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IJSRP, Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2016 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version will release latest by 30th July. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 30th July and corrections have been closed.

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      I Ketut Budaraga,Arnim,Yetti Marlida,Usman Bulanin

Abstract: This study aims to determine the nature of the toxicity of liquid smoke cinnamon obtained from the purification and concentration of different liquid smoke. This study was carried out experimentally using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design of 8 (eight) treatment purification with 7 (seven) the concentration of liquid smoke with 3 replicates in order to obtain 168 experimental units. The treatment of liquid smoke purification include purification by distillation temperature of 100 ± 10 ° C; purification by distillation temperature of 140 ± 10 ° C; purification using activated charcoal, purification using activated charcoal and zeolite mixture (50:50), purification by decantation for 1 day, 2 days and decantation decantation 3 days.



      S. Salam & N. S. Jamir

Abstract: Ukhrul district which is one of the nine districts of Manipur, is a hilly region predominantly inhabited by the Tangkhul tribe. Since time immemorial many useful plants have been handled by human societies for both medicinal and food purposes. The Tangkhul people of this hilly region are mainly dependent on the forest, as forest plants are gather for food ,medicinal, spices, fuel, etc, which have built up their socio-economic and cultural life. An extensive survey was conducted on the usage of various spices plant as medicine by the Tangkhul community in the Ukhrul district, Manipur. They collected a good number of spices plant from the surrounding forest and few are domesticated in their kitchen garden for daily consumption as well as for herbal remedies, also selling in local markets and represent the main source of cash for villagers.



      Putri Setya Utami, Musa Hubeis, M Joko Affandi

Abstract: A company prominence relies heavily on the quality of its employees, thus every company always takes certain efforts to shape their Human Resources (HR) to be in its best quality and performance. Working climate can affect work motivation when a company is conducive and it can be a means of sustainable learning for employees. When the needs are fulfilled, there will be reduction of tension, thus working satisfaction is achieved and leads to the improvement of employee performance.



      Ponco Budi Sulistyo, Azman Azwan Azmawati

Abstract: The existence of this new media has transformed the social movements that can be considered as a new form of social movements. New social movements have used internet presence through various forms and types. By using the qualitative method and employ semi-structured in-depth interview this research aimed to analyze the factors that become the background of group members joined the anti-corruption social movement in social media Facebook and to explain the role of social media Facebook in creating an anti-corruption social movement and online community in Indonesia. The research found that the awareness each individual has brought together so that it developed into a large collective consciousness among the group members of anti-corruption social movement in Facebook celled “1,000,000 Fecebookers Support Chandra Hamzah and Bibit Samad Riyanto”. This collective consciousness also founded by a feeling that is almost the same, ie both feel aggrieved, oppressed and betrayed by the parties that held the authorities to eradicate corruption. The factor of convenience, freedom and openness of social media Facebook, have helped the realization of the social movement of anti-corruption through online community in Indonesia.



      Thangjam Sunita Devi & Ajit Kumar Das

Abstract: Curciligo orchioides Gaertn.(Hypoxidaceae), a threatened ethnomedicinal herb of tropical and subtropical regions in Asia is reported as a less known medicinal plant from Senapati district of Manipur state, Northeast India.



      Dr Jyoti rokade, Dr Vidya Mule, Dr Girish Solanke

Abstract: Objective: To study the fetal outcome and mode of delivery in patients with meconium stained amniotic fluid.



      Bambang Padmadi, Rizal Syarief , Ahmad Mukhlis Yusuf

Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence consumers preferences of housing in the Depok city and then based on that, designed the strategy to be implemented by PT Triasta Putra Santika in order to win the competition. This study uses primary and secondary data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, factor analysis, analysis of internal and external factors, SWOT analysis and analysis QSPM. Data collection through interviews with respondents divided into two, namely the consumers of housing in Depok city and experts to strategize. The results of this research note that residential consumers in Depok consider two factors to buy a house which are factor specifications and amenities of home as well as the affordability factor. Strategies that can be run by the company based on SWOT analysis and QSPM namely 1) the strategy of differentiation in marketing of products by promoting the advantages of access and quality of building materials to win the competition in the middle of the sluggish economy, 2) marketing strategy intensified with the approach of strategic location, 3) ease of scheme mortgages with good building quality and affordable access and 4) expansion of effective and efficient marketing costs.



      Prodip K. Roy, B. Roy, Bikash C. Roy

Abstract: Water in Comilla district of Bangladesh has been known to contaminate with heavy toxic metals especially arsenic and some ions, such as, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, K, B, Cl, SO4 and HCO3. The presence of these toxic metal and ions in water are important parameters to evaluate water quality. For this study, 30 water samples were collected. The chemical analyses of these samples were done for quality assessment. The results showed that more than 50% samples were arsenic contaminated. But in case of ions contamination, all samples were in acceptable range. In addition, water suitability classification for drinking and irrigation purposes was performed based on some physicochemical parameters, such as electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total hardness (HT), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP). Based on the physiochemical properties of the analyzed samples were classified as “permissible” class and very few samples as “unsuitable” class. Although most samples are in “permissible” category, the presence of high level of arsenic makes waters unsafe for all living things, such as, humans, animals, and plants. This study was done thus to serve two purposes, one is to make awareness of the toxicity of heavy metal and irons and two is to seek quality water supply program either provided by public or private.



      Anuja Deshpande, Pradeep Dahikar, Pankaj Agrawal

Abstract: The paper discusses an experiment on Intelligent Scissors interactive segmentation technique on selected images with the aim to assess suitability for specific types of images. In this experiment accuracy of the segmentation has been assessed by computing Jaccard Index, Dice Coefficient and Hausdorrf Distance on segmented and ground truth images. In this experiment Intelligent Scissors was not found to be effective on certain images, particularly when images have similarity in foreground and background, at least in few areas, if not in entirety, along the object boundary.



      Caesar K. Simpson

Abstract: One of the unfortunate results of fraud is major financial commotion that results in atrocious loss for those –inter alia, investors, banks, insurance companies - that dabble in the financial markets (Obiri, 2011; Klimaitiene & Grundiene, 2010). Additionally, occupational fraud1 tends to have very damaging economic effects especially when the result is bankruptcy (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, 2010; Klimaitiene & Grundiene, 2010; Obiri, 2011). As such, the ability to detect the likelihood of financial fraud before it occurs or while it is in operation; is of great significance to economic progress (Klimaitiene & Grundiene, 2010; Obiri, 2011). This paper has analyzed the bankruptcy of Enron –the US Energy, Telecommunications, Commodities and Services conglomerate (Kroger, 2004) – through inter alia; its 10K filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and information gleaned from academic journals. The objective was to determine whether Enron’s gigantic fraud could have been detected sooner. After employing tools such as Non-Financial Measures; Gross Margin Test; Altman’s Z-score Bankruptcy Predictor; Modified Altman’s Z-score; Chanos Algorithm; and Beneish Model, this paper concludes that, it would have been possible to detect Enron’s fraud, as early as 1998 or at worst 1999.



      Benedicto B. Balilo Jr, Charlemagne G. Lavina

Abstract: The Cybercrime Prevention Act is the first law which specifically criminalizes computer crime. The law governs crimes committed online like illegal access and interception, data and system interference, misuse of device, cyber-squatting, cyber libel, identity theft, computer-related fraud and forgery, and cybersex. The awareness of students to cybercrime need to be studied to assess their level of awareness relative to cybercrime offenses because they are the most active users online so that measures can be recommended. This paper assessed the level of awareness of the 86 students enrolled in the BSCS and BSIT programs on cybercrime offenses using short description to allow high degree of understanding.



      Basima J. Jassim, MSc

Abstract: "Objective(s): To evaluate nurses' administrative role performance at primary health care centers in Baghdad City. Methodology: A descriptive design using the evaluation approach is carried throughout the present study for the period of January 2nd 2016 to June 3rd 2016. A nonprobability ""purposive"" sample of (100) nurse, who are working at the primary health care centers in Baghdad City, is selected for the purpose of the study. The sample is presenting (50) nurse of Al-Karkh Health Directorate and another (50) nurse of Al-Russafa Health Directorate.



      Ahmed A. Mohsin , MSc.N, Dr. Hussein H. Atiyah, PhD

Abstract: Nurses are working in orthopedic wards must have adequate knowledge of basic principles about cast complications to be applied in clinical practice because the nursing care of patients with cast complications depends on understanding the scientific principles of this complications.



      Muhammad Haqiki Noviar, Sukardi, Amzul rifin

Abstract: Bah Jambi POM (Palm Oil Mill) encounters several obstacles in order to meet the quality standard of its main products, namely CPO (Crude Palm Oil). Quality standard of CPO produced, such as levels of FFA (Free Fatty Acid), often exceed the quality standards set by the customer even though the company has implemented a quality control system. The purpose of this study are (1) analyse the effectiveness of the implementation of quality control management in Bah Jambi POM to achieve quality standards of CPO set by the customer (2) to identify the factors that affect the quality of CPO in the value chain of palm oil processing industry in Bah Jambi POM. The analytical method used are statistical process control (SPC) and the causal diagram (fishbone). Results show that the quality control of FFA levels is not effective yet and have not been able to meet the quality standards specified by the customer preferences of 4.5%. The value of the FFA levels process capability are 1.282, which means the state of the industry is in a stable state and cannot afford, meaning that the process is in a state of not being able to afford enough to produce the products according to the needs and expectations of customers. Through analysis of the causal diagram showed that the factors that cause the quality of FFA levels above the quality standards set by the customer are machine, man, management, materials and methods. The improvement strategy and quality control of the CPO that can be used as inputs for the company are management companies need to conduct periodic engine maintenance and training for employees is continuous.



