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IJSRP, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


* All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
** For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

      Minakshi Dahiya, Shilpa Vij

Abstract: In the present context of increasing demand for energy and biofuel, the microbial synthesis of ethanol using industry waste materials has gained recent importance. The present study deals with the ethanol production from whey-a dairy waste by using potential thermotolerant immobilized yeasts isolates in free and immobilized state. Two species of thermotolerant yeasts strains, Candida inconspicua W16, Candida xylopsoci W23 and standard culture of K. marxianus NCDC 39 were used for bioethanol production. Of the selected thermotolerant yeast species, Candida inconspicua W16 exhibited the maximum production of ethanol (3.03±0.02 v/v) on immobilization as well as in free State (1.92±0.08% v/v) within 72 h using whey as a substrate. The experiment revealed that the thermotolerant yeast Candida inconspicua W16 is efficient in bioethanol production from whey, when it is immobilized.



      Arul.V.H, A.L.Vallikannu

Abstract: The main contribution of this paper is an improved method for charging the patrol robot, without human machine interaction. The robot retains their charging position as per the commands stored in the memory. The other feature in this patrol robot is design of a track wheel, which helps to move in the rough terrain surface with high precision. A single folded mechanical joint is set up with the base for the site surveillance and which is rotated 360 degree. For the real time visuals a camera is mounted on the top of the mechanical joint. All the control commands are exchanged between the base station and robot through zig bee module. A battery monitoring mechanism is also attached with the system. As the battery charge reaches the threshold level, drive the robot to the charging panel with the proper command which is stored in the memory of the microcontroller.



      Dr. Sangeeta Mohanty

Abstract: Over the last few years, retail has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the Indian economy. Traditionally, Indian retail sector has been characterized by the presence of large number of small –unorganized sectors. However, over the last half decade, the Indian consumers’ market has seen a significant growth of various retail formats such as supermarkets, department stores, discount stores, hypermarkets etc. The innovations in retail formats brought by retailers have been providing new paradigms in the act of shopping. The shoppers look for a wide range of choices of products, quality and prices. Consumers are now showing preferences for shopping malls, which enable them to shop a variety of products under one roof and offer shopping experience in terms of ambience and entertainment. The present paper aims at evaluating the consumers’ attitude towards nearby market, big bazaars and shopping malls and to analyze the related reasons age wise, education wise and income wise. The basic purpose is to find out the reasons of patronizing a store gender wise and to unfold the consumers’ preference to shopping malls.



      Dadang Kusmana, Yanti Raflianti, Wibowo Mangunwardoyo

Abstract: Lovastatin is a competitive potential inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, which plays a role in cholesterol biosynthesis. In this study, rats were given extract lovastatin produced from the fermentation of Aspergillus flavus UICC 360 with various of doses (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/day) on the rats and examined the effect on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL in the blood of rats for 14 days treatment.



      Parmanand Singh, Sunita Singh

Abstract: Malaviya as a Great Visionary for Higher Education: Celebrating his 150th Birthday



      Rana Ibrahim Al-Dulaimi, Norli Bt Ismail, Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim

Abstract: Environmental pollution constitutes a great health hazard to human, animals and plants with local, regional and global implications. Pollution has adverse effects on land, water and its biotic and a biotic components. Effluents from industries are normally considered as the main industrial pollutants containing organic and inorganic compounds The increasing agricultural reuse of treated effluent serves goals such as promoting sustainable agriculture, preserving scare water resources, and maintaining environmental quality. Moreover, irrigating with waste water may reduce purification levels and fertilization costs, because soil and crops serve as bio-filters, while waste water contains nutrients. Bio assays can be used to measure putative environmental risks. They are reliable, cost effective, quick and simple. The use of plants offers an advantage over other organisms because they can be more sensitive to environmental stresses. They are also easy to manipulate and store and furthermore, they offer a low-cost and good correlation. Use of industrial effluents for irrigation purposes is a highly warranted utility of water pollutants proposition. The objective of using waste water for irrigating crop plants. The first and foremost of this is the safe disposal of the effluents, which may otherwise have adverse effects on the environment and human health. The other objective is to recycle it as irrigation water, as compost for its possible fertilizer value. The literature relating the influence of industrial waste water on seed and seedling quality characters irrespective of crops.



      Raginee Tripathi, R.S. Jadon

Abstract: According to the principle of direct volume rendering (DVR), visualization can be created without using the intermediate geometrical structure of images, such as mesh, grid, silhouettes etc. In-fact the direct volume rendering is a mapping process from volume data (voxels) of points. Inverse volume rendering is not required geometric parameters of cameras and images, only the optical properties of images are more important than others, such as colour, light, opacity, etc. Flexibility of interactive direct volume rendering(IDVR) is depends upon the transfer functions and function points for appropriate operation such as image stitching, blending and warping etc. before describing the inverse mapping approach to find out transfer functions and specifying the basic steps for mapping and reconstruction. This motivates the study of various transfer and mapping functions and requirements of interaction techniques for visualization system, So that the interface can produce the visual effects on various steps and processes of volume rendering.



      Remya James and Vineeth Kumar T. V.

Abstract: Two study groups were surveyed for the study of the prevalence of thyroid diseases. One study group is from Ernakulam city and the other from Cherthala town, both situated in Kerala, India. Families of five hundred college students from each of the above said regions were selected as the study group which in effect forms a random sample from the area. A total of 1000 subjects (adults) were surveyed. Questionnaires were prepared and distributed to conduct the survey. 53% and 37% of the total surveyed subjects of Ernakulam and Cherthala are affected with thyroid disease respectively. The incidence of thyroid diseases is more in Ernakulam city which represents an urban metro area with people following a metro life style. People following non-vegetarian food habit are most heavily affected. Health problems such as high cholesterol level, obesity, diabetics, cardiac problems are also found in the diseased subjects, the highest being diabetics.



