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IJSRP, Volume 5, Issue 4, April 2015 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
April 2015 publication has started and publication will continue till 16nd April 2015.
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th April, their paper will publish in April edition latest by 16th April.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th April.
Online print version will release latest by 25th April.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 16th April and minor corrections are accepted till 30th April 2015.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      K.Praveena, K. Sadhana

Abstract: This review focuses on two systems, nanocrystalline Zn substituted Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (0≤x≥1) and Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4, were synthesized using microwave hydrothermal and auto-combustion method respectively. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and FTIR. The average particle size was obtained from TEM and it is found to be 17 nm. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) measurements for Co1-xZnxFe2O4 reveal that samples with 0.6≤x≥1 have superparamagentic behavior at room temperature, which confirms weak interaction between magnetic particles.



      Antonius Ardiyanto, Achmad Djunaedi, Ikaputra,Jatmika Adi Suryabrata

Abstract: Dutch colonization to Indonesian occurred for about 350 years. During this time, a lot of colonial buildings were built in Indonesia with various typologies and architectures which were developed in the era. It was the shape and typology of the building which was similar to the buildings in Netherland (17th century) or Europe and the architecture which was developed and influenced by modern architecture (20th century) that are developing in all over the world. In the early 20th century, Dutch architects started to work in big cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang, Medan, etc.



      Pakhale G.K, Nale J.P, Temesgen W.B. and Muluneh W.D.

Abstract: This study investigates the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for estimation of daily grass reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and compares the performance of ANNs with the conventional method (Penman–Monteith) used to estimate ETo. Several issues associated with the use of ANNs are examined, including different learning methods, number of processing elements in the hidden layer(s), and the number of hidden layers. The input parameters and the ANN model architecture was decided based on use of MARS tool and trial and error approach leading to optimal error statistics. Different ANN architectures namely BPNN, RBFNN and GRNN were used. Model performance show that BPNN architecture suits for prediction of reference crop evapotranspiration and can be used for future scenario in the Ameleke watershed.



      Asabe Ibrahim, Prof. Sushama Tripathi, Dr Alok Kumar

Abstract: Women’s empowerment direct indicator and its relationship to child health outcomes have been investigated using a sample of 22,462 under five years’ children in Nigeria and 45,516 India. The data used in the study was obtained from the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) as well as the third round of National Family and Health Survey NFHS-3 India. Women’s empowerment in both study areas were examined through women’s decision-making autonomy in the household. In relation to this further, we examined the determinants of child health using two important indicators, viz: Child’s immunization status and child’s nutritional status (stunting status). The influence of women’s decision-making autonomy on the child health practices appears to be paramount for every child’s well-being and for their healthy growth and development. In this study, women’s empowerment major indicator was used as the independent variable, while the indicators of child health status as dependent variables. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were employed in order to establish a relationship between of women’s empowerment indicator and child health outcomes. Alongside with these measures of empowerment and child health status, we equally considered their relationship with some of the socio economic and background characteristics of women, men and children. The results obtained in the study revealed that there is a strong and positive influence of the active participation of women in making decisions in the household on their children’s health status.



      Adamu Isa Harir, Rozilah Kasim, Bala Ishiyaku

Abstract: Population explosion, high urbanization and improved living standards have induced rapid changes in quantities and material compositions of solid waste generation globally. Until recently solid waste disposal in landfills and open dump sites was considered more economical and it is the most widely used methods in developing countries. Hence the potentials in the other alternative methods such as the resource recovery and recycling and their integration into waste management have been scarcely assessed. However, the ever growing challenges posed by the rapidly increasing quantities and compositions of solid wastes in developing countries led to the searching for alternative waste disposal methods. In this regard the paper presented an assessment of the resource potentials of municipal solid waste materials arising from cities in developing countries as a strategy for sustainable solid waste management. Using published data on solid waste composition the paper has identified that there is high potentials of composting in the solid waste stream from cities in developing countries. In conclusion, it recommended the recovery of organic waste material and papers for composting and the recycling of plastic, metals, textiles and others to explore their resource recovery potentials. This will largely reduce the ultimate quantities of solid waste for disposal and lower the operating costs. This strategy will achieve sustainable waste management in developing countries. It is hoped that the paper has provided a useful guide for wastes management policy decisions in developing countries.



      Sarita Bose, Virendra Soni and K. R. Genwa

Abstract: The Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSCs) has emerged as attractive and promising solar cells in recent years. It offers technically and economically viable option to p-n junction solar cells. However, the efficiencies of DSSCs could not compete with those of silicon solar cells. Numerous researches have been done to enhance the efficiencies of these cells over the past decades. Efficiencies up to 15 % have been achieved by adopting new techniques in the research area. There are good prospects for further improvement in the photo conversion efficiencies and commercial applications of DSSCs through new parameters and methodology. In this review paper, the current state and recent developments in the field of photo electrode, photo sensitizer and electrolyte for dye sensitized solar cells have been reviewed. Also the perspectives for the future development of the technology have been discussed.



      Dr.R.Lingeswaran ravi, Dr.P.Parthiban, Dr.R.Murali

Abstract: Problem statement: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low and middle-income countries.In India, ARI symptoms are the most common reason for seeking health care for children.



      Denise N. Winschel, B.S., Toni DiDona, Ph.D.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of gender on employees’ emotional intelligence and the relationship between the levels of emotional intelligence (EI) and the degree of organizational commitment (OC). The recruitment and selection of employees is both a time consuming and expensive process. Knowing the characteristics that are most relevant to test in order to select employees who are likely to have high organizational commitment may reduce turnover as well as the expense of ongoing recruitment. Data collected was based on a sample of 105 currently employed adults residing in the United States, out of which 74 were females and 31 males. Of these participants, the average age for women was of 34.82 and 37.73 for men, while the predominant ethnic backgrounds in the sample was Hispanic and White/Caucasian. Participants were selected using convenient sample and data was collected using two alternative means, a paper and pencil copy of the survey and an online copy of the survey. According to the data collected for the following study, no significant difference was found between males and females’ levels of EI. The average level of EI for females was of 161.32 while the average level of EI for males was of 158.61. However, data did support the second hypothesis of a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment (r= 0.50, df=103, alpha level=0.05, one-tailed test, rcritical=0.164).



      Dr.Ravikeerthy.M, Dr.Sanjeeva Reddy Yogi

Abstract: Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute inferior wall myocardial infarction accounts for 40% all acute myocardial infarctions. Right ventricular infarction is common in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infacrtion.. Objectives: to study the incidence and clinical profile of right ventricular infarction and inferior wall myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of inferior wall infarction were included in the study. patients with history of previous infarction ,bundle branch block, cor-pulmonale and suspected pulmonary embolism were excluded. Results: Incidence of right ventricular infarction is about 40% in inferior wall myocardial infarction. Most patients presented with retrosternal chest pain associated with sweating. Raised JVP, hypotension, bradycardia. Conclusions: Incidence of right ventricular infarction in inferior wall infarction was fairly common. If diagnosis of right ventricular infarction done accurately and treated early prognosis is usually better.



      A. O. Talabi

Abstract: Weathering indices of meta-igneous rocks was qualitatively employed to decipher groundwater potentiality in Ekiti-State. Five representative samples of weathered migmatite, granite and charnockite were analysed for major and trace elements using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Analytical methods. Temperature (oC), EC (µS/cm), pH and wells static water levels/depths were measured using Multi-parameter TestrTm 35 series Meter and dip meter respectively. Ruxton ratio (RR), Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) were estimated from the chemical data. The weathering indices revealed granitic terrain with average values of RR (3.04), CIA (93.14%), CIW (98.29%) and PIA (98.19%) as the most favourable for groundwater occurrence. Migmatite with average values of RR (3.61), CIA (86.51%), CIW (91.01%) and PIA (90.45%) ranked second while charnockite with mean values of RR (3.30), CIA (84.70%), CIW (88.84%) and PIA (88.25%) was least favourable. The RR values fell in the moderately weathered profile while CIA, CIW and PIA have values greater than >50% which signified intense tropical weathering. This observation agreed with existing boreholes records in the area with average yields of 105.75m3/day, 70.21m3/day and 67.16m3/day in granite, migmatite and charnockitic terrains respectively.



      Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D, Dr. P. Shravan Kumar, M.D, Dr Thirupathi Reddy M.D, Dr. S. Manohar, M.D

Abstract: Coronary artery disease usually involves the left ventricle and acute myocardial infarction is almost always associated with hemodynamic evidence of predominant left ventricular dysfunction although the right ventricle may be involved in a reasonable proportion of patients dying with myocardial infarction. The lesion is usually accompanied by left ventricular infarction.



      Ruchi Tayal, Anuradha De, Senthil Sundaravadanan, Meena Kumar, Sujata Baveja

Abstract: Isolation of H. pylori on artificial culture media is hampered by lack of reliable confirmatory media. In this study, two transport media- Physiological saline and Stuart’s transport medium and three culture media- Blood agar, Chocolate agar and Modified Thayer Martin agar were evaluated for primary isolation of H. pylori. The role of Helicobacter pylori in uncomplicated peptic ulcers has been definitively established. However its association in cases of perforated peptic ulcers is unclear. This study was also undertaken to identify H. pylori infection in the latter cases.



      Dr Sanjay Sharma

Abstract: Every living organism needs food to live. Foods have many nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. These nutrients present in food are ingested and assimilated by an organism to produce energy, stimulate growth and maintain life. Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components. The food has limited shelf life, in order to increase the shelf life and maintain the quality certain preservatives are used these preservatives may have some harmful effects so if possible, and foods without preservatives may be used



      Dr. C. Tirupathi Reddy, M.D., Dr. B. Suryanarayana, M.D. , Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D., Dr. B. Sudarsi, M.D., Dr. S. Manohar, M.D.

Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic and potentially disabling disease that represents an important public health and clinical concerned because of the economic burden it imposes on the person, family and society. The transition from a traditional to modern lifestyle consumption of diets rich in fact and calories combined with a high level of mental stress has compounded the problem further. Weight management is a key component in the treatment of over-weight or obese patients with Type 2 DM. In our study Increased BMI was observed in 23.95% of total males and, Increased BMI was observed in 34.49% of total females. Increased WHR was present in 40.85% of total males and Increased WHR was present in 82.76% of total females. Hypertriglyceridemia was observed more in all groups followed by hypercholesterolemia, high LDL and low HDL.



      Durgawati.P.Medhe, Manjusha.P.Vetal, Pooja.R.Medhe, Vaibhav Ware

Abstract: Nashik city is one of the main tourist attractions as it is considered as pilgrimage city. Kumbh-mela which takes place in nashik is a mass Hindu pilgrimage where people bath in sacred river.The main aim behind developing project based on Kumbhmela is to provide all sort of information related to Kumbhmela as well as other pilgrimage centers present in Nashik. An Android application will be created which will be offline as well as online so Once the person download it from internet he/she will get to know all sort of information of nashik city and the kumbhmela which will be taking place. The images will be clearly visible on any mobile and also on tablet versions. Kumbhmela signifcance, divine sangam, kumbh parva chakra, rituals of kumbh and history, astrological, mythological aspects and all sort of information will be provided. Utility services information will be provided to the tourist like train, bus, hospitals, nearby hotels etc. This system will also consist of site map which will help in knowing the other pilgrimage centers of nashik. Live coverage links is also an added feature in the application so that the people would easily see the live happenings of kumbhmela. Technology used in this system will be java and android Operating system.



      Ahmed I. Hanafy, Ali M. Hassan, Mohamed M. Al-Sayed and Naglaa Abd El-Rahman

Abstract: The Manganese (II) complex of 2-Amino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-7, 7-dimethyl-5-oxochromene-3-carbonitrile (AMC) was synthesized. The organic ligand AMC was previously synthesized using an environment friendly method using microwave irradiation. The Manganese complex MnIIAMC was characterized by different tools such as IR, electronic spectroscopy, elemental analysis, Thermal analysis and mass spectroscopy. The mode of metal binding shows that the Manganese binds to the ligand through the nitrogen atoms of the amino and cyanide groups. The Manganese complex MnIIAMC was used in the homogenous oxidation of the polyphenol 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene in presence of the green oxidant H2O2 to produce a first-order rate constant kcat= 6.3×10-3s-1. The catalysis shows catalytic efficiency of 2.49 × 103 times compared to the autooxidation of THB.