      Mr. Pathmasiri, E.H.G.C., Miss. Shin Min A, Dr. Bandara, T.W.M.T.W.

Abstract: The sense of place, the feeling of security and comfortably at place and time is one of the crucial factors that affect to human decisions. As one of the main elements of any kind of place, sense of place is a cause as well as, a result of the place process because people are experiencing location and locale of the place and that sense of place leads to determine the human decisions. Hence, sense of place is related to the identity of the place and the dwellers of the place. The residential decision is one of the most important decisions of people because it directly related to the human investments not only money but also time, physical and mental power, etc. Therefore, urban planners should pay attention to identify the consequences of sense of place of the community to optimize the urban planning efforts.



      Qassim Jawel Odaa, Dr. Huda Baqer Hassan Jawad

Abstract: Background: Ulcerative colitis is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. It a most common worldwide diseases afflicting human beings because of the associated morbidity mortality, the cost of society and an important public health challenge over the past several decades. UC remains a major risk and powerful predictor when poorly compliance or if left untreated, It is a form of inflammatory bowel disease that causing ulcer in the colon. This situation considered dangerous because it leads to malabsorption of water, vitamins, and other substances and result more problems such as diarrhea mixed with blood, lower abdominal pain, anemia and weight loss, the ulcerative colitis usually happening gradually and start in the rectum and moves in a continuous pattern toward the scum



      Epimaco A. Cabanlit

Abstract: This paper presents a new ring consisting of adjacency matrices of graphs. New definitions of binary sum and product of adjacency matrices are being introduced. The paper shows the basic properties for a ring are being satisfied.



      Prof. Dr. Mohammed Farooq Salih Albadri

Abstract: This study is an attempt to uncover Ibn Arabî’s approach in qiyas. Qiyas is a controversial matter amongst Muslim scholars; the majority advocate qiyas, while a few reject it. Ibn Arabi had a neutral methodology in which he neither wholly rejected nor thoroughly adopted qiyas, instead using qiyas to produce easiness and relief from extra obligations (taklif) and vice versa. Although Ibn Arabî justified his refusal to use qiyas, he used it without distinct justification in some places, which contravenes his methodology. The study has clearly pictured these apparently equivocal points, removed ambiguity, and charted the course of Ibn Arabi in qiyas.



      Zahra Ebadi, Sara Mousavi

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between prospective and retrospective memory function in job performance Ahvaz's nurses. The study population was 41 people that they have been selected causal-comparative method. Three groups of people with depression, anxiety disorders and healthy were selected for sampling. After choosing and to achieve the objectives of the study of prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire (PRMQ) was used. Using multiple regression coefficients MR = 0/384 and p <0/049 indicate a correlation between retrospective and prospective memory job performances. These results show that the relationship between retrospective and prospective memory performance. In other words, retrospective memory regression coefficients is 0/44 that indicate beta factor may be the best predictor of job performance.



      Aswathy S and Binu V P

Abstract: Image dehazing is one of the most important research area in image processing and pattern analysis. Haze is naturally an atmospheric effect. And it is the combination of air light and attenuation process. Air light increases the whiteness of the image and attenuation effect reduces the contrast. Haze removal algorithms are important in many vision applications. This paper reviewed various haze removal algorithms used for the purpose of dehazing operation in image processing applications.



      Amudha. T, Srinivasan. A

Abstract: In this paper a marketing organization consisting of one grade with policy and transfer decisions forming two sources of depletion is considered. The problem of time to recruitment for this organization is analyzed when the breakdown threshold for the cumulative loss of manpower, a level of maximum allowable manpower depletion, have single component as the exponential threshold. A mathematical model is constructed and using univariate policy of recruitment based on the shock model approach, analytical results are obtained for the variance of time to recruitment by assuming that the loss in man power, inter-policy and inter-transfer decision times form three different sequences of independent and non-identically distributed exponential random variables.



      Roshini T. Mohan, Sankaranarayanan K.M.

Abstract: Concrete slab with opening are usually designed with help of traditional rules of thumb proposed by building codes. Such methods however introduce limitations concerning size of opening and magnitude of applied loads. Furthermore there is a lack of sufficient information about the load carrying capacity of slab with opening. It is also difficult to model the complex behaviour of reinforced concrete structures analytically in its non-linear zone. This has led engineers in the past to rely heavily on empirical formulas which were derived from numerous experiments for the design of reinforced concrete structures. Nowadays, for structural design and assessment of reinforced concrete members, the non- linear finite element (FE) analysis has become an important analytical tool. This thesis investigates the structural behaviour of two way reinforced concrete slab with and without openings for different slab length ratios and different opening ratios. The effect of openings sizes on crack formation is also analysed. For this different models of slab with and without opening were modelled in finite element software ANSYS.



      Solomon Mamo, Estifanos Yohanis

Abstract: Autonomous hybrid energy systems use different energy sources such as solar and wind with backup units such as battery and diesel generators. They are economical options in areas remote from national grid. In this context the performance of the system to supply electric power in an efficient way of operation is important. The problem is uncertainty of renewable energy supply and load and also non-linear characteristics of components in the system. In this paper different schemes of autonomous energy system are described and a system suitable for rural electrification in Ethiopia has been recommended. The preferred system is hybrid system with AC coupling with possibility of grid integration if required.



      Andinet Kumella

Abstract: This Research work presents the development of computer programming software namely; IBM PC® based modular tool for the prediction of vehicle deceleration, and braking time for various position of the transport vehicle at any time. Finally, particular attention is devoted to the accurate prediction of vehicle stopping distance. These will help to improve the braking system design in the rail vehicle industry, with respect to the safe movement of the transportation industry.



      Akmalbek Abdusalomov, Taeg Keun Whangbo, Oybek Djuraev

Abstract: In this paper, we address the different shadow detection methods and algorithms for both still and moving images as well as give a brief description of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Shadow detection and removal is an important step in visual surveillance and monitoring systems. Shadow points are often misclassified as object points causing errors on localization, segmentation and classification of objects. Many algorithms and methods have been developed for different environmental conditions to detect shadow from the images. We will review some widely used methods how to detect shadows and extract it avoiding loss of texture information.



      Dr. Genevive Syangbo and Karma Samten Bhutia

Abstract: This paper is an attempt to analyze the regionalist discourse in Sikkim and how the regionalist discourse is similar or different from the nationalist discourse. Ever since Sikkim was merged with the Indian Union the regional political parties have been playing an important role in the developmental process of the state. The important feature of Sikkim politics have been rooted in the regional politics. The most remarkable point in this is the absence of the role of national political parties in the state. The present paper summarizes the role and performance of regional parties since the birth of state in 1975. It tries to bring out the study on how the regional political parties particularly Sikkim Sangram parishad (SSP) and Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) in Sikkim have been able to mobilize the traditional communities into politics.



      Dr. B. K Deshpande, Mrs. Reetuja Deshpande

Abstract: Travelling and exploring new things is the nature of every human being. Now a day’s every person is stressed out and want some change from routine activities. People visit new places to appreciate their beauty, in course of time, has given birth to modern industry called tourism.



      Munambah Nyaradzai, Chiwaridzo Matthew, Mwenje Adraine and Chikwanha Theodora Mildred

Abstract: Introduction: Occupational therapists use play as means and ends of treatment for children with various forms of illnesses, disability and impairments. Despite the benefits and therapeutic value of play therapy, there is no literature to the researchers’ knowledge that supports or shows use of play and play therapy by Occupational therapists in Zimbabwe. This study aimed to find out the perceptions of Occupational therapists on play as an intervention. Specific aims of study were to determine proportion of Occupational Therapists’ using play therapy as a treatment intervention, to determine Occupational Therapists’ perceived effectiveness of play therapy as an intervention and to determine factors that determined use of play therapy as an intervention for children with disabilities.



      Senadheera Pathirannahalage Gayan Madhushanka Abeyrathna

Abstract: The market price of a security is its price on the Stock Exchange’s trading market. The speed with which the market reacts to new knowledge about the company is a measure of the efficiency of its pricing process. This process is likely to be enhanced if market participants have unimpeded and costless access to all relevant information about the company’s prospects and if high transaction costs do not constitute barriers to trading on the stock exchange. Here, the researcher has tried to find the influence of dividend announcement and interim finance statement on share price of the listed companies. There are 294 listed companies in the Colombo Stock Exchange as at 31st May 2015. There are 26 financial companies and it includes 15 foreign Banks and 11 Local Banks. Through them, here researcher has selected five local commercial banks as the sample for this study. Secondary data which have gained from annual reports and interim financial statements have been used to this study. In the case of analyzing the data Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression analysis have been used. Researcher has found that there is a significant relationship between interim financial statements and share price and there is no significant relationship between dividend announcements and share price. And also, finally researcher has given valuable implication to further researchers.



