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IJSRP, Volume 10, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
September 2020 publication has started and publication will continue till 28th September 2020
Authors who paid publication fee after 3rd September, their paper will publish in September edition in next slots i.e. 12th September or 18th September or 28th September.
Online print version will release latest by 30th September. Download cover page for this edition.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 28th September and minor corrections are accepted till 28th September 2020.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

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      Dr. Ubesekara Dissanayaka

Abstract: The study attempts to understand the issue of parent seeking migratory work through a sociological analysis. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamic of a country. There are two types of migration: Internal and International migration. This research is mainly focused on international labour migration. After introducing the open economic system in Sri Lanka in 1977 a large number of consisting both men and women migrated to take up jobs in the Middle Eastern countries, on the other hand the numbers migrating to Italy in search of employment also increased. Under the survey and case study methods data were collected by questionnaire, direct interview and the observation. Families of parents in Sri Lanka engaged in foreign employment are faced with more negative consequences than positive consequences.



      Ahmed Makki Sahib, Prof.Dr. Fatima Wanas Khudair, Dr. Ali J. Eidan

Abstract: Background: Febrile seizure is the most common childhood seizure disorders, affecting 2% to 5% of children aged 6 to 60 months. Some studies have suggested iron deficiency a risk factor for febrile seizure. Objectives: to find out the correlation between iron deficiency anemia with febrile seizures. Methodology: A descriptive analytical design correlational study, samples were (50) cases and (50) controls, collected from AL Zahraa teaching hospital we measure the serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation as well as we assess febrile seizures by developed questionnaire consists from 3 parts.



      Evwierhurhoma, Ejiroghene Daniel, OGA, Kelechi Charles

Abstract: Today, the rate at which deviant behaviours occur in the workplace have become so worrisome as well as harmful to the wellbeing of the organization which is presently prevailing in most organizations including the hospitality industry. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the relationship that exist between employee work isolation and deviant behaviour in the hotel industry within the South-South Region of Nigeria. A survey design was adopted using questionnaire as the research instrument which was distributed to 291 employees of three selected hotels in the South-South region of Nigeria. The data derived were analyzed through the use of Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient Statistical as well as t-statistics to test the relationship between the variables of the study through the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences within a significance level of 0.05.



      Alpana Kumari and Jitendra Kumar

Abstract: Due to the ever-increasing demand on water resources, the pressure on its judicious utilization is also increasing. Besides being precious, this resource is also complex to manage on account of its dynamic behaviour. It implies that the response to a unit of precipitation input is dependent on the state of wetness of the land mass and the environment prevalent at that time. Therefore, the changing weather conditions as well as the spatial variability of land mass result in nonlinear behaviour of the response of the watersheds.



      Doni Herianto, Achsanuddin Hanafie, Muhammad Ihsan

Abstract: Background: Anxiety will affect the bodys response to release catecholamines so that it can result in an increase in heart rate, contraction of the heart muscle, arterial vasoconstriction, increase in blood sugar levels and others; these conditions can aggravate the condition before entering the operating room.



      U.S.Thathsarani

Abstract: Researchers, economists, investors, and policymakers attempt to identify and estimate the nexus between share market indices with macroeconomic factors. The aim of this this study is to analyze the impacts of some prominent macroeconomic factors on the main share market index in Sri Lanka, ASPI (All Share Price Index) over the period 2010 January to 2020 May.



      Jolan Baccay Sy, Adisu Haile, Wubishet Degife

Abstract: Today, world is looking for alternate energy sources as the gross effect of GHG is disturbing the nature balance. Ethiopia is a country with an aggressive plan to solely depend on clean Energy. This paper is about feasibility study of a 100MW PV power plant at Bati, Ethiopia. For the study RETScreen software is used, Using the RETScreen the benchmark analysis, emission analysis and financial analysis were made.



      Soe-Min-Oo, Myo-Myo-Mon, Than-Htun-Aung

Abstract: Refractive error (RE) is a very common eye disorder among school children, resulting in impaired vision in 2.6 billion people globally. Among them, 312 million were under 19 years of age. Programs have been rolled out in low-income settings, providing spectacles to school children with uncorrected refractive error(URE). However, for a program to meet the needs, spectacles dispensed need to be affordable, accessible, feasible, and visually functionally improvable.



      Million Desalegn Tassew

Abstract: Social media websites are the most common activity of today’s youth students. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social media usage and Self-esteem among Wolaita Sodo University students. The research employed cross-sectional survey research design with quantitative approach of data analysis. From the total population of 11,650 (7,174 males and 4,473 females) students, 763 (470 males and 293 females) students were selected by using systematic random sampling technique after employing stratified random sampling technique to select participants based on sex, year level and College. The finding of the study revealed that the major purpose of social media usage among Wolaita Sodo University students was to have good relationships with others and in touch with friends and family.



      Dr.Khagga.Bhavyasri, Ramavath Akshata Naik, Dr.Mogili.Sumakanth, R.Sewthasri

Abstract: A simple, Precise, Accurate method was developed for the estimation of Valganciclovir by RP-HPLC technique. Chromatographic conditions used are stationary phase Ascentis 150mm x 4.6 mm, 5.0, Mobile phase 0.01N potassium dihydrogenphosphate: Methanol in the ratio of 65:35 and flow rate was maintained at 0.8ml/min, detection wave length was 254nm, column temperature was set to 30oC, retention time 2.180min. System suitability parameters were studied by injecting the standard six times and results were well under the acceptance criteria. Linearity study was carried out between 25% to150 % levels, R2 value was found to be as 0.999. Precision was found to be 0.8 for repeatability and 0.4 for intermediate precision.LOD and LOQ are 0.0542µg/ml and 0.1643µg/ml respectively. By using above method assay of marketed formulation was carried out 99.8% was present. Degradation studies of Valganciclovir were done, in all conditions purity threshold was more than purity angle and within the acceptable range. This method can be used for routine analysis of Valganciclovir.