      Yemane Tadesse, Rishi Pal, Abraha Tadese, Amaha Woldu, Ram C Saini

Abstract: Caffeine, available in plant’s kingdom worldwide, has remarkable insecticidal, weedicide, beverage and medicinal values, along with a few fatal actions to humanity if uptake is beyond limit. For healthy cause, it’s reckoning at trace level in local drinks and pharmaceutical of routine use has become vital. An environment friendly chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been fabricated. Square wave voltammetry technique has been deployed to carry the present investigations in procured real samples of routine use medicines and local drinks in Mekelle city. Experimental conditions and square wave parameters have been optimized with prepared sensor for anodic oxidation of caffeine in buffer. The peak signal observed two-fold upswing in presence of this sensor as compared to unmodified sensor. Adequate catalytic activity of anthraquinone and irreversible nature of oxidation process at the interface has been observed. The perceived effect of analyte concentration on both signals i.e. peak current and peak potential exposed mainly the diffusion controlled mechanism at interface, besides some interfering surface processes at high caffeine concentrations. The peak current and caffeine concentration observed linear dependence in low range 0.00 – 100 μM with correlation coefficient ‘R’ = 0.9999 (n = 10) and standard deviation ‘σ’ = 0.0596. The observed regression equation is “Ip(μA) = 34.465 + 1.282C(μM)” with the detection limit of 0.1395 μM. Caffeine quantification conducted in local available drinks and medications by using standard addition/spiked method have yielded very good recovery. An electro-oxidation process of caffeine at the interface received resilient catalytic action of modifier. Excellent recovery of caffeine’s spiked samples of drugs and local drinks represent an inordinate potential of sensor for its prompt quantification in real samples.



      Deepti dhurandher, Gaukaran janghel

Abstract: This study is an attempt to find out the coping strategy of stress in employed women and non employed women who was 25 to 40 yrs age group. Nowadays lifestyle is very change and stress level also increases day to day life. Stress affects the physical activity. When body affects by stress that time mind is also affect and its true sound mind resides in sound body. There are two major targets of coping: changing ourselves or changing our environment. The study was conducted on 60 women, 30 were employed women as different profession and other 30 were non-employed women. For assessment brief COPE Scale used which was developed by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. The brief COPE Scale is a 28-item self report measure of problem-focused versus emotion-focused coping skills. t value was computed to analyze data. It is observed that employed women are more used technique of self distraction, instrumental support, behavioral disengagement, venting and positive reframing in comparison to non -employed women for coping strategies of stress.



      Anthony Osoro, Dr. Willy M. Muturi and Dr. Patrick K. Ngugi

Abstract: The purpose of the paper was to highlight the challenge affecting performance of supply chain systems. The rise in fuel shortages by firms has precipitated the need for oil companies to realign their supply chain systems with a view of doing proper forecasting. Companies’ in the petroleum industry rely on supplying fuel as their key resource inputs in ensuring that they offer better services to the ultimate customers. The paper looks at how oil companies can perform within the supply chain systems in their processes. This is a conceptual paper and the methodology used is analytical data after collection from the sample size targeted by the researcher in which in depth literature review is done to highlight how companies can incorporate performance of supply chain tools in their supply chains systems. The analysis is based on previously conducted research from books and relevant journals and articles. The findings of the paper confirm that oil companies need to implement supply chain systems as a continuous process to achieve sustainability in the supply chain processes. The study concludes that both national and international companies need to enhance the levels of implementing green supply chain practices in managing their operations. This is an emerging supply chain management paradigm that will enable companies to realize long term customer satisfaction through proper forecasting of inventories.



      Muhammad Rusdy, Muhammad Riadi, Ayu Mita Sari, Asriani Normal

Abstract: The effect of aqueous extract of leaf, stem and root of Imperata cylindrica and Chromolaena odorata at concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on germination and seedling growth of Centrosema pubescens were investigated. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with three replications. Results of the study showed that plant species, plant parts and their concentration had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on parameters measured. Aqueous extracts of both plants at all concentration levels inhibited germination percentage, germination rate, shoot and root growth of Centrosema pubescen and these effects were directly proportional to the concentration of extract. Chromolaena odorata extract was more inhibitory than Imperata cylindrica extract and the leaf extracts showed the most inhibitory effect.. Root growth of Centrosema pubescens was more sensitive to allelopathic effects of both test plants than on shoot growth. These results suggested that potential allelopathic substances produced by both plant species may hinder the success of introduction of C. pubescens into grassland invaded by the two weeds. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate their allelopathic behavior under field conditions against their associated species and mechanism of inhibition involved.



      Tarvejahmad Ansari, Akshay Pillai, Asif Sayyad

Abstract: The World Wide Web is the emerging field available to users to access the contents of the web. This field is parted into two. They are surface web and deep web. The surface web refers to the static and is linked with other pages whereas deep web refers to the web page that is not indexed by the general search engine. The extraction of contents from web pages arise the problem of web page programming language independent. This problem is arising because of the underlying complex structure of the web pages. The extraction of deep web contents from the deep web pages involves both the data record extraction and data item extraction. To evaluate the performance of the extraction process, the method revision is used. To overcome this problem, to build a website application like online forum, which provide location base information in the particular city and user will get all information of his/her interest under one website and need not visit various websites and waste time.



      Rawaa Mahmoud Hussain

Abstract: My article tries to reshape a new moderate Islamic reason and multicultural Islamic behavior. Furthermore, it aims to re-discover the moderate reason in contemporary Islamic thought. It indicates that the main source of Islamic moderation is the religion of Islam itself. However, it is necessary to say that there is a deep difference between Islam as a religion and Islamic thought as a human phenomenon. Therefore, it confirms that it is easily to find the moderate reason in Islamic thought. In order to activate the curriculum of moderation in contemporary Islamic thought and behaviour, I have indicated that Islamic thought confirms that love is the essential element of being; forgiveness is perfection and tolerance is generosity.



      Sarabjeet Singh

Abstract: Telecom Industry is based upon user satisfaction and user services. Mobile operators provide VAS (Value Added Services) to users to increase revenue and promote their services. Now a days, OTA (Over the Air) technology to update services on CARD without physically interacting CARDs. This requires implementation of different components of OTA technology to be able to perform such activities seamlessly. This paper discusses this implementation of OTA in terms of RESTful web services by removing the complex component implementation of OTA technology and creating maintainable, scalable, reusable modular services for different operations on a SIM card.



      Prem anand K, Kamat US, Ferreira AM

Abstract: Background : A referral system will function effectively if all service providers adhere to the referral discipline , to refer appropriately. Objective : To monitor emergency referral pattern in a rural health & training centre , Goa between nov 2008 to nov 2011.



      Abdullahi Isa, Wan Zahari Wan Yusoff Ph.D

Abstract: Facilities such as consultancy services, technical support, safety and security are considered as an important element in today’s institution of higher learning in achieving qualitative education. The purpose of this paper is to explore the state of physical facilities of higher education institutions in Nigeria base on the global best practices. The data was obtained through secondary sources and observation. The Review of related works shown that provision of physical facilities were below average. These facilities facilitate and support Universities, polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of Education to achieve their international goals and objectives. If higher institution of learning wish to produce graduate who will be able to compete favorably in the international job market, there is need to pay more attention to the state of existing facilities in tertiary institutions.



      Sk.Sikinder Mohaseen

Abstract: The present condition of Mars reveals that there is a life on Mars in the past. This life was ended with the collision of the giant asteroid with the Mars. By the collision of the asteroid with the mars it has been resulted to the conditions of the present Mars. The life on the Earth has come from the Mars due to the collision of the rock containing life which has come from the Mars by the collision with that asteroid.



      Geetha P. S, Maheswari I, Anandham R, Nallakurumban B

Abstract: The solid state fermentation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Heat stabilized defatted rice bran, was done at 30oC for 3 days. Nutritional and antinutritional factors were determined using standard procedures. The fermented HDRB (FHDRB) showed enhanced levels of dietary fiber (18.40g%), (11.23g%) and (38.90g%) compared to HDRB. Fermentation also significantly increased the invitro protein digestibility soluble and insoluble for HDRB (3.7%) & FHDRB (6.4%).



      Dr.Shobhana Mittal, Dr.Charan Teja Koganti, Dr.Aruna Yadiyal, Dr.Pavithra Rao, Dr. Chandini

Abstract: Expressed emotion (EE) is especially relevant in the Indian cultural context, where patients have longer and more enduring contact with family members, who play an important role as caregivers during the process of treatment & rehabilitation. A cross sectional case control study was carried out to study the relationship between EE and relapse of alcohol use. Participants included 60 participants, comprising of 30 cases and 30 controls. Tools used were FEICS, and additional questionnaires for assessment of alcohol use pattern and socio-demographic data. High expressed emotion and high perceived criticism in the family environment were found to be significantly associated with shorter period of abstinence and more frequent relapses. However, no significant correlation was found between high emotional involvement and relapse, which could perhaps be explained by the influence of cultural factors.Early identification and development of strategies targeting EE could help maintain recovery and prevent relapse.



      Abhijith R.P

Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental study on the utilization of natural coir fibers on unpaved roads. Coir fibres provide a reinforcement action to the subgrade soil. Coir fibre is a natural material obtained from coconut husk which is commonly seen in India. Use of coir fibres improves the subgrade soil strength. Coir fibers of varying length from 0.5 to 3cm and varying percentage from 2 to 8 of total weight of soil were added with the soil and CBR test was conducted. From the test results, it was concluded that the CBR strength using coir fibre was improved and optimum fibre length obtained was 1.5cm and optimum fiber content was 5% of total weight of soil. CCM-400 Coir Geotextile which is a woven type coir mat was placed at ¼ th, ½ th, ¾ th and top positions of soil sample and CBR test were conducted. The results concluded that placing geotextiles at two third depth from bottom position was seems to be more effective.



      Dr Mrs D. Borpujari & Dr T.C Dutta

Abstract: Besides the basic needs- food, clothing and shelter, plants have served mankind by providing medicines to fight against different ailments. Traditional healing systems using various plant species play an important role in maintaining the physical and psychological well being of the vast majority of tribal people in India. Tribal communities living in remote hamlets of the country are still dependent on the traditional systems of medicines for their primary health care rather than the allopathic medicines. The present study focuses on the medicinal and aromatic plants traditionally used to health care and cooking purposes by the Singphoos particularly confined to Tinsukia district of Assam emphasizing on documentation and preservation of these plants through participatory rural appraisal exercise and interview .Indeed, the Singphoos are renowned for their consumption of wild aromatic leafy vegetables in their routine diet which have potent medicinal value.



      Hasan Nourbakhsh

Abstract: Post Independent India, governments have been considering education as a fundamental development tool with the purpose of making human resources for national development. Since Independence, the education policies of successive governments have build upon the legacies of the Nehruvian period as well as British education system. Therefore, it has been an essential to review the educational system pre British period, during British period and post independent India.



      Sumathi Manoharan, Seshadri Shivashankar, Sathisha G.J

Abstract: Corky tissue of sapota cv.Cricket Ball (Manilkara achras) is a major physiological disorder distinguished by the occurrence of starchy lumps coupled with lower sugar levels in ripening pulp. Since sugar content of pulp is one of the major determinants of sapota fruit quality, a reduction in sugar level in CT fruit coupled with the buildup of starch unfavorably impacts fruit quality. In view of this, the present study was carried out with the objective of determining the possible reasons for the disturbance in starch metabolism in corky tissue affected fruits of sapota. Changes in the activities of starch hydrolyzing enzymes, sugar and starch contents, and tissue concentrations of Zn and P in healthy, apparently healthy and CT affected fruit tissues were measured to assess the potential interrelationships among them. Results indicated that the activities of starch phosphorylase and α-amylase enzymes in CT pulp were significantly lower (P≤0.005) compared to AH and healthy pulp.



