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IJSRP, Volume 4, Issue 5, May 2014 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
May 2014 publication has started and publication will continue till 16th May 2014.
Authors who paid publication fee after 4th May, their paper will publish in May edition latest by 16th May.
All the papers will be listed in OARD latest by 30th May.
Online print version will be released latest by 30th May 2014.

Indexing and Correction:
Indexing will start after 16th May and minor corrections are accepted till 18th May 2014.
If minor correction required, send email to editor@ijsrp.org and ask for formatted (.doc/docx) paper.

   Advanced Search [OARD]   

      Bhavanam Srinivas Reddy , Dr.J.N.Rao , Dr.B.V.Subrahmanyam

Abstract: Let the wastes of “the sick” not contaminated the lives of “the healthy” “Medical waste disposal in a mess” “The problem with bio medical waste”. Such headlines screaming out of the national dailies regularly must have caugh your attention lately. “Prevention is better than cure”.



      Nishu Singh and Dr. B. N. Singh

Abstract: Training and Development is a continuous process for improving the caliber and competence of the employees to meet the current and future performances. Training in addition to imparting requisite skills to all levels of employees, executives and managers also aims at changing the behavioral patterns of the employees in a direction which is congenial to achieve the organizational effectiveness, sustainability and growth. In this era of fast changing economic scenario and throat- cutting competitions, it is not enough for any organization just to have solid financial foundations, state of the art technology, automated systems, since the cutting edge of competitive survival is now the quality of the human resources which decides that which organization would ultimately survive in the long run.



      M.K.D.Padmasiri

Abstract: Before two years ago our Sri Lankan peoples main topic was war heroes but today no one talking about them much more. That was the main reason to discuss about this forgotten war heroes. There are so many war heroes protection organizations in Sri Lanka. The sample compromised with the disabled war heroes who have not disable early that is the problem identified in the sample. Therefore research problem is, (1) Do war heroes suffered with mental problems under three situations as, before join the army, after join the army & after disabled. (2) How the organization counselors dealing with those mental problems.



      IB Udaya, CC Laxmi, AK Kavitha, TN Satyaprabha, TR Raju, Shripad Patil

Abstract: The heat shock response is seen when cells are exposed to extremes of thermal environment, which may be acute or chronic. The heat shock response is featured by increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). One such key stresses is extreme cold environment as seen in Antarctica. The Antarctic continent on the planet Earth is full of environmental challenges. It is considered as natural stress model. The objective of this study was to study the effect of chronic cold environment on HSP levels.



      D. B. Gadkari

Abstract: Since 1993, the vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique has been shown experimental evidences for the total detached growth for InSb/GaSb ingots grown- without seed, without wall contact, without coating and without external pressure. Detached growth and apparition of spontaneous gap performs a trick to the entire ingot by the self-detached growth and self-pressure difference. Among the ingots grown by VDS technique, 80% ingots slide out easily, 15% ingots were entrapped in the conical region of the ampoule, and 5% ingots were attached to the ampoule wall. Three types of detached growths have been investigated. Concepts of meniscus conversion from concave to convex and concave crystal-melt interface shape have been predicted from the strong evidence of experimental analysis. Experimental statistics for the detached growth and its mystery of the four decades is unfolded. The qualitative physical model has been proposed on the basis of experimental statistics as A new crystal growth process.



      Anushiya.K, Pradeepa.D

Abstract: In most of the emerging networks the main problem is based on broadcasting a data to a remote cooperative group in efficient and secure manner. To overcome the limited communication from the group to the sender, the unavailability of fully trusted key generation center and the dynamics of the sender we proposing a hybrid of traditional broadcast encryption and group key agreement. In this system, each member maintains a single public/secret key pair. When seeing the public keys of the members, a remote sender can securely broadcast to any subgroup. Following this model, we introduce a scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. In this, even if non-intended members collude, they cannot extract any useful information from the transmitted messages. After the public group encryption key is extracted, both the computation overhead and the communication cost are independent of the group size. It is very strong security against collusion, constant overhead, and also our protocol is a solution to many applications.



      Jimjel Zalkuwi,Asabe Ibrahim and Hyelkaya Philemon

Abstract: The study examined the cost and return of sheep fattening in Gombi Local Area of Adamawa State, it focus on profitability of the sheep fattening in the study area and factors militating against sheep in the sheep fattening in the area. Data were collected from a random sample of 90 sheep fatteners by means of snow ball sampling technique to which questionnaires were administered. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the constraint associated with sheep fattening and Gross Margin was used to determine the profitability of sheep fattening . The major problems facing the farmers include high cost of feeds, inadequate credit facilities, and high cost of medication. A policy and research emphasis should be geared toward feeds production at affordable price to the fatteners and fatteners should be educated on how to formulate local feeds to reduce cost and access to feeds for better efficiency



      Nidhi Kotwal, Nilofer Khan and Shashi Kaul

Abstract: This review assessed adolescent reproductive health interventions in different developing countries. Twenty one studies were included. The specific objective of these studies was to improve the knowledge on sexual and reproductive health issues among the adolescent girls aged 10-19 years. The review assessed interventions of the school-based and community programmes. Educational material was delivered using lectures, discussions, and demonstration by posters, flip charts, printed material, over-head projectors, black board, booklets, discussion, etc. by community and peer educators. Different SPSS Version and Excel software were used for analysis. Univariate, multivariate analysis, Paired t test and Chi-square test were applied. Results showed that the knowledge of girls regarding health aspects improved significantly after intervention. There was a considerable increase in the awareness levels of girls with regard to knowledge of health problems, environmental health, nutritional awareness and reproductive and child health. Thus informative and educable interventions seem to have a positive effect on awareness levels which would eventually encourage expansion of knowledge and positive health habits. The article makes no attempt to systematically review all the relevant literature.



      Dr. Kakoli Saha

Abstract: Digital surface Models (DSMs) contain information about topographic surfaces and also about other objects higher than the surrounding topographic surface such as buildings, trees etc. therefore, they are ideal for analyzing urban landscape. In this research DSMs of Bhopal city are made from Cartosat 1 stereo data. Three DSMs are made using three different techniques such as adaptive ATE, traditional ATE available through Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and automated terrain extraction available through Orthoengine. The paper compares the steps of DSM extraction and concluded that process of DSM generation comprised of image orientation and image matching. The output DSMs are compared in context of identifying urban features. It was found that DSM generated through traditional ATE and Orthoengine are more reliable compared to DSM generated through adaptive ATE. This is because; object filter within adaptive ATE modifies the elevation value resulting error in object heights.



      QSAIB Said, IKBAL Fatima Ez-zohra, FAIZE Mohamed, KOUSSA Tayeb

Abstract: The quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds and of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) amounts in the latent buds of the vine (Vitis vinifiera. L) showed seasonal variations. These compounds change also as function of the vine development cycle. The total amounts of phenolic compounds are strongly accumulated in the buds in beginning of dormancy phase in mid-August. Nevertheless, the ending of dormancy phase in mid-November in the buds is associated with increasing of the hydrogen peroxide yield and a considerable drop in the content of the total amount of phenolic compounds. These variations appear to be strictly related to the climatic conditions. This is particularly visible in ending of dormancy phase. This is coinciding with the cold period where the temperature is below 10 ° C for at least 7 consecutive days.



      Cheng-Tao Yu, Cheng-Min Chao, Bor-Wen Cheng

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to examine the casual model and explain the relationship of opportunism, conflict, trust, commitment, satisfaction, and loyalty between hospitals and their suppliers. A survey is conducted of local community hospitals, regional hospitals and medical centers in Taiwan. Primary data is gathered using a questionnaire; this study investigates hospitals procurement staffs that are responsible for selecting medical device suppliers. The sample consists of 481 valid responses for applying structural equation modeling (SEM) in this research. The study confirms almost all hypothesized associations between the constructs examined, indicating that the supplier’s opportunistic behavior reduces trust and generates conflict. According to the significant mediation effect, showed that commitment plays a mediated role between trust and satisfaction, and satisfaction is a mediated factor to loyalty. Thereby displaying trust in addition to being an important factor in the success of supply chain management, but also an important factor in the success of alliances.



      Dr. Uday Bhanu Kundu

Abstract: Yoga, an ancient culture of Indian heritage, regular practice leads to ideal physical, mental, intellectual, and spiritual health. Asana and Pranayama are the yogic practices. These have a number of beneficial physiological effects on various systems in our body. The present work was taken up as data reported on the effect of Asanas and Pranayama on weight of males school going children. To know whether there is any change in weight in the subjects practicing Asanas, Pranayama & combination of Asana Pranayama and with that of subjects not practicing any type of yoga. 120 male student volunteers from Muni International School, A-2/16-18, Mohan Garden, Uttam Nagar New Delhi-110059, India, of age between 8 to 10 years were selected. Subjects were equally assigned to the four groups by using random sampling procedure i.e. three experimental groups and one control group.



      Shabaq Muhamad Nafea Al-Hawezy

Abstract: Liquid fertilizers derived from seaweeds are found to be superior to chemical fertilizers due to high level of organic matter, micro and macro elements, vitamins and fatty acids and also rich in growth regulators. Loquat seedlings Eriobotrya japonica grow slowly under nursery conditions, usually stay for a long time until a diameter up to appropriate size for budding and thus reach the ready size for the sale, this investigation aimed to improve the vegetative growth of the seedlings by studying the effectiveness of concentration and method of application of seaweed concentrate SWC Kelpak consists of natural plant hormones such as auxins (10.7 mg.l-1) and cytokinins (0.03mg.l-1) which is produced from Ecklonia maxima, which stimulate growth, on loquat transplants grown at the lathhouse of Agriculture Research Centre, Ainkawa, Erbil, Iraq, during April to August 2010, as soil and foliar application in the following concentrations ( 0, 1:200, 1:250, 1:300), and the overlap between concentration and method of application to improve the vegetative growth of the seedlings, each treatment was repeated three times through the growing season the interval date between them were 20 days. For the control treatment, pure water was used, Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D) as a factorial experiment design with three replicates.



      Phuc Nhan Minh

Abstract: Duplicate bug report describes problems for which there is already a report in a bug repository. For many open source projects, the number of duplicate reports represents a significant percentage of the repository, so automatic identification of duplicate reports are very important and need let’s avoid wasting time a triager spends in searching for duplicate bug reports of any incoming report. In this paper we want to present a novel approach which it can help better of duplicate bug report identification. The proposed approach has two novel features: firstly, use n-gram features for the task of duplicate bug report detection. Secondly, apply cluster shrinkage technique to improve the detection performance. We tested our approach on three popular open source projects: Apache, Argo UML, and SVN. We have also conducted empirical studies. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the detection performance compared with previous methods.



      Robby Kayame, Ridwan Thaha

Abstract: The HIV epidemic in Papua has widespread throughout the population (generalized epidemic) and this province is the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia. The magnitude of this problem has grown to become an issue of omission and extinction of native Papuans. This study was conducted using a mixed qualitative and quantitative namely Grounded Theory and Experimental.



