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IJSRP, Volume 2, Issue 4, April 2012 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


* All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
** For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.


      Shyam.R.Nair

Abstract: This paper focuses on design of an optically controlled robotic arm for picking and placing an object. The arm has 2 links and 3 joints. An optical panel is used to control the arm. The panel is made of IR transceivers in the form of an array. The coordinates from which the object is to be picked and placed is selected using panel and the robotic arm uses inverse kinematics to execute the task.



      Debabrata Das, Prasenjit Kundu

Abstract: Being a much talked about topic in today’s business environment, Customer Relationship Management is an area of modern marketing management where there is wide scope for conceptual and empirical research. Recent empirical study has resulted in the development of a CRM process model viz; PREMASA Model, which attempts to integrate the aspects of relationship marketing with consumer behaviour by incorporating the concept of cognitive dissonance. Implementing PREMASA model requires lots of practical considerations including developing an application software program which can measure, track, store and retrieve key parameters related with CRM. In this paper, first a measurement module which will be an important part of future CRM software , has been conceptualized and then applying the concept of software reverse engineering and dynamic program analysis a conceptual process has been developed through which the proposed measurement module can be inserted into an existing CRM software without altering its execution at runtime.



      ML Patel, Rekha Sachan, Aniket Parihar, Rishi Sethi

Abstract: Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded and then carotid intima-media thickness was measured by using B-Mode high-resolution ultrasonography, 1 cm proximal to the carotid bulb in the posterior wall. Finally, correlation between other risk factors and CIMT was made. Total 106 patients were participated in the study but 6 patients were lost to follow up. 100 patients with chronic and advanced renal disease were evaluated, including 55% females and 45% males. The mean age of these patients was 60.2 ± 13.1 years, with a range of 25-81 years. Correlations between CIMT and age (P =0.023), dialysis duration (P =0.017), number of cigarettes smoked (P = 0.026), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.013) and fasting blood sugar (P=0.045) were significant. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients on hemodialysis are of significant interest because of the high prevalence and frequency of the disease in this group of patients. However, in the present study, we were not able to find a very consistent and definite role for some risk factors in our patients. More studies are required to make clear the role of these factors in patients on hemodialysis.



      Mr. Sachin Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Mr. Saurabh Upadhyay, Mr. Ashish Kumar Tripathi

Abstract: User-Centered Design (UCD) is a philosophy and a process that places the person at the centre and focuses on cognitive factors as they come into play during peoples' interactions with things. It concerns and can improve itself with both usefulness and usability. A key aspect of successful User-Centered Design is evaluating early and throughout the UCD process. User centered design is receiving increasing attention in recent years. Various methods and tools are used within organizations to improve the understanding of user and task requirements, support the iteration of design and evaluation. User-Centred Design Methods can be extremely valuable although using them in the right way, for the right reasons and at the right time is critical. It will differ from project to project to decide exactly which method to use, and when and how to use.



      Paripati Lohith Kumar

Abstract: The embedded system area today is faced with the challenge of implementing the applications that can execute efficiently on limited resources and that meet nonfunctional requirements such as timeliness, robustness, dependability and performance. At the core, these requirements need to be managed by the operating system. Thus, an embedded operating system has to address not only the aforementioned issues but also the issues arising out of the requirements of newer embedded applications. Such types of constraints are difficult to meet in an embedded operating system and this is the reason that the contemporary embedded operating systems are designed for specific application areas. This research work aims at identifying a common and adaptive framework for embedded operating systems so that a customized embedded operating system can be generated according to the requirements of an application.



      Lakshmi Sahu and Avinash Dhole

Abstract: In this paper, I am explaining single text-to-speech (TTS) system for Indian languages (Viz., Hindi, Telugu, Kannada etc.) to generate human voice or speech (text to a spoken waveform). In a text-to-speech system, spoken utterances are automatically produced from text. This paper present a corpus-driven text-to-speech (TTS) system based on the concatenative synthesis approach. The output generated by the proposed text-to-speech synthesis system resembles natural human voice. It accepts input in two forms: manual user entry and from file (text or MS Word document). Proposed system supports multiple way of output; direct to computer speakers, Wav file, or MP3 file. Generated output can have different accent, tone based on selected languages. The proposed text-to-speech system will be implemented in C#.Net (Windows Form Application) and runs on Windows platforms. This paper has examples for Hindi (North Indian) and Telugu (South Indian) languages’ to elaborate proposed system. This It also elaborates inter-language text conversion (not translation). Therefore, Hindi text will be converted into Telugu text and vice-versa. The research and development of this TTS done for my M. Tech major project.



      S.A.Jain, S.R.Kokate, Pranita Thakur, Shubhangi Takalkar

Abstract: Routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been explored extensively in last few years. Much of this work is targeted at finding a feasible route from a source to a destination without considering current network traffic or application requirements. Routing may let a congestion happen which is detected by congestion control, but dealing with congestion in reactive manner results in longer delay, and unnecessary packet loss and requires significant overhead if a new route is needed. Routing should not be aware of, but also be adaptive to, network congestion. Adaptation to the congestion helps to increase both the effectiveness and efficiency of routing. These problems are solved by the congestion-aware routing protocols in certain degree. These protocols which are adaptive to congestion status of mobile ad-hoc network can greatly improve the network performance. In this paper, we present the survey of congestion adaptive routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc network. Finally, the future direction of congestion-aware routing protocols is described.