      Amandeep Kour

Abstract: Virtual reality is simulated reality. Computers introduced us to the virtual world. In the virtual world one can assume any identity and no one will be the wiser. Such identities are called ‘avatars’. This is part of its attraction. But it also has its dangers. Many youngsters today live more in the virtual world than in the real world. This has made sociopaths out of some of them. They are so used to interacting with people in the virtual world that they no longer know how to interact with real people. Virtual worlds like Second Life are becoming important tools for, among other activities, socialization, social networking, entertainment, collaboration, and business development. These environments offer information systems researchers a unique opportunity to study how these environments are built and managed by operators, how they are used and misused by users, and the impact that they have on users, communities, organizations, and societies at large. The paper provides an introduction to this topic and offers a survey on virtual worlds based on insights offered by several academics and practitioners who are actively involved in building, managing, and using virtual worlds.



      Mangesh Kulkarni, Prasad Jagtap, Ketan Kulkarni

Abstract: In the 21st century, with more use of internet there has been significant increase in various attacks on the network. Here we describe the technique of how can a secrete communication take place between two or more parties secretly. In this paper the technique of cryptography and Steganography are used all together for to achieve message confidentiality. In cryptography, message gets encrypted and in Steganography, it gets embedded within the selected image. For that, we first substitute the original message by using the fourteen square substitution algorithm. After the substitution of text, we then encrypt this text message using RSA algorithm. The encrypted message is then hidden within image by Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. This image works as a carrier file and is sent to the receiver. At the receivers end, same operations are performed to decrypt the original message in reverse order. It is found that here we are using the double ciphering techniques which makes the system very robust and secures it from known hacking attacks. It makes very difficult for the intruders to hack the image and then decrypt the message in a feasible amount of time thus securing it from many known network attacks.



      Ilham Junaid

Abstract: Community participation has been widely accepted as one of the goals and principles of sustainable tourism. However, if community participation is seen as control over resources without understanding and implementing sustainable principles, sustainable tourism remains conceptual. Hence, frameworks are required to enhance active participation by community. Qualitative approach has guided the researcher in understanding sustainable tourism in Makassar city, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2011 which were then updated until December 2014. Interviews to different stakeholders and observation have enriched information about the research area. This article provides insights on how to encourage community participation in tourism through creating and implementing three interrelated frameworks including institutional, tourism-resources-based and stakeholder frameworks. The frameworks provide the opportunity to achieve sustainable tourism.



      S. Aliyu, A.G. Ibrahim, U.D. Babayo, M.B. Tahir, A.B. Zarami

Abstract: The normal thyroid gland is a fairly homogenous structure, but nodules often formed within its substance these nodule may be the growth and fusion of localized colloid – filled follicles, or discrete adenomas, or cyst. The terms adenomatous goiter, simple multi nodular goiter, non toxic nodular goiter, and colloid nodular goiter are used interchangeably as descriptive terms when a multi nodular goiter is found. This study reviewed our ten - year experience with management of multi nodular goiter in a developing country



      Dr S. Aliyu, A. G. Ibrahim, M.B. Tahir, U.D. Babayo

Abstract: Goiter is fairly a common disease in the tropics with endemicity in iodine – deficient regions and such goiters are usually multi nodular, colloid or hyperplastic. Other forms of goiters such as Grave’s disease, thyroid cancers, and inflammatory goiters are also seen though in lesser proportions. Open surgery is the mainstay in the treatment of goiters in developing countries.



      Maria Ansari, Farjad Faiz, Amna Ansari

Abstract: This paper presents an analysis and interpretation of so- called early miniature school of Heart, one of the most peculiar and elaborate miniature style of 15th century, which is bright colored illustrations with complete theme. The detailed documentations of all the objects bearing the style makes it possible to recognize not only a basic set of combination and some aspects of their possible change in time, but also visual levels of art. The sophisticated structure of these images fully deserves to be consided and early form of miniature.



      Abdullah Al-Mamun Bulbul, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Dr. Md. Moniruzzaman

Abstract: The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are energy constraint as the nodes of WSN run by the batteries. Energy consumption of a node is higher when it operates as a Cluster Head (CH) or located far from the Base Station (BS). In non-cluster based WSN the nodes close to the BS consume less power and live longer life unlike the cluster based WSN where nodes in the distant cluster lives longer time. In both the methods network performance and coverage degrades overtime as nodes have uneven lifetime. Energy consumption optimization is required to synchronize the lifetime of the nodes with the whole network lifetime. In this paper we propose a network load and resources balancing algorithm to optimize energy consumption for a homogeneous WSN. The algorithm is run by the BS before the network starts its operation. Depending on the GPS position, battery energy and energy consumption rate per unit of data to be processed by each node, the BS prepares and broadcast the schedule of the nodes’ activity as a CH or child. Node operations are synchronized by their clocks. Simulation result shows that in this method, the nodes operate together for full network lifetime. This indicates optimum utilization of the WSN’s usable energy.



      Kawuwa, A.S, Sani, A.A, Mustapha, S. And Ishaku, D. D

Abstract: The promotion of Energy efficiency in buildings has gained prominence worldwide as a result of several issues ranging from high level energy demand for buildings to high cost of the energy at construction and post-construction stages. There exist a serious concern regarding problems of energy supply and consumption. Studies have shown that buildings approximately use 39% of the total energy consumed globally. In view of this environmental issue, increasing cost of energy and the current economic challenges; building energy efficiency is a key component of sound public policy. It is evident that preaching energy efficiency through incentives and disincentives alone may not be the only solution to these environmental challenges. A radical approach need to be employed through provision of rules and regulations in the form of codes to reduce the effect of these monumental environmental problems in developing countries most of which are in the tropics. This paper seeks to highlight several public policy efforts made locally and internationally on the ways to militate against this menace. It illustrates the role of government in setting and enforcing energy codes and standards. The study suggests strategies towards effective energy code development, implementation and compliance at all levels of government in Nigeria and concludes with recommendations on how best to achieve the said goals.



      Yadav Anu and Mendhulkar VD

Abstract: Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) is a widely distributed and highly harmful plant pest species. The management of B. tabaci has been typically carried out by chemical pesticides. In the last decade however, there has been an increasing interest in natural products, particularly those of plant origin, to control this pest species. In the present work, aqueous extract of Couroupita guianensis plant was evaluated for insecticidal activity against eggs, nymphs and adults of Bemisia tabaci, on tomato plant grown in the greenhouse condition. In a separate experiment, C. guianensis extract treatment was tested for repellency. The aqueous extract showed low insecticidal effects on B. tabaci eggs. However, nymphs and adults were more sensitive towards C. guianensis treatment. The C. guianensis extract reduced the survival rate of B. tabaci by 19.2%, 29.2% and 35.34% after treatment of eggs, nymphs and adults, respectively. Overall, results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. guianensis leaves show high insecticidal effects on nymphs and adult flies whereas low effect on the eggs of B. tabaci as compared to control. The results revealed that the tested material exhibited reasonable insecticidal activity against all the stages of whiteflies. Hence, the extracts from C. guianensis plant could be used as an effective and environmentally sustainable bio-insecticide for the control of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci.



      Prof. N.B. Kadu, Mr. Amit Tickoo, Mr.Saurabh I. Patil, Mr. Nilesh B. Bhagat, Mr. Ganesh B. Divte

Abstract: Data deduplication is one of important data compression techniques for eliminating duplicate copies of repeating data, and has been widely used in cloud storage to reduce the amount of storage space and save bandwidth. To protect the confidentiality been proposed to encrypt the data before outsourcing. To better protect data security, this paper makes the first attempt to formally address the problem of authorized data deduplication. Different from traditional deduplication systems, the differential privileges of users are further considered in duplicate check besides the data itself. We also present several new deduplication constructions supporting authorized duplicate check in a hybrid cloud architecture. Security analysis demonstrates that our scheme is secure in terms of the definitions specified in the proposed security model. As a proof of concept, we implement a prototype of our proposed authorized duplicate check scheme and conduct testbed experiments using our prototype. We show that our proposed authorized duplicate check scheme incurs minimal overhead compared to normal operations.



      Eiman Negm, Passent Tantawi

Abstract: There is a growing recognition that visual design and the concept of aesthetics is emerging as a key marketing element regarding the promotion and presentation of products, services, events, people, ideas, etc. (Köksal, 2013). The aim of this paper was to develop a conceptual framework regarding how visual imagery and design in advertising combining the suggestion of consumers about the processing of visual information in advertising. This paper investigated consumers’ views and opinions about the elements in visual designs found in adverts that impacts viewer’ perceptions. The study reviewed prior research regarding the notion of advertisements and visual designs. An Interview guideline was then developed to question the Egyptian consumers on its application in the market. This study was considered conclusive research, with a cross-sectional design and an exploratory purpose. The variables were identified through the use of semi-structured interviews. Twelve interviews were conducted until the saturation level. The empirical findings indicated that visual designs in advertisements play a major role in influencing and swaying their perceptions. In particular, the research found that a perceptive “matching” of the visual design properties used in ads (predominately visual or verbal) and the consumer segment needs (desiring material to be presented in a visual or verbal manner) appears to be critical. The use of imagery impacts consumers’ perception because it increases recall, enhances attitude toward the promoted matter, and affects behavioral intentions. Visual communication attracts attention since ads have become so complex in its efforts to use aesthetics to seize focus and persuade consumers.



      Erwan Eko Prasetiyo, Oyas Wahyunggoro, Selo Sulistyo

Abstract: Traffic congestion is a critical issue which must be resolved. The concept of adaptive traffic lights controller needs to be developed to improve the traffic flow. This paper presents the design of an adaptive traffic light controller using fuzzy logic control Sugeno Method. This fuzzy logic control is used to determine the length of green time at an intersection. The purpose of this paper is to design an adaptive traffic light controller with three inputs, namely the number of queues, waiting time, and the traffic flow of vehicles. The design was applied in a simulation to observe the number of queues, waiting time, and the number of vehicles passing an intersection. The simulation results show that the traffic light using fuzzy logic control performs better than using fixed time control. The number of queues and waiting time are lower, and the number of departures is higher than using the fixed time controller for a traffic light.



      Wahidah, Sharifuddin Bin Andy Omar, Dody Dharmawan Trijuno, Estu Nugroho

Abstract: Indonesia has two species of indigenous freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium idae which are distributed in different environments/habitats. Adaptation to different environments leads to dissimilar characters, causing morphological variance which could be evaluated using morphometric character measurements. This study was aimed to discover the morphometric variation of the population of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium idae in South Sulawesi. The samples were taken from Waelawi River in North Luwu, Kariango River in Pinrang and Tempe Lake in Wajo. The freshwater prawn’s morphology was analyzed descriptively based on the coefficient of variance. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii’s coefficient of variance was relatively high, ranging between 9.33% and 71.20% and the coefficient of variance for Macrobrachium idae was between 8.69% and 67.49%. The analysis of 25 morphological characters demonstrated that the population was heterogeneous, which was probably caused by difference in habitat.



      Adesiyan Olusegun Israel, Roslan Abdul Hakim, Basri, Bakti Hasan Basri

Abstract: In the quest to mitigate rural poverty and agricultural land degradation, a market-based incentive mechanism called Payment for Environmental Services (PES) was found as a useful antidote for both rural poverty and degradation of agricultural land. It was observed that the phenomena (i.e. poverty and environmental resources degradation) could not be divorced from each other (Obayelu, 2010). However a need for identification of the poor is inevitable. Although many authors argued that property rights (land ownership rights) is a prerequisite for PES to be effective. This study stands to think in a contrary dimension. It critically intends to conduct the research in the Oyo state farm settlements, where no property rights were given to the farmers. This paper argued on the premise of lack of provison for social security and access to credit facilities, in Nigerian rural settings as the potential ‘bait’ for PES effectiveness and willingness of the farmers to participate in it. Nevertheless the extent of participation will be determined by the type of attributes PES offer to the rural farmers.



      Afsanehsadat Omidiani

Abstract: Energy today as one of the major factors in the formation and development of industrial societies known. Reduction of energy consumption requires a new solution approach for sustainable architecture .So the choice of double skin facade is as a way to efficiently use energy resources. The method of research in this paper was based on data collected in the form of Case Study Method. This paper calculates the energy saving by Double Skin Façade in two case studies, ICICI Tower and Jet Airway H.Q, in Mumbai. The aim of the research was to evaluate the total quantity heat gain in two case studies according to solar intensity and surface area of building as a reduction in energy consumption and an increase in occupant comfort. Double Skin Facade and combining it with an HVAC system that besides the positive aspects of aesthetic studies and examples of actual results in 30% savings in energy consumption. Additionally, natural ventilation, building dependence natural light plays an important role in the reduction of noise reduction and Resistance to wind energy.