      Chhibber S., Sharma N.

Abstract: Azadirachta indica is a fast growing, evergreen tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. Neem is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. It is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications, especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for mankind. It has been used in different medicinal systems: Ayurveda, unani, homeopathic medicine, therefore considered as cynosure of modern medicine. Neem has been used as the traditional medicine since a long time. The main focus of research on Neem has been on the insecticidal properties but in recent years investigations have expanded to the medicinal utilizations as well. A large number of studies have been published on the medicinal properties of Neem and Neem extracts, covering a wide range of indications and ailments. The present paper reviews the medicinal and therapeutical aspects of Neem.



      Pratibha J. Mishra

Abstract: From the viewpoint of Anekanta the permanent is real, but so is the impermanent or the changeable. Being can be explained in terms of the permanent for it is unchangeable. One of the intrinsic parts of the unchangeable is change, for change and changelessness are not two different things. Both co-exist. Anekanta has two basic viewpoints: absolute and non-absolute or relative. For determining the substance one should use the absolute viewpoint; for determining the relations one should use the non-absolute viewpoint.



      Dr. Naveed Shibli

Abstract: How social strengths of human beings in case of an available extended family, the Jews could help to understand the probability of self preservation or human survival as a result of group preservation during evolution process because of the availability of modern genealogy and other sufficient scientific studies those support the presence of Jews on planet earth as an ancient but intact social group leading to the assumption that group strengths do possess the potential and probability to be studied as a contributor into self preservation in case of human beings?



      Yeshiwas Degu Belay

Abstract: Lebanon is one of the most popular destinations to Ethiopian Migrant Workers. It has ratified major international human rights and labor standards. Nevertheless, quite a number of migrant workers, migrant domestic workers in particular, face impediments to the full enjoyment of their rights. They have no legal security of employment under the Lebanese labor law. This article analyzes whether Lebanon has the obligation (both negative and positive) to comply with the responsibility to respect, protect and fulfill the rights of Ethiopian Migrant Domestic Workers in its territory even though the State has not yet ratified any convention which distinctively protects migrant workers. The article aims to uphold the benefits of migration to economic growth and development in both the origin and destination countries enhanced through safeguarding the rights of migrant workers by the States involved. To this end, International Human rights and Labor Conventions ratified by Lebanon are analyzed in detail.



      Mansi K. Ajudia, Prof. Dr. Mahesh T. Kolte, Mr. Prasanta Sarkar

Abstract: This paper is based on Electronic Control Unit (ECU) validation process for Input (crank signal) and Output Drivers (injector and ignition coil signals) characteristics. Because of the code flashed on ECU using IDE for particular microcontroller that controls the injector driver and ignition driver pulses respectively. Based on the given PWM Input signal(crank signal) it will give injector and ignition pulses , which is used to obtain ECUs best result using generated and flashed code on microcontroller on virtual environment setup. Hardware-in-loop setup is act as a virtual engine setup, which gives the input sensor signals to ECU for their best performance under test on bench or in lab testing.



      Pushpa Deore, S. Samantaray, S. Maiti

Abstract: Optimization of DNA isolation protocol for genetic characterization of any medicinal plant is the necessary and primary step. Plant leaves of medicinal plants are rich in secondary metabolites, polysaccharides and polyphenols that are problematic during isolation of genomic DNA. Besides, succulent plants freezed under liquid nitrogen turn to stonelike tissues that are difficult to grind. Flowers were not considered as a source of genomic DNA as the case of young leaves, this might be due to the seasonal nature and short half-life feature. Several protocols described for plant DNA isolation from Aloe barbadensis Miller using leaf, found difficult and tedious. This plant contains exceptionally high amount of secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation.



      Karandikar MS, Prasad NB, Asit Kumar

Abstract: Evaluation of cardiopulmonary efficiency of medical students. Methods: The study was conducted on 200 MBBS students in the age group of 18-24 years, of the D.Y.Patil Medical College, Pune. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured. The fitness level of an individual was found out by performing breath holding test, 40mm endurance test, maximum aerobic power and physical fitness index. Result: Results of this study indicate that these medical students have the minimum physical fitness to carry out their day to day activities.



      Rohan Kumar Gupta

Abstract: At the time of power swing the measured impedance lies inside the relay operating region. There is undesired tripping of Distance relay during power swing without having any fault. So relay must be blocked & must trip after a fault occur during power swing. This paper presents new technique to detect fault during power swing. In the proposed technique process starts by simulating the double transmission line with one line series compensated. When we connect a fixed capacitor in one transmission line, fault detection become more difficult. The detection of symmetrical fault during swing is more difficult. So the proposed technique can easily detect any fault during swing with series compensated line. Sampled data of current and voltage passes through wavelet transform. It decomposes it into different levels. Then we calculate total energy of some selective levels of current and voltage. A double circuit line model is simulated in EMTDC/PSCAD.



      Usha, Dr.Thukaram M, Dr.Mohandas Chadaga, Dr. Naveenchandra B

Abstract: Knowledge of both land-use and land cover is important for socio-economic planning of a region. While the land use relates to human activities like residential, institutional, commercial and recreational etc., the land cover term relates to the various types of features present on the surface of the earth (Lillesand and Keifer, 2000). The information gained like land-use/land-cover permits a better understanding of the land utilization aspects on cropping patterns, fallow lands, forest, wastelands and surface water bodies, which is essential for developmental planning.



      Gururaja N, Dr.Brahamananda

Abstract: In wireless sensor Networks security is one of the important problems we are facing. To provide redundancy management for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) utilizing multipath routing to answer user queries in the presence of unreliable and malicious nodes. In this paper use a Multipath Routing, it is the routing technique of using multiple alternative paths through the network. The objective of redundancy management of multipath routing minimizes the energy loss and gain in reliability, timeliness and security to maximize the system lifetime. Here a voting based intrusion detection algorithm used to detect and evict malicious nodes. We plan to explore more extensive malicious attacks for packet dropping and bad mouthing attacks with implications to energy reliability and security, and investigate.



      A. E. Gobo, Etiga, G.E and Abam, T.K.S

Abstract: Flow reduction has been identified as the major predisposing factor that promotes the exuberation of most aquatic macrophytes in open channels. This study , therefore examines various flow variables such as Velocity (v), Cross Sectional Area (CSA), Discharge (Q) as well as Depth (D) from which a data base is generated. The least square multiple regression approach was adopted (to design a logistic flow model) to predict the spread of water hyacinth in Kolo creek in the Niger Delta. The flow variables obtained are used against percentage macrophyte area covered.



      Rayzah Teodoro de Oliveira, Jair Marques Junior**, Diego Vinicius do Nascimento, Ricardo Stefani

Abstract: A phytochemical screening of commercial samples of roasted coffee, soluble coffee and yerba maté prepared as tereré and chimarrão consumed in South America was evaluated. All samples were subjected to a qualitative assay for phytochemical screening in order to detect classes of phenolic compounds, as well as FT-IR analysis of the dried crude extracts, Antioxidant potential was conducted with DPPH assay. The results were similar to each sort of samples according to the presence of phenolic compounds classes, meanwhile the antioxidant potential percentage were varied.



      Deepika.T.P., Bhagya.P

Abstract: In the present trend, CAN buses are implemented using software with the host computer monitoring the CAN as slave. Cause of which leads to bad reliability and real time performance. According to CAN specification version 2.0 of BOSCH gmbh, by downloading the IPcore to XILINXs Spartan 6 FPGA, hardware implementation of customized Dual redundancy CAN bus Controller is put forward in this Paper. It is verified that proposed design can meet the required real-time performance and reliability.



      S. Ananthalakshmi, R. Kavitha, A. Kiruthika, S. Kalaivani

Abstract: Tosyl esters of Indole acetic acid and Naphthalene acetic acid were prepared by treating the acids with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in the presence of a strong base triethylamine. The synthesized compounds were identified by TLC technique. IR and 1H-NMR spectral measurements were carried out to characterize and elucidate the structure of the synthesized compounds. Anti microbial activity on the synthesized compounds were studied by Agar well diffusion method. The result shows that the Tosyl esters are potentially active against Bacterial and Fungal strains.



      Safinaz.S.

Abstract: Image scaling is the process of resizing a digital image, wherein an image is converted from one resolution/dimension to another resolution/dimension without losing the visual content. It has many terminologies in literature such as Image Interpolation, image re-sampling, digital zooming, image magnification or enhancement, etc [1] [2]. Image interpolation algorithms can be grouped in two categories, non-adaptive and adaptive [3] [4]. Interpolating from lower to higher resolution it is termed as up-scaling / up-sampling and from higher to lower resolution it is termed as down-scaling / down-sampling. In this article we propose a non-adaptive image interpolation algorithm to scale images for any given scaling ratio with an enhancement scheme to ensure a better image quality metric (PSNR in dB) of the scaled image.



      Shalabh Tewari , Rohan Joshi

Abstract: Recommendation systems are important business applications with significant economic impact. In recent years, a large number of algorithms have been proposed for recommendation systems. We evaluate a wide range of recommendation algorithms. These algorithms include the popular user-based, simple search, collaborative filtering and item-based filtering algorithms. We have also devised a method to form clusters through split inversions.



      Malika Sharma, Dr. Lalit Sharma

Abstract: The present study aimed to construct a Psychic Energy Scale by computing Exploratory Factor Analysis to validate the Psychic Energy Scale, before administering the EFA, the data was analysed for its sampling adequacy. The factor analysis was employed separately on each sub scale. Initially, seven items measure was administered to 120 Indian artistic gymnasts from different Gymnastics Centre of Allahabad, Hyderabad and Delhi. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model that explained 57.98% of the variance. In the next stage five items measure was administered to 65 Indian Gymnasts from Bhoir’s Gymkhana, Dombivali, Mumbai, the result supported by EFA as one factor model including four statements that explained 47.39% of variance.



      Tanay Parekh, Divyam Joshi, Niket Vasavada, Vishal Fegade

Abstract: Product design for remanufacturing is a combination of designing processes whereby an item is designed to facilitate remanufacture. Design for remanufacturing is guided by an assessment of product or component value over time. This value may vary depending on the market and market demand and supply, legislation and technological improvements. Obviously the goal of design for remanufacturing is to improve manufacturability. Through this project we aim to study the various key parameters which needs to be considered for optimum designing of a new product or an existing product from the view of remanufacturing. Technology and Economic model will are developed using these key parameters for the selective components and they are employed for coordination and testing via simulation, finally with the solution of the updated parameters design of upadation can be accomplished.



      Prof. Naveen Kumar, Sheetal Angral, Rohan Sharma

Abstract: In today enterprise environment, Security is a big issue for everybody. Methods such as cryptography, VPN, etc have been developed to secure the network channel and have a complete privacy over the Internet, among them the use of, encryption, firewalls, and virtual private networks is also very common. To this era of technology Intrusion detection has come up with new expectations. Intrusion detection system also commonly called as IDS provides a complete protection to the system from attack, compromise, and misuse. It is also most commonly used for monitoring network activities. For understanding and improving the performance and security of our cyber infrastructure, Network traffic monitoring is considered as an essential function.