      Sara. A. M; M. E. Barri; Salwar. M. E; Samia. H. A; and Hala. E.A

Abstract: The present study was done to examine the ascendency of incorporating plant source of Omega-6 fatty acids into laying hens diet, on the plasma lipids profile and plasma fatty acids profile-IL-6 correlation.



      Charles Gibson

Abstract: This paper conducted a comparative analysis between the countries Mexico and Sweden. The study contrasted the two counties in terms of education systems, location and non-location factors. A Framework for Comparative Education Analyses was used to compare and contrast the countries of Mexico in North America and Sweden in Northern Europe. The cross comparative analyses displayed evidence that future researchers can build on to better educational policy and exchange educational practices between the two countries. The paper also can be used as a platform for more in-depth qualitative and quantitative studies within and between Mexico and Sweden.



      Basim Hasson Hussein

Abstract: Study aims: To assess nurses' burnout by using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Scale (MBI), and to find out a relationship between nurses' burnout levels and their preoperative nursing care, also, to find out a relationship between nurses' burnout and their socio- demographic characteristics of age, gender, level of education and years of experience.



      Shuaibu Ahmed Mahi, Raufu Adenike Shakira, Charles Ille Umoru, Muhammed Omeiza Nurudeen

Abstract: This research study focuses on hydro-geochemistry of Chanchaga area which forms an integral part of Minna North Central, Nigeria. The area is underlain by the Precambrian Basement Complex crystalline rocks such as Schist, Migmatite Gneiss and Granites. These rocks are dominantly structured in NE – SW and N – S directions. These structures have effect on both surface drainage pattern and influence the groundwater and surface water flow directions in the area.



      Trupti Pradhan

Abstract: Adolescence is the period in which foundations can be laid for a long and healthy life. It is a prime time for health promotion and for establishment of healthy behaviour that will influence health in later years. This transition phase makes them vulnerable to a number of problems, for example, psychosocial problems, general and reproductive health problems, and sexuality related problems. Hence the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of adolescent girls regarding reproductive health. The study was conducted among the + 2 students of JotiVihar Junior College and N.A.C. College, Burla of Sambalpur district Odisha. The numbers of samples were 100. Purposive sampling method was used for data collection and self-formulated questionnaire was used to collect data from adolescent students to assess their level of knowledge on reproductive health issues. It consists of questions on background information, and reproductive health issues like menstruation/ menarche/ pubertal changes, teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion, RTIs, STDs and HIV/AIDS. It was found that the girls had just average knowledge about Reproductive Health. This is a matter of great concern. Thus Reproductive health problems should be discussed among adolescents, especially for girls through health clubs, seminars, lectures, counselling and intervention programmes at school and college level.



      Inderpreet Kaur, Preetinder Singh

Abstract: Power transformers are ‘ the heart of substation’. They are the vital links between generation and transmission. A failure can cause hug revenue loss to utilities. It can cause non availability of transformers for long hours. Several diagnostic tests are carried out and remedial actions are initiated through the operational lifetime of transformers for ensuring trouble free, non interrupted power supply to consumers. Oil filled transformers in service for more than 15 years, it is highly recommended to assess the remnant life. RLA can be done by assessing the deterioration of cellulose from furan concentration and degree of polymerization. This analysis helps utilities to take timely decisions regarding refurbishment or replacement of the transformer. This paper presents the real life case study of assessing the health of cellulosic paper insulation and transformer oil of six different transformers in the state of Punjab. All the transformers have been in service for more than 40 years.



      W.D. Ratnasooriya, R.N.Pathirana, A.S.Dissanayake, B.L.C.Samanmali and P.K.Desman

Abstract: At present, there is a need and demand for the development of safe, cheap and effective topical herbal formulations as sun screens. In this context, this study was initiated to evaluate the sunscreen potential of a Sri Lankan salt marshy plant, Salicornia brachiata Roxb (Family: Amaranthaceae; formally Family: Chenopodiacea) in vitro using a UV spectroscopic technique and Mansur equation. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value was ascertained (which is an index of sun protection activity) using a methanolic extract having a concentration of 2.0 mgmL-1. Methanol soluble fraction of Dermatone® (2.0 mgmL-1), a well known sunscreen cream, was used as the reference agent. The results showed that the plant extract has a markedly high absorbance values (3.0-3.2) at 290-320 nm range with a SPF value of 30.89 (which is a novel finding) whilst the reference agent exhibited a SPF value of 34.23. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols and steroids. It is concluded that a safe, cheap and efficacious topical sun screen formulation could be developed from salt marshy plant S. brachiata.



      Hay Mar Yu Maung, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

Abstract: In this paper, a new approach of face detection system is developed. This system develops the algorithm for computing the accurate measurement of face features. The task of detecting and locating human faces in arbitrary images is complex due to the variability present across human faces, including skin color, pose, expression, position and orientation, and the presence of ‘facial furniture’ such as glasses or facial hair. In this system, a neural network-based upright frontal face detection system is presented. A retinally connected neural network examines small windows of an image, and decides whether each window contains a face. The system arbitrates between multiple networks to improve performance over a single network. A straightforward procedure for aligning positive face examples for training was presented. It uses a transformer that converts an image of human face into a feature vector, which will then be compared with the feature vectors of a training set of human faces to classify the image. Some mathematical concepts are used to calculate the distance and angles between feature points. And histogram equalization is used to enhance the selected feature. In this paper, faces are chosen because it can generate the significant features for human face than other techniques. Finally, matching is accomplished by detecting the test photo. For programming and simulation of this system, MATLAB software is applied. The neural network toolbox “nntool” is called from the main function for training system. This research develops a simple face detection system for to provide the security system.



      May San Hlaing, Zaw Min Naing, Maung Maung Latt, Win Khine Moe, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: As a result of the limitations of human cognitive skills, judgment, decision-making, and tactical understanding in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), there is a need to redesign the current human-computer interface (HCI) for Autopilot control to improve the interaction and communication links between operators and the UAVs. This system displays the information to increase situational awareness; the operator will see everything, interpret it, make appropriate decisions, and have the ability to implement the decision. Multiple interfaces are developed using C’s Graphical User Interface (GUI) capabilities as a simulation environment. Both alternatives will combine buttons and place them in sequential order according to the steps needed to initialize UAVs and flight paths. Usability tests with participants are conducted to measure their performance based on previously determined metrics: the time it takes to train a participant on how to use the interface, the time to complete a task, the number of errors that occur during the task, and the satisfaction level. Based on the simulation results alternatives are redesigned and retested in order to achieve improved performance. An interface that reduces the cognitive workload on an operator to allow better situational awareness of the environment is determined.



      Prof D. A. Egunyomi, Adekunle Olatumile Ph.D

Abstract: In Africa there is a high dependence on biological resources for survival. Consequently, it is expedient to evolve a means of managing natural resources in a sustainable manner. This paper identified the inadequacy of western model of conservation in the management of natural environment in Africa. It puts in perspective that the African traditional indigenous systems for environment management were appropriate and culture-based. It suggested a system of education packaged within the framework of this indigenous coping strategy that enjoys a higher degree of flexibility and will facilitate understanding of modern and western model of environmental management.



      Ann Ikahu, Susan Njuguna, Maureen Adoyo, Joseph Gatimu, Dr Lilian Otiso

Abstract: The HIV policy in Kenya recommends routine HIV testing and counselling to all clients attending public health facilities to facilitate early diagnosis and enrolment to care and treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends task shifting in HIV testing and counselling to ease the burden on medical health workers. There is limited evidence on implementation of task shifting in a public health facilities in Kenya.



      Gamage TV, Basnayake BFA

Abstract: Dengue in recent years has become a worldwide public health concern. So far, there was no defined treatment for it. Therefore, secondary interpretation of a therapeutic trial study was done to evaluate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extract against Dengue fever by application of chemical kinetic studies.



      Onwughalu M.K, Nwosu N.O

Abstract: This work involves stability study of a power system using Humpage modified model. Humpage modified model of power system is a single machine equivalent of power system, through transmission network connected to infinite busbar, with control. The target of every power engineer is to obtain hundred percent stability in power systems, but this has never been achieved. That is why, stability studies in power systems has been a topic of concern in everyday research. In this work, a three phase, double line and single line to ground faults were respectively inflicted on the generator busbar of the test system and cleared after sometime. Runge kutta 4thorder integration method was used to provide the evolution of the generator’s rotor angle() for each fault. Afterobtaining the electric power with the system equation, the steady state of the system was confirmed using Gauss-seidal load flow method. Afterwards, the line was compensated using static VAR compensator (SVC) and power system stabilizer (PSS) to enhance the stability and damping. Model simulation was done with sympowersystem in matlab environment and the results analyzed. The tendency of the rotor angle vs time curves was used to determine the in(stability) of the system. The transient stabilities of the single line to ground, double line to ground and three phase faults were simulated to study the effects of the power system stabilizers (PSS) and static VAR compensation (SVC) on the introduction of the different faults on three different occasions (a) when neither PSS and SVC is on during fault (b) when only PSS is on and (c) when both PSS and SVC are on.