      Vishal T. Mishra

Abstract: Security is the degree of resistance and protection from damage. We set up our password as complex as we can that consist of lowercase and uppercase characters along with special characters to make our profile and various information secure, but what if someone knows this password, are we secure then? To overcome this problem we have come with a solution SEMATRAL SYSTEM. SEcure MATrix based TRAcing and Login SYSTEM, is a central user login control within the browser where we can add up different accounts we want to access securely. SEMATRAL SYSTEM will not only secure the login for the account ID’s we add , but will also maintain a log of user activities for the same. This web-app will act as an intermediate layer of security between user and social networking site’s traditional login; allowing users to access the account in either of the two way a) Live Login b) Dead login. SEMATRAL SYSTEM’s login system will be different from the existing one’s i.e Username and Password, it will allow the user to login to system via a unique concept of Matrix based password, eliminating the use of keyboard thus guarding against various key logger viruses. There are many more features in the system. Securing the secured is the main moto of this system.



      Madhvi Daniel, Shalini Kushwaha and Shakti

Abstract: People love food...its taste, its appearance, its aroma. Besides aesthetics, people purchase prepared foods based on convenience, cost, and perceived value or nutritional content. Micro encapsulation, the science of capturing a core material in a shell or coating for controlled release, can provide the food industry with a distinct market advantage in all these product purchase points. Microencapsulated products can add that extra zing, mask the taste of nutrients, alleviate processing problems, and increase the shelf life of food products.



      Deepak Pant, Manish Madhav Tripathi, Sonali Yadav

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel confusion and diffusion algorithm for image encryption based on logistic map and cheat image. We choose the initial condition and control parameter of logistic map as the secret key. The cheat image selected from the most common images in public network, together with the chaotic matrices generated by logistic maps, is employed both in encryption and decryption processes to encrypt and recover the plain image. One cheat image can be used to encrypt a great number of plain images if the cheat image does not attract the attention of the attackers. The computer experiments such as statistical analysis, sensitivity analysis, differential attack analysis and cheat characteristic analysis, prove that the proposed image encryption algorithm is robust and secure enough to be used in practical communication.



      Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa, Dr. S Sridharan, Dr. D R K Herath, Dr. R.M.M.K. Ratnayake

Abstract: Japanese 5S was selected as the quality improvement tool in this study as 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented, 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain, most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the effect of the organizational leadership on the sustainability of quality improvement in Government Hospitals in Sri Lanka.



      Mohnad Abdalla , Wafa Ali Eltayb

Abstract: We investigated the effects of serum starvation and cell density expression of Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and Angiogenin by used PC3M cells, we demonstrated that low density increase the expression of VEGF and bFGF but no effects on Angiogenin in the mRNA levels, while no deferent in high density. However the VEGF and bFGF was decrease when the cells was starved 24h but no effects on angiogenin in the mRNA levels, also We transfected the VEGF gene in the sense orientation into PC3M cells, and obtained stable VEGF overexpressing transfectants. The bFGF and angiogenin was detected ,and we obtain the VEGF up regulate increase of bFGF expression level, and negative correlation was found between up regulate VEGF and angiogenin expression level.



      Stephen Afonaa-Mensah, David Asante

Abstract: Rural communities are characterized by low energy consumption and poor load factor. The use of off-grid systems to provide electricity to these communities must be done taking into consideration the peculiar nature of rural communities to improve the utilization of the installed capacity. In many situations where off-grid technology is employed for rural electrification, community-level power supply systems could have been a better option as compared to other off-grid technologies such as the stand-alone systems. This is due to the fact that all individual loads connected to power supply systems are not used simultaneously; there is always some degree of diversity. In this paper, community-isolated grid solar PV system has been designed for Yabiw rural community. In the design, demand factor and diversity factor of 0.3 and 1.7 were considered respectively. This resulted in 82.35% reduction of daily power estimated for the community in the design of community level isolated grid system from 109.856kW to 19.386kW.



      Dr. M. Bhargavi Devi, M.D; Dr .S. Sreevani, M.D; Dr B. Sudarsi , M.D; Dr. P. Sravan Kumar; Dr. S. Manohar M.D

Abstract: Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries like India. Myocardial infarction has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the risk factors in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction younger than 40 years. Out of the 50 patients analyzed, 44 were males and 6 females with the mean age of 36 ± 4.2 years. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor at 82% followed by smoking (80%), family history (72%), low socioeconomic status (52%), hypertension (46%), sedentary life style (40%), psychological stress (38%), obesity (36%), and diabetes (14%). Most of patients had more than two risk factors. More common presenting symptom was chest pain (92%). All diabetic patients presented with angina equivalents. Hypertension was the most common finding (46%). Dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and sedentary life style are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. Whenever young male who is smoker or obese presents in emergency room with chest pain, we have to suspect myocardial Infarction. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for South Indians.



      S.Dhivya, P.Indhumath, K.Nagalakshmi, S.Sahitya

Abstract: With the increase in the number of senior citizens and chronic diseases, the number of elderly patients who need constant assistance has increased. One key point of all critical care for elderly patient is the continuous monitoring of their vital signs. So, we can use the purpose of Remote health care monitoring unit for elderly patient using GSM technology is used to identify the emergency of the patient. In this monitoring unit, we can monitor the range of heart beat, blood pressure, body temperature, oxygen level and glucose trips indicator. Here, heart beat is measured by electrodes, blood pressure is measured by pressure sensor, body temperature is measured by thermistor. The flash technology of PIC microcontroller is used to store the data for transmission. The data can be transmitted by GSM and received by GPS. It provides flexible and powerful patient surveillance through wearable devices at anytime and anywhere. The increasing feasibility and convenience of monitoring unit have several significant challenges for healthcare providers, policy makers, hospitals and patients.



      Kashinath Wakade, Pankaj Chidrawar, Dinesh Aitwade

Abstract: This paper proposes the advanced Ration Distribution System, named as “Smart Ration Distribution and Controlling”. Huge amount of Govt. money get wasted due to corruption in the conventional Ration Distribution System. This paper implements a simple PDA device (personal data assistant) with RFID tag used as an e-ration card in place of a conventional ration card. This PDA device is similar to the ticketing machine used by bus conductor or bank pigmy agent and the e - ration card is similar to swipe card. The Subscriber has to use this card instead of a traditional ration card to get ration from the dealer. Efforts are put together from our side to combat corruption and to have better management of public distribution system.



      Anu G. Krishnan, Thushara Susan Sabu, Sible G. V and Lindamol Xavier

Abstract: Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam (Jackfruit) which belongs to the Moraceae family , is believed to be indigenous to the south western rain forest of India. There exists a lot of variability among jack trees since most of them are raised from seedlings. A survey has been conducted in Kuttanad region to find out promising jack types during 2010-12 and selected six superior trees based on physico-chemical characters and organoleptic properties. Hence a study was undertaken to realize the genetic relationship among these jackfruit selections during 2012-2014, using RAPD technique. DNA was isolated from young leaves of six A. heterophyllus selections . Out of the thirty RAPD primers used for the analysis only ten produced maximum reproducible polymorphic bands (OPA-1, OPA-2, OPA-4, OPA9, OPC7, OPD19, OPN-05, OPM- 16, OPG-03 and OPG-10) . The primer OPA-1 gave the maximum number of bands and OPN-05 produced least. An UPGMA dendrogram was constructed and the statistical analysis was done using NTSYSPC-2.02i.



      Kiran Asha, Kumari Sneha, Kumar Mithilesh, Haider Shamim, Kashyap Vivek

Abstract: Introduction- Health care seeking is a central issue in all kinds of morbidity, since the duration of symptoms increases the probability of severe morbidity and harmful sequelae. Aim and Objectives- 1.To find out duration and main reasons responsible for patient delay.2.To assess socio demographic determinants of patient delay. Material and methods- The present study was cross sectional, descriptive and hospital based study. The total study duration was 15 months (March 2013-May 2014).Data was collected in Medicine OPD of RIMS from May-2013 to March-2014(eleven months).



      Date Shital Maruti

Abstract: Today, solving imbalanced problems is difficult task as it contains an unequal distribution of data samples among different classes and poses a challenge to any classifier becoming hard to learn the minority class samples. Unequal distribution of data samples among many classes confuses supervised learning based classifier as it makes challenging to learn minority class samples.Generating synthetic minority class samples tries to balance the sample distribution between minority and majority classes.



      A.Ponselvakumari, R.Selvi

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the concepts of fuzzy soft contra continuous and fuzzy soft almost contra continuous mapping in fuzzy soft topological spaces.



      Dr. A. N. Pandey, Dr. Nitin Bansal, Dr. Dorchhom Khrime, Dr. Alok Kumar, Dr. Amit Varma

Abstract: 200 patients were studied during January 2013 to December 2014. Complete history, total serum calcium levels, lipid profile were measured to evaluate patient. 121 were males and 79 were females the ages of 45 and 65 years. We used linear regression model. Our variable were age, calcium, body mass index, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and covariate were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and pulse. Serum calcium was associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and HDL cholesterol in both sexes (P<0.001). Serum calcium levels were higher in men with a history of myocardial infarction than in those without in all age group (P<0.0001). Serum calcium level was independent risk factor for Myocardial Infarction when all the other variables were also included (P<0.0001).



      De’nan F., Osman. M.H., Saad S., Hashim N.S. and Sharizal N.

Abstract: The new steel section known as triangular web profile (TriWP) was studied by previous researcher to replaced flat web (FW) steel section for better resistance on bending behaviour. In order to reduce the weight of TriWP steel section for economic purposes opening on the web steel section is introduced. This paper described the study on the bending behaviour in major axis and mainly focus on the effect of opening on the TriWP, effect of the web thickness on triangular web profile with opening (TriWP with opening) steel section and effect of different type of opening shape on TriWP with opening. The TriWP with opening steel section with 200×100×6×3 mm size was analyze using finite element analysis. From finite element analysis it can be observed that the deflection on TriWP steel section is less compared to that TriWP with opening steel section. The different of deflection between TriWP with opening steel section and TriWP steel section is less than 1 mm. The deflection of the section based on manual calculation is 1.292 mm which is less than 8.33 mm, deflection limit of the section. Therefore TriWP with opening can resist and carry the same load as TriWP steel section can carry.



      S Hemadri Reddy, Sheikha Rashed Al-Aamri &Wafaa Issa Al-Syabi

Abstract: The focus of this research was to find the effect of Rhamnus (Rhamnus cathartica) and Henna (Lawsonia inermis) an important medicinal plant extracts, phytochemical constituents and role on hair growth and wound healing. The extracts of the selected medicinal plants are prepared through two different methods namely soxhalation and maceration to determine the effective method of extraction.Phytochemical screening of both the extracts were carried out to check the preliminary phytoconstituents followed by HPLC analysis is performed to determine the quantity of phenol and flavanoids. Antimicrobial study was studied on selective microorganisms and in vivo study of extracts was carried out on mice with parameters like hair growth and wound healing. The Results of phytochemical screening clearly shows that presence of phenols(++) and flavanoids(+++) in all the tested seed and leaf extracts of Rhamnus while flavanoids are absent in henna extracts. The amount of phenol that recognized in HPLC varies according to the plant materials used and type of extraction methods, this is an indicator of extraction method also plays a role in presence or absence of particular constituent. In addition the invivo study on mice wound healing and hair growth study also showed a clear result of faster recovery from wound and hair growth.



      Neenu Avarachan, Rasheeda Z Khan

Abstract: Cloud computing is an advanced emerging technology. The cloud environment is a large open distributed system. It is important to preserve the data, as well as privacy of users. And cloud computing is an efficient solution for the easiest and fastest storage and retrieval of data. The main issue in cloud computing is the data security. So here introducing a well defined security method in cloud computing environment. To implement this technique here adopted a method that is attribute based encryption with hierarchical structure of users.