      Paul Olaoluwa Odesola, Olalekan Joseph Soyelu, Rasaq Ola Ajibade

Abstract: This study investigated the impact of soil pollution on the physical and chemical properties of soil, and faunal richness. Soil samples at depths 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm were collected from five polluted sites over a period of twelve months (covering the dry and rainy seasons) for analysis in the laboratory. The nature of pollution in each site differed, ranging from domestic sources to agricultural inputs and industrial wastes. Soil samples from a fallowed plot were also collected in a similar manner for comparison of results.



      Esther Rachel Wasike and Dr. Dennis Juma

Abstract: The study examined the influence of logistic management practices on Logistics performance of humanitarian organizations in Kakamega County. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the influence of inventory management practices, Transport management practices,information flow practices and Warehouse Management practices on performance of Humanitarian organizations in Kakamega County, Kenya. The study used both descriptive and explanatory research designs.



      Haruna Isa Mohammed, Nanret Kyeswet Suchi and Pennap Grace Rinmecit

Abstract: There is still paucity of published data on dengue virus particularly its circulating serotypes in Nigeria and Africa at large. This study was however conducted to detect and type dengue virus (DENV) serotype(s) circulating among febrile patients in a private tertiary institution in North Central Nigeria. After informed consent, 400 blood samples were collected from febrile patients at the University Health Centre. The resulting sera were screened for DENV seromarkers (IgM, IgG and NS1) using Aria Dou DENV RDT kits (CTK Biotech, Inc, San Diego, USA) while all positive samples were serotyped by PCR using type specific primers. Data obtained were analyzed using Smith’s Statistical Package (Version 2.8, California, USA) and p value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.



      Dr. Ronald Ellumbe Mutange

Abstract: In Kenya, the fundamental challenge facing learning of mathematics in secondary schools is how to enhance students’ conceptual understanding associated with the learning process. Based on this challenge, the study investigated the influence of using Problem Solving Approach on secondary school students’ mathematics achievement by school type. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of Problem Solving Approach had any influence on students’ mathematics achievement by school type. Students from one hundred and nine schools from Vihiga County formed the population of the study. Stratified random sampling was used to select twelve schools from the 109 schools. The population of the study was 1459 Form Three students selected from the twelve schools that participated in the study.



      Sekata Olika, Dr.A.Rajani

Abstract: In speech communication systems, obtaining desired signal from dialogue signal that is polluted by noise, using digital filter noise minimization is a widely known technique. This is accomplished by adaptive filter algorithms, in detail, this project focused on LMS and NLMS Algorithms. The purpose of adaptive noise drop is to get an estimation of the signal of noise and to deduct it from the noisy signal and hence upgrade the quality of the signal.



      Julius Kinyanjui Kiiru, Dr Daniel Mange, Dr Daniel Otieno

Abstract: School feeding programs are primarily intended to enhance educational outcomes with a view to achieving Kenyas educational objectives of free and compulsory basic education. School feeding initiatives have the ability to increase access to primary education, minimize dropout rates, especially at lower primary school levels, and boost pupils academic achievement. The purpose of the study was to assess lunch program management and its influence on educational outcomes at Mombasa and Kilifi Counties, Kenya’s public day secondary schools. Many of the findings were done in elementary schools but not in secondary schools on the impact of school feeding programmes.



      Arjun Dattaraju

Abstract: There are 3 main objectives of this research paper. First, to provide an accurate and an indepth understanding of employees’ perspective of how effective the organization is at utilizing its employee potential. The research tries to capture the perspective of 3 categories of participants, i.e. employees with work experience less than two years categorized as freshers, interns with an internship experience of at least 3 months and employees with work experience of more than 2 years. Second, to capture the employees’ perspective on the role of Corporate Training in achieving employee potential and the necessary improvements that can improve corporate training effectiveness. Third, to propose a tangible solution designed by a synergy of tested approaches that can help organizations to maximize the utilization of employee potential and achieve better performance.



      Sunny Nwakanma, Izundu Lilian

Abstract: The study examined workshop tools management techniques needed for sustaining quality vocational education in technical colleges in Rivers State. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised and formulated respectively to guide the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The population for the study was 120; which comprised 72 technical teachers and 48 workshop attendants in four technical colleges in Rivers State.



      Nurudeen A. Abdulrahman, Akintayo Rotibi, Segun M. Abegunde

Abstract: Raphia taedigera activated carbon was prepared and impregnated with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to enhance its performance for the adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution. The two modified activated carbons, the sodium dodecyl sulphate modified Raphia taedigera activated carbon (SDS-RT) and the disodium ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid Raphia taedigera activated carbon (EDTA-RT), were characterized.



      Alematu Agbo, Eric Terfa Anongo, Member Christiana Agor

Abstract: Corporate governance been a process and structure used to steer and control a company’s business affairs targeted at enhancing business prosperity and corporate accountability with the sole aim of realizing long-term shareholder value not forgetting the interest of other stakeholders, is perceived to have an effect on environmental reporting of firms. This review studies the effect of corporate governance mechanisms on environmental reporting of listed companies in Nigeria



      Saikou Gassama, Dr. Hamidah, M.Si, Ak

Abstract: The microfinance institutions in the Gambia came in to been as all other microfinance institution to ease access to finance for the poor especially the women, and close the gap that exists between the rich and the poor in accessing finance, this gap is allegedly believed to be created by the conventional Banks who neglected or not making much effort in reaching out to poor people.



      Omari Issa Ndamungu

Abstract: In February 2020 President Donald John Trump of the United States of America (USA) granted four clemency orders and seven pardons, which in turn rejuvenated debate about pardon powers of the President. Similar situation emerged in Tanzania in December 2019 when President John Pombe Magufuli granted 600 pardons in commemoration of 58th Anniversary of independence of the country.



      Solomon Faakye

Abstract: This work sought to investigate achievement motivation among senior high school students at the University Practice Senior High School, Cape Coast. A quantitative research design was employed. In all a sample of 293 students were selected for the study based on a systematic random sampling technique. A questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.825 was used for the study.