      S. Aravind Kumar

Abstract: High dynamic range (HDR) is a technique that allows a great dynamic range of luminance between the lightest and darkest area of an image. For video compression, the HDR sequence is reconstructed by inverse tone-mapping a compressed low dynamic range (LDR) version of the original HDR content. In this paper, we show that the appropriate choice of a Tone-mapping operator (TMO) can significantly improve the reconstructed HDR quality. It is used to compress a large range of pixel luminance in to smaller range that is suitable for display on devices with limited dynamic range. we formulate a numerical optimization problem to find the tone-curve that minimizes the expected mean square error (MSE) in the reconstructed HDR sequence. We also develop a simplified model that reduces the computational complexity of the optimization problem to a closed-form solution. It is also shown that the LDR image quality resulting from the proposed methods matches that produced by perceptually-based TMOs.



      Patel ML, Sachan Rekha, Srivastava AN

Abstract: Background: Lipid abnormalities and enhanced oxidative stress in CRF patients on hemodialysis accelerates the process of atherosclerosis resulting in cardiovascular complications. So the aim of this study to investigate the alterations in the serum lipid status in CRF patients on long term hemodialysis and determination of oxidative stress to know the risk of development of cardiovascular complications in these patients.
Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to determine the pattern of lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). After taking informed consent total 110 subjects were enrolled for the study in the Department of Medicine, CSM Medical University, Lucknow. Out of which 60 patient of CRF on MHD were taken as a case group, (42 male 70% and 18 female 50%), mean duration of hemodialysis was 4.52.05years with frequency of three session/week and each session for four hours. 50 healthy volunteers seeking treatment for other minor problem were taken as a controls (31 male 62% and 19 female 38%).
Results: Mean value of HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in CRF patients when compared to controls. Serum LDL-C, VLDL-C were also increased in dialysis subjects in comparison to normal healthy controls (p value 0.05 &0.001). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly increased (p value<0.001). S.MDA was significantly increased and SOD was significantly decreased in cases when compare to controls. These changes were more pronounced in hemodialysis patients when compare to controls. We also did the correlation between lipid and oxidative stress parameters, in which S.MDA was positively correlated with all the lipid parameters except HDL-C and SOD was negatively correlated with all the lipid parameters except HDL-C.
Conclusion: This study supports that patients on MHD show abnormalities of lipid metabolism like hypertriglyceridemia, increased total cholesterol and low HDL-C and increased oxidative stress which could contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease that might be responsible for increase in morbidity and mortality.



      Singh P., Wadhwani, E., Gupta R. , Agrawal R. C. and Maheshwari S. K.

Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is most dreaded complication of ocular manifestation of diabetes. The Patients attending the diabetic /eye examination camps from September 2010 to Feb. 2012 were included in this study and an attempt was made to study the prevalence of retinopathy among these patients of Vindhya region (M.P.) India. Ophthalmoscope was used to check the retinopathy of diabetic patients. The blood sugar levels of these patients were measured using biochemical test. A total of 202 patients were examined in these camps. Out of them 104 were males and 98 were females. A total no. of 130 patients was diagnosed as diabetic. Out of them 94 (46.53 %) showed no retinal damage and were kept in background patients, Whereas 25 (12.37%) showed prepoliferative changes. poliferative changes in 7 patients ( 3 % ) and 4 patients (2 % ) showed complete loss of vision. The prevalence of retinopathy is 17.8 % in diabetic patients examined. and it was more frequent in the patients with diabetes for longer duration.



      Amritpal Kaur, Anita Kochhar

Abstract: Arthritis is a chronic disease that can affect people at any stage of life. Osteoarthritis (OA) is known as degenerative joint disease. It is the most common form of arthritis. Women usually develop osteoarthritis after age 40. To study the impact of food intake on Bone mineral density and uric acid level of patients suffering from arthritis 60 female patients suffering from osteoarthritis in the age group of 40-60 years were selected from two hospitals of Ludhiana city. The subjects were divided into two groups viz. experimental (E) and control (C) group. General information, family history and dietary pattern of the subjects was recorded by interview schedule. In group E, nutrition counseling was imparted for a period of three months at 15 days interval by individual and group contacts. After nutrition counseling significant improvement was seen in food habits and dietary pattern of the subjects in group E. The mean daily intake of cereals (66.70 to 75%), other vegetables (31.33 to 47.66%), fruits (53.33 to 118.88%) and milk and milk product (90 to 161.3%) was significantly increased and mean daily intake of pulses (74.16 to 69.88%), green leafy vegetable (25.28 to 20.38%) and roots and tubers (55 to 23%) was significantly decreased in the subjects of group E. It was found that improvement in bone mineral density and significant improvement in uric acid level in the subjects of group E. The percentage of subject having T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 decreased from 70 to 53.3 percent and subjects having T-scores more than -1.0 increased from 20 to 36.7 percent where as subjects having T-score less than -2.5 did not show any improvement in group E. Significant decrease in the percentage (63 to 36.7%) decreased of subjects having more than 6 mg/dl uric acid level was observed in group E after nutrition counseling. Therefore, it can be reported from the results that nutrition counseling significantly improved the food intake, bone mineral density and uric acid level of the patients suffering from osteoarthritis.



      Beena Dominic, Dr.C.Amrita Jothi

Abstract: India is famous as a great country of many cultures, traditions, religions and geographical characteristics. However, at the same time, India is also known by the sobriquet ‘male chauvinistic nation’. The male chauvinist half of the nation tends to forget that India is referred to as ‘Bharat Mata’ the mother to every Indian, as well. Traditionally, women have been compelled to play the second fiddle in every sphere, be it in family or public life. Such in order of things in India in spite of the fact that women nowadays, are no less proficient than men in any field. In the case Kerala women, the same as the above. But today, women are not what they used to be some years ago; they have now made their presence felt in every sphere of life. Women have ultimately discarded their homely image and are now making meaningful contribution to the progress of the nation but, are the progress made by women in all encompassing phenomenon, or is it confined to some specific cases only? Have all women been empowered? If not what is the story of the women who are not empowered? Has the common woman have vested with powers to drive the nation? It is precisely these questions that this essay will attempt to throw some light upon. Here the researcher analyzing the concept, women empowerment by incorporating all divergent views with suffient logical reasoning. It also explains the problems faced and the possibilities ahead in achieving women empowerment through education.