      G.Vijay Kumar, M. Vanaja, P. Sathish, P. Vagheera and N. Jyothi Lakhsmi

Abstract: A field experiment comprised of 14 lines, three testers and 42 F1 hybrids of blackgram was conducted to assess the magnitude of relationship of important plant traits with seed yield during three seasons viz., kharif, rabi and summer. Out of fourteen characters studied, seven viz., branches per plant, pods per plant, seeds per pod, seeds per plant, 100 seed weight pod weight and harvest index were highly significant and positively correlated with seed yield at both phenotypic and genotypic level in all three seasons and pooled over seasons. However four characters viz., seed yield, branches per plant, pods per plant and seeds per plant were highly significantly and positively correlated among themselves revealing their significant influence on seed yield. Selection of these traits are expected to lead positive results in improvement of seed yield in blackgram.



      Vishal T. Mishra

Abstract: The utilization of the computer and web technology has given rise to many innovations in the world community including education. Free Open Source Software (FOSS) are one of these innovations. The business community have used the advantages of FOSS to benefit their institutions. Compared with Proprietary (Closed Source), FOSS proves to be lot better. Most of the Open-source software is free to use, easy to distribute and modify. It has lower costs, and in most cases this is only a fraction of the cost of their proprietary counterparts and thus can be counted as its advantage. This paper gives a brief description about open source hardware and open source software. Android Wallet and Eye Stick Navigation System are two projects based on them. A brief summary of them is given in this paper.



      Dr. Naveed Shibli,Hafiza Sadia Khan, Anbreen Sardar, Mobeen Fatima, Tayyba Batool, Qurat-ul-Ain, Saira Yousaf, Iqbal Mehmood

Abstract: A conformity study to find out the presence of ‘depression symptoms’ as reported by various recent studies was conducted in Faisalabad Pakistan to find out similarities/differences among the medical and engineering students male/female studying in different colleges of Faisalabad as reported by published studies on the subject however the findings did not confirmed the presence of symptoms as reported in the recent studies in case of Faisalabad Pakistan



      Datuk Dr. Jeyaindran Tan Sri Sinnadurai, Dr. Lee Yew Fong

Abstract: Safety and quality are essential issues in the healthcare industry and it is on this basis, that health professionalism is formed. In healthcare, be it from primary care to tertiary care and right up to public health, various performance indicators have been developed to measure and control the efficiency of health services provided [1]. In the last few years, in pace with International practices, Malaysian policy makers and patients have exerted increasing pressure on health organizations to improve quality and efficiency As such, performance management and appraisal have become key tools to measurement on how well healthcare objectives are accomplished. Performance management and appraisal, when executed well, will in no doubt increase quality healthcare and patient safety. Results obtained from it are more about taking action rather than merely creating awareness. It is crucial to understand that performance management and appraisal involves the whole healthcare system and cannot be individualized or departmentalized and it is indeed the key to achieve fundamental long-term quality improvements.



      Haftu K., Daniel D., Gebru B., Tsegay G., Guesh A, Guesh G. , Mulualem Z., Gebrekiros G.

Abstract: This study was conducted in three purposively selected districts of central zone of Tigray, namely, Kolla Tembien, Tanqua Abergelle and Weri’e Leke. The overall objective of the study was to analyze the major honey bee production opportunities and challenges in the study area. For this study a total of 135 beekeepers were randomly and proportionately selected from each study districts. The data collected was analyzed descriptive statistics and Musa et al rank index were employed to analyze the data on challenges and opportunities. According to survey result, the respondents of the study districts could harvest 1.83, 1.36 and 1 times per annum from traditional, modern and transitional hives respectively. The productivity of the traditional hive is significantly low (p<0.05) in Kolla Tembien(16.6 kg) as compared to Tanqua Abergelle (29.7 kg) and Weri’e leke (21.5 kg) districts. 94% of the beekeepers daily followed the bee hives to check the presence of honey bee enemies. The honey bee production system of the study area has been reported to face with different major challenging factors such as water scarcity (96.5%), financial problem (91.1%), pests and predators (89.6%), poor extension services (65.6%), shortage of bee forages (56.2%) and high input cost (36.8%).



      Stephen Afonaa-Mensah, David Asante

Abstract: Rural communities are characterized by low energy consumption and poor load factor. The use of off-grid systems to provide electricity to these communities must be done taking into consideration the peculiar nature of rural communities to improve the utilization of the installed capacity. In many situations where off-grid technology is employed for rural electrification, community-level power supply systems could have been a better option as compared to other off-grid technologies such as the stand-alone systems. This is due to the fact that all individual loads connected to power supply systems are not used simultaneously; there is always some degree of diversity. In this paper, community-isolated grid solar PV system has been designed for Yabiw rural community. In the design, demand factor and diversity factor of 0.3 and 1.7 were considered respectively. This resulted in 82.35% reduction of daily power estimated for the community in the design of community level isolated grid system from 109.856kW to 19.386kW. There was subsequent reduction in the size of all solar PV components estimated for the community level isolated grid system. The size of inverter and the charge controller reduced in equal proportion of 82.35% as the reduction in the power demand. The sizes of Solar panel, battery bank and cable required also reduced by 82.14%, 81.08% and 77.14% respectively. Considering community-level isolated grid system where viable, for rural electrification project can significantly reduce the size of solar PV systems and subsequently the cost of off-grid rural electrification projects.



      Dr. B. Suryanarayana, M.D.; Dr. Tirupati Reddy, M.D.; Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D.; Dr. B. Sudarsi, M.D.; Dr. S. Manohar, M.D.

Abstract: Pericardial effusion is especially important clinically when it develops within relatively short time as it may lead to cardiac tamponade. Cardiac Tamponade is common medical emergency which can be fatal if un recognized in acute medical care units.



      Divyakant T. Meva, Dr C. K. Kumbharana

Abstract: Biometric systems are getting popularity since last decade. As per the demand of IT industry, this technology is satisfying authentication and authorization needs. But Unimodal Biometric systems have their own limitations. To overcome the limitations of Unimodal Biometric Systems, we can choose the approach of Multimodal Biometric Systems. In this paper, researchers have given details about Multimodal Biometric system designed and developed to improve success ratio of authentication. They have adapted fingerprint and face recognition methods with match score level fusion. We have tried to identify success ration under various combinations of weights assigned to fingerprint and face match scores.



      Kunal Rane, Niket Deore, Aaqib Mulani, Pradeep Pawar, Pramod Patil

Abstract: Cloud computing is a new emerging technology with large number of resources (virtual machines) which are handled dynamically over the internet. Now a days cloud computing is used widely and there is a need for achieving better performance, optimization, reduction of migration time, efficient computing and better resource utilization. So, resource allocation using virtual machines plays a vital role in cloud environment. In this paper we propose various sets of resource allocation process such as skewness algorithms and their importance in cloud computing.



      Vibhakti V. Bhaire, Ashiki A. Jadhav, Pradnya A. Pashte, Mr. Magdum P.G

Abstract: Spell Checker project adds spell checking and correction functionality to the windows based application by using autosuggestion technique. It helps the user to reduce typing work, by identifying any spelling errors and making it easier to repeat searches .The main goal of the spell checker is to provide unified treatment of various spell correction. Firstly the spell checking and correcting problem will be formally describe in order to provide a better understanding of these task. Spell checker and corrector is either stand-alone application capable of processing a string of words or a text or as an embedded tool which is part of a larger application such as a word processor. Various search and replace algorithms are adopted to fit into the domain of spell checker. Spell checking identifies the words that are valid in the language as well as misspelled words in the language. Spell checking suggests one or more alternative words as the correct spelling when a misspelled word is identifies.



      David Mwakidimi Msengeti, Dr. Jospeh Obwogi

Abstract: Travel and Tourism Industry is one of the fastest growing industry in the world contributing a colossal US $6 trillion dollars in 2011 and creating 5 million new jobs (Travel and Tourism Economic Impact Report, 2012). Hospitality sector is one of the main pillars of this industry in Kenya which has generally continued to experience phenomenal growth both in terms of revenues generated and infrastructure to support the industry. Its phenomenal growth has come along with fierce competition among the players in the industry for the limited human resource available. Increased ability to retain their current employees has therefore become a very important objective for most employers in this sector. This study seeked to identify the effects of the pay and work environment on the retention of employees in the Hotel Industry in Mombasa County. Findings revealed that pay had a weak influence on employee retention while work environment had the strongest influence which was significant at (p = .005) 2-tailed. While it was evident from the results that work environment plays a major role in employee retention, to remain competitive it was recommended that employers in the industry also need to re-evaluate the current weaknesses associated with pay.



      Kumar Shambhu Nath, Vimal Kumar, D P Banerjee

Abstract: This study was carried out to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and risk factors of transmission among children in katihar district of Koshi zone of Bihar State, India. In order to estimate the prevalence rate of HBsAg and to evaluate the influence of children demographics on HBsAg seropositivity, well-designed questionnaire was used to obtain data, considered risk factors for contracting HBsAg from consenting children. A total of 305 blood samples were collected from children attending the Katihar Medical College Hospital, Katihar. The male: female ratio was 1.38:1in the control group and 1.5: 1 in cases of jaundice. Blood samples were screened using HBsAg test kit, supplied by J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd, Delhi, India. HBsAg positivity rate among control was 3.5%. It gives fair idea about prevalence of HBsAg among healthy children of this region and does not indicate the carrier rate. The prevalence of HBsAg was higher among age group 9-12 years in jaundice patient. There is no significant difference in incidence of HBsAg positivity among males and females (p=0.317). Horizontal mode of transmission is found very significant. A higher rate of HBsAg positivity (17.64%) was found in patients of fulminant hepatic failure.



      Haftom Zebib, Geremew Bultosa, Solomon Abera

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory properties of banana flour-sesame paste blends. The experiment consisted of ripe banana flour + sesame paste proportions: 55 +45% (BfBR1), 45 +55% (BfBR2) and 35 +65% (BfBR3), respectively. Sesame paste made from 50% sugar syrup was used as a control. Banana flour-sesame pastes showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in moisture (wb), fiber, ash, fat, protein from 3.33, 3.12, 3.28, 23.27, 11.76 (%) in the control to 5.24-6.42, 3.71-4.73, 4.94-5.12, 23.42-33.56, 11.96-15.89 (%) in the different blends respectively. Similarly Ca, Zn, Fe (db) were increased from 522.94, 2.09, 5.17 mg/100g in the control to 531.75-767.98, 2.27-2.83, 5.37-7.30 mg/100g in the blends respectively. But the carbohydrate content was reduced from the control value of 50.44% to 34.07-49.05% in the various blended pastes. The total phenolic content (mgGAE/g), ferric ion reducing power (FRP) (μmol/g) and phytic acid (mg/100g) contents (at BfBR2 and BfBR3) were increased from control value of 11.16, 15.68 and 164.96 to 11.99-16.19, 16.22-21.88 and 144.41-208.01 in the blended pastes, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that the most acceptable paste product for its flavor was obtained from 55% sesame paste higher than the control value. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed that all products had light brown and light yellow color, roasted nutty flavor and sweet taste. Therefore, ripe banana flour-sesame paste blending was found to produce acceptable pastes enriched by protein, ash, fiber, minerals, antioxidant power and phenolics.



      Supriya Sutar, Sayali Chopade, Arti Ekadari, Lomesh Ahire

Abstract: The electronic toll collection using RFID & android application is a technology that will allow user to make the payment of highway tolls automatically. This terminology will in turn save the time as well as the money by decreasing the waiting time as well as the queues of vehicles at the tollbooth. The RFID tag will be deployed by the toll authority by embedding unique identification number (UIN) and customer’s details into the tag. The deployed active RFID tag will be attached to the windshield of the vehicle. Whenever the vehicle passes through the tollbooth, tag data will be read by RFID reader & same will be sent to the server for verification. Server will check tag details & depending upon the type of the vehicle, the toll amount will be deducted from the user’s account. The notification about the toll amount deduction will be sent to the customer via SMS and email as well. The developed android application will be used to recharge the customer’s account.



      Sim Yue Hock, Ridha Omar, Murni Mahmud

Abstract: Learning Management System (LMS) or online learning portal has become an electronic learning and communicating ways for many higher education institutions in Malaysia. The use of eLearning has increased in this few years and open source learning management systems have become a popular choice for these higher education institutions in Malaysia. Ensuring the LMS usability is an important factor that can affect the overall acceptance and success of the platforms. Therefore, in this paper the authors will evaluate the usability factor of three open source LMS platforms (Moodle, ILIAS and Atutor) on desktop/ pc environment; and the comparative evaluation results are then presented.



