The planning and design of harbor is an important engineering phenomenon with both major commercial and social implications. The literature suggests that various approaches for harbors design of harbors such as fishing, commercial and refugee harbors. The aim of this paper is to present a general guidance for the planning and design of harbors. There are a number of general requirements which has to be fulfilled while designing the harbors but also there are some specific requirements for each of them. Furthermore, the different types of foundations such as shallow water foundations, deep water foundations and pile foundations, as well as breakwaters such as permanent breakwaters and temporary breakwaters, and finally caissons are submitted for the design of harbors. The equations, formulae and specifications for the design of the essential components of harbors are also given.