      N. P. Ravindra Deyshappriya

Abstract: Fiscal policy plays a central role in the economy in order to achieve its economic and social objectives through macroeconomic stability. Especially, developing countries are suffering from higher rate of debt and budget deficit. Consequently, the fiscal policies of these countries are not in a sustainable position. Therefore, it is timely important to examine the sustainability of the fiscal policy in term of Sri Lanka. Hence in this study, I attempt to examine the debt and fiscal sustainability of Sri Lanka by using Inter-temporal Budget Constraint Approach. In this regards, Dickey Fuller, Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillip Paron tests have been employed. Further, the study applied Ordinary Least Squares method to analyze the determinants of factors that affect to increase the net total debt in Sri Lanka. Time series data set from 1990 to 2009 has been used on this regard. The results reveal the stance of the fiscal policy is unsustainable during the considered time duration. Moreover, the results pointed out that growth rate of GDP, budget deficit, political instability and time trend positively affect to increase the net total debt. Thus, it is necessary to expand government revenue while reducing the expenditure in order to achieve the debt and fiscal sustainability. Further, the study strongly recommends improving the tax administration, introducing broad based new taxes, minimizing welfare expenditure, defense expenditure and reduction of transfers to corporations in order to reach the mentioned achievements.



      Purvi K. Changela, K. Selvamani, Ramaprabhu

Abstract: Balance and proprioceptive testing is more commonly used in clinical settings to evaluate injured athletes to return to activity. Muscle fatigue produces neuromuscular deficiency within the muscle, thus predispose a joint to injury and decrease the athletic performance. A finding of previous studies shows contradictory findings of effect of muscle fatigue on proprioception and balance.



      Sukmaya Lama

Abstract: There has been a tremendous focus on vocational education in the five year plans. It has off late caught the fancy of the academicians, policy makers, etc. The Twelfth Five Year Plan has specially laid its emphasis on skill education in its Approach paper. However, the reality check is that, given a choice between the two options for education: general education and vocational education, the tilt has been more towards general education than vocational and compared to the western countries the participation rate of students in the vocational courses are very less. Due to globalization and the growth of knowledge economy, there is a tough competition everywhere and therefore the only mantra to success is knowledge, skill and training. The focus is more on working skills and expertise in a particular field of one’s own. Hence vocational education and training can prove to be double edged weapon to be used against unemployment problem and also producing skilled technicians and workers for the global market. Vocational Education has been defined as any form of education, the purpose of which is to fit an individual to pursue effectively a recognized profitable employment, whether pursued for wages or otherwise. Earlier vocational education had no formal base and hence it was imparted in such a way that the learner acquired the skill by observation and manually handling things. Distance and Open Learning has emerged as a most viable option in higher education sector. In Assam, we have two dual mode Universities, one State Open University and IGNOU, beside some private institutions and “foreign universities” offering off campus education through their study center in the state. The present paper aims to view the status of the vocational education and training as provided through distance mode by the distance educational Institutes. The paper has its own limitations, as it deals with the vocational education at the tertiary level only. The paper will lay emphasis on the potentialities of such education and training for the youths of Assam and the role that distance education can play to give them a dignified life by equipping them with the required skill.



      Ms. Aparna R. Gupta, Prof (Mr). V. R. Ingle

Abstract: This paper gives the comparison of different methodologies for the fault classification in transformer based on Dissolved Gas Analysis. This paper describes the Dissolved Gas Analysis based fault classification of Transformer using Least Square Support Vector Machine. The parameters of Support Vector Machine are optimized using Genetic Algorithm. Failure of a large power transformer not only results in the loss of very expensive equipment but it can cause significant collateral damage as well.



      Manish Vishwakarma, Vishal Parashar, V.K.Khare

Abstract: Existing manufacturing industries are fronting challenges from these advanced nasent materials viz. nano material ,ceramics, super alloys, and metal matrix composites, that are hard and difficult to machine, requiring high accuracy, surface quality excellence which affects and increases machining cost. To meet these tasks, unconventional machining processes are being used to achieve optimum metal removal rate, better surface finish and greater dimensional correctness, with a reduced amount of tool wear. Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), a unconventional process, has a extensive applications in automotive, defense, aerospace and micro systems industries plays an outstanding role in the development of least cost products with more consistent quality assurance. Die sinking EDM, Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM),Dry EDM, Rotary disk electrode electrical discharge machining (RDE-EDM) are some of the alternates methods of EDM. This paper reviews the recent developments and advances in the field of high performance manufacturing environment using Die Sinking EDM, WEDM, Dry EDM and RDE-EDM. The review is based on prominent academic publications researches.



      N.T. Krishna Kishore

Abstract: This paper is aimed at strengthening policy reforms in the area of agriculture credit delivery system for the sustainability of agriculture for food security and rural development. In India strengthening of agriculture is important for elimination of rural poverty, food insecurity, unemployment and sustainability of natural resources. But till today strengthening of agriculture was meant to be increasing productivity by introduction of high yielding seeds, application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, mechanization and making availability of institutionalized credit for purchasing the preceding inputs, as result the Indian agriculture has become commercialized but not profitable to the producer. This commercialization has attracted more number of middle men making the marketing channels inefficient by delivering the produce at inflated prices to the consumer and negligible margin to the producer making him indebt. This is discouraging the farmer to move towards capital intensive commercialized agriculture practices which only can serve the future food requirements of the country. This has assumed added importance to integrate efficient marketing and rural credit systems. The time has come to redefine agriculture as the integrated activities relating to production, processing, marketing, distribution, utilization and delivered at each level individually. Agricultural credit development strategy till today was addressing institutionalization of credit at farmers’ level in marketing, trade, processing and agribusiness. As a result of efforts in the agriculture credit delivery system, the share of private money lenders (non institutional credit) has decreased substantially from 93 percent in early 1950’s to 31 per cent by 1991. But showing their presence as an important and most attracted source of credit by increasing there share to 39 percent by 2002. One main reason for this is they have been always integral part of rural supply chain for inputs and marketing channels. The All India Rural Credit Survey (1954) has quoted that agriculture credit in India fell short of the right quantity , was not of the right type, did not serve the right purpose and often failed to go to the right people, even today this spells right rural credit with infrastructural requirements for production (input) , processing, marketing , distribution, utilization , trade with value added service like technology transfer at single point to form the rural credit hubs or virtual integration by utilization of the information technology create new Indian sustainable agriculture for food security.