      Shashini R. Tennekoon

Abstract: Intercultural competence can be viewed as the ability to communicate successfully with culturally different others using one’s intercultural knowledge, skills and attitudes. This also is the ultimate goal of learning a foreign language. Nevertheless, this aspect of having an intercultural dimension to foreign Language learning is a completely neglected aspect of English language learning in Sri Lanka, though English is prescribed as the lingua franca or the link language by the country's constitution. On the other hand, to become a competent teacher in English, one needs to be interculturally competent as the teachers of English are constantly required to handle students in linguistically and ethnically segregated Sinhala and Tamil medium schools. Thus, this study is very significant as there have been no empirical studies conducted in the similar nature, in the country and few elsewhere in the world. The study explores the possibilities of developing Intercultural Competence of prospective teachers of English at a preservice teacher education institute in Sri Lanka, through a curriculum intervention which provides them with extensive opportunities to engage in intercultural interactions while learning English in the classroom together with their counterparts from other major ethnic groups.



      Nijwm Basumatary, Edwin Narazry, Tazim Brahma, Kokil Medhi, Miniswrang Borgoyary, Paris Basumatary, Sanjib Brahma, Sanatan Deka

Abstract: The present study deals with the identification, documentation and exploration of Minor Forest Resources (wild edible vegetables and medicinal plants) utilised by fringe villagers of Greater Manas Landscape, Assam (North-East India). A total of 48 wild edible plants and 32 medicinal plants were surveyed. Plants are the nature’s gift to mankind and consumed wholly or in parts either cooked or raw. These are delicious, refreshing and chief sources of vitamins, minerals and protein. Vegetables constitute a major part of daily food intakes and play an important role in well-balanced diet and maintain healthy living. Many plants are used for different ethno medical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning, etc. The utilization of wild plant resources in day-to-day life of Bodo tribes has been an old-age practice and recently popularity of the same has declined. Hence, prime importance should be given to them in order to maintain and popularize this important source of non-conventional food supply. In this paper, the scientific names along with family, local names in Bodo, time of availability, parts used and method of use are presented.



      S.D.Ratnakar, Prof D.D.Palande

Abstract: Heat sinks are an extremely useful component that helps to lower maximum temperature of electronic devices resulting in an improvement in overall thermal efficiency and performance. Fins form an integral part of sinks. Geometry of fins plays a vital role in heat transfer from sinks. Researchers have studied effects of thermodynamic properties like heat input and base to ambient temperature difference. After experiments some investigators have also developed correlations .While optimising heat sink geometry aspect ratio needs to be also considered which has an important effect on heat transfer. Effect of very low aspect ratio needs to be determined.



      Sarangdhar Mithun, Vora Dipak and Sarang Sheela

Abstract: Milk and milk products have been used by human population since ancient ages and have been a well known source of lactobacilli. The present study is directed towards the study of prevalence, isolation and identification of Lactobacillus species in milk. Milk samples were collected from the cow and buffalo sheds of a local dairy in the Aarey Milk Colony which is a major supplier to the city of Mumbai. A total of 40 milk samples were obtained and 163 colonies were isolated from them. These colonies were subjected to characterization by standard microbiological methods. On the basis of physiological tests and sugar utilization pattern, all the 163 isolates were confirmed to belong to the genus Lactobacillus: L.fermentum (48%), L.acidophilus (34%), L.viridescens (8%), L.brevis (5%), L.gasseri (4%) whereas two isolates could not be identified upto the species level. The results indicate that L.fermentum is predominant in the milk obtained from this sector.



      S.W.G.K. Bulankulama, Ali Khatibi, T.S.D.M.Shokri

Abstract: Most of hotels in Sri Lanka have utilized the social media with the aim of gaining competitive advantage. This study investigates how hoteliers views on utilization of social media as a marketing tool in Sri Lankan hotel industry. It was based on a survey of 331 executive offices in 98 star graded hotels in Sri Lanka that ranged from one-star to five-star. In conclusion the survey has shown that one star hotel is under utilizing the potential of the social media despite the fact that many of them have websites engaging with below 50 rooms. A major finding of this is that large size hotels (more than 50 rooms) have a higher probability of utilization of social media.



      Dr.Hafsa Thabassum, Dr.K.B.R. Sastry, Dr.L.Sunil Kumar, Dr.Shruthi Puste

Abstract: The coexistence of Takayasu’s arteritis and Ulcerative colitis is very rare, though not unknown. Here we present a case report of a patient presenting with complaints related to the gastrointestinal system who on examination appeared “pulseless” in both upper limbs.



      Divya Chaube, Sonali Gandhi, Priyanka Gupta, Rajesh Kolte

Abstract: A data distributor of an organization has hand over sensitive and confidential data to supposedly trusted third parties (agents) .The data is leaked and is discovered in an unauthorized place. The paper presents a model which includes detecting the guilty agent by the means of data allocation strategy and agent guilt model for guilt probability calculation. . Algorithms proposed for distributing data objects to agents, improves our chances of identifying a leaker. In certain scenario the idea of injecting realistic but fake data in real data is considered for further enhancing guilt probability. The major contribution in this system is to develop a guilt model using fake elimination concept.



      Kokate Ashlesha, Hendage Pooja, Kadam Bhakti

Abstract: This paper describes The Bluetooth module and android phone(version4.0) based flexible, low cost, safety and home automation monitoring system. We have proposed a smart home system which can supervise household appliance remotely and realize monitoring of home automation status through mobile phone and it provides security, when the user is away from the place.



      Rathnayake RDVT and Wijesundara WGSR

Abstract: Ensuring safety of tourists in the tourist destinations is not only an issue but also an important factor to retaining the higher number of tourist arrivals to the country since, it’s significance to the Sri Lankan economy. Because, cases of tourists being robbed, murdered or sexually harassed are reported often in several destinations in Sri Lanka. Amidst to this background, this study aims to identify the tourist dependability on policies and regulations to ensure their safety and identify the tourist understanding on society and measure the perception on harassments in relation with society. As a popular coastal area, Mount Lavinia was selected for this study. The population for the study being tourists who visited Mount Lavinia, a sample of 80 tourists were selected using the convenience sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study and quantitative method was employed to analyze the data. Results revealed that tourists have good understanding on society and they have agreed that Sri Lanka has harassment free environment to travel. Finding of this study will be useful to the tourism policy makers, tour operators, tourists etc.



      S.M. Tasmeeh Ahsan1, Mahmoodul Islam, Sourov Roy, Utpal Bhowmik

Abstract: A methodical approach is introduced to establish energy dispersion relation with hole sub-band states and optical gain spectra for variant growth directions such as [00 1], [1 1 0], [1 1 1], [1 1 3] and [1 1 1] of compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well (QW) architecture by solving envelope function equation using finite difference method. It is demonstrated that there is a substantial correlation between optical gain and its emission wavelength amidst a particular crystal orientation of the QW. From the MATLAB simulation results, it can be settled that the dispersion relation between hole sub-band states, optical gain, and the threshold current density in [1 1 1] direction deviates exclusively from the other directions, in particular, the more conventional [0 0 1]. The regular optical gains are inspected 2750 cm-1,3250 cm-1, 2800 cm-1, 2900 cm-1,and 1900 cm-1 in [0 0 1], [1 1 0], [1 1 1], [1 1 3], and [1 3 1] crystal orientations, respectively, when the injection carrier density is 2 × 1018 cm-3. Eventually, the highest optical power and the lowest threshold current are attained in orientation [1 1 0] while the number of quantum well is five.



      Chetan Kumar, Neeraj Sharma

Abstract: An adjusted choice based unsymmetrical trimmed mean channel fell with Gaussian filter (ADBUTMF) calculation for the recovery of light black scaled picture which is instigated by a high thickness Salt and Pepper (drive) clamor is proposed and tried in this paper. The proposed calculation replaces the loud pixel by trimmed mean quality when other pixel values, 0's and 255's are introduce in the chose window and when all the pixel qualities are 0's and 255's then the commotion pixel is supplanted by mean estimation of every last one of components present in the chose window. This proposed calculation shows preferred results over the Standard Median Filter (MF), Decision Based Algorithm (DBA), Modified Decision Based Algorithm (MDBA), Progressive Switched Median Filter (PSMF) and Modified Decision Based Unsymmetrical Trimmed Median Filter (MDBUTMF). The proposed calculation is tried against distinctive grayscale and color pictures and it gives better Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR).



      R. RAMESH, Dr. V. PRASSANAVEKATESAN

Abstract: DSM improves the quality; increase the productivity and hiding the complexity. It is indispensable to explain the Domain-Specific Modeling Language and generator’s working methods. Development of Domain Specific Modeling simplifies and speeds up the programming into many folds. DSM Tools are very effective in developing models and in code generations. This paper explains about DSML concepts and DSML implementation among the tools. In general modeling technique is applied for specifying required functionality and creating documentation for better understanding of the system. Features and advantages of the tools are also explained in detail. Architecture of each tools are discussed in detail to understand the DSML Implementation in the tool. The necessary conditions for implementing DSML are discussed.



      Jelena Ugarak, Davor Korčok, Dragan Vuksanović

Abstract: In order to be successful the companies shall identify the factors that affect its efficiency and effectiveness. Internal audit could be useful tool in that process since its purpose is collecting the evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled. In other words, internal audit can be used to evaluate the extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results are achieved. The process of conducting the internal audit is described in standard ISO 19011, however its realization depends only upon the company itself and its concepts of internal audit.



      Shalini Vyas, Hemlata Sharma, RK Vyas

Abstract: WHO estimates that osteoarthritis (OA) affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women older than 60 years of age. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make OA the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Oxidative stresses are believed to function as primary degenerative mechanism in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The exact oxidant and antioxidant status in osteoarthritis is not clear. The objectives of our study to evaluate the changes in oxidative stress marker (lipid-peroxidation) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) in osteoarthritis patients. This study was carried out in 50 osteoarthritis and 50 normal individuals. Levels of Lipid-peroxidation marker MDA and GSH were measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Increased serum MDA level is found in OA as compared to control. Significantly decreased GSH found in OA as compared to control. The result shows increased oxidative stress and decreased non-enzymatic antioxidant in osteoarthritis patients.



      Debasmita Manna, Tirthankar Majee, Sourav Patra, Bisruta Sarkar, Snehashis Banik, Niazul Azim, Md Sahil Imdad, Sucheta das

Abstract: Utilization of different wasted materials for the development of microstrip antenna segment has been rapid due to the recent miniaturization of wireless devices. In this paper, we have simulated a coaxial fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna for all those communication systems whose limited antenna size is premium. Low permittivity polyolefin has been used as substrate to achieve wide bandwidth. The Polyolefin can be collected form wastes of pipes, cables which will be a step towards recycling of unused pipes, cables etc. The simulation of this proposed antenna has been performed by using IE3D software, which is the first SCALABLE EM design and verification platform that delivers the modeling accuracy for the combined needs of high-frequency circuit design and signal integrity engineers across multiple design domains. This research will therefore contribute to a new generation of with extensive functionalities.



      Nitin Navale, Sanket Shinde, Shyam Andhale, MangeshLahamge, Prof. Pramod Patil

Abstract: Visual cryptography is a secret sharingscheme in which secret image is distributed in n number of shares such that, when this n shares are superimposed together, a hidden secret image is get. In extended visual cryptography, we use the cover image for share images, which will give integrating visual cryptography. In this paper, we propose a method for improving the quality of processing halftone images of the share images and the recovered secret image. In an extended visual cryptography scheme the size of the share images and the recovered image is the same as the original halftone secret image. The resulting scheme of extended visual cryptography maintains the quality of original secret image and its security.



      B.Neethu, Diptesh Das

Abstract: The seismic response of bridges seismically isolated by elastomeric bearings to earthquake excitation is presented in this paper. The specific objective of the study is to identify the various parameters affecting the response of the isolated bridge and to assess the effects of seismic isolation on peak responses of the bridge. The seismic response of the lumped mass model of continuous span isolated bridges is obtained by solving the governing equations of motion in the state space form. To study the effectiveness of bearings, the seismic response of isolated bridges subjected to various near field and far field earthquakes is compared with the response of corresponding non isolated bridges (i.e. bridges without isolation devices). The specific objectives of the study are to investigate the performance of bridge isolated by LRB and to investigate the optimum parameters of the LRB bearing for minimum earthquake response of the isolated bridge under different near field and far field earthquake ground motions.