      Onwughalu, M.k

Abstract: The deregulated power sectors suffer from congestion management problems. The congestion occurs when the generation and consumption of electric power causes the transmission system to operate beyond transfer limits. This paper deals with congestion on deregulated energy market and methods of managing its effects. The use of TCSC is also proposed to enhance the transfer capability which is needed to meet the rapidly changing demand of competitive markets. Power system load growth is increasing at a faster rate as compared to the increase in transmission capability. This has forced the system to move large amount of power over transmission system and created challenges associated with it. In the open access system where anybody can buy or sell energy there is a heavy transmission utilization in certain areas which was not planned initially. This has increased the need of improvements in the transfer capability of the system while maintaining the system security and reliability. This paper proposes an innovative technique for location of FACTS device using complex valued neural network.



      Caesar K. Simpson

Abstract: This paper examined the impact of foreign currency derivatives on firm value using several findings from firms across the world with significant exchange rate exposure. The results show that foreign currency derivatives usage affect firm value positively. The study also revealed that foreign currency derivatives can be used for managers’ self-interest, for hedging or for speculative purposes. Furthermore, the study found strong evidence that the use of foreign currency derivatives for firms that have strong internal firm-level or external country-level corporate governance is associated with a significant value premium. The paper therefore emphasizes that investors can appeal to a firm’s internal (firm-level) and external (country-level) corporate governance to draw inferences on a firm’s motive behind the use of derivatives, since well-governed firms are more likely to use derivatives to hedge rather than to speculate or pursue managers’ self-interest.



      Kirti Onkar Prajapati, Harshwardhan Uddhage, Sanjay Kumbhare, Krishna Kumar Thakur

Abstract: Heat exchanger is mainly associated with transfer heat from one fluid to another fluid either in direct contact with each other or separated by wall. The heat exchangers characteristics are concerned with the rate of heat transfer between the fluids with assuming the flow to be uniform throughout the core of the exchanger. But in actual practice it is usually the flow Non-uniformity that occurs and adversely affects the Heat Transfer rate and heat exchange properties of the heat exchanger. The major non-uniform flow is caused due to poor header design or restrictions in flow at microscopic level as a result of manufacturing operations on the surface. The CFD analysis of Heat exchanger is achieved considering the concept of Viscosity induced flow Non-Uniformity through the exchanger tubes. With the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics package FLUENT relative analysis pertaining to Non-uniform flow is carried out. The matter of interest of this paper is to analyze the heat transfer related to two mean temperatures namely cross-sectional and adiabatic mean temperature.



      D.Vimal Chand, R.Sriram, D.Udaya Kumar

Abstract: The flow over multi-element airfoils has been numerically investigated in ansys fluent and has been compare the aerodynamic parameters with the standard NACA airfoils 4412 and 0012. The 2D viscous, transient, pressure model equations together with the k-ω turbulence model were applied to this numerical simulation utilizing the multi-block unstructured grids of sphere of influence type. Numerical results showed that the aerodynamic parameters of multi element airfoils with tail effect is much optimum than the standard naca airfoils. Also the analysis is made on different flap and slat angles of different conditions and the optimization of multi element airfoils has been performed.



      M.G.Karunambigai,O.K.Kalaivani

Abstract: In this study, MATLAB program for computing power of an IF matrix, strength of connectedness and index matrix of an IFG and its line IFG have been developed. This has been formulated using the theoretical aspects which are proved in [4]. These programs have been verified with suitable illustrations. The proposed MATLAB program is simple, efficient and takes less computational time in image segmentation. The author hopes that this paper will benefit other researchers who are working in the field image segmentation, fuzzy graph theory and intuitionistic fuzzy graph theory.



      H.C. Ejiobih; Prof. M.N. Ono, And Prof. A.Q. Ibrahim

Abstract: Wastewater from industrial and domestic operations are disposed into surface water in most urban Nigerian cities culminating into water management problems. This study used GIS (Geographic Information System) to investigate the level of ecological impacts of domestic wastewater disposal on Bida Town. From the findings about fifty three percent (53.4%) of the sampled households have sources of ecological impacts and parts of their land surfaces negatively effected by domestic wastewater disposals. The Core region of the study area has sixty percent (60%) average negative ecological impacts and the Outer region thirty four percent (34%) average. The authors recommend; formal and non-formal education on domestic wastewater disposal, new edict on standard domestic wastewater disposal facilities and creation of GIS database for ecological impacts of domestic wastewater disposal for the study area.



      Ejiobih, Hyginus Chidozie, Prof. M.N. Ono and, Prof. A.Q. Ibrahim

Abstract: In many parts of the world, including United States of America, health problems and diseases have often been caused by discharging untreated or inadequately treated wastewater into the environment. This study employed GIS (Geographic Information System) techniques at the data collection, analysis and presentation stages to investigate the health impacts of domestic wastewater disposal in the study area. The research discovered that about eighty six percent (86%) of the sampled households have negative health impacts on land surfaces, waterbodies and human beings in the study area. There are significant average negative impacts of domestic wastewater disposal on all the eight Areas and two regions of the study area. The authors recommend; formal and informal education, new and efficient Government Agency, new legislation, and a GIS inventory database for domestic wastewater disposal for the study area.



      Subhankar Chattoraj, Aditya Chakraborty

Abstract: In today’s world, there is a continuous need for automated appliances. With the increase in the living standards, there is an immediate need for developing circuits that would change the complexity of life to simplicity. This Project title “Bidirectional Visitor Counter with Automatic Room Light Controller and Arduino as the master controller” is designed and presented in order to count the visitors of an auditorium, hall, offices, malls, sports venue, etc. The system counts both the entering and exiting visitor of the auditorium or hall or other place, where it is placed. Depending upon the sensors interruption, the system identifies the entry and exit of the visitor. On the successful implementation of the system, it displays the number of visitor present in the auditorium or hall. This is an economical cost reducing system when implemented in places where the visitors have to be counted and controlled. Counting the visitors can be time consuming so it helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, time saving and sales potential of an organization, etc.



      Sama Falah Al-Bomfargi, MScN, Batool AminAl-Ani, PhD

Abstract: Objective(s):The present study aims at determining the levels of follow-up standards of kidney transplant recipients in Baghdad Teaching Hospitals.



      K.Ramya

Abstract: The study mainly focuses on perception of customers towards organized retail sector and the promotional efforts taken by them. Organised retail sector is an upcoming trend and it started booming in India. It is expected that by 2016 modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 175-200 billion. Due to strong income growth, Changing life style, fun and entertainment and favourable demographic patterns create a need for organized retail sector. Coimbatore is the second largest city in Tamilnadu after Chennai, but it is yet to get attention from large number of retailers the way other cities in India have been receiving. With the new opening of Fun Republic and Brookfield Plaza people in Coimbatore will experience organized retail boom and find quality space for shopping and entertainment. But with the city of a population 20 lakhs this two malls are not enough there is a need for 4-5 malls and so that it do enormous business in the city. So study towards customer perception is essential.



      Harpreet Singh, Hemant Joshi, Pratiksha Mishra, Yogesh Chaudary, Mitesh Gaur

Abstract: The study started with an aim of concoct a Checklist of birds in and around College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Navania Vallabhnagar – Udaipur (24º 39' 15.2"N & 74º 01' 26.8"E) and also to know about their distribution and activity within the campus. The spell of the study was one year from June 2015 to June 2016 to spot presence of birds during summer as well as in winter. Total 116 species were identified belonging to 45 families, there were 36 species (31%) of birds which can be considered as common followed by 28 very common ones (24%). 38 species (33%) were encountered occasional whereas 14 species (12%) were rare. The number of species observed in winter were more in comparison to summer due to migratory species (35 species). The study shows the presence of some bird species of global importance categorized in IUCN Red Data List including: White rumped vulture, Egyptian vulture, Sarus crane, Painted stork, Black necked stork, Black headed ibis, Black tailed godwit. The Favourable ecological conditions like wetland, roosting places, food, shrubs and undisturbed area were chief reasons of attracting various birds.



      Nadar Prince, Abhishek Sengupta, Juie Shah and Yogesh Chandurkar

Abstract: In this paper, we have made use of R-Programming, an open-source statistical computation and datamining language for computation of Discrete Fourier Transform. Computation of DFT is illustrated because it is the most fundamental concept in Digital Signal Processing and helps in establishing a platform for implementing other Digital Signal Processing algorithms, as a result, R-Programming can serve as an alternative to other software’s like MATLAB, Octave, etc. At the same time, it can be extensively used with other statistical packages provided by R-Programming.



      S. Nazreen Hassan

Abstract: Research findings have indicated the extent of awareness knowledge and adoption of banana cultivation technologies in Tirunelveli district. The study was taken up with a sample size of 120 farmers from three blocks of Nanguneri, Kalakkad and Cheranmahadevi with soil types of red sand, red loam and river alluvium respectively. Most farmers in the study area are small farmers and also their annual income ranged between one lakh and three lakhs. Most farmers in Nanguneri (35%), Kalakkad (50%) and Cheranmahadevi (52.5%) had an experience of more than 20 years in farming. All the farmers in the study area are in contact with the AAO. Most of the farmers watch TV (91.6%) and read newspapers (81.6) for agricultural related information. It was also found that adoption of recommended practices in banana cultivation had significant relationship with information seeking behaviour. From adoption gap in the twelve practices studied, it was seen that highest adoption gap was noticed in practices like application of micronutrients (98.33) followed by use of growth regulators (89.17%) and intercropping (80%) in earlier stage. The study reveals that the pattern of awareness gap, knowledge gap and adoption gap are similar. But the magnitude for adoption gap is twice higher than that of awareness gap and knowledge gap. Regarding the stages of adoption awareness and knowledge stage has been well addressed by the state department. The farmers are also convinced about the technologies. Since most farmers are small and marginal farmers, their perception is more on the results to which they are uncertain and feel that the technologies with higher adoption gap only further increases their cost of production.