      Riyadh A. Al-Samarai, Haftirman, Khairel Rafezi Ahmad, Y. Al-Douri

Abstract: The effect of load and speed on sliding friction coefficient and performance tribology of aluminum–silicon casting alloy was evaluated using a pin-on-disc with three different loads (10, 20, and 30 N) at three speeds (200, 300, and 400 r/min) and relative humidity of 70%. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. Experiments showed that the load and the speed affect the coefficient of friction and wear rate of the alloy. The results showed that the wear rate increased with increasing load and decreased with increasing sliding distance, whereas the friction coefficient decreased with increasing sliding speed before a stable state was reached. The friction coefficient also decreased with increasing load.



      A. Vinodhini, M. Premanand, M. Natarajan

Abstract: Authenticity of the user is the major issue in today’s internet applications such as online transaction. Password has been the most used authentication mechanism which is subjected to online attacks. Due to unavoidable hacking on the internet, it is difficult to trust the User Identity on the internet. To solve this problem this paper proposes a BIOMETRIC based Visual Cryptography scheme to address the authentication issues. This methodology proposes the finger print image which is obtained from the user is Steganographed with PIN NUMBER of the user and the Steganographed image which in turn is divided into two shares. One share is stored in the bank database and the other share is provided to the customer. Hash code is generated for the customer share and it is stored in the bank database. One Time Password(OTP) is used every time to ensure the trusted submission of shares. The system not only ensures the secured transaction of process but also verifies the true identity of the person through one time password. The customer has to present the share during all of his/her transactions after entering the OTP. When the customer presents his share the hash code is generated and compared with the database value. If it matches, the shares are stacked to get the original Steganographed image. Again, the Desteganography process is carried on to obtain the original finger print image and the PIN NUMBER. The user is allowed to proceed further only after this authentication. This process ensures proper security scheme.



      Harbant Singh, Ghassan Al-samarai, and Mohd.Syarhabil

Abstract: Two alcoholic extracts from Capsicum frutescence L. (Chilly) and Zingier officinale L. (Ginger) (ranging between 500 and 3000 ppm) were tested for antifungal activity in vitro on Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium sp isolated from naturally infected citrus fruit. The water extracts served as control and it was observed that the alcoholic extracts concentrations were more effective than the water extract control in showing antifungal activity (P<0.05) against the test pathogens. Results show the alcoholic extract concentrations were more effective than the water extract control in showing antifungal activity (P<0.05) against test pathogens. All 3000ppm concentration from Capsicum frutescence L. and Zingier officinale L. showed a 100% and 85% inhibition zone for all the three fungi respectively. Work is currently focusing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of plant extracts on disease development with a major contribution to limiting the spread fungi to control post-harvest diseases in fruits.



      Mohammed Solaiman, Sanoara Yasmin, Ahasanul Haque

Abstract: Consumerism is an organized movement of conscious consumers against the sellers to protect their rights. Extant consumerism literature mainly focused on developed countries and the conditions of developing countries are largely ignored by the researchers. This paper is an effort to explore the present status, related issues and challenges of consumerism in Bangladesh. Empirical data, however, evidence that 85 percent of the sample respondents are away from consumerism. The collected data reveals that the areas of consumer deception are adulteration, miss-branding, poor sales service, deception in advertising and poor marketing information system etc. Further, the survey results identified that the factors of consumer deception are - illiteracy, lack of consumer consciousness, absence of consumer legislation, inadequate role of consumer interest groups and indifference of law enforcing agencies, etc. Finally, the paper recommends in support of healthy growth of consumerism global context in general and in Bangladesh in particular.



      N. G. Nandana

Abstract: This paper intends to show how Jane Austen the novelist was always aware of the importance of education in an individual’s life. Women of Austen’s time did not have a proper education and as a result they lacked professional status and were completely dependent on matrimony for securing their financial needs. This paper highlights Austen’s acute awareness of the inadequacies of the kind of education young woman of her age received. The attempts to compare and analyze Jane Austen’s thought’s on education with that of Mary Wollstonecraft. Through her characters Austen depicts how an educational system isn’t worth a great deal if it teaches young people how to make a living but doesn’t teach them how to make a life. On the contrary “education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity.”- Aristotle



      Mr. S. S. Sayyad, Prof. Dr. P.J. Kulkarni

Abstract: We address to the problem of Privacy Preserving Back Propagation Algorithm for a Vertically Partitioned Dataset. To enhance cooperation’s in learning, it is important to address the privacy concern of each data holder by extending the privacy preservation notion to original learning algorithms. In this paper, we focus on preserving the privacy in an important learning model, multilayer neural networks. We present a privacy-preserving multiparty distributed algorithm of back propagation which allows a neural network to be trained without requiring either party to reveal her data to the others. We provide complete correctness and security analysis of our algorithms. The effectiveness of our algorithms is verified by experiments on various real world data sets.



      Dr. Sameer Shrivastava

Abstract: An intrusion detection system framework for mobile wireless network is designed to support heterogeneous network environments to identify intruders at its best. The landscape of network security has drastically changed due to the rapid increase of wireless networks and mobile computing applications. Firewalls and encryption software methods have now become outdated for securing networks and are no longer sufficient and effective. There is a requirement for new architecture and mechanism to protect the wireless networks and mobile computing application. In this paper, we will be examining the openness of wireless networks and put up an argument for inclusion of intrusion detection in the security architecture for mobile computing environment. We have developed such architecture and evaluated a key mechanism in this architecture, through simulation experiments.



      K. Sivasankari, S. Jenila, M. Nizar Ahamed

Abstract: In most of the network data transformation sender nodes choose the link depends on link quality that implies sender could not much concentrate on the traffic and data loss. So this paper mainly focus on both data loss and queuing delay to identify most congested link in a network. Identifying the existence of a dominant congested link is useful for traffic engineering. It also helps us understand and model the dynamics of the network since the behavior of a network with a dominant congested link differs dramatically from one with multiple congested links. The network data congested mainly made by the router overhead and the intruder path selection; by consider these things here introduce a congested identification method by combining hypothesis test with model based approach. Here developing parameter inference algorithms for hidden Markov model and Markov model with a hidden dimension to infer this virtual delay. The process is more efficient than the existing methods and can implement in future for secure high throughput achieving group communication.