      Suman Saran, M.S. Bisht, K. Singh, U.V.S Teotia

Abstract: Adhesion attributes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were studied for adhesion to hydrocarbons, aggregation abilities and autolysis to evaluate different prebiotics. Autoaggregation correlates with adhesion, which is a prerequisite for colonization and infection of the gastrointestinal tract by many pathogens and coaggregation has been related to the ability to interact closely with pathogens where autolysis decreases the adhesiveness. Hydrophobicity affects adhesion to intestinal surfaces. The strains L. acidophilus NCDC 13 and L. acidophilus NCDC 291 showed changes in aggregation abilities and adhesion properties in the presence of prebiotics, honey and inulin. The results for both strains indicate that the ability to autoaggregate and cell surface hydrophobicity, increased in the presence of inulin. While the ability to coaggregate increased in presence of honey and autolytic activity reduced highly in presence of inulin. This study suggest the importance to identify the useful prebiotic so as to enhance the effect of probiotic properties of lactobacillus strain, and also the relevance to future synbiotic food development from the strain studied.



      Sandip Todkar, Rohit Todkar, Leena Kowale, Kirti Karmarkar, Arvind Kulkarni

Abstract: The prime purpose of this study is to isolate and screen out antibiotic producing halophilc bacteria and to determine their activity against different pathogenic strains by agar cup method viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and fungi like Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. Candida albicans etc. The isolates were obtained from marine environments by crowded plate technique and were subjected to primary screening. Enrichment of these organisms were carried out in Balanced Salt Medium broth and finally dialyzed so as to purify the proteins then it was characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The purified crude extract was prepared. This is the first time we report at our coastal area, the presence of halophiles having antibacterial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms.



      Ch. S. L. Prasanna, M. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract: This paper describes an embedded monitoring system based on µC/OS II operating system using ARM7. It deals with the porting of Micro C/OS-II kernel in ARM powered microcontroller for the implementation of multitasking and time scheduling. Here a real time kernel is the software that manages the time of a micro controller to ensure that all time critical events are processed as efficiently as possible. Different interface modules of ARM7 microcontroller like UART, ADC, LCD are used and data acquired from these interfaces is tested using µC/OS-II based real time operating system. It mainly emphasizes on the porting of µC/OS-II.



      Aliza MY, Nor Asiah M, Manaf AA, Chin YM, Normi M, Zubaidah Z and George E

Abstract: Alpha thalassaemia is common in Malaysia which comprises of Malays, Chinese, Indians and other ethnics. Therefore it is important to determine the prevalence of common alpha thalassemia deletions that are --SEA, --THAI, --FIL, -α3.7 and -α4.2, and to estimate the number of pregnancies each year in which the fetus would be at risk and contribute for deletional Hb Barts hydrops foetalis syndrome and deletional HbH disease in Malaysia. In this study, a cross-sectional study of 94 Malays, 129 Chinese and 7 others from Health Awareness Campaign was carried out using standard haematological analysis, multiplex PCRs and statistical analysis. Red Cell Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) < 80 fL was identified in 38 (16.5%) with exclusion of Indians. 17 (7.4%) of blood donors showed alpha thalassaemia deletions. 3.5% were with double gene deletion and 3.9% with single gene deletions. --SEA was seen in 7(5.4%) Chinese and 1(1.1%) Malay. -α3.7 was seen in 7 (3.0%) of 4 (4.3%) Malays, 2 (1.6%) Chinese and 1 other ethnic. -α4.2 was seen in 2 Chinese (0.9%). The projected number of pregnancies at risk and contribute for deletional Hb Barts hydrops foetalis syndrome and deletional HbH disease each year in Malaysia is 30 and 120 in the Malays, 250 and 150 in the Chinese, 640 in combination and on average is 600 and 669 respectively. The current prevalence and projected number of pregnancies at risk of deletional Hb Barts hydrops foetalis syndrome and deletional HbH disease will help to achieve a better disease management in order to lessen present alpha thalassaemia burden and to prevent much higher alpha thalassaemia birth in Malaysia.



      Sri B.Mallikarjuna Smt V.Saritha Smt Ch.Puspalatha

Abstract: In this paper we propose permission based Resource Management with Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET). To reduce the message cost, the algorithm uses the DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) technique, which enforces MUTEX only among the hosts currently competing for the critical section. We propose mechanisms to handle doze and disconnections of mobile hosts. The algorithm can also tolerate link or host failure we would like to propose an algorithm which is completely fault tolerant (covers temporary and permanent faults).It also has the mutual exclusion property for critical resource management to solve permission based algorithm. At the end we have proved the algorithm mobility is high and load level is low.