      Arwa Aleryani

Abstract: Nowadays several terms intertwine with each other such as a business analyst and data scientist. Some have dealt with them on the basis that they have the same job, and some have distinguished that the difference between them is significant. This research aims to explore previous studies and scientific articles to compare them. What is the role and responsibilities of each of them and what are the scientific expertise and personal skills required? The researcher found that the business analyst and data scientist both aim to serve their institutions in growth and development in the business sector regarding analyzing data. However, the differences between them exist and should be clear to all interested parties, from data analysts to institutional owners.



      Swarna Jain

Abstract: This paper aims to map the growing informalisation of economy, and its impact on providing meaningful employment to women in India. Over the years, informality of labour has gained prominence as a source of employment and a means of survival for vulnerable sections of the society, with women leading in numbers.



      Jyotsna Joshi

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the growth areas in manufacturing sector which can provide impetus to a factor driven economy to scale up and reach investment driven stage. It assesses the competitiveness of four manufacturing sub-sectors of an emerging sub-national economy through Porter diamond analysis. We explore the relationships between various components of Porter’s diamond for select manufacturing sub-sectors in the State.



      Eunike Bunga Putriani, Triyanti, Trini Sudiarti

Abstract: Stunting is defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) that is below -2 SD of WHO’s median growth standard for children. This study aims to determine the dominant factor of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Babakan Madang District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia in 2019. This study is a secondary data analysis used a cross-sectional design, with a total sample of 283 children. The dependent variable used is stunting, while the independent variables are family income, maternal education level, maternal age on pregnancy, maternal height, colostrum feeding, age of introducing complementary foods, and integrated health service visit.



      Ansharullah Ansharullah, Sri Wahyuni, and Muhammad Natsir

Abstract: Properties of gelatinization, endothermic and pasting behaviour of Metroxylon sp. sago starch were studied. Those properties of other starches (Arenga pinnata, wheat, corn, and cassava) were also analyzed as a comparison. It was found that Metroxylon sago starch had a relatively higher gelatinization temperature and endothermic energy, as well as higher peak viscosity. Many potential applications of these starches in the food industry might be made by knowing these properties, in which the search of underutilized starch sources was being pursued.



      Liliana Mendes, Sofia Pedro

Abstract: Introduction: Breast Cancer is in Portugal and in the world, the cancer with the highest incidence in women. Nursing care centered on the person and on the interpersonal relationship aims to help women to be proactive in achieving their health project. Faced with an event as disruptive as being diagnosed with Breast Cancer, the woman will need, through a therapeutic relationship, to be supported and taught in the adaptation and self-care strategies related to the emerging health deviation. Focusing on training for self-care through educational and support interventions, we selected the Nursing Theory of Self-Care Deficit developed by Dorothea Orem. The case refers to a woman who was 36 years old at the time of diagnosis (2014) with Multifocal Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Her2 like type.



      Bargu Sulaiman Jibril, Sule Ayuba Chul, Abba Aji Mustapha, Goni Babagana

Abstract: Senna occidentalis leaves were collected at Maiduguri Metropolitan Council (MMC) of Borno State, Nigeria and extracted in water by simple maceration method. The aqueous extract was tested for its analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats by tail flick method, where the result showed significant (P<0.01) increase in reaction time from 6.60±0.20 to 8.00±0.32 compared with the control (5.00±0.00) for the extract graded doses of 200 to 600 mg/kg, at 30 minutes post treatment; 7.20±0.37 to 8.60±0.24 compared with the control (4.60±0.24) for the same graded doses of the extract, 60 minutes post treatment; 5.60±0.24 to 7.60±0.24 compared with the control (4.60±0.24) for the same graded doses of the extract, 90 minutes post treatment; and 5.20±0.20 to 6.40±0.24compared with the control (4.60±0.24) for the same graded doses of the extract, 120 minutes.



      Ahmed Abdelsid Ali Phd

Abstract: Beside structural problems, Libyan economy is characterized by growth and disintegration of the national market, insufficiently active investment market, poor investment climate and the problems related to Microeconomics (lower productivity and efficiency of doing business). Taking into account all these problems, this research will be based on the study of the problems of the current system of financial reporting. Practice has shown that when it comes to the level of the national economy and administration, there is a low level of qualifications in the field of application of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS) for their non-compliance with existing standards of accounting and auditing in Libya.



      Langat Kipkemoi Victor

Abstract: Tea sector is a major source of revenue to the Kenyan government. The study established the effect of production index on dividend payout policy on firms. The general objective analyzes the effect of profit margin on dividend payout in Kericho tea estates. A descriptive research design approach was used and the target population comprised of all the 105 respondents for a target population of 300 in selected tea factories in the county.



      RJM Uduporuwa

Abstract: Presently, half of the world population live in cities and the world is rapidly urbanizing keeping the cities as the major living space of the people. It has been projected that by the year 2030 urban population in the world will increase up to 60 percent. This rapid increase in urban population will make a huge demand for their socio-economic needs and will exert much pressure on natural resources.



      Dilip Kumar Mondol, Ph.D

Abstract: Eating habits is one of the most important public health concern for all stages of human life as well as students’ life, especially those are going to face changing life style by the change of living place from present to some where else for short or longer time due to profession or study like higher study. In transition time student’s need to adjust with somewhat different environment like university life, residence, exams etc. because these are create an obstacle situation against adoption of healthy food habit.



      Hendra Dwi Prasetyo, Amin Sadiqin, Moh. Wahib

Abstract: Not all women can be independent in living their lives, this could be because women experience dependency, fear of independence and have a deep desire to be cared for and protected by others. As explained earlier, socio-cultural influences cause women to be educated, nurtured and raised by conditioning them as weak creatures, thus creating dependence. Cinderella complex is a form of psychological phenomenon that is not widely known by the general public. Cinderella Complex talks about the independence that psychologists experience in women. One of the increasing roles of women in society can be seen from the variety of jobs currently occupied by women. The field of science is not beyond the reach of women, as evidenced by the large number of auditors, financial managers and financial staff for professions that are normally synonymous with the work of men occupied by women.



