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IJSRP, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015 Edition [ISSN 2250-3153]


All listed papers are published after full consent of respective author or co-author(s).
For any discussion on research subject or research matter, the reader should directly contact to undersigned authors.

Important:
Online print version for March Edition is available.

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      Ying-Tsai Lin, Hsin-Lan Liu, Ya-Yuan Chang, Ching-Chan Cheng

Abstract: This study intends to integrate IPGA with the DEMATEL model in order to determine food quality core factors demanding restaurants’ most urgent improvement, as well as the highest effect for resource investment. It is hoped that such information can be provided as reference for casual-dining restaurants to develop food quality improvement and resource reallocation strategies under limited resources. 562 valid questionnaires were returned in Taipei City. The results showed that, from the perspective of customers, casual-dining restaurants should give priority to improving the quality dimensions of “hygiene” and “cooking.” Among various quality dimensions, experts suggested that “cooking” is the core factor with the highest effect of resource investment affecting food quality, such as visual appeal, taste, and hygiene. Moreover, this study further analyzed and found that a total of 15 quality items are located in the area of “Concentrate here”.



      Daham Shyamalee, A.D.U.S. Amarasinghe, N.S. Senanayaka

Abstract: Biomass briquettes are often used as an energy source for cooking purpose and in some industries like bricks and bakery. The briquettes are produced by densification of waste biomass using various processes. In this study manual densification of saw dust was tested with three different binding agents; dry cow dung, wheat flour, and paper pulp. The samples with cow dung as binding agent failed with mould detaching and minimum required binder percentage for other two binders for successful forming were found to be 30%. Density of briquettes with 30% binder of wheat flour and paper pulp was found to be 373.7 kg/m3 and 289.8 kg/m3 respectively. Natural drying time was evaluated at 86~89% relative humidity and 25~30oC ambient temperature. The time for achieving 15% moisture content (wet basis) was 55 hours. Compressive strength of the briquettes was tested for binder percentages of 30%, 40% and 50% (dry basis) of wheat flour and paper pulp binders. Results indicated that compressive strength increased with the increase of binder percentage. The briquettes with paper binder exhibited comparatively high compressive strength compared to wheat flour binder. Calorific values of briquettes formed having 30% paper binder and 30% wheat flour binder were found as 18.14MJ/kg and 20.04MJkg respectively, whereas the value of pure saw dust was 18.8 MJ/kg. The briquettes formed with paper pulp gave the minimum energy cost, the value being 0.16Rs./MJ.



      Md. Ariful Islam Khandaker, Monika Gope

Abstract: The current world is rapidly growing depending on Information Technology. There is a most concern able issue, which is “Security”. Today’s world security necessity is extremely higher and sometimes it can be very expensive. Considering the “Security” of our daily life, this paper proposes architecture for physical intruder detecting and playing safety alarm system. In our application design, there is a web cam, which is connected to a client application program. The client application program always informs the server about any kind of bugler attack. Both client and server are connected using a well-established network .i.e. LAN, MAN and WAN. The web cam behaves as sensing device. Basically, it reads the environmental object status. Then image of web cam processes by a motion detection algorithm to detect, if there’s any motion or change of that object. This object motion is primary symptom of bugler attack.



      S.Vidhyalakshmi T.R.Usha Rani , M.A.Gopalan,V.Krithika

Abstract: The sequences of integral solutions to the cubic equation with four variables are obtained. A few properties among the solutions are also presented.



      Ashik E, Dr. P. Vijayalakshmi M.E., Ph.D.

Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) have been now seen as the advancement of network models. It involves mobility and hierarchy of network elements on it positive side. The two different parameters of prime importance in MANET are energy efficiency and security. This paper proposes the idea of combining these two factors. It involves a novel idea of dynamic re-clustering to address energy efficiency. Security have been incorporated in data transmission stage by a secure intrusion detection algorithm. Compared to conventional approaches the combination of these two ideas have improved the performance parameters without affecting network performance.



      Maranna O

Abstract: Library resources are prevalent on the Internet, like e-formats such as e-books, e-journals, periodical indexes, reference sources and Indian Government documents are available by Telnet, Google, Yahoo, Rediff, World Wide Web and FTP etc., moderately few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. The main aim of this paper is to create awareness and usage of Internet resources for marine science scientists. Also highlights consistent growth of the frequency of usage various kinds of Internet resources and usefulness of their Internet information sources, search strategy, and ranking of internet search engines for ease of accessibility of the information through Internet.