      Mr. Anil Kumar

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the consumer perception about their exiting mobile connections. For survey, consumers of Jhajjar city of Haryana State are taken and measure the effects on consumers' purchasing behaviour of different services and schemes on mobile connections. The aim of this research is to determine and evaluate consumer satisfaction and the impact of consumer satisfaction on the buyer behaviour of consumers. A purely technical segmentation of the mobile phone market is no longer appropriate. Today, usage benefits are more important than technological performance and the generalization of mobile phones has complicated the market typology. Consumer behaviour is becoming more relevant than technology when it comes to understanding future evolution in the mobile phone market. Consumer‘s satisfaction of his/her mobile connections plays an important role for a service provider for making appropriate strategies to increase satisfaction level of consumers. A face-to-face interview survey is conducted on 100 consumers of Jhajjar city of Haryana state and who are selected with random sampling. Data are analyzed by using Fisher's Exact Test SPSS 19.0 for window is employed for the scale measurement.



      Dr. Imtiyaz Gul Khan

Abstract: The Afghan conflict poses several challenges: that of building up stability in a territory ravaged by three decades of conflicts, with a strong tribal identity, and where several external actors are involved; that of the adequacy of the law to deal with the current crisis; and that of humanitarian action conducted by actors with varying goals and methods who are all operating in the same context. The article profiles the genesis of the US policy and its execution in Afghanistan. It examines the US agenda in deposing Taliban regime and fixing in place a regime suiting to the US, her ends and interests, in South and Central Asia. In fact, it demonstrates how US imperial designs actually destabilised the region with little or no prospects of future peace and development. The US strives to drive advantage of Afghan conflict to her benefit regardless of ethical values set by the international standards. The article also furnishes how sophisticated military technology was employed to eliminate the Taliban and its splinter groups in and around Afghanistan. The massive American military operation made the Taliban to retreat and give way to a new government lead by US-backed Pashtun leader, Hamid Karzai, in December 2001. No matter country is showing no signs of peace even after one decade’s old government of Hamid Karzai. High level of insecurity still reigns supreme in the country. The ill-will among the warlords persists thereby affecting the programmes of social and economic reconstruction. People’s sufferings and miseries multiply and the US exercises its writ to deal with Afghanistan in the name of the “war against terror”. The lack of security, economic development, effective rule of law, and coordination of effort stand in the way of sustainable progress in the country. These problems are interrelated, none of which can be addressed without simultaneously addressing the others.



      Mrs. Sarika.S and Mrs. S.Dhanalakshmi

Abstract: The demands for the network usage are increasing day by day. Result of this is the interference between users and many such losses, which may degrade the system performance. Security techniques could be incorporated to give the ultimate protection to the entire network. The existing techniques like cryptography make the system complicated. This paper is going to deal with a system which can automatically reconfigure the wireless mesh network (WMN). Necessary changes are made in local and radio channel assignments for failure recovery. From the changes made the system make appropriate reconfigurations in the settings of the network. A WMN with an IEEE standard 802.11 along with a Microsoft Visual Studio-10 based evaluation is done. Along with this security is introduced by making use of the dynamic routing which reduces the complexity of security implementation. This routing algorithm can in turn randomize the delivery path of data transmission.



      Supriya Pingale, Harshada Satav, Trupti Nanekar, Nupur

Abstract: Paperless examination is an important role of modern education, which can effectively reduce the teachers’ workload and improve work efficiency. However, the current paperless examination system mainly deals with the objective questions, it is almost impossible to deal with subjective questions such as programming languages, particular in SQL. There is no such practical system as far as know. This article describes a novel SQL-based paperless examination system, including objective questions as well as SQL programming questions.



      Hari Krishnan R., Vallikannu A.L.

Abstract: Locomotion of a Humanoid robot with lesser number of actuators is a choice of interest, as it leads to energy efficient design. This paper put emphasis on design of a humanoid robot with minimal actuation, minimal control and minimum development cost. It describes, design considerations and methods used for balancing and walking gait generation of a Humanoid Robot with 8 Degrees of Freedom. The proposed robot finds the place in between most sophisticated, complex humanoid robots and simple, miniaturized humanoids.



      K.Surya Suresh and M.Vishnu Prasad

Abstract: This paper demonstrates how the reduced harmonic distortion can be achieved for a new topology of multilevel inverters. The new topology has the advantage of its reduced number of devices compared to conventional cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, and can be extended to any number of levels. The modes of operation are outlined for 5-level inverter, as similar modes will be realized for higher levels. Simulations of seven level of the proposed inverter topology along with corroborative experimental results are presented. This paper deals with the analysis and simulation of the seven level inverter. This paper presents the seven level inverter with harmonics reduction along with the reduction.. The harmonic reduction is achieved by selecting appropriate switching angles. The functionality verification of the seven level inverter is done using MATLAB.



      Prasanta Kumar Panda, Shrabanee Swagatika

Abstract: Now-a-days Cloud Computing is popularly known as Internet Computing. It helps in sharing data, computing, and provides services transparently among users of a massive grid. It became widely accepted by the user because of its advantages that involves, reduce costs, increase business flexibility and/or provide business continuity. Cloud Computing is becoming increasingly relevant, as it will enable companies involved in spreading this technology to open the doors to Web 3.0. In this paper the basic features of cloud computing are presented and compared with those of the existing technology of Web 2.0.and Web 1.0.The paper describes the concept of computational resources outsourcing, like applications and services on which they operate referred to a real application and better enhancement of different cloud services.