      .

Abstract: The aim of the study to evaluate the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions on specific symptoms among cancer clients undergoing radiation therapy in oncology Department Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Objectives : The main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions on specific symptoms among clients undergoing radiation therapy. Conceptual framework : The conceptual framework for this study was based on Wiedenbach’s Helping Art of Clinical Nursing Theory.



      Radeny Kennedy Owino, Raphael Lihana, Jackline Mosinya Nyaberi

Abstract: Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections among populations at a substantial risk. World Health Organization recommends use of PrEP for prevention of HIV, however, risk of sexually transmitted Infections (STIs) raises concern. While STIs screening is continually done at PrEP refill visits and cases treated, increased risk of STIs may reduce the prevention benefits of PrEP while increasing STI rates with ultimate impact on economic and health burdens.



      Jayantha K, Ariyawansa RG, Anura Kumara U

Abstract: It can be stated that "thirasaara" (;sridr nj) is one of the most popular words in the so-called developed and standardized world that is considered to be developed. This article questions the extent to which the concept of "thiraasara" (in English sustainability) is defined reasonably, while this study focuses on the main purpose and two additional objectives. The main purpose is to present a more reasonable definition for "thirasaara" (sustainability).



      Cakadende, J.C, D and Mulyungi, M.P

Abstract: Financial innovation consists in the design, development, and implementation of innovative financial products, processes and services, and the adoption of innovative alternatives to address issues in finance. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of product and process innovation on financial performance of Umwalimu SACCO in Rwanda. A census using a closed ended structure questionnaire to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data was conducted on 30 branch managers of Umwalimu SACCO across the country. The data thereof obtained was processed and analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics by use of SPSS version 23.



      Obidola, S.M, Sikiru, G.K, Oloyede, E.O, Bulus, J.K.

Abstract: This experiment was conducted at Federal College of Forestry, Jos to determine the effect of glyphosate herbicide on the growth and yield parameters as well as the protein concentration of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The experiment consist of Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) where four treatments were involved in which the control (To) is without glyphosate, while T1, T2, and T3 contained 4ml, 6ml and 8ml of glyphosate herbicide per 100ml water solution respectively applied per 4m2 experimental plot.



      Samarasinghe, Y. J, Gunathilake, M.D.U,Wijenayake P. H, Kumarapeli, V, Perera, T.D.R.N, Ranasinghe, W.V.G.R

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the 10 leading causes of death worldwide. In Sri Lanka, approximately one third of cases are not detected during routine practice. Poor contact tracing, inadequate detection, underutilization of MCs are major weakness in TB screening. The private sector provides 50% of outpatient services of Sri Lanka and this study aims to assess Knowledge, attitudes, practices among Private Practitioners (PPs) on TB patient detection and treatment in Kaluthara district Sri Lanka.



      Pauline Tarkwen

Abstract: Breastfeeding leads to both short and long-term benefits of a child. It helps reduce infections and mortality among infants, improves mental and motor development, and protects against obesity and metabolic diseases later in the life course. The ten steps are maternity proven practices which help in achieving exclusive breastfeeding which remains a challenge. The aim of this paper was to assess the attitudes of breastfeeding mothers towards ten steps of successful breastfeeding in Kapsabet County Referral Hospital, Kenya.



      Dr Debmalya Saha, Dr Pawan Singh, Dr Soumyaranjan Das, Dr Ravi Kumar Gupta, Dr Satyajit Samal, Dr Muhammad Abid Geelani

Abstract: Because of the complexity of the procedures, high level of clarification for the patients as well as their attendants while taking consent is a must as cardiac surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pictorial consent with pre-operative education is a far better option in this regard. We randomly took a total of 150 patients within the age group of 18 to 70 years, and they were explained with standard consent followed by pictorial consent and vice versa by the same informant. And they were given a preset questionnaire format after both consents. Later, based on their answers, comparison in relation to the level of clarity was done. Questionnaire was formatted after rigorous modification from the reviews of literature.



      Sana Ramzan

Abstract: The energy sector generates huge amounts of data that can be used by utility providers in energy conservation. As data is increasing drastically, the conventional energy meter is not sufficient to keep track of this data that incorporates demand and supply patterns of energy. The conventional energy meter manually retrieved information from a residential customer or an industrial customer and manually billed the consumption. This process was tedious, time consuming and costly for the utility providers. Subsequently, this led to the adoption of smart grid systems for energy management and efficient data processing. Another important facet of this research is the incorporation of residential sector, which is the highest consumer of energy and generates humongous amounts of data



      Melvin Junior Tanner, Triyanti

Abstract: This study using the secondary data aims to determine the relationship between the independent variables that included gender, body mass index for age (BMI-for-age), breakfast habits, physical activity, and nutrients intake (energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) with the dependent variable that included body fat percentage (body fat percentage) in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study that conducted on 131 students of SMAN 39 Jakarta in 2019.



      Toma, I, Jefferson, J. N, Clifford, L. B and Mofio, B.M.

Abstract: This study was designed to assess the heavy metals and pesticide residues in honey samples collected from selected villages in Adamawa state, Nigeria. A total of five (5) different natural samples of wild harvested honey were bought from the honey harvesters in Dulwarchira, Gada, Gurum, Kwaja and Muva villages. Heavy metals in the honey samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, while pesticides residues were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results show that honey sample from Gada contains high concentration of Cr and Mn. Fe and Cd were found to be highest in samples collected from Kwaja



      Eng. Dima M. Saqarat

Abstract: Chemical engineering laboratory desires to spread over occupational health and safety to decrease some issues as fire and toxicity. Consequently, to develop about occupational health and safety, the workers, and students in chemical laboratories in hospitals should be given some information and awareness of how to utilize occupational health and safety. This paper pursues to explore the effect of occupational health and safety on employees’ chemical engineering laboratory. It also explores the different categories of hazardous factors in the health of labor



      Eng. Ahmad M. Almbydeen, Eng. Safaa’ M. Al-Qaralleh, Eng. Mohammed S. Smadi, Eng. Anas Harb

Abstract: Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) playing significant role in wide range of biomedical applications. The unique thermomechanical properties of SMA attacking researches and manufacturer in medical field to develop super-elastic biomaterials for clinical applications. Recently, SMA biomaterials are used successfully in surgical fields including; orthopedics, dental and vascular.