      Md. Rafiqur Rashid, Farid Ahmed, Abul Kalam Azad

Abstract: Compact Spinning is a new version of ring spinning and distinct features of these yarns are their high strength and elongation values and low hairiness. In this research work cotton yarns, produced from same cotton blend were spun according to compact and conventional ring spinning principles in three different counts. Three different knitting structures single jersey, rib and interlock were produced from these yarns. The physical properties of those fabrics were investigated and compared with each other before and after reactive dyeing processes. When the results were studied, it was observed that higher abrasion resistance and lower mass loss after 10,000 cycles was found in all knitted fabrics made from compact yarn. Compact yarn based knitted fabrics showed higher seam stretchability and higher extension percentages compared to knitted fabrics made from conventional ring yarn.



      Shaheena Shafi, A. R. Yousuf

Abstract: The length-weight relationship of Schizothorax niger from Dal lake was calculated ,which can be expressed by the equation,Log W = -5.13+3.07 Log L, for combined ones.The coeffiecient of correlation indicated a high degree of positive relationship between the two parameters.The exponential value (b) of the relationship in this fish species followed the cube law (3.07) which indicated the isometric growth pattern.Kn values of different length- groups exhibited variations which ranged from 0.94 to 1.14 during different months, with an average value of 0.7 which indicated that fish is under physiological stress in this water body.



      Nivetha Balasundaram, Sathya Balasubramanian, Ramya Selvaraj, Nivethitha Viswanathan

Abstract: The primary cause for most accidents is vehicle’s excessive speed and delayed driver’s reaction. Road safety can be improved by early warning based on vehicle hazard detection and warning system. An innovative system called wireless local danger warning (WILLWARN), which is based on recent and future trends of cooperative driving, enables an electronic safety horizon for foresighted driving by implementing onboard vehicle-hazard detection. One of the key innovative features of the proposed system is the focus on low penetration levels in rural traffic by a new message management strategy that is based on storing warning information in the vehicle and distributing warnings through communication, particularly with oncoming traffic. The system timely warns the driver about a dangerous situation ahead by decentralized distribution of warnings and incident messages via Intervehicle communication. The WILLWARN system is based on a modular object-oriented architecture consisting of the warning message-management module (WMM), the hazard-detection-management module (HDM), the hazard-warning-management module (HWM), a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and various onboard sensors. In this paper, all system modules, as well as their interoperability, are presented in detail.



      R. Eveline Pregitha, Dr. V. Jegathesan and C. Ebbie Selvakumar

Abstract: In image processing, image is corrupted by different type of noises. But generally medical image is corrupted by speckle noise. So image de-noising has become a very essential exercise all through the diagnosis. Noises are of two type additive and multiplicative noise. Speckle noise is multiplicative noise, so it’s difficult to remove the multiplicative noise as compared to additive noise. The traditional techniques are not very good for especially speckle noise reduction. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare and evaluate the performance of famous filters for speckle noise removal in ultrasound fetal image. Out of traditional filters, Adaptive Shock filter gives desirable results in terms of Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio



      Perumal Varalakshmi and Perumal Malliga

Abstract: Cyanobacteria are inexpensive to maintain with high growth rates and produce various biologically active substances like proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, polysaccharides and plant growth regulators. Thus they have the unique potential to contribute to productivity in a variety of agricultural and ecological situations. Indole acetic acid (IAA) is a natural auxin which is also synthesized in many species of non seeded plants, many bacteria, fungi and algae. The amino acid tryptophan is commonly regarded as the precursor for the biosynthesis of auxin in plants. By one pathway tryptophan is converted to indole pyruvic acid via a transaminase reaction, which requires a keto acid and pyridoxal phosphate in addition to the enzyme. Indole pyruvic acid is next decarboxylated to indole acetaldehyde in a reaction requiring a decarboxylase thiamine pyrophosphate. Either an oxidase or a dehydrogenase then oxidizes indole acetaldehyde to IAA. In this study, for the first time an attempt was made to confirm the presence of IAA in the extract of Oscillatoria annae instrumental methods of analysis and a field experiment was also conducted to analyze the efficacy of the extract.



      Atul Kumar Dewangan, Nibedita Chakraborty, Smriti Dewangan

Abstract: A digital system is tested and diagnosed during its lifetime on numerous occasions. Test and diagnosis must be quick and have very high fault coverage. One way to ensure this is to specify test as one of the system functions, so it becomes self-test. The system has several PCBs, each of which, in turn has multiple chips. The system controller can activate self-test simultaneously on all PCBs. These test result help to isolate faulty chips and boards. In this project Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) method has been used to generate pseudo random tests. This method uses very little hardware and is currently the preferred built in self test pattern generation method. Mentor Graphics Design architect tool was used for designing of circuit. It was also used for measuring power and delay associated with the circuit for different technologies.



      Lachure P. S.

Abstract: Digras tahsil is rich in floral biodiversity with tremendous medicinal potential; this is due to certain changes in physical features and soil texture. This tahsil is surrounded by thick forest areas. The forests are tropical dry-deciduous type and existing in the hilly tract of tahsil. The plants in this area made the integral part of the routine health care system of the tribals residing in the small villages and towns. In this area large number of tribal community like Gond, Banjara, Gawali, Andh, etc. these tribal peoples residing in canopy area of forest used different plant and plant parts for food, medicine, fodder, fuel, dye for festivals, rituals and various other functions. The tribal peoples have immense knowledge about the uses of plants and plant parts. India is very rich harbor with reference to diversity of higher plant species and also India is one of the leading countries in Asia with respect to wealth of traditional knowledge system related to the use of plant species. The traditional knowledge of India is mainly used by the local peoples of small towns and villages.