      Epimaco A. Cabanlit, Jr, Wincel Shayne A. Dinampo

Abstract: The mixture of distributions is a good model to some realities where the population consists of heterogeneous components. This paper presents some of the important summaries of the mixture of two logistic distributions such as the Mean, Variance and Moment Generating Function. Moreover, various graphs of the mixture with different values of the mixing parameters are presented.



      M.V.K.S Wickramanayake, R. A. Maithreepala and H.B. Asanthi

Abstract: This study was focused to assess efficiency and toxicity of an oil dispersant (Adt type 3) under the laboratory conditions. Swirling Flask Test (SFT) and Baffled Flask Test (BFT) were used for effectiveness assessments using Murban crude oil (density 0.837gcm-3) as the reference oil. The locally made baffled flask was used with 100μl of oil, 4μl of dispersant and120ml of filtered seawater at 1:25 dispersant to oil ratio. The SFT was followed using1:10 dispersant to oil ratio and the dispersant efficiency was expressed as a ratio between amount of oil initially added to test flask and amount of oil extracted to dichloromethane (DCM).



      Adekola Alex Taylor

Abstract: This paper shows the mathematical analysis involved in the derivation of a unified formula for position change of entities in power inductive distributions of Kola analysis. This paper proved that in power inductive distributions of distributive regeneration of ordered system, where the total number of ordered entities [n(E)] could be expressed in exponential form of Ca, and where C is the number of columns with each column having the same number of entities, the mathematical formula connecting the horizontal position ranking value [Phdx] of an entity at distribution (x) and the vertical position ranking value [Pvd(x+1)] of the same entity at distribution (x + 1) obeys a rectilinear equation.



      Carmelle Rogers and Tatiana Roth

Abstract: Chalkboards and piles of handouts are quickly becoming ancient teaching tools. In todays high-tech and fast-paced society, it is imperative that we are proficient in the use of computers and other revolutionary electronic devices. Specifically, teaching science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines with current technology can enhance learning. In order to understand current student perceptions on the use of technology when learning science subjects at Coppin State University, 166 students participated in a survey. This survey included questions over the use of automated response systems (clickers), the Tegrity lecture capture program, and the Blackboard course management system. Results demonstrate students had an overall positive view of these technologies and in particular would like to see more of these technologies implemented in other courses.



      Ng’ayo N. Frodwa, Barbara Burmen, Benta Akoth, Kiiyukia Ciira

Abstract: The quantification of CD4 T-lymphocytes, an important marker of HIV disease progression, signals initiation of or regulation of antiretroviral therapy. The study assessed the accuracy of CD4 tests results generated at five public health laboratories in Kisumu County- Kenya. Samples from HIV positive patients that had been tested for CD4 at five high volume (>1000 tests/month), high proximity (within 100km radius of Kisumu county) laboratories were retested at the reference laboratory. Results were entered into a Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed to determine the percentage coefficient of variation (CV), the mean difference and the concordance correlation coefficient between results generated at the public health laboratories and the local reference laboratory. A coefficient of variation of ≤ 13 %, a mean difference of ±50 cells/µl and a concordance correlation coefficient of ≥ 0.90 were considered to be within acceptable limits. Overall, repeat test results had a mean CV of 10.5% (Range: 8.9%-11.4%) and a mean difference of -15 cells/µl (Range: -3.3; -47.2). Laboratory A had the least coefficient of variation of 8.9%, the least bias; -3.33 cells/ µl (-119.59; -112.93) and the highest concordance correlation coefficient of (0.98) hence most accurate of all. The CD4 results at all laboratories were comparable to the reference laboratory results. The CD4 Proficiency Testing (PT) program is a feasible alternative to formal costly External Quality Assessment (EQA) programs for CD4 testing. Scale up of repeat testing PT could encourage continuous quality improvement in CD4 testing among laboratories in Kenya.



      Vijay K.Kamble, Prof. Kishor N. Wagh

Abstract: Increasing demand in energy facilitated the need of clean energy such as wind energy. This study was done to investigate the design and development of a micro Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Savonius Type. In regions where wind speed is limited Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) do not have a practical application due to high wind speed requirement. VAWT provide operational abilities at lower speeds and do not require an alignment mechanism. Today, the most commonly used wind turbine is the Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), where the axis of rotation is parallel to the ground. However, there exist other types of wind turbines, one of which will be the primary focus of this paper, the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). These devices can operate in flows coming from any direction, and take up much less space than a traditional HAWT and VAWT are definitely a credible source of energy for the future.



      Kavita, Ms. Manjeet Kaur

Abstract: The biometric is a study of human behavior and features. Face recognition is a technique of biometric. Various approaches are used for it. A survey for all these techniques is in this paper for analyzing various algorithms and methods. Face recognition is emerging branch of biometric for security as no faces can be defeated as a security approach. So, how we can recognize a face with the help of computers is given in this paper.



      NIVEDITA KAMTAM, VIVEK PATEL, NAVEEN NAMANI

Abstract: Global interest in controlling energy resources has dramatically increased due to many reasons. We cannot continue to depend on fossil fuels for our requirements. This is where solar energy comes into picture. The advantages of using solar energy are the cost reduction of installation in the case of non availability of electric grid and contribution to the protection of the environments as solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source. This research focuses on the employment of a solar lighting system which can make a 3 watt lamp glow.



      Shri Pakngu Lombi

Abstract: The Galo who have been taken as the subject matter of this paper constitute one of the major tribe and dominant people of West Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh. They have settled in the West of Subansiri river and extends up to the Sido river, a little beyond the Simen river in south-eastern part of West Siang district. Out of 21 circles in district Galo occupied in 13 circles. The Galos have distinct indigenous perception related on the shifting cultivation as presume from the time immemorial which has some affinity with other tribes like Adi, Memba, Khamba and Nyishi and Apatani tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. But till date no systematic anthropological work has been done so far in this regard. So in this paper an attempt has been made to highlight some aspect on perception related to crops, emotional attachment, seasons etc. among farmers of Galo tribe of West Siang in Arunachal Pradesh.



      Mai Viet Van, Huynh Van Hien, Dang Thi Phuong, Nguyen Thi Kim Quyen, Dao Thi Viet Nga and Le Anh Tuan

Abstract: Ca Mau Peninsula (CMP) locates in Mekong Delta, Vietnam is a conflict area in the use of freshwater and brackish water due to existing of both types of ecosystems. The irrigation works systems (IWS) in CMP were planned and constructed to serve local communities’ economic development. The aims of this study are to investigate the impact of irrigation works on livelihoods of fishing community in Ca Mau Peninsula, Viet Nam.



      Dr. Alice A. Anika, Dr Ali Kiti, Ms Berther Othoche

Abstract: Knowledge level on HIV/AIDS is still of paramount importance to every individual across the world. This is because HIV virus is still a killer disease and no vaccine has been discovered to date A baseline survey was conducted among 265 participants out of a total population of 379 in one of the Universities in Kenya (Pwani University) on staff knowledge level on HIV and AIDS. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used for data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis technique was used to analyze data. The study found out that staff HIV knowledge level varied on various areas tested, Knowledge level on HIV infection and transmission was 94.3%, CI 95.86-100, p < 0.05 and protection was 95.7%. Due to varied response to and low knowledge level in some areas, further studies on prevention is still necessary.



      Dr. Y. Monojit Singha

Abstract: The paper analyses movements of different small ethnic groups belonging to both tribal and non-tribal communities in the state of Assam and attempts to understand why tension arose in the first place and remains today. This article further focuses to understand why ethnic groups engaged in bitter relationship and it explores the intricacies and possibilities of a solution to the problem. Examining the role of the state in asserting and confronting such tensions between the competing communities becomes another objective of the paper.



      James Paul

Abstract: This paper seeks to revisit the contentious causality relationship between Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA) and economic growth in the pioneering Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN-5) using data from 1970 till 2013. The purpose of this report is to investigate the impact of trade openness and their combined interaction on economic growth in selected countries before and after AFTA implemented. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the key element for economic growth, hence this analysis divided into two major section (i) FDI and (ii) other parameter that contribute to economic growth such as import, export and deregulation of tariff rate. Base on the time series analysis the Granger Causality test show mixed result among ASEAN-5. The result show AFTA has restructured the AESN-5 into export oriented due to liberalization their economies and bring down their tariffs and commit to various types of liberalization programs. The finding show the main advantage of AFTA is increased intra-regional trade and investment and improved resource allocation within the region. These benefits can be captured as tariffs and other trade barriers are reduced and markets are integrated.