      Rishika, Aanchal Jaiswal, Sakshi Dame

Abstract: Over the years, the economic relations between India and Republic of Korea have grown rapidly. However, the size of trade and investment relations between the two countries is still comparatively low and gives a lot of space for the improvisation. In the above mentioned context, the following paper examine and explore the investment and trade relations, barriers to economic relations and potential areas of future cooperation. We also find that the improvement in political relations between two countries increase the trade and investment by imposing policies like CEPA, Korea Plus and many more. It also focuses on the scope available for India to increase its export to ROK. Lastly, we also observe how changing few restrictive foreign policies of both the countries will give a major boost to trade and investment relations.



      JMN Wijekumara, DMT Madushanka, PMS Kumara

Abstract: Since this is an era of environmental degradation in the wake of continually depleting ozone layer, climate change & global warming, environment consciousness in entities’ activities has risen in recent years promoting the need for the environmental communication. Thus environmental disclosures entails informing the public on how successful a firm is in minimizing its negative impacts on the environment.



      JMN Wijekumara, DMT Madushanka, PMS Kumara

Abstract: Since this is an era of environmental degradation in the wake of continually depleting ozone layer, climate change & global warming, environment consciousness in entities’ activities has risen in recent years promoting the need for the environmental communication. Thus environmental disclosures entails informing the public on how successful a firm is in minimizing its negative impacts on the environment.



      Melia Sulistyarini, Eddy Suprayitno

Abstract: Ointment is a semi-solid preparation intended for topical application to the skin or mucous membranes. Usually snakehead fish albumin is consumed in extract form so that people do not like it because of its smell. One alternative to using albumin, which is easy to apply to help the wound closure process, is to use it as an ointment. The advantages of the ointment are good for the drug delivery system, pleasant in appearance and comfortable feeling after use.



      Nazima Begum

Abstract: This series has focused on the care of patients undergoing cholecystectomy as Gallstones are the most common abdominal-associated reason for hospital admission in the surgical units in GMCH & MMCH . It has identified the key areas nurses need to understand when caring for these patients. Effective pre-operative assessment, good surgical technique and well managed post-operative care all contribute to a successful outcome for patients.



      Sestrix C. Rahabav, Wahyu Sukartiningsih, Rachma Hasibuan

Abstract: The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the implementation of the eight national standard parameters of education at Xaverius Kindergarten Ambon based on the CIPP evaluation model and 2) how to evaluate the implementation of early childhood learning in the application of K13 at Xaverius Kindergarten Ambon. This research design is a descriptive research type, with a qualitative approach. This research variable is a single variable, namely the evaluation of PAUD learning in the application of K13 with the CIPP evaluation model. The research subjects were the principal and 6 teachers of Xaverius Kindergarten Ambon



      Sang G. K, Abuodha S. O, Mwero J. N

Abstract: Sources of conventional concrete materials such as gravel, granite and limestone rocks are becoming scarce due to overexploitation as Kenya strives to industrialize posing great risks on their availability as well as sustainability. This research sought to assess the feasibility and suitability of tuff aggregates for the production of structural lightweight concrete. Normal-weight concrete (NWC) samples made from granite aggregates were used as control in the experiment.



      Purna Chandra Karua, Manoj Kishan

Abstract: Background: Malaria causes high mortality and morbidity in various tropical regions which suggest us to identify severity of this disease as early as possible so as to institute timely therapy and avoid the complications. As per world malaria report 2019, an estimated 228 million malaria cases were reported across the world in 2018. The number of malaria deaths in India also decreased by 40 percent in 2018.



      Harrison Henry Boying, Fang Ping

Abstract: Continuous deterioration of River Nile water quality in the Juba has become a major area of concern. Population growth, urbanization, and rural-town immigration have to lead to a population increase in the Juba. This study attempted to investigate the impact of urbanization and industrialization on water quality. Secondary data and mathematical models were used to compute the concentration of pollution in drinking water quality.



      Israel Chijiuka Oparaji, Innocent C. Igbokwe, Adeline N. Anyanwu, Anthony C. Ugwude

Abstract: In this study, the researcher investigated the relationship between quality assurance predictors and students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. The research design adopted for the study is the descriptive survey research design. Four research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 208,465 students from 320 public secondary schools in the study area.



      Mr. Ndikumwenayo Everien, Dr. Rusibana Claude

Abstract: To run any Government corporation, financial performance is required to enhance the use of budgetary control as a management tool to ensure performance. Nevertheless, returns on investment, net profit margin and return on asset as measure of profitability remains low because of unreliable financial performance within government corporations. Hence, the ignition of conducting a study to examine the effect of budgetary control on financial performance using specific objectives which are to assess the effect of budget variance on financial performance, to examine the impact of cost reduction on financial performance and to analyze the relationship between management support and financial performance.



      Angela Patatian and Philippe Benech

Abstract: Huge amounts of scientific publications are produced daily in particular in many fields of medicine and biological science. Managing these data and deducing valuable information to identify significant clues to understand a physiological or pathological mechanism as well as to propose therapeutic solutions are urgently needed. Here we describe the use of a dedicated text mining-based software, PredictSearch (PS) to explore, through a literature survey, significant correlations between terms related to coronavirus infection. Our search highlighted some features of antiviral compounds such as chloroquine and glycyrrhizin and their impacts on apoptotic cell death, cell cycle and endocytic pathway in the course of coronavirus infection. In addition, the reported mechanisms through which the virus can avoid the interferon-induced antiviral state should pave the way to identify efficient therapies. This study demonstrates the importance of informatics tools such as PredictSearch dedicated to scientific literature survey to adapt previous knowledge to new health issues on a particular topical subject like Covid-19 pandemia.