      Prof. Alpana Upadhyay, Dr. C. K. Kumbharana

Abstract: The e-Governance is growing very speedily in entire world and in our country also. Simply we can say that in near future it will become a part of human life. In the field of 'e-Governance', it includes government, nonprofit, and private-sector entities without distinct boundaries. The model for e-governance is a one-stop portal, where citizens have access to a variety of information and services. The major goal of e-Governance is strengthening good governance and broadening public participation, improving the productivity and efficiency of government agencies, improving the quality of life for disadvantaged communities, creating a better business environment, transparency and openness in accountability. As far as rural sectors of India are concerned, e-Governance has not yet laid its actual needed effect to develop them. Integrated empowerment of rural areas is one of the abiding tasks before the Government of India. India is a country of villages and about 50% of the villages have very poor socio-economic conditions. E-Governance implementation in rural India has “Too many goals but very little reality”.
This research paper discuses the behavioral implications of usage of ICT for sustainable e-Governance system in Rural sectors of India so that, the system can influence empowerment of rural sectors and also sway value added citizen-centric approach as citizens’ satisfaction, citizens’ involvement, citizens’ awareness, improved interaction with businesses and industries, increased transparency and reduced corruption with e-Governance services.



      Prof. R. M. Goudar, Tushar Jagdale, Ketan Kakade, Amol Kargal, Darshan Marode

Abstract: Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices are high transmission speed external devices. USB is the speediest external device available today. The access to USB is very simple, convenient and fast compared to other external devices such as CD, DVD, Floppy drive etc. Thus USB have become most popular interface standard for hardware connection. But from security point of view, USB devices lacks security as no user is restricted to access USB device. If we restrict the use of USB devices, then the data access through external devices would be as chaotic as before. Thus a system which would provide fast access as well as security is required. In this paper, we propose a system which deals with mutual authentication and key agreement in order to provide security for access through USB devices.



      Anju Rani, Shalu Garg

Abstract: Entropy optimization includes maximization and minimization. Maximization of entropy is easy and it can be done by using Lagrange’s method since entropy is concave function. Due to the concavity minimization of entropy is not so simple. But calculation of minimum entropy probability distribution is necessary because knowledge of both maximum and minimum entropy probability distribution gives complete information about probability distribution. In this paper we obtain analytical expressions for minimum Shannon entropy for given rth & sth order moments.



      Vijeta Gautam & Dr. Jyotsna Sinha

Abstract: This paper focuses on human interaction with nature. The protagonist of the novel, Surfacing returns to the undeveloped island where she grew up on to search for her missing father. In the process, she unmasks the dualities and inconsistencies in both her personal life and her patriarchal society. Through the struggle to reclaim her identity and roots, the protagonist begins a psychological journey that leads her directly into the natural world. Like the journey itself, the language, events and characters in Margaret Atwood’s novel reflect a world that oppresses and dominates both femininity and nature.



      G.Vairava Subramanian, Dr. S. Nehru

Abstract: SMEs are integral part of India’s growth story. SMEs contribute not only to the domestic market but also to exports significantly, thus earning foreign exchange revenue for the country, thereby making the sector emerge as very strong pillar in India both in terms of GDP and in terms of employment. Today SMEs are contributing more than 16-18% of Indian GDP and if this sector is getting more support, the sector can easily contribute more than 30% to the GDP. The biggest challenge for SMEs in India is, effective financial management both for running of the organization as well as for expansion activities taking in to consideration the global competition. Raising funds from financial institutions like banks, NBFCs for SMEs are till date a big challenge. It is estimated that only 16% of Indian SME sector have been given bank /institutions support and the rest of the sector is unable to get support. The main reason for these lacunae is, not having efficient management tools in place, lack of knowledge of banking guidelines, ineffective mechanism to weigh the credit worthiness of the company.
The current scenario of Indian economy is pushing RBI, to bring in a strict lending policy due to slowdown in growth, which has affected the lending policy to be more conservative with very high interest rate, which is very clearly disturbing the bottom line in the balance sheets of SMEs . This eventually become more difficult for SMEs, not only for their expansion plan but also to make the company to run in difficult situation, when the economy is in slow down mode, thus compelling this enterprise to stay in on even keel in terms of growth or even perform lower than previous years, unlike other bigger corporate which grows rapidly because of their strong measures and support from the banking sector.
Other part of the story is, Bankers are far behind in lending guidelines laid down by RBI, in relation to SME sector, the biggest challenge for Banking sector is, there is no proper mechanism, un like bigger corporates to measure the quality of the organization in terms of asset quality, IP(intellectual properties) and the business through acclaimed private agencies. In order to ensure that the banking system penetrates the SME space more and at the same time, applies caution in terms of asset quality, the system of SME rating got introduced. In this article, we are going to analyze all the information related to SME rating, Why it is necessary?, benefits of rating for SMEs and banking sector, Industry growth opportunities due to rating system, challenges faced by SMEs due to rating system, future growth of SME sector etc.



      I.Kumaraswamy, W.V.Jahnavi, P.Ramesh

Abstract: In Isolated power systems the power quality problem is compounded as the drive converter loads are likely to fluctuate in conjunction with mining or exploration areas. The use of compensators in improving power quality of isolated power systems is considered. The roles of the compensators are to mitigate the effects of momentary voltage sags/swells, and to control the level of harmonic distortions in the networks. A control strategy for both series compensator and shunt compensator is developed to regulate power flow. However series compensator reduces harmonics to an acceptable level when compared to shunt compensator. This is achieved through phase adjustment of load terminal voltage. It leads through an increase in ride through capability of loads to the voltage sags/swells. Validity of the technique is illustrated through simulation. Hence series compensator with LC Filter is used in reducing the harmonic distortions in isolated power systems.



      Mrs. Snehal Y. Kulkarni, Prof. Ms. Nalini A. Mhetre

Abstract: In wireless sensor network, an attacker can capture sensor nodes and can compromise sensor nodes. Then would create duplicate nodes and built up various attacks using duplicate nodes, inserts into the network. This is happened because of unattended nature of wireless sensor network. These attacks helps attacker to control few more nodes to have control over the network. There are many node replication attack detection methods which have been used to secure from attacks in the sensor network where nodes are static. These methods are dependent on fixed location of sensors and hence do not works for sensor network where nodes are mobile. In wireless sensor network where sensor node are moving i.e. mobile, for node replication attack detection proposed system is used where attacks are detected quickly. In this method basic idea is used that mobile node never have more speed than system speed. The proposed system can detect node replication attack in effective and robust manner.