      Nancy Muthoni and Walter Okibo

Abstract: This study sought to investigate the use of Internet based systems to monitor the stock of antiretroviral drugs in level4 public hospitals. The said Internet based systems is currently geared towards keeping medical records and resupply decisions. In order to come up with this investigation this study was carried out using the following objectives. First was to investigate how the use of internet based systems can monitor stock levels of antiretroviral drugs. Secondly was to determine how obsolescence of antiretroviral drugs can be controlled using Internet based systems. Thirdly was to examine how Internet based systems can influence record keeping of antiretroviral drugs.



      Sunita S Biswal, Krishna Kalpita, Dipak R. Swain

Abstract: Principal Component analysis (PCA) is one of the statistical methods employed in image compression. Presented paper deals with four different types of PCA algorithms those are 2D-PCA, 3D-PCA, 2D -Kernel PCA (2D-KPCA) and 3D-KPCA. A comparative study is made for all four types of PCA based on their PSNR values. These algorithms are also tested on several standard test images. It has been found that the quality of reconstructed image of 3DKPCA is better than other types of PCA based image compression.



      Prasad Bhukya

Abstract: India has long been recognized as a nation well endowed in natural mineral resources. India is ranked 4th amongst the mineral producer countries, behind China, United States and Russia, on the basis of volume of production. It is an extremely important sector and contributes significantly to our Gross Domestic Product. As our country India rather whole world is moving towards track of energy efficiency, one should have idea of how energy efficiency in every electrical system starting from power generation, power transmission, power distribution to the energy consumer load centre’s can be achieved. It is very essential and pertinent not only for country’s economic development but also for achieving Sustainable environment. In this paper concept of preliminary electrical energy audit, methodology of audit, results and findings of preliminary audit of mineral based industry has been discussed.



      Sameer Gull Alie, Ms.Tarana Afrin Chandel, Jehangir Rashid dar

Abstract: The demand for low power circuit design has increased tremendously due to explosive growth of battery operated portable devices like Microcontroller.Microcontroller uses register blocks that are inturn consists of flip flops. The mandate to reduce system power consumption and design energy-efficient ICs has led to the increasing use of low-power IC design techniques that prolong the battery life. In this paper, a novel highly efficient power and delay optimized True Single Phase clocked (TPSC) edge triggered flip-flop has been proposed. The proposed circuit uses lesser number of transistors than the conventional transmission gate D flip-flop that reduce the overall power and delay.The proposed design is also free from both glitch and charge sharing problems making it suitable for high speed and low power applications.



      Margaret Oloko , Enos Bernabas Anene, Patrick Gitonga Kiara, Irene Kathambi, Japhet Mutulu

Abstract: The study was done to explore and highlight the marketing strategies that Safaricom Ltd has utilized to spur its remarkable growth in terms of the market share as well as its unprecedented strong super profit within the telecommunication industry both in Kenya and the entire East Africa region. The objective of the study was to majorly identify the marketing strategies for safaricom’s growing market share and profitability. The study basically used a textual approach in collecting and analyzing data which was presented in content and thematic analysis from secondary data. The scope of the study was the Safaricom limited company. The study found various marketing mix and techniques were employed that include: auditory marketing, new product creation, animation, pricing, place, content localization, brand alliances, use of celebrities and constant promotions. The study indicates that these techniques were found to enhance the uptake of safaricom products hence, resulting to increased revenue leading to profitability.



      Kelvin C. ABRAHAM

Abstract: Tetryonics is a new geometric theory of mass-ENERGY-Matter and the forces of motion, stemming from a geometric re-interpretation of what squared numbers are in physics and its application to quantized angular momentum (QAM). It can now be shown through geometry that the QAM of Planck’s constant is in fact the result of its quantized equilateral ‘triangular’ geometry (and not a vector rotation about a point as has been historically assumed to date).



      Vikash Kumar Saw, Kumaran U

Abstract: Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs.



      Hnin Pwint Han, Hla Myo Tun

Abstract: This system proposes the design and construction of an advanced car security system using GSM. It uses the GSM mobile communication networks to transmit alarm signal and control instruction. The control and communication between the user and the proposed system are achieved through a short message services (SMS) protocol available in the mobile phone. If the car door is illegally opened or the car is vibrated, an alarm will be activated and it send SMS message to the owner’s mobile phone immediately and automatically. The user could easily protect and control their car anywhere at any time. The proposed system consists both hardware and software parts. The hardware components include vibration sensors, a PIC microcontroller, a GSM modem, LCD and buzzer. The software part includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroC programming language is used for this control system. The control system is based on the PIC16F877A microcontroller and AT COMMAND.



      Rami Habis Alrawashdeh, Ohood Majed Abuarid

Abstract: Intrinsic motivation is an energizing of behavior that comes from within an individual, out of will and interest for the activity at hand. No external rewards are required to incite the intrinsically motivated person into action. The reward is the behavior itself. Logically, this seems like an ideal, for people to act as “origins” of their behavior rather than “pawns” (deCharms, 1968). However, it is certainly not the case that every real world behavior stems from an intrinsic energy.



      Sudhamsetti.Naveen M.B.A, N.E.T , M.VenkataramanaM.B.A,M.com

Abstract: Customer relationship management is the Process of acquiring customers by understanding their Requirements, retaining customers by fulfilling their requirements more than expectation and attracting new customer specific strategic marketing approaches. The customer relationship management (CRM) recognizes the long-run value of po¬tential customers. It increased revenues, profits, and shareholder value is the result of marketing activities directed towards developing, maintaining, and enhancing successful com¬pany–customer relationships. This paper provides an extensive review of the literature regarding on CRM principles. This review aims to increase the understanding of the different perspectives and the various types and levels of CRM principles. And also this paper aims to explore the life cycle of customer relationship management, and various benefits of customer relationship management. CRM principles provide a strategic and tactical focus for identifying and realizing sources of value for the customer and the firm and can guide organizational process.



      Chandra Sabnani, Madhuwanti Latkar, Utpal Sharma

Abstract: With urban population in India growing rapidly, a non-elitist section is created in each growing city. This Section of Society is referred to as the Urban Poor, characterized by an economy which is "below subsistence level", poor Quality of Life, over burdened and/or nonexistent facilities, amenities and basic services. Their "informal" status excludes them from the benefits accrued by mainstream "legal" citizens. They occupy slums within a city, live in shanties and squatter settlements, and work on a daily-wage-basis. Their numbers follow a multiplier growth pattern. They encroach upon prime urban land, live in non habitable dwellings.



      Amirthaganesh.S

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design a Wireless USB flash drive in which the USB flash drive can be used without connecting using the dongle. This makes the data transfer using USB more sophisticated. It also provides speed upto 1 Mbps



      Prof.Vishwanath K. Kulloli, Prof.Vishal V. Saidpatil

Abstract: The above mentioned description deals with a design and development of a new novel bite force recorder using solid state components is clearly explained. This state of the art authenticated device can be used to manipulate the complex function of human bite force, which is the net resultant combination of functional response of various craniomandibular structures consisting of interrelated components, like the muscles of mastication, joints, teeth and the neuromuscular system. The consistency and accuracy of the bite force recorder was reaffirmed by doing a detailed laboratory calibration and clinical testing on 20 adult subjects.



      Pawan Bharadwaj, Divya. S

Abstract: Recent developments in technology have made possible the widespread deployment of small, low power and dense wireless networks, known as wireless sensor networks which collect and disseminate environmental data. In such networks communications can be easily monitored and hence data transmission and reception between the nodes must be encrypted using a secret key. Furthermore, the distribution of secret key used in encryption of data in a very large network is a cause for the reduced efficiency of the network. The scheme of using quantum teleportation as a mechanism to distribute quantum data over a sensor network offers huge advantage over traditional methods. In this paper an EPR-Pair scheme is implemented in terms of quantum gates to achieve higher degree of immunity from eavesdropping of malicious nodes.



      S.R.Krishnarajah

Abstract: Endemic arboreal snail Acavus haemastoma in nature goes for encrusted plant materials such as lichens and mosses even soft tissues of the plants itself. However, it prefers any succulent plant materials as its alternative food indicating that raising them in the laboratory culture for study purposes and conservation practices.



      Md. Sayedur Rahman, Md. Tanziul Islam, Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the charismatic leadership quality of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. This study was carried out by descriptive qualitative research techniques. The result revealed that Shiekh Mujib was stimulated people by his charismatic leadership capability and huge political knowledge. From his early life he was demonstrated two key leadership qualities which make him unquestionable leader of the Bangladesh. One key quality was proactive social consciousness and paramount dedication for politics. Mujib have so many leadership skills that recognized him as a leader of general people. His aspiration and sacrifice for nation made him an icon of the country. Therefore, it can be concluded that his leadership trait made himself as a father of the nation.



      Nnedinma Umeokafor, Boniface Umeadi, Keith Jones, Ogechukwu Igwegbe

Abstract: The amelioration of the deplorable state of occupational safety and health (OSH) in Nigeria should flow from upstream to downstream. This short communication reports on some preliminary results of an ongoing research project in which workplace observations and interviews were conducted on 10 staff out of 48 staff of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity Inspectorate Division in Nigeria, the custodian of OSH. Results show that they fail to comply with some OSH regulations that they should enforce, thus establishing the upstream decay of enforcement and compliance with OSH regulations in Nigeria.



      Pushpa Singh, Manas K Dhal and S. K. Sagar

Abstract: The results on the biochemical constituents of rose inflorescence revealed that the levels of lipid, carbohydrate, nitrogen and protein were significantly lower (P<0.05) in infested parts when aphid population were maximum as compared to uninfested ones in most of the cases.The rose plants were mainly infested with two aphid species viz., Macrosiphumrosae (Linnaeus) and Macrosiphumrosaeiformis (Das). The infestation of insect pests caused considerable damage to the individualparts (leaf, stem and inflorescence) of the rose plants and significantly reduced the nutritional constituents at different growth stages. Macrosiphumrosae was found to be the most active pest of rose. These aphids have appeared in the fields especially with the onset of flowering. The loss in biochemical nutritives of plant foliage due to aphid infestation would degrade the quality of the products mainly made from the inflorescence of rose plants. This study reports results obtained from different localities, which may have almost similar ecological and environmental conditions.



      Ravi Shankar, John D Raj

Abstract: This study was conducted for the Modeling of Degree of Thermal Oxidation of Blended Refined Edible Oil (80% sunflower and 20% Soya bean Oil) in respect to Induction Temperature at various different fixed Induction Times. In this, different models have been developed for Peroxide Value of edible oil for different fixed time (0-120) minutes, within the Temperature range of 120 – 200 0C with interval of 5 0C and graphs (with R2) have been plotted using Microsoft EXCEL.