      Sneka P, Hanumanthappa A R, Vishwanath G

Abstract: Introduction: The study was done to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections in the pediatric population, and to correlate their presence with the health status of the children. Materials and methods: Stools were collected in wide mouthed disposable containers from the children admitted in pediatric ward with various complaints in Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere, Karnataka. The samples were screened by saline and iodine preparation for the detection of various parasites. Simultaneously the children were also screened for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs by cellophane tape method early in the morning.



      Dr.Asiya Naaz, P.Sushma, Dr.Mohamed Meraj Ahmed, Dr.DVHS Sarma, K.Eswar Reddy, Dr.KShivamurthy

Abstract: Pregnancy is a physiological process in women but it may be associated with certain risks to the health and life of both the mother and child. Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy are common and form one of the deadly triad along with hemorrhage and infection that results in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy can induce hypertension in normotensive women or aggravate already existing hypertension or appears for the first time during pregnancy. The identification of this clinical entity and effective management play a significant role in the outcome of pregnancy, both for the mother and the baby. In the developing countries with uncared pregnancy, this entity on many occasions remains undetected till major complications supervene.



      Dr.Mohammed Meraj Ahmed MD, Dr.M.venkateshwar reddy MD , Mr.venkatachary MSc, Mr.Abdul Waheed MSc.

Abstract: Introduction & Objective: The circulus arteriosus, exist between the internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries, that supplies the remainder. It slows down the blood before it reaches the brain and helps in collateral circulation. The knowledge of the CirculusArteriosus and its variations is essential in clinico –pathological conditions such as surgical hemorrhage, encephalomalacia, infarction of the brain and intra cranial aneurysms as it is one of the major collateral circulations ensuring the complete perfusion of the brain



      Dr. B. Suryanarayana, M.D., Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D., Dr. Tirupathi Reddy, M.D., Dr. B. Sudarsi, M.D., Dr. S. Manohar, M.D.

Abstract: We are herewith submitting a case report of left psoas abscess bilateral pyelonephritis with septic emboli in lungs, spleen and right atrium with osteomyelitis of left femur with staphalococcus aureus infection in a 14 years old lean boy without significant pre disposing factors.He was presented with high grade fever with erythematous rash and swelling of hip joint with pain. Pus culture was positive for staphylococcus aureus and sensitive to antibiotcs linezolid,ofoxacin and vancomycin. Patient was improved with surgical drainage of psoas abscess and 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.



      Aishatu H. Santuraki, J. T. Barminas

Abstract: The adsorption capacity of Lonchocarpus laxiflorus leave (LLL) biomass for the removal of metal ions (Fe3+, Pb2+, Cr2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+) was investigated and the residual metal ion concentrations was studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotormeter (AAS). The adsorption capacity was performed by batch experiments as a function of experimental parameters like effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on biosorpttion of metal ions from aqueous solution. The metal ion sorption capacity by Lonchocarpus laxiflorus increases with increase metal ions concentration. The biomass sorption capacity increases, with increases in pH, reaches a maximum and then decreases steadily. The sorption rate was rapid for the first 30 – 40 min and equilibrium was reached within 120 min. The maximum sorption capacity for Fe3+, Pb2+, Cr2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ was found to be 61, 99, 98,85 and 100 % respectively. The results from these studies will be useful for removal of toxic metal ions from waste water and can be adopted for secondary treatment. It can also be turned into an environmentally friendly and cost effective sorbent for waste water.



      D.B.K.Kamesh, V. Neelima, R. Ramya Priya

Abstract: The amount of data produced in health informatics growing large and as a result analysis of this huge amount of data requires a great knowledge which is to be gained. The basic aim of health informatics is to take in real world medical data from all levels of human existence to help improve our understanding of medicine and medical practices. In our paper, we present research using Big data tools and approaches from various sources. Apart from the data gathered in different levels, there are multiple levels of questions addressed.



      Jayanta Nath

Abstract: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with quadriceps atrophy and weakness, so muscle strengthening is an important point in the rehabilitation process23. Since pain and joint stiffness make it often difficult to use conventional strength exercises, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) including various stimulating technique for quadriceps muscle may be an alternative approach for these patients.