      CPA Mohamed Maalim Issackow, Dr. Wilson Muema, Prof. Felix Mwambia

Abstract: Over the last few years, commercial banks in the country have been recording poor performance especially in terms of their profitability. Based on this fact, the key aim of this research study was to examine the impact of financial soundness on firm value of listed commercial banks in Kenya. A descriptive study design was adopted for the purpose of this study. The study population comprised of the elven (12) publicly listed commercial banks at NSE using census. Secondary data obtained from the CBK as well as other published financial reports of the targeted 12 commercial banks were used. The period which the current study aimed to investigate was the last ten financial years from 2009 to 2018.



      BWIMBA MUGANGA Godfrey, James NTAYOMBA

Abstract: The world is quickly turning into a global town because of the expanding day by day necessity of energy by all residents over the globe while the world in its structure cant change. The requirement for energy and its related services to fulfill human social and financial growth, welfare and wellbeing is expanding. Rwanda also is moving fast for its development in all sectors most especially energy sector which is a key in the development. Back to renewable in sustaining power as well as environmental protection and affordable electricity to all are an overwhelming approach in meeting energy demand of future generations. The study highlights the current status of hydropower development as renewable energy, environmental protection and accessible electricity in Rwanda.



      Yasser Saud Sendi, Ahmad Jusoh

Abstract: The study aims to investigate the significant effects of individual factors on knowledge sharing among individuals. Administrative employees are regarded as a key role to achieve the effective performance of the organization via sharing their knowledge with others to perform working tasks in an efficient way. In spite of various studies on this topic have been conducted, few researches have been done on knowledge sharing and individual factors in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia.



      Ankit Agrawal, BDS; Shelley Saxena, B.E., MBA

Abstract: Introduction: Microscopy is the simplest and the most important step in the diagnosis of infections (urinary tract, kidney, prostate), sexual transmitted infections (STI), kidney or bladder stones, hemophilia, interstitial cystitis, bacteremia with sepsis, prostatitis and parasites. But the microscopy requires considerable experience and is bound to have human errors. Artificial intelligence (AI) based microscopy can be an answer to this problem



      Ositadinma Emeka Alozie

Abstract: The role of public administrators is considered most significant in changing society and administration, however, an efficient, responsive, transparent and accountable public administration is of principal importance for the appropriate functioning of a local community, besides, it is a core part of democratic governance and the elementary means through which government strategizes to accomplish the implementation of its amalgamation objectives. Obviously, local community development today should reflect the changing and competitive nature of national and international strata and the new administrative climate



      "Mr. Kayiranga Ronald, Mr. Nyamweya Mongute Nathan, Dr Shukla Jaya, Ph.D "

Abstract: This research project examined the contribution of material management practices on performance of construction of project. Specifically, the present research assessed the effects of material estimation costs on project performance, the effect of procurement on performance of construction project and examined the effect of inventory control on performance of construction projects. Both descriptive and correlational research designs were adopted where qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied. Data collection instruments that used were questionnaire, interview guide and documentary analysis.



      Marlon Gan Rojo, Jolan Baccay Sy,Eunelfa Regie Calibara, Alain Vincent Comendador, Wubishet Degife, Assefa Sisay

Abstract: The design and development of a non-contact temperature reader and sanitizer dispenser (NTRSD) system is presented in this study. The system is intended to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assist in maintaining and/or improving community health and reducing the negative impact of the infection on the economy and society.



      Ms MUKAKIBIBI Speciose, Dr. Claude RUSIBANA

Abstract: Many organizations in Rwanda face financial control related issues due to inappropriate use of accounting principles, inadequate funding, poor departmental administration and management of public funds, inefficient and inadequate internal control systems that led to the shortfalls in financial control and organizational performance. Hence, research aims at assessing the importance of Financial Control on organizational performance of RBA in the last three years



      Kebadu Tadesse Cherie, Opwodho Oriet

Abstract: Street children were a term for children experiencing homelessness who live on the street of a city, town or village. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with interest of street children to keep their hygiene in Wolkite town. The target population for this study was street children in Wolkite town. Since the number of street children in the town was too small, we have not applied any of the sampling technique and have taken all the population subjects and we have got the data from 102 street children’s out of 148 using self-administered questionnaire as an instrument of data collection from targeted population.



      Innocent AFRICA Francis Mwangi and Dr David Nyambane

Abstract: This research sought to find out whether the firm can be competitive and remain sustainable when other firms enter in the in-telecommunication sector and increase the highly competitive age. The study was guided by the following objectives; to investigate competitiveness of MTN Rwanda in telecommunication industry, to assess sustainability of MTN Rwanda in telecommunication industry, and to find out the relationship between competitiveness and sustainability of MTN Rwanda. The study used case study approach, mixt methods approach quantitative and qualitative were adopted to conduct the study. The targeted population of this research was 287 MTN Rwanda’ employees. 167 employees were selected purposively as sample size. The research used a case study approach to give an in depth understanding of competitiveness and sustainability of MTN Rwanda.



      Raphael Lotum Lokuwam, Rose Atoni, Jennifer, K. Munyua

Abstract: This study sought to investigate the influence of home environment factors on students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Loima Sub-county, Kenya. The research questions were: to determine the influence of parenting styles, socioeconomic background of students and education level of parents on students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Loima Sub – county. The study was guided by Bandura’s Social Learning Theory and utilised causal comparative research design. The study sample was students and deputy principals drawn from 6 public secondary schools in Loima Sub – county. Questionnaires, were used to collect data. Reliability was determined using test-retest method. Data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages and presented using a table. The results of the study showed that home environment had a significant influence on students’ discipline. Based on the findings, the study recommended that parents should be good role models to their children and support schools in matters of discipline for any meaningful improvement in students’ discipline to be realized. Principals and schools’ Boards of Management were also encouraged to empower the guidance and counselling departments and students’council members through trainings to assist in offering effective alternative mechanisms for arresting and handling discipline issues.