      Ng . Lamnganbi Devi and E .J. Singh

Abstract: Seasonal changes in in soil respiration and its relationship with microbial population was studied in sub-tropical mixed oak forest ecosystem of Kounu Hill, Senapati District, Manipur, located at a distance of 25 km from Imphal city which falls at 93°55´E longitude and 24°54´N latitude at an altitude of 941 m from mean sea level by using alkali absorption method .The rate of soil respiration was highest during the rainy season (345.98 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1) and minimum during the winter season (195.71 mg CO2 m-2 hr-1). The microbial population i,e bacterial and fungal population showed a significant positive relationship with the rate of soil respiration. The microbial population was maximum in rainy season and minimum during winter. Abiotic variables (i,e. soil temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, air temperature and soil moisture) also exhibited a positive significant relationship with the rate of soil respiration.



      Dr Mukti S Harne, Dr Sumedha Harne

Abstract: Benign cystic teratomas also known by various names dermoid cysts, considered under the category of germ cell tumors of the ovary accounts for 20-25% of all ovarian tumors and are bilateral in 10-15% of cases.1They have a low incidence of malignancy, reported as 1-3%.2,3



      Herald T. Douglas, Raymond L. Petersen, Mintesinot Jiru and Tatiana Roth

Abstract: Field studies suggest that in phytotelm communities of Sarracenia purpurea, the absence of pitcher-plant specific larvae of the mosquito Wyeomyia smithii and the chironomid midge Metriocnemus knabi resulted in higher concentrations of Euglena. Conversely, a pitcher inquiline in which these larvae were present had lower concentrations of Euglena and algae, in general. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the Euglena-concentration with the absence of larvae, rose from near zero to 105 cells/mL after 14 day and by day-28, it exceeded 3 x 105 cells/mL. When only M. knabi larvae were present, the Euglena-concentration rose to 7 x 104 cells/mL by day-14 and to 2 x 105 cells/mL by day-28. When the larvae of the mosquito W. smithii were present, either by themselves or commensally with M. knabi, the Euglena-concentration remained below 104 cells/mL. Microscopic inspection of both M. knabi and W. smithii larvae revealed that, in the presence of Euglena, their guts turned green. We concluded that predation by W. smithii and M. knabi larvae suppress the growth of Euglena. These larvae prevent algae from overwhelming the pitcher-plant phytotelm and thus may play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of S. purpurea’s inquiline community.



      K.Bhuvaneswari and K. Mythili Gnanapriya

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to define and study some properties of Nano generalized pre-homeomorphisms in Nano topological spaces.



      Emad Abdulmajid Algamoodi

Abstract: Finance is the study of funds and management. Its general areas are business finance, personal finance, and public finance. It also deals with the concepts of time, money, risk, and the interrelation between the given factors. It is basically focused on how the money is spent and budgeted. It is one of the most important aspects in handling business. Finance addresses the methods wherein business entities used their financial resources on a certain period of time. It is the application of a set of techniques used by organizations in managing their financial affairs.



      Denda Rinaldi Hadinata, Muhammad Syamsun, Abdul Basith

Abstract: Basically, a market leader is the first brand being launched (the pioneer brand). However, there come up some new brands following those pioneer brands with the same product categories. The pioneer brands must attempt to maintain their position to compete with the following brands because they will always attempt to be the market leader. In the competition among pioneer brands and following brands, the pioneer brands have a better quality compared to the following brands which are having chances to be more easily remembered, aware, and chosen. The brands analyzed in this study were Sariwangi and Sosro. Sariwangi is the pioneer brand, but in fact the consumers are still choosing other tea bags. The objective of this research is to reveal the influence of brand awareness and image toward the status of pioneer brand and consumers’ interest. The sampling technique used 100 respondents. The data were analyzed using SEM and SMARTPLS. Based on the hypotheses test, it is revealed that (1) brand awareness has a positive influence toward brand image with T-statistic 35.932 for Sariwangi and 18.519 for Sosro, (2) brand image has positive influence toward pioneer brand with T-statistic 7.671 for Sariwangi and 4.244 for Sosro, (3) brand awareness has a positive influence toward pioneer brand with T-statistic 3.644 for Sariwangi and 2.785 for Sosro, (4) brand awareness has a positive influence toward consumers’ interest with T-statistic 2.766 for Sariwangi and 3.868 for Sosro, (5) pioneer brand has a positive influence toward consumers’ interest with T-statistic 5,636 for Sariwangi and 6.074 for Sosro, and (6) brand image has no positive influence toward consumers’ interest with T-statistic 1.929 for Sariwangi and 0.549 for Sosro. Therefore, it is concluded that Sariwangi and Sosro have the same SEM structure.



      AUB Pethiyagoda, K Pethiyagoda

Abstract: Colour Doppler ultrasound scan has a recognized place in evaluation of patients with ureteric calculi. The purpose of this study was to assess the ureteric jet characteristic variations according to size and site of ureteric calculi. This descriptive study was conducted using 83 patients with suspected calculus disease, aged 20-60years, who presented to genitourinary clinic, Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. All the patients underwent X-ray KUB and Colour Doppler Sonography with ureteral jet assessments, their S.Creatinine and UFR. Ultrasound KUB and Colour Doppler evaluation of ureteric jet was done by a radiologist as a non-variable single observer test. This study was conducted over one year period. As the results, there were 56.1% (N=46) subjects with right sided calculi and 43.9% (N=36) subjects with left sided calculi. There was no significant difference of stone sizes in relation to presence of ureteric jets (P = 0.619). Majority of calculi were impacted at VUJ. Mid ureteric calculi associated with highest percentage of absent ureteric jet and frequency of ureteric jet was significantly associated with the degree of obstruction.



      A.K. Yusuf, P.A.P. Mamza, A.S. Ahmed and U. Agunwa

Abstract: Using two different formulations with isocyanate/polyol (NCO/OH) ratios of 1/2 and 1/1, rigid castor oil-based polyurethane foams (RCPUFs) were prepared by one-shot method. Foam reaction involved glycerolyzed castor oil containing varying concentrations (10-60 wt.%) of the modifier, and 80:20 mixture of 2,4- and 2,6- toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at room temperature, in presence of stannous octoate and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) catalysts, methylene chloride (physical blowing agent) and silicone oil (surfactant). Hydroxyl number range for the modified castor oil polyols (MCOPs) was 168 – 320mgKOH/g.



      Wasma Armin, Kh. Ashraf-Uz-Zaman, Sheikh Shawkat Zamil, Mominul Haque Rabin, Asim Kumar Bhadra, Fahima Khatun

Abstract: An experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University during the period from February to April (kharif-I season) of 2012 to study the effect of different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of mungbean (BARI Mung 6) using RCBD (Randomized Completely Block Design) with three replications. During the experiment, three different organic fertilizers (Poultry manure, vermicompost and farm yard manure) were combined with four doses of inorganic fertilizers (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of optimum dose) and one control treatment using no fertilizer and one treatment using only 100% of the optimum doses were included.



      Kumar Digvijay, Raman Vashistha,Shikha Chandel ,Yogesh Gujrati ,Easther Rani, Sanjiv Jasuja

Abstract: Previous different studies in India reported that, transmission of infection to patients occurs through two general routes, airborne and contact. Air is a major source of infection because air within the hospital may act as a reservoir of pathogenic microorganisms. The present study was carried out to determine the degree of “Hospital Infection Control” in different locations of Indraprastha Apollo Hospital New Delhi including OT, IPD, CSSD, MICU, NICU, Kitchen, using different clinical specimens mainly Air sample, Environmental swabs and Hands swabs, from Jan 09 to Jun 09.



      Aziz ÖZTÜRK, Esin CEYLAN

Abstract: In the last years, together with that women have begun to take place in business life, the time they reserve for shopping form a problem. Depending on this, that traditional shopping method creates time loss and provides time saving for consumers become effective in choosing internet shopping.



      Indu Soni, Preeti Tiwari, Suneeta Patra

Abstract: Aerobiological studies are very important as they provide with qualitative and quantitative information about airborne fungi in a given region .Fungi are diverse group of organisms and are found in large number and amount in the indoor and outdoor environment. The study deals with the survey of the fungal diversity at the Railway station of Bilaspur (C.G.). The present study has been done for analysing the aeromycoflora of winter season, from November 2015 to February 2016. The culture plate method has been adopted for trapping the mycoflora. After sampling slides were mounted with glycerine and observed under microscope. In this study 44 fungal species and 31 fungal genera were obtained in which Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Alternaria and Fusarium was most dominant. Environmental factors plays important role for the dispersal of the fungal spores. The main aim of the aerobiological survey is the biotic particles present in the atmosphere especially fungal spores.



      V.Diwakar , K.Venkatesh

Abstract: For any gas turbine engines, various systems are involved for the safe and reliable operation, in that oil system plays a vital role for the engine lubrication .Oil pump is the most significant equipment as a part of engine oil system. The main function of oil pump in the engine is to supply lubricating oil to various rotating and sliding parts of an engine in order to prevent the wear & tear, excessive heat generated during the engine operation.



      Syamsul Bahri, Sangkala, Muhammad Yunus,Hamsinah

Abstract: The general phenomenon that occurs at this time that the appointment of civil servants in a structural position in the controversial various groups of practitioners and theoretically even votes from the public itself. Where is an issue that the behavior of decision makers ignore the standards and as well as the principles of competence, so that the resulting decisions it does not reflect the organization's objectives but emphasizes personal interests. Therefore, the study of the decision-making process in determining the structural officials Makassar City Department of Education conducted to analyze the decision-making process in determining the structural officials Makassar City Department of Education.