      V.L.DIVYA

Abstract: Smartphones enable a new, rich user experience in pervasive computing. The major problem with Smartphone is that hardware resources such as CPUs, memory and batteries are still limited. To solve this resource problem, many researchers have proposed architectures to use server resources in the cloud for mobile devices. This paper proposes a conceptual architecture where mobile application platform share the software as a service among multiple users on cloud server via network.



      Suresh Kumar Kundur

Abstract: Tourism is the largest sector of the economy in the Maldives, as it plays an important role in earning foreign exchange revenues and generating employment in the tertiary sector of the country. The archipelago of the Maldives is the main source of attraction to many tourists visiting the country. Tourism began in the Maldives in the late 1900's. A United Nations mission on development which visited the Maldives Islands in the 1960s did not recommend tourism, claiming that the islands were not suitable. Ever since the launch of the first resort in Maldives in 1972, however, tourism in Maldives has flourished. Tourism in Maldives started with just two resorts. At present, there are over 80 resorts located in the different atolls constituting the Republic of Maldives. Over the past few decades, the number of tourists in Maldives has risen continuously. Today, more than 500,000 tourists visit the Maldives each year. This paper gives a detailed account of the development of tourism industry and the initiatives taken by the Maldivian government to promote tourism in the country.



      Ms. Veena Bharti, Dr. Sachin Kumar

Abstract: In the world of designing network protocols, verification is a crucial step to eliminate weaknesses and inaccuracies of effective network protocols. There are many models and tools to verify network protocols, including, Finite State Machines (FSM), Colored Petri Nets (CP-Nets), Temporal Logic, Predicate Logic, Estelle Specification, Path based Approach etc. This paper presents a survey of various techniques for verifying correctness properties of communications protocol designs.



      Duong Duc Minh, Channarong Intaraprasert

Abstract: The present language learning strategy classification is based on data reported by 30 science-oriented students from 6 different universities in the north of Vietnam through the semi-structured interviews. Based on the language learning purposes to be achieved, the Language Learning Strategy Inventory (LLSI) comprises two main categories, i.e. specific language skills enhancement and general language knowledge enhancement. As a result, the specific language skills enhancement consists of 43 emergent individual strategies, and the general language knowledge enhancement consists of 11 individual strategies. The researchers always keep in mind that the present LLSI is not comprehensive and may not cover all strategies that science-oriented students have employed. However, the proposed LLSI may be considered to be representative of the language learning strategies employed by science-oriented students in the north of Vietnam.



      C.Vidya Lakshmi, J.R.Balakrishnan

Abstract: An automatic alarm device for traffic accidents is introduced in this paper. It can automatically find a traffic accident, search for the spot and then send the basic information to first aid center within two seconds covering geographical coordinates, the time and circumstances in which a traffic accident takes place. GPS software is fitted in the vehicle will now start communicate with the satellite and get the latitude and longitude values and send the information to the centralized server. Then the server will search the nearest hospital and send the accident information to the hospital. The hospital will then be sending the ambulance to the accident zone. Then the injured people will be saved as soon as possible. This process will save time in particular for the areas in the outer part of main zone.



      AbdulHameed.M. Al-Samarrai

Abstract: For the past few decades, there has been a considerable in research interest in the area of natural product delivery using particulate for controlling plant pathology. The secondary metabolites in plants have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles through increase the effectiveness of therapeutic compounds used to reduce the spread of plant diseases, while minimizing side effects for being: rich source of bioactive chemicals, biodegradable in nature and non-polluting (eco-friendly). Particulate systems like Nanoparticles have been used a physical approach to alter and improve the effective to properties of some types of synthetic chemical pesticides or in the production of bio-pesticides directly. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticles formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and their applications in management plant diseases.



      M.Geethalakshmi, N. Jose Praveena, A. Rajkumar

Abstract: Fuzzy set theory was proposed by Lotfi A. Zadeh and has been found extensive applications in various fields. The concept of uncertainty was discussed by using fuzzy matrices. Throughout this article [0, 1] denotes the unit interval, as a fuzzy Interval. Also all fuzzy matrices are matrices but every matrix is not fuzzy in general. We analyses the results of three students using Fuzzy Matrix Solution (FMS) with the help of product of fuzzy matrices. Under usual matrix multiplication this is not a fuzzy matrix, so that we need to define compatible operation analogs to product that the product again happens to be a fuzzy matrix by introducing max-min operation & min-max operation. Finally we conclude the results of three students as pass or fail using fuzzy matrix.



      Vibha Verma, Mr. Avinash Dhole

Abstract: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data. It supersedes DES. The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data. Multicrypt is a scheme that allows for the encryption of any file or files. The scheme offers various private-key encryption algorithms, such as DES, 3DES, RC2, and AES. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is the strongest encryption and is used in various financial and public institutions where confidential, private information is important.



      Ruchi Singuor, Priyanka Solanki, Neeti Pathak, D. Suresh Babu

Abstract: Transformer is a static device which transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another without change in frequency. Most of the cases we see that the inputs given are sinusoidal wave only. In this paper the simulation of single phase transformer with different supplies such as continuous and discontinuous are carried out. This study is also shown graphically. MATLAB/SIMULINK environment was used for simulation.