      N. T. Krishna Kishore

Abstract: This paper is aimed at enhancing production of multi seed conditioning plant by utilization of resources in critical production operations. Seed is the most important input component for productive agriculture. In the significant advances that India made in agriculture in the last four decades, the role of the seed sector has been substantial. The expansion of seed industry has occurred in parallel with growth in agricultural productivity. Seed processing and conditioning improves genetically and physical purity of seed. It is an established fact that good quality seed is a pre-requisite for optimum return of the crop. Most of the agriculturally advanced countries have legislative measures governing the quality of seed sold to farmers. The methodology followed for conducting the study plays an important role in obtaining reliable results. The present study was conducted to understand the present production operations, identification of critical production operations, evaluation, optimization, and development of various resources allocated in the critical production operations of multi crop seed conditioning plant. The activities which have high man machine relations are identified they are feeding, fine cleaning, destonening, specific gravity, treatment chamber and packing. These activities in the plant are semi automated which requires a good pace of man machine relationship. So, these activities are critical for production. Physical resource used at present are calculated to being utilized at 48 % capacity of their installed capacities. To enhance the production efficiency few physical resources should be added like pre cleaner machine to the processing activity and a full time fork lift at feeding. Operators feel that they require new training to develop there skills in operating and enhance productivity once year, operator’s camp has to be conducted during the off seasons of plant to share the observations and experience with all other operators to increases the experience curve in short duration. All the operators feel that there is no evaluation procedure for appraisal of performance of operator and motivations factors like variable payment for good performance, recognition, growth and advancement which are very important to enhance the productivity, performance and reduction of the human resources. At present enterprise resource planning systems are being used in the plant used at the management level only, and there is no access for the operator who are directly involved in the production process. The experience curve is very important for any organization which involves high skill involved activities, the turnover rate of operators in the production operations is high, so the information system should be developed to record the experience of operating the machinery in the plant. The physical, human, information resources should be developed for efficient utilization of financial resources of the plant.



      Dr. Samridhi Arora and Ms. Rupinder Kour

Abstract: The present study was undertaken with a purpose to build a sensory training programme for visually impaired children by assessing them regarding their sense acuity and providing need based short term intervention. The sample of the study comprised of 12 visually impaired children, from the Residential School for Blind, Jammu. The major tools used were interview schedule, Sensory Training Inventory and observations. The study revealed that the visually impaired children could identify various items of Sensory Training Inventory by different senses like the sense of touch, smell, taste and hearing. The most commonly used sense for identifying different items was the sense of touch and these children took 3-6 seconds to identify maximum items of the Inventory. All the items in the categories – Edibles, Pulses and Food grains, Soils, Textures, Electric goods, Grooming items, Laundry goods, Serving Untensils, Fresh Flowers and Miscellaneous were identified by all the subjects. The children showed confidence wherever they identified an object correctly where as their face showed sign of confusion when they failed to identify an item. The follow up of the short-term intervention programme indicate that the children could identify all those items of Sensory Training Inventory that they failed to identify earlier.



      Mr. Abhay Sharma, Mrs. Rekha Chaturvedi, Mr. Naveen Hemrajani, Mr. Dinesh Goyal

Abstract: With the rapid development and wide use of Internet, information transmission faces a big challenge of security. People need a safe and secured way to transmit information. Encryption is a common method, which is used for encrypting information. But it is easier to attract the attention of the attackers because the information cannot be read directly. The information will be intercepted, deciphered, and even re-transmitted after sabotage; therefore, the integrity of the information is destroyed. Many watermarking algorithms have been proposed in recent years. This paper presents a new watermarking technique which is based on least significant bits (LSB) substitution method .our proposed algorithm is improved version LSB substitution method. In this method we used traditional extraction of two shares with separate transparency of secret image for security purpose. We take two different cover images for covering the secret share. Then one secret bit from a secret share is randomly embedded into the ri-th least significant bit (LSBri) of a cover image. Our scheme uses a pseudo random number generator with a secret seed SD to generate a sequence of random numbers {r1, r2…rm}, where m = (2W ×2H) and ri ≤ L. Here, L is the number of least significant bits. we proposed this algorithm for L = 3.



      Mrs. Rekha Chaturvedi, Mr. Abhay Sharma, Mr. Naveen Hemrajani, Mr. Dinesh Goyal

Abstract: Aliquot watermarking is the unique idea in aliquot media for copyright protection. Various watermarking algorithm has been developed in recent years, but cognitive content of the intent, as they serve, they demarcated from each other. This context presents a new proposal for hiding a logo-based watermark in color still image. This dodge is based on averaging of central frequency coefficients of block Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients of an image. It is unique from earlier dodge based on middle frequency coefficient by mean of high redundancy, to nurture malicious attacks. Here we propose algorithm of aliquot watermarking technique based on DCT (Discrete Cosine Transformation) using mid band for robustness. Through adjusting the block DCT coefficient of the image the watermarks are adumbered. We have been using the DCT mid band co-efficient for different image formats and the analysis appeared that the JPG image format’s PSNR value on an average was lowest in contrast with others. The propound dodge also describes the expedient results that the method has unassailable robust



      Jyotsna Hirmukhe

Abstract: The inherent complexity of the public service environment throws up a number of difficulties and potential conflicts. Different customer or stakeholder groups may well have different expectations of the same service or have different service priorities. Berry, Parasuraman and Zeithaml (1985) identified ten dimensions of service quality. These were later reduced to five. They defined service quality to be perceived as the ‘extent of discrepancy between customer’s expectations or desires and their perceptions’. It is interesting to study the expectations of the internal customers about the services provided by their offices and their perceptions about the same as their lookout towards the services is completely different from that of the customers. This study tries to analyze the responses of 33 Tehsildars to a SERVQUAL questionnaire and analyze the gap between expectations and perceptions with an aim to provide a small contribution towards improvement in these services.



      Dr. Mohammed Nasir Uddin, Dr. Jebunnahar and Md. Abul Bashar

Abstract: Every digital image processing system can be represented by a block diagram containing three main elements. Image processing started with the input of an image in the processing system. The integrated software within the chip handles the task. Again it can be further processed based on the need. But the application of the processing method or algorithm depends on how the image is inputted, and stored. The quality of the processed image also depends on many criterions. In this article digital processed image quality comparison, hardware comparison and human perception and visual limitations are analyzed to find out common quality dependencies of processed image. The objective of this article is to educate newcomer to basic and fundamental technique of different types of image processing and to find out common image quality dependencies. All fundamental algorithms of image processing will be discussed and quality of processed image output comparison will be shown to find out dependencies.



      Mukund Dhore, Dinesh Dabhadkar, Varsha Zade, Manik Dhore

Abstract: Many studies have been done on the female contraception. The traditional use of plants to treat different sort of diseases, including fertility related problems is widespread throughout the world as many plant substances are known for their interferences with the female reproductive system. The present paper deals with the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of plant and their parts, particularly the fertility regulatory plants used by Gond , Kolam, Andh, Korku and banjara tribes of Yavatmal range forest of Yavatmal district. The Yavatmal forest range was selected for investigation, as tribals of this area are mainly dependent upon the forest flora for their livehood and use herbal medicines for curing the ailments and diseases. The work was done for a period of 05 year (2005- 2010) and altogether 21 plants were recorded and documented which are used by tribal people as abortifacient.