      Tirumalaraju. Madhu kumar Raju, Dr. N. R. Mohan Prakash

Abstract: For the last 6th months most of the nations’ across the world have been surviving under a pandemic situation due to Coved 19. Today (18th July 2020) we have read news published by the ‘Financial Times’ prospering in the pandemic: the top 100, Amazon is one among them. The company anticipates it could spend US$401.1bn its logistic services during a pandemic situation.



      Abaribe, Chidinma Emeka, Somade, Eunice Chinwe

Abstract: Background: Family life education (FLE) is an essential education that children born into a home must undergo before reaching adulthood. Adolescents resort to illicit behaviours because they lack the knowledge of family life education. The mother has a great role to play in imparting this knowledge and skills and if properly inculcated into the adolescents, the act of too early initiation of sexual activity, premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion leading to destruction of reproductive organs, dumping and abandoning babies by the way side and refuse bin and contracting sexually transmitted infections will abate. The attitude of mothers towards family life education of adolescents was assessed in this study.



      Bertha Abdu Danja; Ogidi Adam Ogidi, Mausul Umar, Kawuwa Bakari, Prof. Dr. Rer. Jürgen Ertel and Guest Professor Dr.Rer.Nat. Otmar Deubzer

Abstract: Drinking Water Quality control by the Regional laboratory Gombe Nigeria was investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the quality of analysis done in drinking water control in the regional laboratory in terms of the kinds of analytical instruments used, the technology employed for the control and the kind of contaminants analyzed. Four analyses were carried out between June to December 2008 for four different samples. For each sample, 25 parameters were tested. The results obtained were analyzed using the Nigerian Drinking water standards.



      Ogidi A. Ogidi, Danja B.A., Mausul Umar, Kawuwa Bakari

Abstract: The heavy metals content of soils where determined in Gombe state, North-Eastern Nigeria, the heavy metals analyzed in this study are, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), Perkin Elmer 400ASS (9). A general over view of the study shows that Pb had the highest concentration, and Cr had the least concentration. The trend of heavy metals in the study is as follows; Cr < Cd < Zn < Pb. the result of the heavy metal analysis shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in the soils at the study sites where below the permissible limits of the various metals for soil and thus are of no environmental or health consequences and the soil is relatively safe for cultivation of agricultural crops.



      Rizky Eka Putra, Erjan Fikri, Zulkifli

Abstract: Acute appendicitis in children is one of the causes of the emergency abdomen that requires immediate surgery. (Victor, et al., 2012; Ballester et al., 2009; Huckins et al., 2013). The incidence of acute appendicitis in children in the world ranges from 1-8% of all pediatric patients who come to the Emergency Department (IGD) with complaints of acute abdominal pain (Jangra et al., 2013). In 2006 acute appendicitis was ranked 4th in Indonesia, after dyspepsia, duodenitis, and other gastrointestinal diseases with the number of hospitalized patients reaching 28,949 (Eylin, 2009).



      Eddy Suprayitno, Titik Dwi Sulistiyati, Heder Djamaludin, Jeny Ernawati Tambunan

Abstract: The wound healing component consists of albumin, collagen, omega 3 and omega 6. These components become active substances in ointments used for wound healing. Ointment is a semisolid preparation that is soft, easy to apply, and is used as an external medicine on the skin. The source of albumin is snakehead fish, a source of collagen is grouper skin, omega 3 from flaxseed oil, and omega 6 from black cumin oil. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal collagen concentration in making the best ointment.



      Andrea Michinaux A; Juan Caraballo-Marcano

Abstract: In this review, we present many different classes of ecological relationships in which are registered interactions among algal and bacterial organisms. The uses of molecular techniques as metagenomics to test hypothesis, evaluate subjacent processes and searching for patterns in microbial communities are included and discussed. Our documental research suggests that great advances have been accomplished in this discipline until now, and many of these advances were through metagenomics application. Nevertheless, some questions and aspects of relations algae-bacteria remain not answered yet and metagenomics could be a power and useful working tool.



      Mukabi Thomas Imende, Prof. Maureen Olel & Dr. Julius Gogo

Abstract: Implementation of strategic plans would enable institutions realize their objectives and enhance good performance. From studies carried out, a number of institutions that have formulated strategic plans, implementation aspect has been a challenge. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in public secondary schools in Kakamega County. Objective of the study was to determine influence of resources – human, finance, infrastructure and time on implementation of strategic plans in public secondary schools from Kakamega County. The study used a combination of descriptive survey design and correlation design targeting a total population of 645 respondents with a sample population of 173. Multiple stage sampling techniques were applied.



      Mukabi Thomas Imende, Prof. Maureen Olel & Dr. Julius Gogo

Abstract: Implementation of strategic plans would enable institutions realize their objectives and enhance good performance. From studies carried out, a number of institutions that have formulated strategic plans, implementation aspect has been a challenge. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of resources on implementation of strategic plans in public secondary schools in Kakamega County. Objective of the study was to determine influence of resources – human, finance, infrastructure and time on implementation of strategic plans in public secondary schools from Kakamega County. The study used a combination of descriptive survey design and correlation design targeting a total population of 645 respondents with a sample population of 173. Multiple stage sampling techniques were applied.



      Vlatko Ivanov, Ratko Ivanov, Cveta Martinovska Bande

Abstract: The human’s aspiration has always been to ease daily responsibilities. With the grow and the advancement of the technology their facilitation and automation are enabled. Nowadays, smart homes are becoming popular, with which everyone can almost forget the daily responsibilities in their home. Smart home is a system that includes multiple aspects of the home and allows their remote control via mobile or web applications. Smart lighting, heating, cooling, home appliance, ventilation, security systems and many more are part of the smart homes



      Ratko Ivanov, Vlatko Ivanov, Cveta Martinovska Bande

Abstract: With the advancement of technology, we are constantly striving to automate processes that would make everyday life easier and at the same time reduce daily costs. So today there are smart homes that aim to reduce daily obligations and costs, and at the same time increase the safety and comfort of home.