      Biren Sarma*, Dr. Jogen Boro

Abstract: The Indian languages which have tones are mostly Tibeto-Burman languages which are spoken in North-Eastern part of India, except two languages namely Gojri and Punjabi which belong to Indo-Aryan language family. Like many others Tibeto-Burman Languages, Bodo is also tonal Language. However dearth of proper research of its tonal phenomenon has left many questions unanswered. There have been conflicting views about the number of tones (rising from zero to four) tone assignment system and morpho-phonemics of the languages. The only agreement among the researchers is that, the Bodo language is a tonal language. So, this analysis is a step to settle regarding the tone or tonal phonology of the Bodo language with the help of Bodo informants and other scholars’ research works.



      Kifah Q. Saleh

Abstract: Micro-active medium ) MSI ( “Metal thin Silver film / p-Si<100>/ Glass” cavity was designed for micro and nano laser systems, based on ~120 nm metal thin Ag film in thickness, p-Si<100>and Glass 0.5 mm in thickness making cavity of material matrix ” MSI”. We have shown for the first time strong lasing in visible region “~625nm” from simple material cavity “MSI” after interaction with ”Ar+ ion laser, 514.5 nm: 0.7-0.8 watt” at room temperature. Si type was selected after PL study using He-Ne laser”543.5nm” and Ar+ ion laser”514.5” nm .We have obtained excellent results from PL study after thermal treated p-Si<100>. In this work, we discuss the origin of this lasing and explain the relationship between the surface texture of Si and output intensity of lasing action at red emission. We have found there is strong relationship between excitation power and ΔνFWHM of “MSI” matrix emission at room temperature.



      Genemo Berisa (M.Sc. GIS ) and Yohanis Birhanu (M.Sc. Environmental Science)

Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a problem that is experienced by all counties in the world. Because of its nature, it has remained one of the major environmental problems man continues to face. Municipal solid waste management is considered as one of the most serious environmental and social problems challenging municipal authorities in developing countries. One of these impacts is raised from location of dumping site in unsuitable areas. This paper deals with selection of suitable site for the disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Jigjiga Municipality using GIS techniques. The existing open dumping systems in the town are not environmentally sound and socially acceptable as wastes have been dumped in inappropriate sites. The present study had integrated environmental and socio-economic criteria like proximity to road networks, distances from residences and important built up areas; surface water (river), boreholes and reservoirs to select the most suitable landfill site in the study area. The result reveals that out of five candidate landfill sites, a site with reasonable size (24 ha), at optimum distance from residences (4.8 km) and accessible to the major roads (1 km) was nominated as the most suitable site.



      Sachudhanandan.S, D Saha, Ravindra Kumar E

Abstract: Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) are gaining more importance compared to the monolithical materials as being more reliable and cheap. Polymer matrix composites finding applications from household to engineering approach. With the advancement of PMC‟s their properties can be increased by the addition of one more fiber made as hybrid composite which boosts the property of PMCs where a single fiber composite lags. In our project we have chosen rice husk as the major reinforcement and aramid as an additional fiber to improve the mechanical property of polymer composite with vinyl ester as the base material prepared by hand lay-up process according to ASTM standards. Test specimens are prepared with different weight fractions of rice-husk at the optimization point of tensile test a small percentage(3%,5%,7%) of aramid are added and tests were conducted and the improvement in mechanical properties (tensile strength and flexural strength) of the hybrid composite material is observed.



      RAVINDRA ANANDRAO THORAT

Abstract: Feed pumps are an essential subsystem of boilers used in industrial process plants and called as boiler feed pump (BFP). Normally, BFP is high pressure unit that takes suction from condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal type pump. In centrifugal pump, water enters axially through the impeller eyes and exits radially. Generally, electric motor is used as prime mover to run the feed pump. To force water into boiler, the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome steam pressure developed by boiler. In the present study, design and analysis of boiler feed pump having a flow of 2000 m3/hr, head of 470 m and operating at 130±10 oC has been taken up. The various pump parameters are obtained from design and pump model is developed using modelling software Creo Parametric. To evaluate the results at given operating conditions, CFD analysis is carried out using Ansys CFX module. Blade number has great influence on the pump performance. Therefore, CFD analyses are carried out for the pump with 5, 6 and 7 blades. Based on performance of every pump model, the best feed pump design is selected. A steady state CFD analysis is carried out using the K-ε turbulence model to solve for the Navier-Stroke’s equation.



      Theresal T, Sathish K, Aswinkumar R

Abstract: The necessity of achieving zero power dissipation in low power digital design yields the interest in the invention of Reversible logic gate which plays essential role in the modern computing. The optical implementation of reversible logic gate based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifier based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer sets the paradigm for the model ‘Optical Signal Processing’. The proposed reversible logic gate named NR (Naveen Raymond) is designed to implement Half adder and Half subtractor, similarly a couple of NR Gates are used to realize Full adder and Full subtractor. The Circuits are simulated using the Optisystem Software and the output is verified.



      Sa’diya Ahmed Mohamed and Maimunah Ali

Abstract: Perceived organization support studies on employees had been conducted in different international environment, but POS research in Malaysia is scanty. In Malaysian context, a number of studies found relationship between POS and organizational commitment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to address this gap by examining the relationship between POS antecedents (organizational justice, organizational rewards and job conditions), POS and job performance. The data of this study have been collected from a group of academic and support staff in the faculty of electrical and electronic engineering of University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysian through questionnaire survey. The data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings reveal that POS antecedents including organizational justice and job condition have significant relationship with POS. Likewise; this study suggests that POS can improve the staff’s job performance by presenting a significant relationship between POS and job performance. However, results did not show any significant relationship between organizational rewards and POS.



      Dr. Prabhu Halkati, Dr. Suresh Patted, Dr. Ranjan Modi, Mr. Rajesh Tasgaonkar

Abstract: Intravascular foreign bodies which are retained are a complication of percutaneous procedures.Recently percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies has become a frequently used technique. Various intravascular foreign bodies include fragments of central venous catheters (most common), knotted pulmonary artery (Swan Ganz) catheters, lost guidewires or guidewire fragments, misplaced embolisation coils and metallic stents.



      S. R. Rout and P. N. Panigrahi

Abstract: A 2.5 year old male Labrador retriever dog was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex with history of abnormal gait, difficulties in jumping, intermittent lameness in its hind legs, reluctant to rise up stairs and exercise intolerance. The case was suspected for hip dysplasia on the basis of history, clinical signs, physical examination and palpation of hip joint. Radiographic examination revealed subluxation of the femoral head and increased angle of femoral neck inclination. The case was successfully managed by chondro-protective agent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), weight reduction and exercise restriction.



      Wahju Dyah Laksmi. W., Kustyowati, Yustia Suntari, Hadiqotul Luluk

Abstract: This case study was taken at Insan Teladan School, which performing a free learning service for the poor early children who live in Parung, Bogor – West Java. The low price usually makes the low standard for the student’s manner, especially in self awareness. The Insan Teladan School has proved that a free service doesn’t mean making a low standard for the student’s manner. The article describes the analyses using Bordieu theory about the school roles to construct the children and their parents self awareness .Using the local socio cultural approach, the school program as habitus builds the basic values for the children and family full involvement in the daily school programs.



      Md. Sirajul Islam, Sofiah Samsudin

Abstract: The ‘3w theory’ has been formulating in multidisciplinary research from the Qur’anic perspective. Consequently, based on our attention to the Holy Qur’an we found that the Qur’anic ayat (verses) refer to three question types – “what”, “why” and “what” which are all related to multidisciplinary research. Therefore, we name it ‘3w theory’ or ‘triple w theory’ = wWwT. The 1st (w) is for “what”, the 2nd (w) is for “why” and the 3rd (w) is for “what” in research. The main aim of this paper is initially show the perception about the 3w theory, its objectives as well as important in conducting research.



      Sofiah Bt. Samsudin, Md. Sirajul Islam

Abstract: Al-amanah (honesty) is a first requirement to be real success in the world and rewarded in the Day of Judgment. Nevertheless, many people are inattentive to fulfill it in their daily life. Consequently, corruption, violence and anti-social activities are an everyday occurrence throughout the world. Therefore, the main objective of this study is focus on value of al-amanah in humans’ daily life. The study concentrates on the Qur’anic ayat which talk about al-amanah in various aspects of humans’ life, its implementation in order to obtain the satisfaction of Almighty Allah through performing all His commands and avoiding all that He prohibits. The study found whoever careless in fulfilling al-amanah, he is doing violence to his own self as well as leading to acts of corruption, violence and anti-social activities in societies throughout the world. However, the person who performs Allah’s orders and avoids His prohibitions it means he fulfills al-amanah for his own wellbeing and leading to others in performing it.



      Dr.R.Karthi,Ms.S.Valarmathi & Ms.G.Karthiga

Abstract: India’s pride is rural and our culture. Reflections of India’s resources can be seen in Indian rural environment. Those who understood the potentials of rural market can get succeed in their business than from urban market. Overall Indian market has been growing for the past few decades which bring our nation to new heights. Income proliferation and generation from rural market is the major contribution for the growth of Indian market. Marketers expand their business strategy similar to urban in rural markets with additional efforts to gain profit. In this perspective the researcher has done a research about business expansion through understanding the rural market by Indian marketers.



      Ms.S.Valarmathi, Ms.K.Kiruthiga & Ms.P.Vinotha

Abstract: This paper deals with the concepts related to how the Emotions will be controlled in front of others. It is described as the ability to monitor and manage the emotions of one's self and others. Business owners, especially during the initial stages of development, are prone to immense emotional stress and pressure. Each day may bring along with it new and unforeseen problems. Under such situations, it is extremely important that one does not lose his cool.Equally important is the way one deals with such situations and finds solutions to them. They are not only responsible for their own actions but also for the actions of their employees. It is their duty to have a positive influence on co-workers and employees to ensure maximum productivity.



      Ms.R.Suriya, Ms.P.Vinotha, Ms.M.Ganga

Abstract: All successful companies build strong relationships with their Customers. In a competitive marketplace where business competes for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. Service quality is an essential aspect for any service provider, it is obviously necessary to pay attention to the level of service provided. Customers are free to choose alternatives, and so if they perceive that they will get better service at a competitor, they can transfer some of their custom. This study attempts to measure Customer Satisfaction towards Service Quality of Tata Indica in VST MOTORS. The study was conducted only with Tata Indica customers. For this study, the main theme is service quality dimensions. Based on the five dimensions like tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, the research will conducted with the type of descriptive method. The primary data was collected through questionnaire method. The questionnaire was framed with the help of literature support.



      Ms.B.Asha Daisy, Dr.R.Karthi, S.K.Kiruthiga

Abstract: The paper entitled “Capital Structure: A Contemporary Approach towards financing the overall operation of a firm” This paper helped in gaining the knowledge in the area of capital structure and how it helps the firm to rise the finance through the various sources for various operations. The capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by using different sources of funds. It is the proportion of debt, equity and preference share in the firm’s balance sheet. The capital structure should be examined in the viewpoint of its impact on the value of the firm. A financing mix of the capital structure should be maximizing the shareholders wealth. The capital structure decision can influence the value of the firm through the shareholders earnings.



      Ms.P.Vinotha, Ms.R.Suriya & Ms. S.Valarmathi

Abstract: The researcher carried out this study with the primary objective of “A study on industrial health and safety measures” in H & R Johnson India ltd, Thennangudi. The need and importance of the study highlighted the health and safety measures which imply to improve the performance of the employees.The research was conducted with the sample of 150, on the basis of dis- proportionate stratified random sampling. The primary data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire which is filled by the respondents.The collected data were analyzed for interpretation by simple percentage analysis and Weighted Average Method.The study also focuses what are the safety equipment is necessary and how it protect the employees from the accident at the work spot.This study is very useful for the organization & future to make use of it for their development.



      Mrs.V. Carolin Juliya Pushpam, Dr.R. Karthi, Ms.B. Asha Daisy

Abstract: Corporate social responsibility is a topical and strategic practice in business. Many companies are adopting CSR: some underwrite social welfare problems such as HIV, giving training for teachers, education and manpower development, but increasingly some companies are turning to environmental sustainability issues possibly as a way of enhancing their image. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities carried out by Indian banks. The study is based on the secondary data taken from the annual reports of the banks. The ultimate aim is to guide companies to be strategic in their CRS so that they benefit from the process.