      Ruma Saha

Abstract: In this paper a two dimensional non-linear map is taken, whose various dynamic behavior is analyzed. Some useful numerical algorithms to obtain fixed points and bifurcation values of period , . have been discussed. It has shown how the ratio of three successive period doubling bifurcation points ultimately converge to the Feigenbaum constant. This ascertains that the map follows the period doubling route to chaos. The parameter value where chaos starts is verified by lyapunov exponent. Further various fractal dimensions like Correlation dimension, Box-counting and Information dimension have been calculated to verify the geometry of the strange attractor.



      Priya Prathap, Asokan N, Manjula V D

Abstract: Several studies have linked psoriasis with metabolic syndrome (MS), but only a few of them have used population specific criteria for diagnosis of MS. None of the previous studies have explored whether MS is more frequent in psoriasis when compared to another chronic inflammatory disease of skin.



      A. Bharathi, Dr.M.Padmaja

Abstract: Histological studies on the structure of Testes and Vasa deferens and Spermatophores has been clearly explained in a marine water prawn Penaeus indicus in two different stages like mature and fully mature stage . The reproductive system of male has the following reproductive organs such as Testis, Vas deferens and an Ejaculatory duct. A pair of testis looks like lobes and white in colour, vas deferens is divisible into Proximal , Middle and Distal parts. The Proximal vas deferens (PVD) is a thin tube coming out from the posterior part of the testis. The middle vas deferens (MVD) is slightly broad in the anterior part , flattened and folded at its posterior part. Distal vas deferens (DVD) is the small and cylindrical tube. The vas deferens which passes the spermatophores to the ejaculatory duct .The Distal vas deferns is the smallest portion and it was slightly bulged at the base of the ejaculatory duct . The functions of the ejaculatory duct is to release the spermatophores into the thelycum of female reproductive organ.



      Sammy Yaah Baya

Abstract: This paper examines the impact of television viewing in shaping adolescents sexual behaviour. The paper found that sexual content in the television has a ‘profound real-life effect’. This is because Sexual initiation is an important social and health issue and that portrayals of sex on entertainment Television (TV) in Kenya may contribute to precocious adolescent sex.Television viewing can either reinforce norms or offer insights into alternative ways of thinking. The paper sought to investigate TV influence on the sexual behaviour of adolescents by addressing the following three fundamental concerns, (1) how television influences sexual behaviour of adolescents,(2) the extent to which TV viewing may determine the sexual behaviour of adolescents, and (3) the potential dangers associated with exposure to sexual content on TV. The paper found that adolescents often seek sexual information from television content rather than their parents or other adults by being attracted to programs with sexual content. The paper concluded by focusing on the urgent need to address television influence on adolescents sexual behaviour by providing them with critical interpretation and communication skills in multimedia environments.



      B. Boadi, K. Preko, L. K. Amekudzi

Abstract: The applicability of magnetic susceptibility measurements was tested to detect soil contamination from a waste site deposit in the topsoil in the vicinity of the Independence Hall, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi. Magnetic susceptibility (volume specific) measurements of the near surface topsoil (~ 15 cm top layer) were taken along four radial profiles from the centre of the 100 m2 deposit at 1 m intervals using the Bartington MS2 (MS2D Field Loop Sensor) magnetic susceptibility system. The results of the measurements showed that the near surface soil around the waste site deposit lies in the region of paramagnetic and (canted) anti- ferromagnetic materials. The average magnetic susceptibility values recorded along profiles taken in the direction of run-off was 35010-5 SI, and this was about 7 times higher than that observed along the other profiles. Atmospheric particulates from vehicular emissions and other contaminants from the waste site infiltrate the soil through the agency of rainfall. This result will be useful for understanding the extent of pollution from waste deposition sites. The continuing use of the area as a waste site deposit should be discouraged since it poses a high pollution threat.



      P.Sudheer, K.R Siva Prasad

Abstract: Voltage control and fast reactive power compensation are two main application area of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), which is a shunt connected voltage source converter (VSC) based FACTs controller using power semiconductor devices (particularly IGBT, GTO etc.).However, the total Statcom circuitry has complex and coupled system dynamics which require advanced controllers to achieve well performance. In our paper, we have represented a sixty pulse VSC for producing higher pulse number by combining a twelve pulse converter with a five level VSI in order to obtain the overall performance of the said VSC in a three phase system.



      K.Kanagavalli, S.T.Tharani

Abstract: With the increasing sites for forums, online reviews and social networking, the current trend is to look up reviews, expert opinions and discussions on the Web, so that the user can make an informed decision. Sentiment analysis, also known as opinion mining is the computational study of opinions, sentiments and emotions expressed in natural language processing and text analysis. A basic task is classifying the polarity of a given text at the document or sentence, whether the expressed opinion in a document or a sentence is positive, negative, or neutral. It can help better understand the behavioral patterns of users in social media for applications. First, the behavior of individuals is collected through their unstructured posts in a forum. Second, they are classified as positive/negative posts and perform the clustering. Third, the cases are encoded in terms of features in some numerical form, requiring a transformation from text to numbers and assign the positive and negative values to each word to classify the word in the document. Data are collected from forums.digitalpoint.com which includes a range of 75 different topic forums.



      Sachin B. Divate, Rahul V.Hinge

Abstract: Phenolic compounds are found in wastewaters of various industries such as petroleum refining, coal conversion, plastics, textiles, iron and steel manufacturing as well as pulp and paper manufacturing. It is very important to remove phenols and aromatic compounds from contaminated water before discharge into any natural water because of their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Conventional processes for removal of phenols from industrial wastewaters including extraction, adsorption on activated carbon, bacterial and chemical oxidation, electrochemical techniques.



      R. Krishnapriya, Dr. M. Padmaja

Abstract: When the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is exposed to organophosphorous pesticides like Quinalphos and Dimethoate, the pesticides react with acetylcholinesterase present in nerve terminals changing it into an unreactive compound. This leads to accumulation of acetylcholinesterase in synaptic terminals which causes many neurological manifestations like irritability, restlessness, muscular twitching, convulsions or may even cause the death of the animal.



      Suzzie Adobea Apenteng

Abstract: Big Data in recent years has become a major topic in the field of Information and Communication Technology. Big Data, which in simple words stands for massive/huge data, unmistakably means big opportunities when utilized in the right ways. Many countries in the developed regions have already begun intensive research on how best they can use Big Data as leverage in growing various sectors of their economy. Whiles most research about big data have been focused on the volume aspect of it, this paper focuses on the value aspect to the developing nations. Countries in the developing regions should not sit by and allow countries in the developed regions to take advantage of Big Data especially in this global economy. Big Data has come to stay hence the need for developing nations to tap into this buzz to bring about massive developments in these regions.



      Dr. M. Noman Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract: This study highlights introduction of domestic and international public offering of sports medicine national medical organizations in China. The articles which implement the Party and the state of health, sports, science and technology policy of principles and policies and double standard, and implementing the theory and practice, universal principle of combining with the increase, reflecting China's sports medicine research and clinical work of the important progress, and promote domestic and international sports medicine academic exchanges, to enhance China’s national constitution and the level of technology to improve services to sport.



      Dr. M. Noman Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract: This study is focused on exploring the causes of making China one of the biggest markets of cosmetic surgery. There are some solid reasons dug out for this immense interest, one is the natural features of the Chinese, with eyes especially, which seem not to be fully opened, need surgery for making their appearance look larger. Benefiting exclusionary social, cosmetic, and company systems from the West (and those who run them), and thereby preventing genuine prospect for individual licensee via medical procedures on a worldwide stage. Suggestions for upcoming study in this area consists of the sectors of healthcare, travel and vacation, epidermis whitening items, and tissue collection as well as an ever growing industry of medical procedures for teens and kids.



      Neha Goyal, Khushboo Gupta, Renu Singla

Abstract: Low power consumption and smaller area are some of the most important criteria for the fabrication of DSP systems and high performance systems. Optimizing the speed and area of the multiplier is a major design issue. However, area and speed are usually conflicting constraints so that improving speed results mostly in larger areas. In our project we try to determine the best solution to this problem by comparing a few multipliers.



      Joginder Singh, Mrs Kestina Rai

Abstract: With the fast readying of latest wireless devices , the last decade has witnessed a growing demand for spectrum. However, the exploit spectrum assignment policy becomes a bottleneck for additional economical spectrum utilization, below that an excellent portion of the authorised spectrum is severely under-utilized. The inefficient usage of the restricted spectrum resources urges the spectrum restrictive bodies to review their policy and begin to hunt for innovative communication technology which will exploit the wireless spectrum in an exceedingly additional intelligent and versatile approach. The construct of psychological feature radio is planned to handle the difficulty of spectrum potency associated has been receiving an increasing attention in recent years, since it equips wireless users the aptitude to optimally adapt their operational parameters per the interactions with the encircling radio atmosphere.



      Deenbandhu Singh, Akhilesh Kumar Yadav, Vivek Kumar

Abstract: Human motion detection and analysis is currently an important area of research, motion analysis help us to solve many problems. An Automated Video Surveillance Model is presented in this paper. The model which I proposed is capable of detecting and monitoring people in both environments Indoor and outdoor. The Model is capable to find out the Suspicious and Non-Suspicious activities. It also detects multiple peoples in video and monitoring their activities. Moving targets are detected and their boundaries extracted, we use star skeletonization technique with the adaptive centroid point to create human skeletons. In this paper we use HMM-based methodology for action recognition.



      Shivangi Saraswat

Abstract: Moodle is a online E-learning management system Which is adopted globally by various colleges, Universities and Organization to enhance online learning [1]. Online learning Management systems offer elementary tools to share course Materials to communicate with students, collect assignments and manage grades. Moodle was designed to support a additional cooperative and participative teaching and learning atmosphere than different learning management systems. Authors aim to Implements the design and development of E-learning LMS based on Moodle which is designed for a category in which there are three courses program. The system is intended to be dependent on the availability of the graduate/postgraduate, administrative and scientist is dependent on Moodle open-source. In this paper authors have mainly focused on Customization and implementation of LMS Moodle.



      Deepali Bhagat, Sushma Bhardwaj, Atul Kumar Sharma, Vinay Chopra, V. D Shivling

Abstract: European red mite is a serious problem of apple in Himachal Pradesh .At present more than 80 % orchards have been found infested with European red mite. It sucks cell sap from leaves which resulted into poor quality of fruits. Present studies were undertaken to see the effect of environmental factors e.g. temperature and relative humidity on the buildup of mite population in the apple trees at RHRS, Mashobra. The predicted optimum temperature and relative humidity was calculated by using Beta model is 21.45oC and <85% respectively.



      Rose E. Ikyereve, Chindo Nwankwo, Abubakar Mohammed

Abstract: The removal efficacy of three synthetic zeolite materials for the selective removal of metal ions from crude oil was investigated. The zeolite materials used for the study include; zeolite A, zeolite Y and zeolite K-L. Nickel, vanadium and sulphur were the target metals due to the problems they pose during the hydroprocessing of crude oil. The result shows that, zeolite A is able to remove all the metal ions considered (nickel, vanadium and sulphur) at concentrations of 0.035ppm, 0.25ppm and 51.13ppm respectively. Zeolite Y and zeolite K-L showed removal of nickel and sulfur, at concentrations of 0.004ppm and 52.58ppm respectively for the Y zeolite and 0.011 and 43.23ppm respectively for the K-L zeolite. The later zeolites were unable to remove vanadium from the crude oil. The study thus showed the selectivity of the synthetic zeolites for the different metal ions.