      J.I.Nganjiwa, Dr.M.S.Pukuma, J. Philimon, Ekundayo T.M

Abstract: This study was aimed at determining the larvicidal properties of Balanites aegyptiaca, Calotropis procera and Eucalyptus globulus leaves and roots ethanolic extracts against fourth instar mosquito larvae. Twenty batches of fourth instar larvae were exposure to various concentrations of 2,4,6,8 and 10ppm for 24hrs and were assayed according to WHO guidelines for testing laboratory and field mosquito larvicides. Larval mortality was observed after 24hrs and recorded. Results are mean of three replicates. Percentage mortality was calculated using Abbott’s formula, while the LC50 was determined by a log dosage probit mortality regression line at 95%CI. One way ANOVA was performed to determine the difference in larval mortality between plant parts. Results obtained shows that B. aegyptiaca leaves and roots elicited the highest percentage mortality of 60% and 73% at 10ppm respectively. The lowest mortality was recorded in E. globulus leaves and roots as 63% and 64.67% at 10ppm respectively.



      Krishank Manne

Abstract: Social media, a technology which is a complicated frontier, a tool that has yet to be understood to its fullest capacity. Facebook ranks as the number one Social networking site. Facebook the present happening social networking site now boasts over 800 million active users, half of whom log in on any given day and are exposed to a plethora of apps, pages, groups and events designed to entertain, build communities or spread word Media website. The paper is a study of Facebook’s functioning as the most valuable market research tool that has ever existed. The study about interactivity that Facebook allows wall posting, commenting, liking, etc., brands now possess a highly valuable market research tool which is completely free. The distribution of marketing messages through wall posts, polls and the highly effective video facility, brands can immediately gauge reaction and success of their campaigns from those users who opt to like, comment upon or share said content



      E. M. Midhila, K.C. Chitra

Abstract: Adult freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed to nonylphenol at sublethal concentration (0.15 mg/ L) for 24 h, 96 h and 7 days. Nonylphenol significantly decreased the weights of liver and also hepato-somatic index at the end of 7 days, however no such changes were observed at 24 and 96 h of treatment. Decreased weight may be due to necrosis or atrophy of hepatocytes, which is evidenced by the histopathological observations. The activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased after 24 h and 96 h whereas at 7 days of exposure the activities of antioxidant enzymes begin to increase and the levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation decreased to normal level like that of control groups. In general, repeated doses of nonylphenol for 7 days, may induce a defensive response in Oreochromis meanwhile, acute exposure caused inhibition of antioxidant activities. The present study also showed a significant decrease in the marker enzyme, alkaline phosphatase after 96 h indicating the decreased state of inter and intracellular membrane transport and the activity of enzyme increased to normal level at 7 days. In histopathological observation, the control liver exhibited a normal architecture with hepatocytes presenting a homogenous cytoplasm and a large central or subcentral spherical nucleus. In the treated group an increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization, necrosis and decrease in the number of hepatocyte nucleus was observed. This could be possibly owing to the toxicity of nonylphenol and also due to the generation of reactive oxygen species in fish hepatocytes.



      Ojashwi Nepal, Kalpana Sharma, Sunam Mander, Sarina Kusma

Abstract: Humans like most other air-breathing vertebrates exhibit a syndrome known as diving reflex. In man, facial immersion has shown to be sufficient stimulus for onset of reflex. During immersion there is significant slowing of heart rate, and at the periphery, blood vessels undergo constriction. In all animal, diving reflex is triggered specifically by cold water contacting the face. Water that is warmer than 21 °C (70 °F) does not cause the reflex, and neither does submersion of body parts other than the face. The precise mechanism for this effect has been debated. The heart rate and blood pressure is compared here in this study to determine the difference in autonomic changes during breath holding and diving reflex. In this study, 80 healthy subjects (38 males and 42 females) from 18 to25 years were examined to evaluate the effect of facial cooling and apnea in development of diving reflex. Facial immersion was accomplished through the voluntary action of subject into a shallow water bath. The subject was told to remain submerged as long as it was comfortably possible to do so. Throughout experiment, water temperature was maintained. Mean of heart rate and standard deviation was calculated for each of the experimental conditions. At rest, mean heart rate was 77.7±10.95, mean heart rate during hands submersion with breath hold was 70.5±13.63. Mean heart rate with face submersion was found to be 61.46±14.32. Diastolic blood pressure is compared at rest and facial submersion, while breath holding. There is increase in diastolic blood pressure during facial submersion while breath holding (84.85±16.98) than that at rest (74.04±9.78). The result obtained shows heart rate decreases during facial submersion with breath holding compared to that at rest and blood pressure increases during facial submersion with breath holding.