      Monica Henny Sudaryati

Abstract: Government Policy to madrasah ibtidaiyah has not impacted to learning effectivivenss yet, as well as leadership and less professional teacher.



      Baishali Dutta Chowdhury, Anirban Nath, Tapash Dasgupta

Abstract: The present study provides a vivid idea regarding iron, zinc and protein content of 65 diverse rice germplasm in association with yield and yield attributing traits. Experiment was conducted using RBD design (Randomized Block Design) and ANOVA was done for estimation of variation in the population under study. The estimation of heritability and Genetic advance obtained proves that most of the characters are profitable tools for selection in future breeding programs. Correlation coefficient analysis suggests a positive correlation between zinc and iron content indicating that selection of any of the micronutrient content will provide an approximate idea regarding the probable estimate of the other. Path analysis was performed providing valuable input regarding influence of different traits upon yield per plant.



      Prity Kumari, Upendra Kumar, Shyam Krishna Singh

Abstract: Cryptography is the study of techniques for ensuring the secrecy and authentication of the information. In this paper use two algorithm RSA and ECC cryptography to encrypt and decrypt the video file. Elliptic Curve Cryptography recently gained a lot of attention in industry. The principal attraction of ECC compared to RSA is that it offers equal security for a smaller bit size, thereby reducing processing overhead .In RSA we firstly generate key pair and secondly encryption decryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the video then apply ECC algorithm to encrypt/decrypt of encrypted/decrypted RSA video. It gives more and more security to our video file. Elliptic curve arithmetic can be used to develop a variety of elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) schemes including key exchange, encryption and digital signature. The mathematic background of ECC is more complex than other cryptographic systems just as Geometry, abstract algebra, number theory. ECC provides greater security and more efficient performance than the first generation public key techniques (RSA and Diffie-Hellman), Mobile systems, Systems required high security level (such as 256 bit AES).



      Septinus Saa, Deddy T. Tikson, Tahir Haning, Hasniati

Abstract: The study aims to analyze the effectiveness of its services with no formalism in Jayapura District Yowari Hospital. This study is a qualitative study using a case study approach that refers to Sala Model in the Theory of Prismatic Society. The data collection was done by using interviews, observation and documentation. Informants were purposively selected from various elements namely the element of hospital management, medical staff, nursing and midwifery, local governments and the patient/family who totaled 42 and were selected purposively. The data were analyzed qualitatively with descriptive approach. The results showed that the inconsistency in the implementation of the rules or formal provision is a trait that occurs almost evenly on all kinds of services, and a very dominant place in the administrative services and management. The implication of the formalism is in effective several types of hospital services. Nature of certain types of services, it was found that despite the formalism but effective ministry, where the case for their bribes (Bribe), as well as unofficial payments (inforrmal payment).



      Nadhifah Attamimi, Mahmud Tang, H.Hamka Naping, H.M.Yamin Sani

Abstract: This study examines perceptions awoke with regard to Marriage Different Countries conducted by Sirri marriage Couples and Marriage Contracts in the area of Puncak Cianjur regency. Perceptions are formed in the form of bouncing back against marriages more countries caused by the understanding that marriage is done by the same difference that State is the marriage contract as long as this is understood as a veiled sexual practices in the tourist area of Puncak. This research was conducted starting in 2015-201 using ethnographic studies that displays daily committed by the mother or wife of a marriage partner and contracts Sirri marriage different countries. The data collection is done by conducting in-depth interviews with some households as key informants and several other informants composed of village officials, community leaders and some workers in the tourist area of Puncak.



      Adnan A. Abdulrasool , Hadi A. Basher, Nagham Q. Shari, Mustafa J. Aldulaimi

Abstract: The present work represents a parametric study with experimental and numerical work to study the natural convection heat transfer from a cube which represent an electric module fixed in a relatively long duct tilted at different angles of (horizontal), , and . Module side length (L=30mm) fixed at different locations of (X/L=5,10 and 15) with different input power of (0.147, 0.51, 0.96, 1.65, 2.34 and 3.075) Watt, which represent a heat flux of (32.67, 113.33, 213.33, 366.67, 520 and 683.33) W/m2 respectively.



      Sulaeman, M. Syamsul Maarif, M Joko Affandi

Abstract: The purposes of this researchare to formulate the best strategy for University of 45 Mataram to overcome the lack of lecturers in departmentand to formulate a strategy to attract potential candidatesfrom any field of studyto be lecturers in University of 45 Mataram. This research used mix method, where the data was collected by giving questionnairesto 13 selected respondents, namely the leaders of University of 45 Mataramwho havecompetence on lecturer planning. Based on findings, there isa lack of lecturers in 3 departments: 20 lecturers in department of law, 3lecturers in department of aquaculture, and 6 lecturers in department of public administration. Meanwhile, there is surplus of lecturers in3 departments: 2 lecturers in Fisheries Resources department, 2 lecturers in agro technology department, and 3 lecturers in communication department if referring to the ideal number of lecturers. The results of IFAS, EFAS and SWOT analysis, show that as strategic planning oflecturersand as a strategy to attract potential lecturersinthe University of 45 Mataram, SO strategy can be applied, namely: doing recruitment and selection and organizing competence development program for lecturers with the support of 45 Nusa Tenggara Barat Foundation; recruiting post graduated students to be lecturer candidates, or lecturers, full time researchers and practitionersfrom Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education, and;providingeasy access to get the National Lecturer Identification Number (NIDN) and Special Lecturer Identification Number (NIDK).



      Mwamisha, Christine, Gichinga, Lucy

Abstract: The hospitality industry plays a key role in sustaining the livelihoods of approximately 1.3 million Kenyans living in Mombasa where the hotel businesses serve as a source of employment and income generation for the residents. However, majority of the hotels have adopted family business model, with the hotels being run by family members rather than professional managers. This approach limits the hotels performance and hence a threat to their sustainability. This study sought to establish how strategic planning affects the sustainability of the family owned hotel businesses. The objectives were to examine the leadership style, to find out the roles of strategy formulation, strategy implementation and organizational structure in the sustainability of the hotel businesses. Findings from the study show that strategic planning if done effectively will ensure the sustainability of the family owned hotel businesses.



      Epimaco A. Cabanlit, Jr, Jennifer T. Bulawan

Abstract: The mixture of distributions can serve as a model to some realities where the population consists of heterogeneous components. In this paper we present some of the important summaries of the mixtures of two logarithmic distributions such as the moment generating function, mean and variance. Moreover, various graphs of the mixture with different values of mixing parameters are presented.



      Lucy Kagwiria Kuria, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: Employee delegation and consultation has been identified in research to promote organizational commitment, employee job satisfaction and improved individual productivity which in turn leads to organizational performance. Lack of employee delegation and consultation in decision making, either individually or through representatives, in the health sector in Kenya, has been identified as the major factor perpetuating strikes and lack of commitment of health workers. This has resulted in loss of lives in the hospitals and poor health services. This study aimed at assessing the role of employee delegation and consultation on organizational performance among health workers in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was adopted in conducting the study and Stratified sampling techniques was employed to select 384 employees from the selected Kiambu and Machakos Level 5 hospitals as well as Kenyatta National Hospital as the respondents to the study. A response of 87.5% was achieved and both primary and secondary data was used for the study. Questionnaires and interview guides were used as data collection instruments. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative procedure. In addition, a multiple linear regression model was applied to examine the relationship between the variables. SPSS version 24 was used for data analysis and generation of tables, figures and relationships. In conclusion, delegation and consultation was found to influence organizational performance in Kenya. The study recommends that in the process of ensuring effective delegation and consultation among employees in the workplace, the management should increase the level of commitment in the organization by increasing satisfaction with compensation, policies, and work conditions.



      Lucy Kagwiria Kuria, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: The influence of representation by works councils has been identified in research to promote organizational commitment, employee job satisfaction and improved individual productivity which in turn leads to organizational performance. The lack of representation by works councils has been identified as the major factor perpetuating strikes and lack of commitment of health workers. This has resulted in loss of lives in the hospitals and poor health services. This study aimed at assessing the influence of representation by works councils on organizational performance among health workers in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was adopted in conducting the study and Stratified sampling techniques was employed to select 384 employees from the selected Kiambu and Machakos Level 5 hospitals as well as Kenyatta National Hospital as the respondents to the study. A response of 87.5% was achieved and both primary and secondary data was used for the study. Questionnaires and interview guides were used as data collection instruments. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative procedure.



      Lucy Kagwiria Kuria, Professor G. S. Namusonge, Dr. Mike Iravo

Abstract: Leadership has been identified in research to promote organizational commitment, employee job satisfaction and improved individual productivity which in turn leads to organizational performance. Poor leadership has been identified as the major factor perpetuating strikes and lack of commitment of health workers. This has resulted in loss of lives in the hospitals and poor health services. This study aimed at assessing the role of leadership on organizational performance among health workers in Kenya. Descriptive survey design was adopted in conducting the study and Stratified sampling techniques was employed to select 384 employees from the selected Kiambu and Machakos Level 5 hospitals as well as Kenyatta National Hospital as the respondents to the study. A response of 87.5% was achieved and both primary and secondary data was used for the study. Questionnaires and interview guides were used as data collection instruments. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative procedure. In addition, a multiple linear regression model was applied to examine the relationship between the variables.



      Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba, Dr. Willy Muturi, Dr. Kisaka Erastus Sifunjo

Abstract: Stock market performance at the Nairobi securities exchange has not improved despite liquidity incentives. It is not clear whether liquidity incentives are a gift or a motivator; sometimes stock market performance increases when liquidity incentives decrease and sometimes even decrease when more liquidity incentives are prevailed. The study aims to determine the relationship between liquidity incentives and stock market performance. This study adopted a descriptive research design with a study population of 61 listed firms in NSE. A sample of 150 respondents was picked through stratified random sampling technique from 30 firms listed at NSE. The study used both primary and secondary data sources in gathering data for analysis. Data collection involved self-administration of questionnaires. The study used the Cronbach (Alpha – α) model to test the reliability of the data. Data was analyzed by use of Stata (version 13). Correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, skewness and kurtosis tests were all conducted on the data collected.



      Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba, Dr. Willy Muturi, Dr. Kisaka Erastus Sifunjo

Abstract: Stock market performance at the Nairobi securities exchange has not improved despite tax incentives. It is not clear whether tax incentives are a gift or a motivator; sometimes stock market performance increases when tax incentives decrease and sometimes even decrease when more tax incentives are given. The study aims to determine the relationship between tax incentives and stock market performance. This study adopted a descriptive research design with a study population of 61 listed firms in NSE. A sample of 150 respondents was picked through stratified random sampling technique from 30 firms listed at NSE. The study used both primary and secondary data sources in gathering data for analysis. Data collection involved self-administration of questionnaires. The study used the Cronbach (Alpha – α) model to test the reliability of the data. Data was analyzed by use of Stata (version 13).



      Ogwuegbu, Happiness O, Prof. V. O Nwaugo, Onuigbo Martin

Abstract: Comparative analysis of Malaria, Typhoid and Hepatitis B virus infections were carried out in some parts of Imo State namely; Okigwe and Udo-Mbaise using both culture and serological tests. The total of 666 patients were examined in the two locations. In Okigwe, a total number of 366 patients were examined, and in Udo-Mbaise 300 patients were examined. Malaria prevalence in Okigwe was 30(8.2%), while that of Udo-Mbaise was 40(13.3%). Typhoid in Okigwe had the highest prevalence of 56(15.3%) while Udo-Mbaise had 30(9.6%). For hepatitis, the prevalence rates were Okigwe 35(9.6%) and Udo-Mbaise 29(7.9%). In concomitant infections of malaria and typhoid; high concomitant infections was observed in Udo-Mbaise 10(2.7%). In malaria and hepatitis, Udo-Mbaise had higher infections 5(1.4%), while Okigwe had 2(0.5%). For Typhoid and hepatitis Okigwe had 8(2.2%), Udo-Mbaise had 2(0.5%). A combination of the 3 infections shows higher infection rate in Okigwe. In each of the areas examined, no gender influence was observed while age showed significant influence in malaria, typhoid and hepatitis. The most infected age group was 51-60 years, while the least was 21-30 years (P>0.05). Results showed that only few people had the three infections simultaneously. This calls for thorough or complete laboratory investigations as one infection may aggravate the other and may even occlude the other.



      Shakila Bashir, Itrat Batool Naqvi

Abstract: Exponential distribution is one of the most useful distribution real life data. In this paper a new weighted exponential distribution is derived. The resultant distribution is positively skewed. The shape of the weighted exponential distribution is shown with graphs with different values of parameters and weights. Further the properties including cdf, moments, median, skewness and kurtosis, and Quantile function of the weighted exponential distribution is derived. Parameter of the weighted exponential distribution is estimated by using maximum likelihood and moment estimation methods. The memory less property for weighted exponential distribution has been proved. Reliability measures are also developed for the newly derived distribution. Finally the applications of the weighted exponential distribution are discussed on a waiting time data.



      Zid Chaher, Ali Raza Soomro

Abstract: Risk management is an important part of the decision-making process in construction project management, particularly regarding the project’s integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications and procurement. Risk management improves the future prospects of a project as it identifies uncertainties and probabilities. However, A lot of analysts and experts have been struggling to define risks by using many analysis and methods where have been applied to define these uncertainties and risks. But eventually, these methods have showed up a weak and sometimes a fatal data missing which may lead to affect directly on the risk management and success of project. In this research paper highlights on one of the most useful and practical method Hierarchal Risk Breakdown Structure which may facilitate to identify and quantify all risks to which the project is exposed so that a conscious decision can be taken on how to manage the risk.



      Salem Shtawi Elghawil

Abstract: Credit risk can jeopardize lending and the financial areas of banks and credit unions. In every bank can appear losses occur at every bank; credit risk that is not properly evaluated and managed can lead to excessive loan losses and damaging the financial condition of financial institutions. Properly managing credit risk, along with improving the earnings of the loan portfolio, can prevent excessive financial damage. All lenders must reduce their risk of loan loss. Credit risk management has responsibility to prevent potential loan loss. Borrowers with consistently poor credit reports or excellent credit scores allow lenders to make easier approval and rejection decisions.



      Vinotha Sanmugarajah, Ira Thabrew, Sri Ranjani Sivapalan

Abstract: A poly herbal Siddha formulation, Thalangai ennai (T.E) was prepared as per the Siddha Literature and used as relieving rheumatic pains, impaired movement of limbs, and all kind of joint disorders, etc. The physicochemical standards available for the standardization of Siddha medicated oils are insufficient. This article reports on comparative preliminary standardization of T.E of Drug Unit (DUT) and Marketed formulation (MFT) have been standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties and analysis of Thin Layer Chromatography. Specific gravity and pH value for DUT was found to be 0.9185 and 4.61; in case of MFT these were found to be 0.9173 and 4.97 at room temperature respectively. The TLC finger prints of both the formulations were revealed fifteen spots in the pure dichloromethane solvent. The results obtained with these both the formulations were found to be comparable and variations were not remarkable. Though the analytical values can be used as reference standards for the quality assurance of T.E, these values mostly related to the purity of the sesame oil (which is used as a base), the qualitative and quantitative estimation of each single ingredient of T.E requires further research work in future.



      W.A.D.S.WIJETUNGE

Abstract: Service sector in Sri Lanka plays a major role in the economy by contributing more than 55% of the Gross Domestic Production. Especially in under developed countries, they are encouraging and promoting small business to cater as source of income generation, employment creation and maximum utilization of resources. The growth and the survival of these small business depend on one of the important factor; the quality of the service offered. It helps these businesses to retain and attract customers by fulfilling their expectations. This study focus on studying the service quality of service providing SMEs and how it will help to gain the competitive advantage and leads to business performance. This paper contains the theoretical background derived from the existing literature in order to construct the research framework for the study.



      Geetha.T and Thangappan.R

Abstract: In this paper we discussed new Lindley Distribution for nocturnal gherlin pulsatility and response to growth hormone. The physiological importance of endogenous ghrelin as a potential participant in the regulation of GH secretion is still unknown. In this study, the author investigated ghrelin pulsatility compared with GH during overnight fasting and eight healthy male subjects to determine ghrelin pulsatility, pattern of coupling, synchronicity to GH, and response to standard GH secretagogues, including GH releasing hormone(GHRH) aloneandin combination with arginine. Using mathematical model by the author investigated whether fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations during overnight fasting exhibited pattern coupling and synchronicity to GH by use of cross-approximate entropy (X-ApEn). We analyzed ghrelin and GH concentration during overnight fasting when ghrelin and GH peak.



      Eric Sullivan

Abstract: Data from the article “Equations for Planetary Ellipses” was used in order to create parametric and polar versions of the planetary equations. Using the standard form for both a parametric ellipse and a polar ellipse these equations were written. With the polar equations, collisions and intersections can be determined. In order to see if intersections or collisions were possible, four standard models of orbital interference were created. These models prove that there are potential for objects to collide with Earth. The derivative of each other the orbital interference models was determined in order to know the rate of change at any point. The most useful point would be an intersection or collision point.



      Bernice Quampah and Peter Narh

Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic practices of migrant farmers’ group formation in establishing and strengthening their rights in land as a major livelihood asset are discussed. The case for this discussion is the Wasa Amenfi West district in the Western region of Ghana. The research aimed to show that land as a livelihood asset is more than just a natural product; it is also socially constituted through the strategies of people to secure and deliver their livelihood assets. Qualitative research approach was considered in collecting data from farmers in the Wasa Amenfi West District. Thus, what is often considered livelihood strategies in the livelihood discourse are not adequately presented as a necessary condition through which resources become assets in the first place. The paper therefore demonstrates that strategies of people such as the migrant farmers’ group formation provide social, economic, and political utility for delivering land as key livelihood asset, such that access to and use of land cannot be possible without these strategies. To this end therefore, in a proper perspective, strategies of people should be considered as a necessary social constituent that complement the natural constituent of resources to deliver them as assets.



      Sanjana Shashi Kadapa

Abstract: Migration of large IT projects becomes complex, especially where a large number of software assets are involved. IT migration is essential to integrate legacy systems with new systems, and when large firms are acquired by another firm. A structured methodology is needed for seamless integration. This paper provides a literature review of different models used for IT migration, and recommends a model that can be used in complex case scenarios.


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