      Karunaratna A.D.U*., Wickramasinghe S.I, * Mediwaka M.W.M.K. *, Wickramanayaka H.M.K*., Rajapaksha S*, Sumanasekera R.D.N*.

Abstract: Mention the abstract for the article. An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper or patent application.



      B. Srinivas and P.Naga Padma

Abstract: Exo-polysaccharides like dextran produced by Weissella sp. have a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. This biopolymer and its derivatives like iron dextran, clinical dextran are rapidly emerging as a new and industrially important products. Dextran a polymer of glucose is produced using sucrose rich media with nitrogen source. It also requires efficient micronutrients and macronutrients for production. In the present study diverse micronutrients (chlorides) like ferric chloride, cupric chloride, magnesium chloride, manganese chloride, calcium chloride, cobalt chloride, mercuric chloride (sulphates ) like ferrous sulphate, copper sulphate, magnesium sulphate, manganese sulphate, zinc sulphate, calcium sulphate, potassium hydrogen sulphate and macronutrients (phosphate) like dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and zinc phosphate were screened using statistical design like Plackett- Burman.



      Ritu Singh

Abstract: A pot experiment was performed to determine the effect of pendimethalin amended with different fertilizers (NPK and vermicompost) on soil enzyme activities: FDAH (fluorescein diacetate ), dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatise with different concentrations of pendimethalin (500,1000 and 1500gai.).Pots were also filled with recommended rates of NPK and vermicompost under wheat plants. Among the soil enzymes dehydrogenase and FDAH were the least tolerant to the effect of the herbicide, whereas alkaline were the most tolerant one. The high herbicide dose proved deleterious for soil enzymes as compared to other two concentrations. While the use of vermicompost as compared to NPK proved superior in enhancing enzyme activities, which may have exerted a positive effect on wheat yield as compared to herbicide use only.



      Pammi Singh, Mithra Dey and S.N. Ramnujam

Abstract: Anuran tadpoles develop in water and depend on the food available in the system for nourishment and energy necessary for completion of their life cycle. Tadpoles of Leptobrachium smithi were collected from permanent running water systems from Rosekandy Tea estate in Cachar district, Assam. Taxonomic identification of the tadpoles was done by rearing them to adult stage under laboratory condition. Physico-chemical variables of water from where the tadpoles are collected were also analyzed. Tadpoles of different developmental stages 25-27, 28-30 and 31-40 (Gosner,1960) were selected for study. A qualitative analysis of food consumed showed that diet is basically composed of algae and detritus. A total of 30 genera belonging to five classes i.e. Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Desmideaceae were recorded. The percent abundance and percent frequency of occurrences of different food items show that significant difference exists between the three different developmental stages but food items were almost similar in the different stages. Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were important food in all the stages. The diet preference and choice of algae as food indicates that the conservation of habitat in terms of algal diversity is essential for the survival and completion of life cycle of the tadpoles and for successful survival of the anurans.



      Prof. S. P. Godse, Samadhan Nimbhore, Sujit Shitole, Dinesh Katke, Pradeep Kasar

Abstract: Recovering of text from badly degraded document images is a very difficult task due to the very high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a robust document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using inversion gray scale image contrast. The Inversion image contrast is a done by first converting the input image to invert image and then finding the contrast of the inverted image to differentiate text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then converted to grayscale image so as to clearly identify the text stroke from background and foreground pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. Several challenging bad quality document images also showthe superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques.



      A.Pasupathy, S.Nirmala, G.Abirami, A.Satish and R.Paul Milton

Abstract: 1,4-diaminobutane was examined as a corrosion inhibitor for zinc in 0.5N hydrochloric acid by weight loss, gasometry and thermometry methods. Results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the zinc metal surface obeyed Temkin adsorption isotherm.



      Vishal V. Lukhi, Harikrishna B. Jethva

Abstract: The Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) is a network consist of many number of distributed sensor nodes. They are the main entity to be consider. WSN is used to provide many real world solution to certain problems. There are many applications in various fields like home, medical, military, etc. Sensor nodes sense the events for particular area and pass the information to base station from where human can get the data. Sensor nodes of WSN have limited capabilities in terms of battery life as well as data storage. In designing wireless sensor network the main issue is energy dissipation.



      K.Bhuvaneswari and K.Mythili Gnanapriya

Abstract: The basic objective of this paper is to introduce and investigate the properties of Nano generalized closed sets in Nano Topological Spaces which is the extension of Nano closed sets introduced by Lellis Thivagar[2]



      Monica Sehgal

Abstract: As the use of Web is increasing more day by day, the web users get easily lost in the web’s rich hyper structure. The main aim of the owner of the website is to provide the relevant information to the users to fulfill their needs. Web mining technique is used to categorize users and pages by analyzing users behavior, the content of pages and order of URLs accessed. Web Structure Mining plays an important role in this approach. In this paper we discuss and compare the commonly used algorithms i.e. PageRank, Weighted PageRank and HITS.



      Vyshali Rao K P, Adesh N D, A V Srikantan

Abstract: Network security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. This safety plays a vital role in bank transactions where disclosure of any data results in huge loss. In this paper, Various security threats are illustrated using a tree structure being root nodes as the threats and leaf nodes to achieve those threats and probable measures to overcome the same has been described. security of online bank transactions have been improved by increasing the number of bits used in establishing the SSL connection as well as in RSA asymmetric key encryption along with SHA1 used for digital signature to authenticate the client. Analysis and the results obtained will prove the improved security in proposed method.



      Mr.M.Vimalraj, Mr.R.Mageshwaran, Mr.B.Karthikeyan &,Ms.M.Tamilarasi

Abstract: This paper proposes a unique standalone hybrid power generation system, applying advanced power control techniques(APC), fed by four power sources: wind power, solar power, storage battery, and fuel cell, and which is not connected to a commercial power system One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems. This work is a development of an indigenous technology hybrid Solar –Wind and fuel cell Power system that harnesses the renewable energies in Solar- Wind and fuel cell to generate electricity. Here, electric DC energies produced from photovoltaic and wind turbine systems are transported to a DC disconnect energy Mix controller. The controller is bidirectional connected to a DC-AC float charging-inverter system that provides charging current to a heavy duty storage bank of Battery and at the same time produces inverted AC power to AC loads. This paper focuses on the modeling and simulation of solar – photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell and battery hybrid energy systems using MATLAB/simulink.



      Pragya Shukla, Sakshi Mathur

Abstract: A query optimizer is a core component of any Database Management System. Multiple approaches have been suggested which were based on framework of classical query evaluation procedures that heavily dependent on metadata. There are computational environments where metadata acquisition and support is very expensive. In this paper an optimization technique for complex queries using case based reasoning (machine learning technique) in ubiquitous computing environment is deliberated. In this technique a new problem is solved by finding a similar past case, and reusing it in the new problem situation. As CBR is an approach to incremental, sustained learning, since a new experience is retained each time a problem has been solved, making it immediately available for future problems which in return may create a bulky case base. Thus we were proposing a technique of dynamic deletion of irrelevant cases from case base. Through which system can detect the inappropriate cases and replace them with new case in order to maintain size of case base.



      Prakash L. Patel, Nirmal P. Patel, Prakash H. Patel, Anita Gharekhan

Abstract: Correlation analysis is used for the study of chemical parameters of agricultural soil of different villages of Kutch district of Gujarat state in Western India. Our primary focus is to study mung bean crop based on randomly selected 30 medium black soil samples. Under the Soil Health Card Program of Government of Gujarat, soil samples were collected by authorized locally trained farmers and brought for analysis to Soil Test Laboratory, Bhuj. Standard Methods were used for the soil quality analysis. The objective of this work is to study and evaluate relation between soil properties and macro-nutrients (P, K, C and S) by using correlation analysis. Present study concludes that the statistical method ‘correlation analysis’ can provide a scientific basis for controlling and monitoring the agriculture soil fertility management.



      Mr.M.Vimalraj, Mr.R.Arun Prasath ,Mr.B.Alex &,Mr.K.Prathap Kumar

Abstract: In the micro-grid system, it is particularly complicated to maintain the critical load with continuous power supply. The proposed micro-wind energy conversion system with battery energy storage is used to exchange the controllable real and reactive power in the grid and to sustain the power quality norms at the point of common coupling. The generated microwind power can be stored in the batteries at low power demand hours. In this scheme, inverter control is executed with hysteresis current control mode to achieve the faster dynamic switchover for the support of critical load. The combination of battery storage with micro-wind energy generation system (μWEGS), which will synthesize the output waveform by injecting or absorbing reactive power and enable the real power flow required by the load. The system reduces the burden on the conventional source and utilizes μWEGS and battery storage power under critical load constraints. The system provides rapid response to support the critical loads. The scheme can also be operated as a stand-alone system in case of grid failure like a uninterrupted power supply. The system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results are presented.



      M. P. Palaskar

Abstract: While considering the optimization in the geometry of the leaf spring, it can be said that the design of leaf spring is quiet thickness sensitive due to its relative dimensions & the loading direction. Hence stress analysis of a mono leaf spring is done by F.E.M. before and after changing the variation of its thickness along the length. The variation of thickness considered initially is linear. After careful study it was judged that if the thickness is varied parabolically along the length of the leaf spring, better results can be obtained.



      Sulaiman Abd Anter, Abdallah M Abualkishik, Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

Abstract: The leaning systems in Iraqi universities face many challenges of managing the learning efforts such as activities, services, and infrastructures. The universities budgets are restricted which maximize the difficulty of provide efficient learning services. The universities need to manage their learning environment aspects effectively to minimize the learning resources costs and maximize the level of learning environment management. This paper presents proposed E-learning system for Iraqi universities in order to manage the learning environment and reduce the expenses of the learning processes; the quantitative approach using questionnaire used to analyze the current challenges of learning environment; the qualitative approach using interview used to analyze the most suitable E-learning features and characteristics to avoid the current challenges of leaning environment in Iraqi universities.



      Rawaa Mahmoud Hussain

Abstract: Toleration is a universal human value, by which organisms can live side by side, and without it this co-existence becomes impossible. It is very important in all areas of life, especially in religious, political and social fields. In this article, I aim to re-discover theoretical basis of toleration, especially in philosophical field, and re-examine its geo-historical European development.



      Mungai Simon, Dr Willy Muturi

Abstract: The study was to investigate the effect of procurement regulations on the efficiency of procurement food in public secondary schools in Kenya. The quality of foodstuffs characterized procurement of food in this study. The research study aimed to establish the effects of procurement regulations on quality of foodstuffs in public secondary schools in Kenya. From 2006, all public institutions were required to adhere to the Public Procurement and Disposal Regulations which details the procedures to be followed. How this affected the procurement of foodstuffs in schools was not clear and this is what this study sought to find out .The study was conducted through descriptive research design. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample which consisted of a population of public secondary schools.