      K.Lavanya, R.Buvaneshwari, S.P.Ramya

Abstract: A time series is a collection of data values are gathered.Periodic pattern mining or periodicity detection has a number of applications, such as prediction, forecasting, detection of unusual activities, etc. The problem is not trivial because the data to be analyzed are mostly noisy and different periodicity types (namely symbol, sequence, and segment) are to be investigated. The whole time series or in a subsection of it to effectively handle different types of noise (to a certain degree) and at the same time is able to detect different types of periodic pattern. This can detect symbol, sequence (partial), and segment (full cycle) periodicity in time series. The algorithm uses suffix tree as the underlying data structure; symbol means particular area in time series, sequence means particular time period and segment it is used half day temperature .In this paper we are using noise resilient and which can be used two nodes. So we are using sensor network, it works on heat temperature measuring .The temperature is varied from normal condition some incident occur in this place and we have to send an alert message to people.



      Priyanka Tiwari, Nitin Shukla

Abstract: Data mining is the task of discovering interesting patterns from large amounts of data. There are many data mining tasks, such as classification, clustering, association rule mining, and sequential pattern mining. Sequential pattern mining is the process of finding the relationships between occurrences of sequential events, to find if there exists any specific order of the occurrences. It is a data mining task which finds the set of frequent items in sequence database. It is applicable in a wide range of applications since many types of data sets are in a time related format. Besides mining sequential patterns in a single dimension, mining multidimensional sequential patterns can give us more informative and useful patterns. Due to the huge increase in data volume and also quite large search space, efficient solutions for finding patterns in multidimensional sequence data are nowadays very important. In this paper, we discuss about sequential pattern mining, sequential pattern, methods used in sequential pattern mining and we will see how sequential pattern mining is not applicable for mining item set from multidimensional data. And why multidimensional pattern mining is necessary.



      Aditi Shrivastava, Nitin Shukla

Abstract: As the size of web increases along with number of users, it is very much essential for the website owners to better understand their customers so that they can provide better service, and also enhance the quality of the website. To achieve this they depend on the web access log files. It is is a file to which the Web server writes information each time a user requests a resource from that particular site. In this paper we will study web access log files and the information we can mine from logs which is useful in understanding user behavior. This information is used in restructuring and redesigning of the website.



      Pushpendra Niranjan, Prashant Srivastava, Raj kumar Soni, Ram Pratap

Abstract: MANET, due to the nature of wireless transmission, has more security issues compared to wired environments. In this paper we specifically considering Tunneling attack which does not require exploiting any nodes in the network and can interfere with the route establishment process. Instead of detecting suspicious routes as in previous methods, we implement a new method which detects the attacker nodes and works without modification of protocol, using a hop-count and time delay analysis from the viewpoint of users without any special environment assumptions. The proposed work is simulated using OPNET and results showing the advantages of proposed work.



      Dr.Ch. Ravikumar, Dr. S.K. Srivatsa

Abstract: This paper presents a way to improve the computational speed of video enhancement using low-cost FPGA-based hardware. To design real-time adaptive and reusable image enhancement architecture for video signals based on a statistical processing of the video sequence. The VHDL hardware description language has been used in order to make possible a top-down design methodology. Generic design methodology has been followed by means of two features of the VHDL: global packages and generic pass. Video processing systems like this one require specific simulation tools in order to reduce the development time. Real tine image processing in an application environment needs a set of low cost implementations of various algorithms. This paper presents a median filter based on a system on chip and working at video rate. It includes its own memory and can be used without any image memory for on line processing. The architectural choices have made it possible to design a small size chip with a high performance level. A VHDL test bench has been designed specifically for Video processing applications to facilitate the simulation process. A video enhancement processor concept is proposed that enables efficient hardware implementation of enhancement procedures and hardware software co-design to achieve high performance, low-cost solutions. The processor runs on an FPGA prototyping board.



      Uttara Singh, Anita Kochhar and Rajbir Boora

Abstract: Bael (Aegle marmelos L.) leaf, pulp and seed powder were analyzed chemically for proximate composition, available carbohydrates, mineral content, dietary fiber and anti-nutritional factors. The values have been calculated for 100 g of bael (Aegle marmelos L.) leaf, pulp and seed powder. It was found that bael leaf, pulp and seed are good source of protein, fat, minerals, crude fibre and energy. They are rich source of available carbohydrates and dietary fibre. They also contain anti-nutrient content which help in controlling blood sugar. Thus, it was concluded that this hypoglycemic medicinal plants provide various nutrients which are not provided by allopathic medicine and these plants have no side effects. So, the diabetic patients should be encouraged to include this medicinal plant in their daily diet to control blood sugar level.



      Lakshmi Sahu

Abstract: In this paper, I am explaining single text-to-speech (TTS) system for Indian languages (Viz., Hindi, Telugu, Kannada etc.) to generate human voice or speech (text to a spoken waveform). In a text-to-speech system, spoken utterances are automatically produced from text. This paper present a corpus-driven text-to-speech (TTS) system based on the concatenative synthesis approach. The output generated by the proposed text-to-speech synthesis system resembles natural human voice. It accepts input in two forms: manual user entry and from file (text or MS Word document). Proposed system supports multiple way of output; direct to computer speakers, Wav file, or MP3 file. Generated output can have different accent, tone based on selected languages. The proposed text-to-speech system will be implemented in C#.Net (Windows Form Application) and runs on Windows platforms. This paper has examples for Hindi (North Indian) and Telugu (South Indian) languages’ to elaborate proposed system. This It also elaborates inter-language text conversion (not translation). Therefore, Hindi text will be converted into Telugu text and vice-versa. The research and development of this TTS done for my M. Tech major project.