      Mr.P.Kalaiselvan, Ms.M.Ganga, Mrs.V. Carolin Juliya Pushpam

Abstract: Mobile industry is a fast growing industry; in which changes have been taken on day-to-day bases. Telecom services covering mobile and fixed line telephony including broadband, national and international long distance services, data services and a wide range of value added services and applications aimed at enhancing productivity of enterprises and individuals.To analysis purchasing behaviour of mobile based on demography and Occupation. So the study influence factor in choosing service provider. These telecom industries have the huge media influences. Here the analysis has the satisifaction and comparision levels from the various customers of different network



      P.Balaishwarya, G.Karthiga, Ms.K.Kiruthiga

Abstract: Employee engagement is a set of practices to make the employees to engage in their work. Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. As a result of this research, the engagement level is satisfied by using the measurements and the accuracy. The objective of the research is to study the level of Employee Engagement. Descriptive research design was used to formulate the hypothesis. The sampling technique is simple random sampling. The primary data are collected through questionnaire method. The tools used to analyze the data are Simple percentage analysis, Chi-square test. By using the results, findings and Suggestions have been derived.



      Ms.G.KARTHIGA, Dr.R.Karthi, Ms.P.Balaishwarya

Abstract: Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Selection may be defined as the process by which the organization chooses from among the applicants, those people whom they feel would best meet the job requirement, considering current environmental condition. In today's rapidly changing business environment, organizations have to respond quickly to requirements for people. Hence, it is important to have a well-defined recruitment policy in place, which can be executed effectively to get the best fits for the vacant positions. Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistakes for the organization.



      Ms.M.Ganga..Mr.P.Kalaiselvan, Ms.R.Suriya

Abstract: The paper entitled as “ A STUDY ON EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF EQUITAS MICRO FINANCE PRIVATE LIMITED IN CHENNAI.” The objectives of the study are mainly focused on analyzing the performance of finance which is revealed through profitability position of the concern for the study period. All the components which are influencing the financial strength could be analyzed. The study covers only last five years statement which if 2008-2012. The data collected from the study were both primary and secondary data in nature the primary data was collected through personal contacts with the executive and official of the financial division of Equitas Micro Finance Private Limited In Chennai. The secondary data was collected from annual report, department manuals brochures mainly from balance sheet and mainly from website. From the analysis, findings and recommendations were drawn to improve the performance of Equitas Micro Finance Private Limited In Chennai.



      Ms.K.Kiruthiga, Dr.R.Karthi, Ms.B.Asha Daisy

Abstract: The paper deals with the concepts related with the marketing of agricultural produce. It covers the function performed in the marketing process of agro produce, the functionaries involved, problems in agricultural marketing in developing countries when compared to the developed countries and the reforms required to rectify the problems.



      Dr.R.Sophia Porchelvi, P.Jamuna Devi

Abstract: Fireworks industry is well known to be a hazardous industry. Starting from the initial stage of manufacturing, storage and transportation, risk to life and property is high. 90% of the Indian fireworks are situated in Virudhunagar district. Due to direct contact with hazardous substances lead poisoning, ulcers, damage to central nervous system are some major problems faced by these people. This paper reviews the hazards faced by the workers working in match box and fireworks industry. Regression model is used to analyze the data collected.



      R. Sophia Porchelvi and K. Sathya

Abstract: In this paper, we present a mathematical model for integrating renewable energy sources in order to meet an energetic demand in Nagapattinam district with a lowest cost. It would be beneficial to switch over to renewable energy sources like solar, wind, tide and biomass etc. This study focuses on making use renewable sources as an alternative source of energy. The study area is Nagapattinam district a south coastal region of Tamilnadu in India, and a generalized findings and suggestions have been given based on the secondary data obtained. The problem is formulated as an integer linear program where the objective function is to be minimizing the initial capital investment.



      Dr.R.Sophia Porchelvi, P.Jamuna Devi

Abstract: The present study primarily concentrates on the waste generated by the fisheries sector and its effect on the human health and environment. Fish wastages attract pathogens, create bad odor, general aesthetic degradation, contamination of water resources and other hazards. Therefore decision makers move for some alternative methods of disposing commercial fish wastages. Fuzzy mathematical modeling plays an important role in decision making techniques. In this paper we use fuzzy multi criteria group decision making method VIKOR to help the municipal authorities to choose the right alternative method for the safe disposal of commercial fish waste.



      R.Balaji, N.Arthi

Abstract: Business Record (BR) is an emerging centric model of information exchange, which is often outsourced to be stored at a third party, such as cloud providers. However, there have been wide privacy concerns as business information could be exposed to those third party servers and to unauthorized parties. To assure the business data control over access to their own BRs, it is a promising method to encrypt the BRs before outsourcing. Yet, issues such as risks of privacy exposure, scalability in key management, flexible access and efficient user revocation, have remained the most important challenges toward achieving fine-grained, cryptographically enforced data access control. To achieve fine-grained and scalable data access control for BRs, we leverage attribute based encryption (ABE) techniques to encrypt all business file. We focus on the multiple data owner scenario, and divide the users in the BR system into multiple security domains that greatly reduces the key management complexity for owners and users. A high degree of data privacy is guaranteed simultaneously by exploiting multi-authority ABE.



      S.E. Ede, J. U. Odo, I.D. Adiele, J.N. Ani, C.W. Onyia & B.A. Okorie

Abstract: This work investigated the effects of addition of silicon carbide (SiC) as nano particulate reinforcement material on the mechanical properties of AA2618 alloy. The experiment was conducted by adding varying weight percentage fractions of silicon carbide (SiC) nano particles: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%, to molten AA2618 alloy via compocasting route. On solidification, the samples were machined and mechanical properties test such as hardness, ultimate tensile strength, density; Young’s modulus and yield strength were carried out. The results indicated that the developed method was quite successful to obtain uniform dispersion of particle reinforcement material in the matrix of the alloy. The hardness, ultimate tensile strength, density, Young’s modulus and yield strength were found to increase as the percentage of silicon cabide (SiC) reinforcement particles increased except for ductility that decreased with increase in the percentage of reinforcement particles. Therefore nano silicon carbide (SiC) particles were found to be good reinforcement material for AA2618 alloy composite.



      Iheoma .C. Chukwujike, Odo, Jerome .U., Gina .O. Ihekweme

Abstract: The influences of carbonized /uncarbonized cornhub powder on the vulcanizate properties of natural rubber/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber have been studied. The filler used in this work was corn hub powder. Filler loading used was 0-30 wt. % at two particle sizes (0.1µm and 0.15µm). Results show that the tensile strength, abrasion resistance, hardness and modulus of elasticity all increased with increase in filler loadings at the two particle sizes investigated, while flex fatigue, rebound resilience, elongation at break and compression set all decreased with increase in filler loadings at the two particle sizes investigated. The study shows that particle size and the nature of filler have a lot to play on the effectiveness of the filler in polymer composites. The smaller sized filler showed improved mechanical properties due to better filler-matrix interaction. The result therefore proved that corn hub can be used as alternative filler for elastomers where strength and hardness are required.



      Omar A. AL-Sammarraie, Mohammed Ali Bashir

Abstract: The importance of numerical integration may be appreciated by noting how frequently the formulation of problems in applied analysis involves derivatives. It is then natural to anticipate that the solutions of such problems will involve integrals. For most integrals no representation in terms of elementary functions is possible, and approximation becomes necessary.



      Onifade, O. A.(Ph.D.), Ruth Adio-Moses (Ph.D.), Ologele, I. (Ph.D.), Adigun, J. O. (M.Ed.), Ogungboye, R. O. (M.Ed.) and Abikoye, A. I. (M.Ed.)

Abstract: This paper was an investigation into the perceived psychological and organic factors contributing to erectile dysfunction among male adults in Ogbomoso South Local Government Area. A sampled population of three hundred and twenty (320) constituted respondents for the study. A self-structured questionnaire that was validated by four experts in the field of Human sexuality. A reliability coefficient of .85r was obtained using test-retest method of reliability. Descriptive research survey was adopted for the study. In all, two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level. Data collected were analyzed by the use of Chi-square (X2) statistics. The result of the study showed that psychological factors were perceived as significant factor responsible for erectile dysfunction and organic factors were also perceived as significant factors responsible for impotence. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommends that men should feel free to explain their emotional feelings to their love partners and couples are advised to embark on periodic medical check-up.



      Keri Alhadi Ighwela

Abstract: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings (Average weight 34.50 ± 0.05g) were cultured in glass aquaria and fed two formulated (pelleted) diets for 12 weeks. The control diet containing wheat bran replaced with 30% olive mill waste. Each diet was fed to 3 groups of 15 fish / aquarium. At the end of the trial, growth performance and biochemical parameters values of serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and serum enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) were measured. Results indicated, no significant (P<0.05) differences in average body weight, protein efficiency ratio and the survival rate between fish fed on treated and control diets, while there was significant differences in standard growth rate and feed conversion ratio. Additionally, the blood serum of glucose, total protein, and cholesterol were lower in the treated than the control group. While the values of triglycerides of fish fed on treated diet was twice that found in fish fed on control diets. For the serum enzymes (AST and ALT ) evaluated in this experimental caused no significant differences in both groups of fish.The mean values of these biochemical parameters were within the acceptable range for normal metabolism of Nile tilapia. The results of this study seem to indicate that olive mill waste improved its nutritional value in practical feeds for Nile tilapia fingerlings and without any effect on biochemical parameters.



      Macharia Ngombo Wilson, Dr. Mike A Iravo, Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba, Dr.Kepha Ombui

Abstract: Irrespective of the fact that Logistic firms are making much profit, they still suffer from inefficiency and insecurity. Critically evaluating the introduction of information technology owing to its objectives, it is not concern with how much technology is provided but how well it serves potential users. This cloudy atmosphere therefore provides a fertile ground for the researchers to examine the effects of information technology on Logistic firm’s performance in Nairobi Kenya to realize its significant impact on their operations in order to guarantee their profitability and growth. The target population was logistic firms within Nairobi County. Data was collected from 10 firms in the logistic industry suppliers in Nairobi.



      Keritu Angela Mukami, Dr. Kinyanjui Nganga

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate on the factors affecting market performance of urban housing projects with specific reference to Kilimani area. The focus was on the project developer, the project architect and the project contractor of the housing projects in Kilimani area, Nairobi County. Although there are many factors that may influence market performance of housing projects, this study delimited itself to project cost and project time. The research designs for this study were correlational and the descriptive research designs. The study targeted 167 respondents who were drawn from 56 housing projects which were randomly selected. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and 114 responses were received representing a 68% response rate.



      Keritu Angela Mukami, Dr. Kinyanjui Nganga

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate on the factors affecting market performance of urban housing projects with specific reference to Kilimani area. The focus was on the project developer, the project architect and the project contractor of the housing projects in Kilimani area, Nairobi County. Although there are many factors that may influence market performance of housing projects, this study delimited itself to project competitive advantage and project environment. The research designs for this study were correlational and the descriptive research designs. The study targeted 167 respondents who were drawn from 56 housing projects which were randomly selected. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and 114 responses were received representing a 68% response rate. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation test was used to calculate to determine whether there was a linear relationship between the factors under study and the market performance of housing projects in Kilimani.



      P.Krubhala, P.Niranjana, G.Sindhu Priya

Abstract: With over 1 billion users connected through online social media, user confidentiality is becoming even more important and is widely argue in the media and researched in academia. Social networking sites are a powerful and fun way to communicate with the world. The Internet is the safe place for only those people who aware of the risk and the security, and can take steps to protect themselves, so the best solution is to learn. Social media is a good service because it lets you to share what actually you want to share, but it can also be used for negative purposes, and in both cases you are responsible for your security. Protection and preventative techniques are not very difficult, but you need to be careful while you are on the Internet. In this paper we provide a brief overview of some attire to users’ privacy. We classify these threats as: users’ block, design pitfall and limitations, implicit flows of information, and clash of stimulus. We also describe about the privacy and security issues associated with social network systems.


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