      R.Nisha and K.N.Madhusoodanan

Abstract: The room temperature AC conductivity σ(ω) of amorphous AsSe samples with various compositions have been measured in the 103 -106 Hz frequency range. The results indicate that ac conductivity is proportional to n with n=0.89±.01 in the 103 –106 Hz frequency range. Consideration of different models for the frequency –dependent conductivity leads to thermally activated hopping as the most likely process.



      Jimjel Zalkuwi, Daniel J. Dzarma, Elias Kwakanapwa

Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze the efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) production in Numan Local Government of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select Ninety seven (97) maize producing farmers for the study. Data for the study were collected using structured questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis was used to study the relationship between inputs and output. The result shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between farm sizes, quality of seed used, fertilizer, plough-cost, labour with maize output in the study area.



      S.Utkarsh, P. Neel, Mayank T Mahajan, P.Jignesh, R. B.Prajapati

Abstract: In this research work of Gas Metal Arc Welding(GMAW) show the effect of Current(A),Voltage(V),Gas Flow rate(L/Min) and Speed(M/Min) on Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of st-37 low alloy steel material, In this Experiment we done Experiment by using L9 orthogonal Array to find out UTS and also perform confirmatory Experiment to find out optimal run set of current, voltage speed and gas flow rate.



      Prof. Dr. Harsha Patadia, Ms. Pramila Ramani

Abstract: This True Experimental study compared academic performance of students in class VIII in initial tryout in one of the English Medium Schools of Vadodara, India among three methods of teaching arithmetic subject viz. (i) Conventional Method (in control group –C), (ii) Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) only (in Experimental Group A - Exp A) and (iii) Computer Assisted Instruction with simultaneous discussion (in Experimental Group B - Exp B). After experimentation in the initial tryout, CAI was modified according to the comments given by the students of the groups (Exp A and Exp B), mathematics teacher and the observations made by the investigators.



      N.V. Ramakanth, K. Anuradha, and P. Naga Padma

Abstract: Diverse pectin rich sources like food dumps, food waste waters, spoiled fruits, vegetables and alkaline soils were screened for alkaline bacterial pectinolytic isolates by enrichment culturing and ruthenium red plate assay. Six different bacterial isolates with higher zones of pectin hydrolysis from the source food waste waters were selected and tested for polygalacturonase production at room temperature and at neutral pH. Two isolates as Bacillus sp 2 and Bacillus sp 3 with higher polygalacturonase activity were studied for their response to alkaline, thermophilic production. Polygalacturonase production was highest for Bacillus sp 3 at an alkaline pH of 10.5, a thermophilic temperature of 60°C, an agitation speed of 200 rpm and an inoculum size of 2%.



      Prashant Choudhary, Pawan Mishra, Vinayak Ranjan Dwivedi

Abstract: A variety of active above knee prosthesis have been manufactured over the past decade and there has been ambiguity over the advantages and disadvantages of the various counterparts. The most Therefore, this study involves analysis and comparison of various prosthesis based on the mechanism employed.



      Kumud Nigam, Saurabh Srivastava, Devendra Kumar, Yogendra Verma, Shalini Gupta

Abstract: Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses that contain circular single stranded (ss) DNA genomes encapsidated in small twinned icosahedral capsids .The virus DNA A plus strand encodes the coat protein (CP/AV1) essential for viral transmission by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci)[4]. Jatropha has been found to have strong molluscicidal activity and the latex to be strongly inhibitory to watermelon mosaic virus. It is also listed as a homicide, piscicide and raticide. Jatropha is considered as a poor quality fuelwood since the soft wood burns too rapidly. In Africa, Jatropha is widely planted as a “living fence” and hedgerows to protect food crops from damage by livestock and as a windbreak to prevent soil erosion moisture depletion.



      Umakant Arya, Aslam Hussain, Waseem Khan

Abstract: In this research paper, the effect of wind velocity and structural response of building frame on sloping ground has been studied. Considering various frame geometries and slope of grounds. Combination of static and wind loads are considered. For combination, 60 cases in different wind zones and three different heights of building frames are analysed. STAAD-Pro v8i software has been used for analysis purpose. Results are collected in terms of axial force, Shear force, moment, support reaction, Storey-wise drift and Displacement which are critically analysed to quantify the effects of various slope of ground.



      Priyanka Pai H, Nagaraja . M, Ranjani Chitrapur

Abstract: Color, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Chemicals are the main form of pollutants in wastewater or industrial effluents. In pharmaceutical effluents the values of these parameters are high and also depict wide variation due to variation in the type of medicines manufactured and raw material utilization. In the present investigation in order to decrease the waste hazards and to restrict resulted effects on the environment, the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes have been studied. 3 types of coagulants i.e. aluminium sulphate (alum), ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate along with pre dosing of lime (pH booster) and nanocrystalline (adsorbent) have been used.



      Kirti Tiwari, Dr. Binay kumar singh, Dr Suman Singh, Dr. Amit Tiwari

Abstract: The gonadosomatic index of the channa marulius from Son river Shahdol. Studies have been carried out the scientific management for obtaining high yield of fish production eventually calls the adequate and in-depth study of breeding mechanism. In order to complete the task present study was undertaken to trace accurately spawning period of channa marulius. This is reported in terms of gonad somatic index which express the relative change in gonad weight to the percentage of body weight. During present study the peak value of GSI was observed only once in the month of May (47.56%) indicating only one spawning period in channa marulius . i.e. from June to August.



      Edinah Ogari, Dr. Abanti, Prof. Waweru, Vincent O.

Abstract: Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is an attack on the privacy of clients of a particular web site which can lead to a total breach of security when the person’s details are stolen or manipulated in any way. The CSRF attack involves three parties; the attacker, a client and the web site. The goal of this kind of attack is to steal the client cookies, or any other sensitive information, which can identify the client with the web site. With the token of the legitimate user at hand, the attacker can proceed to act as the user in his interaction with the site. Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks occur when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. In this way, the attacker can impersonate the user. In this paper, the researcher investigated on the possibility of utilizing dynamic passwords to avert CSRF. The results obtained indicate that 94% of the respondents indicated that the dynamic passwords are 75% perfect in CSRF prevention.



      P. Balaramesh, A. Abdul Jabbar and P.Venkatesh

Abstract: This paper studies the structure and properties of platinum complexes of dithiocarbamate derivatives. Dithiocarbamate complexes are found to be very stable and are highly water soluble due to the presences of hydrophilic moiety in their structure. Such complexes have been used as metal complexing species for several decades. They form chelates with almost all metals ions in the Periodic table and have found numerous applications on biological, agricultural, electronics and act as stabilizing agents in electroless copper plating. In this work, ethylenediamine and diethanolamine dithiocarbamates are prepared and complexed with Pt(II) salts to form stable complexes. The complexes are characterized by Rapid Elemental Analysis. The structure of the stable complexes are confirmed with Electronic and I.R Spectral Analysis.



      Hari Sankar. H.S, Jisha Jose, Remya Varadarajan, Smitha. V. Bhanu, Susan Joy, Babu Philip

Abstract: The major digestive enzyme activities and digestive indices were compared between Etroplus suratensis and Oreochromis mossambicus. Pepsin-like acid proteases that acts on low pH has been identified all along the digestive tract of both the fishes. Comparatively low alpha amylase activity is shown by the E. suratensis and the enzyme is distributed almost equally throughout the intestinal segments in both the species. Very low alkaline protease activity is found in the stomach of both the fishes and in O. mossambicus, the enzyme activity diminishes extensively towards the posterior portion of the intestine whereas in E. suratensis the activity increases towards the posterior part. The present study showed that lipase is one of the prominent digestive enzymes in O. mossambicus with a remarkable specific activity throughout the digestive tract than that of E. suratensis.



      K.Jayalakshmi and C.Manjula

Abstract: The right alternative law implies the left alternative law in loop rings of characteristic other than 2. We show that there exists a loop which fails to be an extra loop, even though its characteristic 2 loop rings are right alternative.



      Indumathi Parameswaran, Vijayalakshmi Krishna Murthi

Abstract: The main aim of the present investigation is to determine the Moisture Content, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Water soluble ash, Alcohol soluble Extractive value and proximate analysis of Persea americana & Actinidia deliciosa fruit. The fruit samples were shade dried, powdered and used for further analysis. The phytochemicals were studied using the six different solvents extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, petroleum ether and methanol. Among them aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate extract has shown the presence of potential components which act as antioxidants.



      Rajeev Joshi , Pratap Chandra Poudel , Pankaj Bhandari

Abstract: The paper proposes a new approach for detecting alive human beings in devastating environments using a low cost autonomous robot. The proposed alive human body detection system uses a specific set of sensors that gives information about the presence of an alive human body and a low quality camera to acquire a video of scene of the environment. Having detected an obstacle or alive human body, the set of sensors trigger the camera to show live scene. The video is then displayed on a PC or a laptop at base station and processed at MATLAB for further analysis. The alive human detection system proposed in this paper is highly reliable as it is using a set of sensors for detection. The data and information required to be acquired and processed for rescue operation are less. So, it is very cost effective and faster to be applied in real-time operating environment.



      Dr. Anil Haripriya, Dr. Vibha Haripriya

Abstract: To assess the knowledge of health care professionals regarding medico-legal aspects and its negligence.



      Paul Sirait

Abstract: Health service is conducted to obtain a better level of health of the society. A decent level of health would increase of productivity, quality of life, and human development index as well as reducing poverty. The objectives of the research are (1) to analyze the effects of health services for the poor people on the health status in Medan City and (2) to analyze the effect of health and human services on regional developments in Medan City. This is an explanatory research. Population is poor family living in Medan City having Askeskin or Jamkesnas card. A number of 876 samples were chosen proportionally from 21 sub- district of Medan City. The effect of health service of poor people on human and regional development was analyzed by linear regression test. The result showed that there was a significant effect of the level of health services on health of poor people. Also, there is a significant effect of the quality of health service on human development in the regional development perspective.



      Winifred U. Anake, Nsikak U. Benson, Anuoluwa A. Akinsiku, Cyril O. Ehi-Eromosele, Ifedayo O. Adeniyi

Abstract: The levels of six trace metals namely iron, lead, manganese, copper, zinc and nickel were investigated in drinking water and groundwater sources in Ota, Nigeria. Detected concentrations of Mn, Cu and Zn were below the World Health organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria maximum permissible limits. Fe (92%) and Ni (53%) in some drinking water and groundwater sources were found in concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible limits for these metals. Notably, the levels of Pb were below detection limit in all the bottled, well and borehole water, with exception of the hospital borehole, while the swimming pool had high concentrations of Fe (0.88 mg/L), Pb (0.21 mg/L) and Ni (0.19mg/L) compared to SON (0.30 mg/L), WHO (0.01 mg/L) and WHO (0.07 mg/L) respectively. Pollution indices indicated significant pollution of Pb, Fe and Ni. Overall, the mean metal levels in the sampled water sources followed a descending order, Fe>Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Mn. Some of the drinking water and groundwater sources could be considered safe for drinking, but proactive measures should be taken to check the levels of Fe, Pb and Ni in the swimming pool.