      Dr Sheetla Prasad

Abstract: The focus point of this study is to identify the real psyche, constructed and the manifested psyche of an individual. For this, geometrical spatial technique was used and measurement focus point was the eyes with reference of features, structure and colour. The interaction of eye shapes, forms , sizes and colours with different shapes of the face will produce 2160 real psyches Mathematically output is as : eye shapes are 10 , eye sizes are 3 , eye forms are 3 and eye colors are 3 ( only three have been selected on the basis of availability of sample identity ) and face shapes are 8 [10 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 8 = 2160 ] .Each psychological state was predicted in three forms as constructed psyche , manifested psyche and psyche that should be (real psyche). Thus, total 6480 (2160 X 3) psyche are to be identified. Determination of the psyche is based on the degree of associations between geometrical region of the face and eye alignments. Degree of predictability is a product of area of geometrical output of different features of the face with corresponding points of eyes (left and right). This part of study was conducted in laboratory condition on 800 samples of males and females of age group of 20 to 50 years of Allahabad city. But for high level of predictability, reliability and validity research work is going on. Photographs were taken with 10.6 mega pixel Nikon camera on the fixed distance between object and camera ( 7 feet ) with constant zoom and aperture in the fixed light ( port light ). Characteriology is based on Indian and Western philosophy of human psyche concepts. This study is also focused about the status of the energy consumption and energy management for future utilization



      A.K.Rathod, N.C.Khatri and G.B.Kulkurni

Abstract: A series of substituted ethyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-methyl-2-oxo/thioxo-6-phenyl-1-(4,5-diphenyl-1-H-imidazol-2-yl) pyrimidine-5-carboxylates(3a-3g) was subjected for Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models.the antifungual activity was co-related with mathematical relationship between physical chemical, biological activities of interest and measurable or computable parameters such as physicochemical constant, topological, regerations analysis estimated activity and values calculated etc. The newly synthesized substituted diphenyl imidazolylpyrimidines were established by using the molecular descriptors ST, MV, Xindex MR, TE, LUMO, Log P, V AR, AECC. The logarithm of zone of inhibition of micro-organisms i.e. C.albicans strains are used as key properties to evaluate the QSAR models. The Predictive ability and accuracy of the model is determined by a cross validation method.



      Dr. Syed Waseem, A. Ashraf and Ayaz Ahmad

Abstract: For the development of rural environment, education should be taken on priority as it is the most important factor. Education is the basis for creativity and foresightedness that triggers change; it helps in economic growth, quality of life and quality of human resource. Education takes us away from tradition backwardness, darkness, poverty, misery and overpopulation to enlighten, prosperity and happiness. Women in India have been playing predominant role in the development of society by their direct and indirect contribution, their active participation in the economic as well as social activities would cause for the overall national development. The present study attempt to analysed the Muslim women education and empowerment in rural areas of Aligarh district. The study is mainly based on primary sources of data. The data reveals that socio economic conditions are the major determinants of women liberation than the religion. It illustrates the fact clearly that family structure has an association with the participation of women in the decision making process as well as the status of women.



      V.Yegnanarayanan and G.K.Umamaheswari

Abstract: The problem of determining the collaboration graph of co-authors of Paul Erdos is a challenging task. Here we take up this problem for the case of Rolf Nevalinna Prize Winners. Even though the number of these prizewinners as on date is 7, the collaboration graphs has 20 vertices and 41 edges and possess several interesting properties. In this paper we have obtained this graph and determined standard graph parameters for both this graph and its complement besides probing its structural properties. Several new results were obtained.



      B. L. Bhellum and Rani Magotra

Abstract: Euphorbia is the largest genus of family Euphorbiaceae comprises of over 2000 species. Members of this genus are found distributed in the diverse habitats of humid tropics, subtropics and temperate regions of the world. The vegetative and floral characters, inflorescence and latex facilitate the identity of species easy. Genus Euphorbia has been studied in the different district of Jammu and Kashmir but the complete enumeration of the genus is still wanting. Perusal of floristic literature indicates that Singh and Kachroo (1976), Sharma and Kachroo (1981), Swami and Gupta (1998) have studied the family Euphorbiaceae in their respective flora. Singh and Kachroo (1976) described five species from Srinagar, Kashmir. Sharma and Kachroo (1981) and Swami and Gupta (1998) described seven species from Jammu and Udhampur respectively. In the present communication the authors have described eight species from the outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, of which Euphorbia orbiculata H. B. K. is new for the flora of Jammu and Kashmir State.



      Priyanka Sharma, Neha Arora, Prof. B. P .Singh

Abstract: In this paper, Sense Amplifier based Flip-flop (SAFF) is implemented in three different configurations using Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) Technique. Experimental Results verified that proposed designs have reduced power consumption, reduced area & Temperature sustainability. Both singe edge triggered SAFF (SET-SAFF) & double edge triggered SAFF (DET-SAFF) are presented here. Considerable reduction in power consumption is observed in DET-SAFF design as compared to SET-SAFF. The simulation has been carried out on Tanner EDA tool on BSIM3v3 90nm technology.



      Haritha S. Nair, Vinodh Ewards S E

Abstract: A botnet is a network of compromised computers, termed bots that are used for malicious purposes. When a computer becomes compromised typically through a drive-by download, that has embedded malicious software, that computer becomes a part of a botnet. A bot typically runs hidden and uses a covert channel to communicate with its command and control server. Botnets are controlled through protocols such as IRC and HTTP and in protocol-conforming manners. This makes the detection of botnet command and control a challenging problem. In this paper we discuss some of the botnet detection techniques and compare their advantages, disadvantages and features used in each technique.