarkable, there is still no agreement on the most influencing Monitoring and Evaluation strategies on the performance of dairy primary cooperative societies (DPCS). In order to further advance knowledge in this field, an empirical study was conducted on M & E strategies influencing performance of Dairy Primary Cooperative Societies in Murang’a County, Kenya. This paper is an extract of the empirical study with a specific focus of M & E planning strategy and performance. A mixed method approach under the pragmatism paradigm was used making use of both cross-sectional and case study designs.



      Abdul-Basit Danjoe Munkaila, Musah Zakaria, Bugli Clifford

Abstract: The study investigates the quality of service and related factors in hotels in Tamale metropolis in the Northern Region of Ghana. Primary and secondary sources of data were used to seek information for the research. Close ended questionnaires were use in the collection of the data. A cross sectional descriptive survey design was adapted for the study. Quantitative approached was adopted to analyze the data.



      Rahmawati Semaun, Juliawati, Budiman Nohong, Sema, Purnama Isti Khaerani, Syamsuddin Hasan

Abstract: The aim of this study is to know the effect of natural bioactivator of noni fruit in liquid organic fertilizer in different level. Parameters of this research are fresh content, tiller number, plant height, dry weight, organic matter, water content, crude protein, crude fat, extract material without nitrogen, nitrogen, and ash of Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpureum schumach) with 4 treatments i.e T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4 and three groups of liquid organic fertilizer level i.e 5 ml; 10 ml; 15 ml and 20 ml.



      Usman Mallam. Hussaini, A.M. Madaki, Auwal Baba

Abstract: This study investigated Environmental Sanitation Practices among Traders of Kofar Wambai Market, Kano State of Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Descriptive survey is the one in which a group of people or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only few people or items considered to be the representative of the entire group. The researchers adopted descriptive survey method for this study because it enables specific issues to be investigated through information on people’s opinion and beliefs. The population of this study comprised all traders of Kofar Wambai Market, Kano State, estimated to be 20,000, (Tax and Revenue Collection office, 2015). Simple Random Sampling Technique was used and 250 samples were selected to represent the whole population of the market traders.



      Syed Shakil Ahmed, Hussnain Ghafoor, Md Rashedul Islam, Md Mazharul Islam

Abstract: Supply chain management (SCM) is new idea including the combination of all the esteem making components in the supply, assembling, and distribution forms, from raw material extraction, through the change procedure, to end-client utilization.

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