      Chonika, Manoj, Mr. Kumar Dhiraj

Abstract: Due to the rapid technological progress, the consumption of electric energy increases continuously. But the transmission systems are not extended to the same extent because building of new lines is difficult for environmental as well as political reasons. Hence, the systems are driven closer to their limits resulting in congestions and critical situations endangering the system security. Power Flow Control devices such as Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) provide the opportunity to influence power flows and voltages and therefore to enhance system security, e.g. by resolving congestions and improving the voltage profile. Several kinds of FACTS controllers have been commissioned in various parts of the world. This paper presents various types of FACTS devices such as: load tap changers, phase-angle regulators, static VAR compensators, thyristor-controlled series compensators, interphase power controllers, static compensators, and unified power flow controllers. There classification based on steady sate and transient state stability and Power electronic and control technology have been studied.



      Jayanthi .J, Ida Evones .M

Abstract: Video summarization is the process to represent the content of video in effective manner.It is based on two types , static video summary and dynamic video skimming . Static video summary is the process that selects a set of salient images (called key frames) extracted or synthesized from the original video to represent the video contents. Dynamic video skimming is method to make the original video as several short video clips it can be done by using two -ways. It’s objective is to extract the main events (highlights of the match) from cricket video and make a short summary of the match so that it can take a small memory space as well as for fast content browsing transmission, and also retrieval.



      Jayanthi .J, Ida Evones .M

Abstract: Video summarization is the process to represent the content of video in effective manner.It is based on two types , static video summary and dynamic video skimming . Static video summary is the process that selects a set of salient images (called key frames) extracted or synthesized from the original video to represent the video contents. Dynamic video skimming is method to make the original video as several short video clips it can be done by using two -ways. It’s objective is to extract the main events (highlights of the match) from cricket video and make a short summary of the match so that it can take a small memory space as well as for fast content browsing transmission, and also retrieval.



      Loganathan, P

Abstract: The research was carried out to minimize nitrate leachate in RBE soil by in cooperating green manures (Sesbania rostrata, Gliricidia and sunhemp) and Azolla. The soil samples for experiment was collected from non agricultural lands in Thavashikulam, Vavuniya. Experiment was carried out with RCBD with six treatments such as Control(T1), Urea (T2), Sun Hemp (T3) Azolla (T4) ) Gliricidia (T5) and Sesbania rostrata (T6), and three replicates. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for a Random Complete Block design (RCBD) to determine significance of differences (P>0.05) between the treatments. Duncun mean comparison was carried out by using SAS package. Nitrate losses were significantly (P=0.022) differ from each treatments and highest amount of loss was observed in Azolla (19.66mg) followed by Urea(17.54mg), sespania (15.34), Giliricidia ( 13.14)and sunhemp( 11.2 ). Nitrate losses were less in green manure(Sesbania, Sunhemp & Gliricidia) added soil than inorganic fertilized (urea) soil with in one month period. Green manures ( Sesbania, Sunhemp and Giliricidia) could be utilized to minimize nitrate loses in RBE soil except Azolla. Azolla could be used as bio fertilizer in wet land paddy soil as it is considered as super plant to fix atmospheric nitrogen (5-6% of nitrogen) and Nitrate loss was higher in Azolla than urea in RBE soil. The field study could be carried out to confirm the finding to implement the findings in farmers field.



      Raziyeh Yosof Boroujerdi, Seyed Ali Siadat(PH.D), Reza Hoveida(PH.D) , Saeed Khani

Abstract: Human capital is just one of an organization’s intangible assets. It is basically all of the competencies and commitment of the people within an organization i.e. their skills, experience, potential and capacity. Human capital management is a reciprocal relationship between supply and demand: employees, contractors and consultants invest their own human capital into business enterprises and the business enterprises need to manage the supplier. Any organization interested in its performance will naturally ask how well they are managing this asset to ensure maximum return on their investment. In the same way, all employees, contractors, consultants and providers of human capital want to ensure they are getting the appropriate return for their own human capital investing through salary, bonuses, benefits, and so on. The aim of this paper is to study of nature of human capital management and its strategic role in achieving of competitive advantage for the organization and it is a review paper. The results of this study show the strategic importance of human capital and managing them in organizations.



      Archana Malik

Abstract: In this paper, we analyse two-unit cold standby system with instructions and post-repair inspection. On the failure of a unit, an expert repairman comes with his assistant and gives instructions to his assistant for repairing the unit. After getting instructions, the assistant repairman immediately starts the repair of the failed unit. When the assistant completes the repair, the inspection is carried out by the expert to see whether the unit repaired by his assistant is perfectly repaired or not. If not, the expert himself repairs it perfectly. Various measures of the system effectiveness are obtained by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique. Study through graphs is also made.



      Dr. Devakumar Jacob

Abstract: Concepts have been interpreted differently by historians in different times to give a comprehensive view of the past. We are familiar with political history, social history, economic history and administrative history. Maritime history or Sea Power history is yet another concept, which has been gaining momentum and currency these days. Maritime history has become a tool in the hands of several Indian historians who are interested in Indo- Portuguese history. The study of maritime history enables to come closer to the crucial dynamics of historical process. Maritime history embraces many aspects of history, such as international politics, navigation, oceanic currents, maritime transportation, coastal society, development of ports and port-towns, sea-borne trade and commerce, port-hinterland relations and so on. As far as India and the Indian Ocean regions are concerned, maritime studies have a great relevance in the exchange of culture, establishment of political power, the dynamics of society, trade and commerce and religion of these areas.



      Sanjay Singh chandel, A.K. Nigam

Abstract: A 40 year old female presented as post-operative case with diagnosed case of spindle cell sarcoma of uterine cervix with multiple liver, lung and scar recurrence. Patient was plan for palliative chemotherapy. Our case is unique is presentation because it’s from spindle cell sarcoma which is very rare only 150 case reported in literature.



      Supanee Putadechakum, Venus Leelahakul, Podjanee Rodjinda, Pariya Phanachet, Chulaporn Roongpisuthipong

Abstract: We evaluate cardiovascular risk factors (CVD) and 10-year risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Thai adults living in Bangkoknoi district. Total number of 194 subjects (51 M, 143 F) aged 35-59 years were enrolled into this study. Information on the martial status, education, occupation, living condition, physical activities, smoking, consumption and drinking habits as well as history of diseases were obtained through a questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical assessment were done at the beginning of the study. We estimated 10-yr risk of CHD by using Framingham Risk Score, and the proportions for three levels of 10-year risk were presented, the risk functions by gender, age group in account of level of blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes and smoking status.



      Rashmi Jha

Abstract: Business Intelligence (BI) is any information derived from analytics of existing data that can be used strategically in the organization. Data Mining is a subset of BI or a means/process of deriving BI from data using statistical modeling of the data. It can be used to find relationships/correlations between the various data elements captured which can be used to improve business performance or at least understand what is happening better. With the rapid exponential growth in size and number of available Databases in commercial, industrial, administrative and other applications, it is mandatory and important to examine how to extract knowledge from voluminous data. Mining Association rules in transactional or relational databases has recently attracted a lot of attention in database communities. The task is to derive a set of strong association rules in the form of “A1^….^ m=>B1^…^Bm” where Ai(for i €{1,2,.....m}) and Bi(for j € {1,2,.....,n}) are set of attribute-values, from the relevant data sets in a databases.



      Prabheena P. and Ramani N.

Abstract: Areca palm (Areca catechu L.) of the family Arecaceae is an important commercial crop cultivated in the tropics like the Pacific, Asia and east Africa. Many insect and non insect pests induce serious damage to areca palms in different parts of the world. The Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica heavily infests palms of nursery stage and young palms and induces damage by sucking sap from the frond leaves of young palms during hot dry weather. This polyphagous species of false spider mite rapidly spreads through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. The present study is focussed on incidence, distribution pattern and injurious status of R.indica on areca palms. Field sampling was conducted fortnightly for the period of March, 2013 to September, 2013 on areca palms cultivated in two districts viz. Malappuram and Wayanadu of North Kerala, South India. Results of the study revealed significantly high population densities of the mite on areca palms with peak population in March/April. High numbers of the mite could be observed on the bottom frond leaves than the middle and top leaves. The present study also indicated that the distribution pattern of the red palm mite was relatively high in the Thenhipalam region of the Malappuram district when compared to other regions surveyed.



      Jane L. Rodriguez, Dina D. Galang, Edwin A. Balila, Vicky C. Mergal

Abstract: This study determined the influence of socio-cultural and economic environment on adolescents’ sexual behavior. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs were used as mediating variables to environment factor and adolescents’ sexual behavior. The study used the descriptive-correlation research design. Two hundred ninety adolescents ages 11 -19 years old from two high schools and two universities from Region IV-A in the Philippines, chosen through simple random sampling were the respondents of the study. The results show that socio-cultural (school) environment, attitude and knowledge were significantly related to sexual behavior. Meanwhile, family and community socio-economic environments were negatively related to sexual behavior. Sexual behavior of adolescents differed when their age and gender were considered. Males who are in their late adolescence tend to engage more in risky sexual behaviors than those who were in their mid- adolescence and in their early adolescence. Attitude, age, gender and economic environment predict adolescent’s sexual behavior. Based on model generated socio-cultural environment, socio-economic environment had indirect effect to sexual behaviors of the adolescents. Knowledge fully mediates the relationship between socio-cultural (school) environment and sexual behavior. Beliefs and attitude were not found to be significant mediators.



      Josan D. Tamayo, MIT, Jay-Arr C. Tayao, MIT, Marcos Y. Lopez, Ph.D, Margarita J. Mangalile, MBA

Abstract: This study deals with “A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Level of Critical Thinking Skills of Students in the College of Management and Technology at CEU Malolos”. Critical thinking is one of the 21st century education skills required in the tertiary level students and a particularly with high impact of importance in the field of education. Training skills related to critical thinking is so important that some scholars called it the main objective of university education and experience. Cross-sectional analysis will be used in the study to compare the critical thinking skills among students in the College of Management and Technology of Centro Escolar University in Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines. The sample and respondents of the study includes a total of 277 students from first year to fourth year enrolled in the different academic programs under the College of Management and Technology during the Academic Year 2013-2014.



      Josan D. Tamayo, Giselle Sacha G. dela Cruz

Abstract: Social Media is considered as phenomenal in today’s generation. It conquered the world by storm and became more popular to the youth of most nations including the Philippines. This research aims to study the relationship of Social Media in relation to the Academic Performance of the the students of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology at Centro Escolar University-Malolos. Among the one thirty eight (138) respondents drawn using stratified random sampling there are 45 first years, 37 second and third years and 19 fourth years. There are 102 males and 36 females participated in this study. Seventy one (71) or 51.4% of the respondents have reached below satisfactory grade average while sixty seven (67) or 48.6% students have successfully reached the satisfactory academic performance from an average grade.