      Gargee Sharma, Prakriti Trivedi

Abstract: This paper examines the present scenario of threats being faced by the enterprises willing to outsource their data and information on a storage service provided by a third party Cloud service provider. In contrast to conventional solutions, which are well protected by standardized data access procedures, organizations tend to loose integrity of data when systems are outsourced to the cloud. Since the data is stored on the service provider’s storage they must ensure to overcome the threats against integrity of data and preventing its unauthorized disclosure. At the same time enterprises willing to outsource data storage should be mindful of the terms and conditions of their cloud contract. To maintain integrity and privacy of information it is encrypted and stored on the storage service. But if storage as well as encryption-decryption is performed by the same service, the administrator might have access to the data and corresponding keys. The aim of this study is to propose a model for secure cloud computing based on separate data storage from cryptographic process. Another way, the service is split into two: one service provider is proposed to be responsible for storage and another for its encryption-decryption; along with it both providers are different in order to ensure information security. It is also proposed that after the completion of encryption and decryption process, the service must not retain the data and the information must be encrypted first and then stored on the storage service.



      DR. MD. Firdos Ahmad, Shaukat Haseen

Abstract: Climate change has emerged as an important determinant, particularly in the recent past. In India before economic reforms government was providing a lot of subsidies over the inputs that made the purchase of inputs affordable for the farmer which helps in fighting against the climate change. But after the economic reforms high rise in the prices of inputs of agricultural production has made it difficult for the farmers to purchase the inputs in right amount and vulnerability of agriculture to climate change has increased and it is expected that agriculture sector in India will be negatively affected. The growth rate in the food grains production and productivity has decelerated when India entered in the era of globalization. The growth rate production of food grains is 2.80 per cent per annum in pre reform period which declined to 1.98 per cent in post reform period. The situation is more worsen in case of growth rate of rice and wheat. The growth rate in productivity of food grains is slightly improved in post reform period over the pre reform period but in case of rice and wheat productivity, the result is quite opposite. In this paper we made a modest attempt to analysis this result by considering the change in growth rate of fertilizer consumption, change in cultivated area, change in irrigated area and change in climate conditions.



      Mr. Prathamesh Bhat, Dr. R.B. Lohani, Dr. R.P.R.C. Aiyar

Abstract: A novel technique for obtaining a single-layer single-feed dual-band microstrip antenna loaded with narrow slots having capacitive loading has been studied which shows tuning and reconfigurability at the two frequencies 1.72 GHz and 2.885 GHz respectively. By embedding a pair of slots of proper lengths close to the radiating edges, the rectangular patch has been shown to realize dual-band broadside directions. More freedom for tuning the resonant frequencies, the frequency ratio, and the input impedance are available because of more design parameters such as slot length and width and its position from radiating edges. The range of the frequency ratio (FR) that can be obtained is between 1.6 to 2. By varying the capacitance value (0.1 pF to 1pF), a tuning of around 100-160 MHz is achieved at both the frequencies. New empirical formulas are designed by modifying the formulas for reactively loaded patch with slot loading. Broadband antennas provide higher bandwidth at the expense of their high thickness. Dual band microstrip antenna with capacitive loading can be an alternative to large bandwidth antennas, especially when a large bandwidth is required for encompassing several narrowband channels. A FR4 substrate is used as a dielectric substrate. Simulations are performed using IE3D.



      Rama Bharath Kumar, Bangari Shravan Kumar, Chandragiri Shiva Sai Prasad

Abstract: Stock market prediction is an attractive research problem to be investigated. News contents are one of the most important factors that have influence on market. Considering the news impact in analyzing the stock market behavior, leads to more precise predictions and as a result more profitable trades. So far various prototypes have been developed which consider the impact of news in stock market prediction. In this paper, the main components of such forecasting systems have been introduced.



      Aparna P, Mohana priya P, Usha Rani T, Jeba Jaculin B, Pradeep Raja B

Abstract: Speech impairment refers to the inability to produce normal speech. Dysarthria is a kind of speech disorder where there is a difficulty in producing the normal speech. The proposed system makes use of an acoustic plate that senses the vocal cord vibrations.When a set of unpatterned words are spoken by the user, the words are compared with the preprogrammed words in the speech IC where it is analysed and corresponding audio output is heard through the speaker. This system can be implemented in realtime to express the basic needs of speech impaired.



      Gantela Prabhakar and Cheldi Sharath

Abstract: In general when security is concerned with your personal data or any other details that you want to be secured; we take outmost care in hiding the password so that the data is protected from unauthorized users such as hackers, intruders etc., But the prime job in stealing the password of a user is to understand the encryption method followed, the algorithm implemented in it or the key that has been provided for it. In this paper we discuss another angle of revealing the passwords which follows a little bit common sense added with some letter frequency in guessing the passwords which doesn’t need any key, the scheme of implementation and also the encryption method that is used.



      Sachan Rekha, Gupta Pooja, Patel ML, Chaudhary Shipra, Agarwal Reshu

Abstract: Research: Effect of various tocolytics in preterm labour is varied and also the side effects. Thus in this study comparison between Transdermal Nitroglycerine (NTG) and Isoxsuprine was done to assess the same.
Material & Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. A Prospective comparative study, 100 women of preterm labour were enrolled after the informed consent, amongst them 50 women received Inj. Isoxsuprine 5 mg intramuscular (Group-I) and 50 women received Transdermal Nitroglycerine patch (NTG 10) on the abdominal wall (Group-II).
Result: Successful tocolysis (Inj. Betamethasone 12mgm intramuscular 2 doses 24 hours apart) was achieved in 98% of Group-II as and 84% of patients in Group-I which was statistically significant (p=0.014). In group-I 28% women delivered after 37 weeks where as in group-II 50% delivered after 37 weeks which was statistically significant. (p=0.024) In group-I 16% neonates developed RDS whereas in Group-II 2% developed RDS which was not significant (p=0.307) Headache was found to be the persistent side effect in all subjects of Group-II as compared to none in Group-I. (p=<0.001)
CONCLUSION: This randomized prospective comparative study lends support to the proportion that Transdermal Nitroglycerine may be promising safe, effective, well tolerated, cost effective and non invasive method of tocolysis.