      R.T.H.S.K. Karunachandra, H.M.K.K.M.B. Herath

Abstract: Vision-based robotics has been the subject of several research contributions in the area of vision and control. Vision technology is becoming a pioneer in the most common applications such as localization, automated map creation, autonomous navigation, mapping analysis, or risk pattern prediction. The Stereo applications or programs use pairs of 2-D images as inputs and generate reconstructed 3-D imagery by locating the matching points. This paper introduces a method to the development of an algorithm of intelligent 3-D view reconstruction using the binocular vision for the robotic applications.



      Misbah Naureen BScN , Sana Majeed RN RM Post RN BScN MA English MPH, Sumaira Naz BScN MPH

Abstract: Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding breast cancer among women living in Taxila/Wah Cantt. Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on 200 randomly selected women using a self-administered, structured questionnaire.



      M Taufik Siregar, M.Nadjib Dahlan Lubis, Delyuzar, Joko S.Lukito, Soekimin

Abstract: Prostate cancer is currently the fifth leading cause of death in men. Now immunotherapy is used as a new paradigm of prostate treatment, where the therapeutic response is aimed at the role of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs). Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene fusion has found in several types of malignancies has been clinically proven to demonstrate an effective therapeutic target response for patients with positive ALK. Currently, combination therapy continues to be developed, especially in cases of recurrence and metastasis, so it is necessary to research on prostate adenocarcinoma.



      V. R. Vanitha

Abstract: We present an analytic and asymptotic solution of an unsteady laminar boundary layer of micropolar fluid flow past a moving wedge. Similarity transformations reduce the number of independent variables of partial differential equations in the governing system to a coupled system of ordinary differential equations. An exact solution obtained for particular values of parameters are extended to obtain an analytical solution for more general values of the parameters involved. Analytical results are consistent with the numerical results obtained by employing implicit finite difference method. The variations with position, material parameter and time, shown by Velocity, shear stress and gyration profiles obtained from both the solutions are analyzed.



      Guesh Tesfamariam Tsehayu, Weldeslasie Teklencheal Berhe

Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of tax incentive for domestic investment from 1982 to 2017 using quantitative method, descriptive design and secondary data. The ARDL (Autoregressive distribution lag) approach with ordinary least squares (OLS) for co integration and error correction model was employed to investigate the long-run and the short-run relationship between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables.



      Gebrecherkos Asgele Bahta, Weldeslasie Teklencheal Berhe

Abstract: Energy consumption of rural households’ depends on traditional energy sources including wood, crop residue, coal, and animal dung, which inefficient and largely attributed to air pollution and deforestation problems. To this end adoption of improved cook stove has anticipated to reduce these problems. So, the prime objective of the study was to investigate the determinants of improved cook stove adoption in Case of Assosa District, Benishngul Gumuz Reginal State, Ethiopia in the year 2018.



      Choksi Khushali K, Rathi Ambika L, Gheewala Trushna V, Patel Shivani M

Abstract: Shoulder pain is common in general population with various pathologies. Since most of patients have their dominant arm as affected arm, activities of daily living are grossly affected. There are various scales and test used for measuring functionality level of patients. However most of these scales are self reported measures. The Timed functional arm and shoulder test (TFAST) is quick, easy and feasible in measuring different constructs of functional performance that are normally involved in upper extremity impairments.



      Shiv Kumar Dube and Nand Kishore Sandle

Abstract: This paper covers the extensive review of the work done on the catalytic oxidation characteristics of tin-antimony oxides which are excellent oxidative de-hydrogenating catalysts as Part-I, which is covering the work done till the year 1980 and Part-II would cover the work reported from the year1980 and onwards. The reported work on catalytic oxidation activity of catalysts has been discussed in the light of studies related to surface area, Temperature Programmed Desorption (T.P.D.), surface acidity, x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer effect keeping basic reaction of oxidation of methyl alcohol in focus.



      Sharmila Karunarathna, Sudarshana Somasiri, Ranjith Mahanama

Abstract: Rice is the staple food of most Asian countries with fulfilling the daily nutritional requirements of humans. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the levels of concentration of 23 macro and micro elements in 30 selected rice varieties in Sri Lanka for development of minerals profiles including heavy metals. In general, the mean concentration pattern of elements in rice samples was decreased as, P > K > Mg > Ca > Zn >Mn> Fe > Na > B > Al > Cu > Ba > Mo > Cr > Co > Ni > Hg > As. The mean concentration of Sb, Be, Se, Cd, and Pb in rice were lower than the limit of quantification which was 0.05 mg/kg for each element. Mean concentration of Hg in Suduheenati was same as the maximum permissible limit given by WHO/ FAO guideline. Moreover, the results of the present study revealed traditional and pigmented rice varieties in Sri Lanka to be a potential source of valuable minerals together with balanced level of other nutrients than branded and non- pigmented rice varieties.



      Mulenga Collins, Zhao Youcai

Abstract: Kitwe stream is the recipient of the effluents from the industrial Plants and flows into the Kafue River, an extremely important river to the Zambian economy. Samples were taken from the stream at 5 different sites. The stream was studied in an effort to determine by chemical means the water quality at various sites and hence the pollution levels of the stream. The water were analyzed for pH, total dissolved solids and total hardness. The results obtained revealed that the values for pH, total dissolved solids and total hardness were outside the recommended limits of WHO water quality standards. It was therefore, concluded at 5% level of significance that the effluents from industrial Plants have an effect on the pollution levels of the stream.



      Achuenu, Ache Stella; Harir Adamu Isa, and Aleem, K. F.

Abstract: Succession and Invasion is fundamental of increase in land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the global environment. Despite its global importance, decisions on land use management have considered less attention to the impact of succession and invasion in LULC changes. This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of succession and invasion on LULC change in Dadin Kowa, Jos, Nigeria from 1962-2016 Aerial photographs of the study area (1962 (1: 9,000), 1971(1: 10,000), 1991(1: 6,000), were processed using photogrammetry technique, and the 0.6m resolution Quick Bird satellites imagery for the year 2015 and 2016 were processed using Remote Sensing technique and Geographical Information System techniques was used for the analyses.

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