      Ayesha Awan

Abstract: South Asian region is facing the challenges of political instabilities, social unrest, insecurities due to whatever is happening in political scene since last few decades. Present study focuses on the trends of globalization in South Asian English novels with reference to Indian, Pakistani and Afghani novels. South Asia is particularly the most targeted region due to its geo-political and strategic standing in global scenario. Moreover stereotypical notions such as nationalism, fundamentalisms have compartmentalized people of this region in suffocated cabins of cast, creed, religion, nation and culture. In such a critical time a piece of literature can no longer remain a mere piece of story that serve to entertain, rather it is morally bound to fill the gaps in order to break boundaries that lead to destruction. Amitav Gosh a renowned Indian novelist in his novel The Shadow Lines (1988) negates the concepts of national, social and cultural boundaries. Our Lady Of Alice Bhati (2011) is a Pakistani novel by Muhammad Hanif in which he finds common grounds between two religions on the basis of humanity and nature.



      Thet Htet Nhin

Abstract: All-optical demultiplexer of 10Gb/s channel dropped out of 40Gb/s data stream is demonstrated by using the method of four-wave mixing (FWM) and an optical filter. Demultiplexing of optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) signal is based on the effect of nonlinearities in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF).We describe our experiment of all-optical demultiplexer and bit error rate (BER) measurements.



      Kamayani Barshilia

Abstract: Three-fourths of the world’s energy is consumed in cities and more than half of it is consumed in buildings. The construction sector is one of the most traditional & cost oriented industries and it makes much sense to bring innovations that are environmentally and economically sustainable. Sustainability in the construction sector or in other words green buildings are mainly focused on the reduction of emissions, construction of energy efficient houses and maintaining thermal comfort of the occupants. However we can further innovate to excel in terms of zeroed environment impacts and resource optimization. To comprehend the innovations which have happened in green buildings, this study entitled “Innovations in Design- A Study of Green Buildings” was conducted. It focuses on technologies and strategies used and catalysts and hindrances faced while adopting Innovation category in green buildings certified under the prevalent green rating systems in India i.e. LEED and GRIHA.



      Parmita Chowdhury and Dr. Rita Mahanta

Abstract: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the synthetic derivatives of testosterone which are widely accepted as performance enhancers and illicitly self-administered to increase muscle mass and physical endurance. The use of anabolic steroids by sportsmen and teenagers has increased to such extents thereby raising questions about their hepatotoxicity. The present study elucidates the adverse effects of AAS when administered at supraphysiological doses. Its focus is on the effects of massive doses of nandrolone decanoate, the most commonly abused AAS on the levels of the two important enzymatic liver biomarkers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in albino mice. Tissue samples (liver tissue) were collected from normal control and nandrolone decanoate treated (2.5mg twice a week, administered intramuscularly for 13 weeks) albino mice and AST/ ALT levels of liver tissue were measured by following the method of Reitman and Frankel (1957).



      J. N. Chikwendu, A.C. Igbatim, and I.C. Obizoba

Abstract: The study examined the chemical composition of fresh, sundried tender leaves and husks of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The tender leaves and husks were parboiled and sundried. Proximate, micronutrient, phytochemical and antinutrient compositions were determined using standard procedures. Dried leaves had higher protein content than those of fresh leaves (FL) and dried husks (HU). Dried leaves (DL) and husks had lower fat content than the control (1.31 and 0.75 vs 9.10% (p<0.05). Sun drying increased the ash in both the DL and HU. Carbohydrate increased more the in HU than in the DL. The micronutrients in both DL and HU were reduced by sun drying. Tannins, saponins, flavonoids and polyphenols were decreased in the processed samples. Antinutrients were low. Haemaglutinin a food toxicant had slight increases. Cowpea leaves and husks have high nutrient potentials to justify the cultivation, processing, consumption and diversification.



      Dr. Siba Barkataki

Abstract: R.K Narayan and C.F Ramuz are two writers belonging to two countries known for their pluralistic natures: linguistic, ethnic and religious. In this form of diversity we see the simultaneous valorization of a cosmopolitan tendency as well as of the regional specificities. Such a situation that seems to be positive for society proves to be problematic in literature as universal and regional specificities begin opposing each other. A writer’s work is faced with the dilemma of being termed either as regional literature or world literature. The former is considered to be inferior to the latter. It is this dichotomy that is faced by R.K Narayan and C.F Ramuz. In this study we will investigate the theoretical framework, if any exists, forming the basis of such a categorization; the objective being, the determination of the factors that decide whether an author should be considered as a regional or a universal writer.



      M.Vijayalakshmi, Dr. Manchi Sarat Babu

Abstract: English is a widely spoken language today. It has often been referred to as ‘global language’, the lingua franca of the modern era and currently the language most often taught as a second language around the world. English in India is used not only for communicating with the outside world, but also for inter-state and intrastate communication. Because of the great ethnic and linguistic diversity found within our nation, English acts as an indispensable ‘link’ language. With the Information Technology revolution and most software and operating systems being developed in the English language, a new utility for written and oral communication in the English language has emerged. English is said to be the world’s most important language having communicative and educative value. English is used all over the world not out of any imposition but because of the realization that it has certain advantages.



      Min Thandar Zaw, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle become popular and very useful today. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle types have fixed wing UAV and rotary wing UAV. Among rotary wing UAV, helicopter type is chosen to implement the mathematical model for UAH. Since these helicopter mathematical model is very complex and inflexible, simple model “minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model” (MCHSMM) is used to develop a non-linear mathematical model R-50 helicopter for this work. This modeling consists of three blocks: (1) Rigid body dynamics, (2) Force and torque dynamics, and (3) Flapping and thrust dynamics. Each of these are implemented in MATALB SIMULINK. There are four control inputs: ulat (lateral control input), ulong (longitudinal control input), ucol (collective control input) and uped (pedal control input). By alternating positive, negative, and zero to four control inputs, the resultant responses of positions, Euler angles, translatory velocities, angular velocities and flapping angles are simulated. The stability analysis for UAH are also analyzed and simulation results provides the real world approaches for UAH system.



      Chaw Ei San, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

Abstract: The overall objective with this paper is to evaluate a method for designing nonlinear controllers in aircrafts with concern in robustness against modeling insecurities and also to minimize the design effort. The later objective is of great importance since there exists, in the industry, an ambition to automatize the design for as far extend as possible. The nonlinear method, State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE), used in this work is a nonlinear version of classic LQ design and both are evaluated and compared for a few flying conditions. Also another nonlinear control method is tested. LQ and SDRE show equal performance during both looping and more complicated maneuvers, such as high angle of attack wind-vector roll. Further it is possible to automatize the LQ design as well as it is possible for SDRE. Still SDRE is preferable since it will always be somewhat more accurate than LQ. A Monte Carlo simulation is made on LQ and SDRE showing that the model is robust against relatively large modeling error of 40%.



      Aye Sandar Myint, Hla Myo Tun, Zaw Min Naing

Abstract: This paper presents the design and construction of charge controller for wind energy source. The charge controller is a small prototype that is suitable to charge small battery. The maximum charging current of the charge controller is about 7 A. The charge controller is designed using PIC 16F877A microcontroller, liquid-crystal display (LCD), silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), rectifier diodes and other electronic components. The SCR and rectifier diodes in conjunction with other components are used to charge the battery. The battery charging is controlled by the microcontroller circuit. The LCD module displays the status of the battery while it is charging. At the same time the voltage level of the battery is also displayed. The microcontroller controls the charging circuit and diverted the charging current to the diverted load if the battery is fully charged. The microcontroller also produces signal to the audible alarm circuit in the case of full charge battery. The simulation results are based on the ISIS software environments before implementing the hardware description. The experimental results for charge controller are also mentioned.



      Thin Thin Naing

Abstract: This paper investigates the optimum dispersion mapping for 40Gbps WDM system. The paper shows the performance of five channel WDM system with the channel spacing of 100GHz (0.8nm) by using non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF) and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). In addition it reveals both pre-compensation and residual dispersion per span can develop the performance. The modulation format used is RZ with 33% duty cycle. The optimum dispersion mappings for different channel numbers are discussed with different residual dispersions. By applying the optimum dispersion mapping, the impairments in the system can be minimized effectively .The analysis is done with OptiSystem software.



      Umana, Uduak E., Netete, B. V, Timbuak, J A, Ibegbu, A.O, Musa, S.A, Hamman, W.O.

Abstract: Essential hypertension is sustained high blood pressure not attributable to a single cause but reflecting the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental influences. Dermatoglyphic involves the study of epidermal ridges present on the surface of palms, finger, soles and toes while cheiloscopy is the study of the grooves or furrows present on the vermilion border of the human lips. Finger and lip prints are known useful genetic markers in some congenital and clinical diseases; as such this study was aimed at determining the association between fingerprint and lip print patterns in hypertensive patients. The present study was carried out with hypertensive patients attending the outpatient clinic of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria and was compared with a control group with normal blood pressure. The subjects were 118 clinically diagnosed patients with hypertension and 126 subjects who were normotensives with no family history of hypertension.



      Adegoke Bosede M., Shittu Suraj A, Raimi Monsurat M., Oyetade Olumide A., Oyekanmi Adeyinka M.

Abstract: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), a legume largely consumed by most populations in Africa, is widely grown as a food crop. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of some selected traditional processing methods (roasting with/without pod and boiling) on the protein and lipid composition of groundnut for optimal nutritional yield of the end product(s). Standard procedures were employed in the determination of the proximate composition of raw groundnut samples with emphasis on the lipid and protein content. Some selected traditional processing methods (roasting with/without pod and boiling with pod) were also employed and their effects on the lipid and protein content evaluated.



      Anjali Jain, Prof Aarti Bhandarkar

Abstract: The output frequency of a self excited induction generator (SEIG) driven by wind turbine and supplies static load are controlled, using MATLAB/simulink. The PID controller which employed for turbine rotor speed control and hence the frequency regulation is proposed and simulated by MATLAB software package. The modern wind turbines implement pitch control in order to tap maximum energy at wind speeds lower than rated wind speed. They are simple and rugged in construction and offer impressive efficiency under varying operating conditions. The PID controller which employed for turbine rotor speed control and hence the frequency regulation is proposed. In this paper, a turbine blade pitch control has been assumed for this purpose.



      Rucha Pathari, Prof. Sachin Bojewar

Abstract: The Spy generally developed to monitor and record suspicious movement in a company during the closing hours of the company. Organizations today face new and more insidious threats than they ever have in the past. To protect personnel and infrastructure alike requires a level of vigilance not previously anticipated. A new technology called Intelligent Video Surveillance employs state of the art computer vision technology to automate the process of watching web cam - making video a proactive defense sensor. One approach is to detect and recognize the actions of individuals within a crowded scene.


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