      R.Arundhadhi and R.Sattanathan

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss about the acyclic chromatic number and star chromatic number of (i) middle graph (ii) central graph and (iii) total graph of Bistar graph Bm,n, denoted by M(Bm,n), C(Bm,n) and T(Bm,n) respectively. In fact, we discuss the relationship between these two chromatic numbers of the above graphs.



      Mr. Vilas S. Gaikwad, Prof. Dr. Prakash J. Kulkarni

Abstract: One-versus-all (OVA) classification is the one of the multiclass classification problems well as it is the binary classifier. On the basis of this we propose the network intrusion detecting system for the security of computers and networks. In this paper, we present a new learning algorithm for detection of network intrusion using one versus all decision tree algorithms that differentiate attacks from normal behaviors and identifies different types of intrusions. Experimental results on the KDD99 dataset of network intrusion. The proposed learning algorithm achieved very good result in form of detection rate (DR) in comparison with other existing methods.



      Makwana Nirbhaykumar N.

Abstract: The distribution system provides the link between bulk power system and consumer. The various classical power flow methods are required modification in algorithm for solving large distribution system network having ill condition and weakly meshed structure. This paper gives a review of the various computational methods suited for the analysis of weakly meshed distribution networks. The analytical bases, computational requirements and comparative numerical performance of the methods are discussed.



      ML Patel, Rekha Sachan, Anil Nischal, Surendra

Abstract: Background: Depression and anxiety is well established as a prevalent mental health problem in end-stage renal disease patients treated with hemodialysis. However these problem remains difficult to assess and is undertreated.
Aims & Objective: To assess the demographic and psychological factors associated with depression among hemodialysis patients and elucidated the relationships between depression, anxiety, fatigue, poor health-related quality of life, and increased suicide risk.
Method: This cross-sectional study enrolled 150 end-stage renal disease patients age >18 years on hemodialysis. Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the short-form Health-Related Quality of Life Scale, and Chalder Fatigue Scale, and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the models and the strength of relationships between variables and suicidal ideation.
Results: Of the 150 patients, 70 (46.6%) had depression symptoms, and 43 (28.6%) had suicidal ideation in the previous month. Depression was significantly correlated with a low body mass index (BMI) and the number of co morbid physical illnesses. Depressed patients had greater levels of fatigue and anxiety, more common suicidal ideation, and poorer quality of life than nondepressed patients. Results revealed a significant direct effect for depression and anxiety on suicidal ideation.
Conclusion: Among hemodialysis patients, depression was associated with a low BMI and an increased number of comorbid physical illnesses. Depression and anxiety were robust indicators of suicidal ideation. A prospective study would prove helpful in determining whether early detection and early intervention of comorbid depression and anxiety among hemodialysis patients would reduce suicide risk.



      V. Ravindra Babu, K. Shreya, Kuldeep Singh Dangi, G. Usharani, A. Siva Shankar

Abstract: The present investigation is carried out to study the correlation and path analysis in twenty one popular hybrids of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Character association of the yield attributing traits revealed significantly positive association of grain yield per plant with number of productive tillers per plant. Hence, selection for these traits can improve yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that panicle length and number of productive tillers per plant exhibited positive direct effect on yield. Among these characters, number of productive tillers per plant possessed both positive association and high direct effects. Hence, selection for this character could bring improvement in yield and yield components.



      Hadher Hussein Abbood Ad-Darraji, Thomas Chow Voon Foo1, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed Ismail, Esbah Shaker Abdulah

Abstract: This paper sheds light on one of the most rigorous theories in modern Linguistics. It is the speech Act theory focuses on offer as one of the speech acts which can be subsumed under two categories namely commissive and directives. This paper also discusses the art of offer from different perspectives. It also focuses on the speech act of offering from philosophical, social, and cultural views.



      Pinky Dholakia

Abstract: Globalization is one of the great social processes facing humanity forever. Facing a challenge system, global financial information has called for reliable financial information created by accounting. This leads us to study and implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for rapid growth of international trade and internationalization of firms, the developments of new communication technologies, and the emergence of international competitive forces is perturbing the financial environment largely. To-date there has been limited research conducted into the effects/implications of IFRS adoption. Thus the present study aims to identify and evaluate the materiality of the impact of IFRS adoption on companies’ financial position, performance of the financial year, examine individual standards and its effect on shareholders’ equity. This research paper even seeks to contribute to the latest discussions on the financial reporting. It starts out by giving an overview of the IFRS accounting policies, which are currently applied by the majority of participants. We have proposed a model of study to find out the views of Chartered Accountants (CA), Company Secretaries (CS), Post Graduates, Doctorates and ICWA who are mainly concerned with the standards so that their acceptability towards IFRS can be assessed.



      R.S. Pandey, S. Kumar, D. K. Singh and Shobha Rani

Abstract: Whistler mode instability in interplanetary space at 1AU(Astronomical Unit) is investigated using an anisotropic Lorentzian Kappa distribution with perpendicular AC electric field for relativistic plasma. The method of characteristic solutions using the perturbed and unperturbed particle trajectories have been used to determine the perturbed distribution function. The conductivities and dielectric tensors are then determined and used to obtain the dispersion relation. The special case of whistler mode dispersion is then use to determine the growth rates for various plasma parameters. Present studies are helpful in making estimates on high energetic plasma particles and properties of whistler mode waves and thus contribute to a better understanding of the auroral activity in the planetary atmospheres.



      V. KOKILAVANI, P. BASKER

Abstract: The notion of M_X αδ-closed set was introduced and studied by V. Kokilavani and P. Basker [13]. In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly ultra-M_X αδ-separation of two sets in a m-space using M_X αδ-open sets. The M_X αδ-closure and the M_X αδ-kernel are defined in terms of this weakly ultra-M_X αδ-separation. We also investigate some of the properties of the M_X αδ-kernel and the M_X αδ-closure. It is the aim of this paper to offer some weak separation axioms by utilizing M_X αδ-open sets and the M_X αδ-closure operator. Also we introduce Sober-M_X αδR_0. Further, we obtain some characterizations and some properties.



      S. S. Thakare, N. V. Shende and K. J. Shinde

Abstract: The output supply and input demand are closely interlinked to each other. Therefore, any change in input and output prices affect the input demand and output supply simultaneously. The present study used cross sectional cum time series data of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state for cotton crop for the ten years from 1999-00 to 2008-09 were collected from the Agricultural Prices and costs Scheme, Department of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, Dr. PDKV, Akola by keeping in view to estimate input demand and output supply by using normalized Cobb-Douglas profit function. The analysis of input demand equations has shown that the demand elasticities with respect to own prices have the expected negative signs indicating that the results are in accordance with theory of demand. One per cent increase in own price, holding other prices constant, will reduce human labour employment at 1.296 per cent, bullock labour demand 1.343 per cent, fertilizer demand 2.093 per cent and seed demand 1.665 per cent in cotton crop. The absolute value of own price elasticity of human labour, bullock labour and seed price have been found greater than unity, indicating an elastic response of input utilization to their own price. It can be also observed from the study that own prices had negative Impact on supply of cotton. The profit function for cotton was decreased in prices of Farm yard manure and prices of seed. Among the variable factors, normalized seed price in general had the highest negative impact on variable profit for cotton crop followed by farm yard manure price. The study also shows that assuming no change in fixed factors or the level of technology, the input-output price structure has resulted in an appreciable change in human labour employment, bullock labour employment, fertilizer, farm yard manure and seed demand in the production of cotton.



      Shaheena Shafi and A.R.Yousuf

Abstract: The length-weight relationship and condition factor K in Puntius conchonius were investigated on samples collected from Dal Lake, Kashmir. The analysis of this fish species was based on 150 specimens ranging in size from 38mm to 84mm and in weight from 1.42g to 10.712g. The regression values obtained for male, female and for pooled sexes (2.97, 2.93 and 2.94). The regression coefficient was found to depart significantly from the cubic value. The computed value of correlation coefficient (r) for males, females and pooled ones were as r = 9.22, r = 9.36 and r =9.35 respectively, which were closer to 1 indicating that there is high positive correlation between the two variables i.e. length and weight. The paper also throws light on the changes in the ponderal index (month-wise and length-wise). The index exhibits seasonal variations in close association with the feeding intensity and gonadal development in the fish. It recorded least values during winter month especially in January and from summer season in the month of July in both the sexes as well as in combined ones, which can be attributed to low feeding intensity and spawning stress in the fish.



      SepehrHossieni, GoodarzJavadianDehkordi, Ali Haj Aghapour

Abstract: Case-study as a qualitative research is a strongly debatable research strategy among all academicians and particularly practitioners. Therefore, in order to provide some up-to-date insights into this controversial issue, the current paper seeks to investigate and document some aspects of case-study research. In fact, after reviewing some literatures in order to define, clarify and classify case-study research, the paper tries to consider and trade-off this qualitative strategy from different philosophical perspectives and approaches. Then, by relying on some recently outstanding papers and other highly recognized written resources, the paper gets into the appropriateness of case-study including Generalizability, Validity, Construct validity, Internal validity and Reliability. Next, the role of case-study to build a social theory is investigated that leads to preset a step-by-step process to achieve this visionary goal. At the end, a brief comparison between case-study, as a common representative of qualitative research, and survey, an indicator of opposite view, is done. This paper contributes to research method’s development used by scholars looking to establish a case research by improving the level of understanding regarding the discussed issues.



      B. Gavaskar Reddy, L. Maheswari, K. Rajagopal, K. Naga Jyothi

Abstract: Parallel operation is an effective way to improve the capacity of full power converter in permanent-magnet direct-drive (PMDD) wind power generation system. But it causes the zero-sequence circulating-current (ZSCC), which brings current discrepancy, current waveform distortion, power losses, and electromagnetic interference (EMI), etc. The paper proposes a new topology of full power converters which are composed of n full power converters. The n converters have the same structures and are in parallel with each other. Besides, the average models of the system are analyzed and the fundamental mechanism of ZSCC generation is given. Based on the above analysis, the control strategy of the system is designed. The simulation and experiment results of two parallel full power converters show the feasibility of the proposed theory and control scheme.



      Sowmyadevi.k, Janani.R, Mirudula.R, Reha.S, Malini.A, Yatheesha.P

Abstract: The selection of the number of clusters is an important and challenging issue in cluster analysis. A number of attempts have been made to estimate the number of clusters in a given data set. Most methods are post clustering measures of cluster validity i.e. they attempt to choose the best partition from a set of alternative partitions. In contrast, tendency assessment attempts to estimate the number of clusters before clustering occurs. In this paper, we investigate a new method called Trusted Precluster Count (TPCC) algorithm for automatically estimating the number of clusters in unlabeled data sets, which is based on an existing algorithm Dark Block Extraction (DBE) of a data set, using several common image and signal processing techniques. Our focus is preclustering tendency assessment. But for completeness we briefly summarize some existing approaches to the post clustering cluster validity problem, before describing visual methods for cluster tendency assessment.



      Mr V. Veera Raghavulu, Sri B Mallikarjuna

Abstract: This paper investigates a few methods for seeking information on the WWW. The methods are:
1) Seeking information with thematic directories like Yahoo, Dmoz, Loosmart.
2) Use Search Engines like Google, AllTheWeb, AltaVista, etc.,
3) Using meta- Search Engines – Metacrawler, One2Seek, Mamma, etc.,
4) Using a few techniques for a limitation or an expansion of results.
5) Using URLs, portals, etc.



      G.Ganesh Kumar, V.Charishma

Abstract: This paper proposed the design of high speed Vedic Multiplier using the techniques of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. Vedic Mathematics is the ancient system of mathematics which has a unique technique of calculations based on 16 Sutras. The work has proved the efficiency of Urdhva Triyagbhyam– Vedic method for multiplication which strikes a difference in the actual process of multiplication itself. It enables parallel generation of intermediate products, eliminates unwanted multiplication steps with zeros and scaled to higher bit levels using Karatsuba algorithm with the compatibility to different data types. Urdhva tiryakbhyam Sutra is most efficient Sutra (Algorithm), giving minimum delay for multiplication of all types of numbers, either small or large. Further, the Verilog HDL coding of Urdhva tiryakbhyam Sutra for 32x32 bits multiplication and their FPGA implementation by Xilinx Synthesis Tool on Spartan 3E kit have been done and output has been displayed on LCD of Spartan 3E kit. The synthesis results show that the computation time for calculating the product of 32x32 bits is 31.526 ns.


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