      Purna Vithlani, Dr. C. K. Kumbharana

Abstract: Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a technology that provides a full alphanumeric recognition of printed or handwritten characters. Optical Character Recognition is one of the most interesting and challenging research areas in the field of Image processing. Image Acquisition, Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Classification are stages of OCR. In this paper, how character patterns are identified in the classification stage by different algorithms is presented. Template Matching Algorithm, statistical Algorithm, Structural Algorithm, Neural Network Algorithm and Support Vector Machine Algorithm are presented in this paper.



      Jo-Anne T. Salada, Lotis M. Balala, Erlinda Vasquez

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of varying concentrations of Lantana camara Linn. leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella gallinarum. Broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was evaluated through streaking of bacterial suspension onto Mueller-Hinton agar. Phytochemical tests were done to identify bioactive compounds present in the extracts. Results showed that among extracts used, L. camara leaf ethanolic fraction (EF) and essential oil (EO) demonstrate antibacterial activity. The MIC of essential oil ranges from 312.5μg/mL - 10,000μg/mL better than ethanolic fraction at 1,250μg/mL – 5,000μg/mL. Bacillus subtilis is the most sensitive organism inhibited at 312.5 μg/mL while Salmonella gallinarum showed less sensitivity with MIC starting at 5000 μg/mL. The MIC-MBC ratio revealed that the extracts possess bactericidal activity against test bacteria. Phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of saponins, tannins and terpenoids in EF and terpenoids in EO. These compounds are believed to be responsible for the broad spectrum activity of the plant extracts.



      Fatma El-Sayed Soliman

Abstract: Providing good quality health care is of critical importance for the future economic and social well-being of any country. Patient satisfaction is considered an important indicator of health care. High quality antenatal care is a fundamental right for women to safeguard their health, help women maintain normal pregnancies and reduce the rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. The rural areas are characterized by shortage in physical and human resources such as physicians, nurses, and specialists. Pregnant women's satisfaction is one of the indicators of measuring quality of antenatal care. Aim of the study: is to assess the satisfaction of rural pregnant women with provided antenatal care.



      Reshmi Banerjee

Abstract: Solar Tracking System” is a power generating method from sunlight. This method of power generation is simple and is taken from natural resource. This needs only maximum sunlight to generate power. This paper helps for power generation by setting the equipment to get maximum sunlight automatically. This system is tracking for maximum intensity of light. When there is decrease in intensity of light, this system automatically changes its direction to get maximum intensity of light.



      Ekpenyong Nkereuwem Stephen, Tonbra Odubo

Abstract: Flooding is a phenomenon that sometimes has devastating effects on human livelihoods. Impact of floods is more pronounced in low-lying areas due to rapid growth in population, poor governance, decaying infrastructure and lack of proper environmental planning and management. Flooding is also exacerbated by climate change and inadequate preparedness. However, flooding in most Nigerian cities is a major environmental challenge that has continued to defy solution as more people are rendered vulnerable to hazards involved. The implications of recent flooding in Nigerian cities include among others; loss of life and properties, spread of diseases, deformed livelihoods, assets and infrastructure. This paper therefore provides an overview of how Nigerian cities have been affected by flood incidences. The paper contends that prevailing effects of climate change, particularly flooding affecting almost everything in cities demands urgent attention in form of environmental and infrastructure planning, effective policy, improved and effective management of ecological fund, enhanced environmental disaster insurance, effective professional practice, enhanced public enlightment programmes, integration of environmental planning and education to curriculum of schools at all levels, capacity building towards adaptation and mitigation of climate change impact. It also argued for the need to reinvent Nigerian cities through good governance towards creating sustainable cities in the country.



      Gebeyehu Jalu Negassa

Abstract: As countries develop, their labor force shifts from agriculture to industry and services rendering, and in this process the well-being of the people improves. However, for agriculture to become a credential tool for economic growth an improvement in smallholder productivity is necessary through improving resources, farmers can access with new markets and engage in value-adding activities. For that reason, this articles aims to investigate how smallholders can be supported in their efforts to create new market linkage opportunities and develop their resources. The Ethiopian coffee producers particularly Gihmbi have been served as a case study for this investigation because it can be characterized by its large number of smallholder farmers. In this case chain integrators can play a vital role for smallholder farmers in order to access them to the market. Because these chain integrators represent different types of value chain actors, they each take a different approach to their development intervention.



      Maazuddin Khan, Dr.L.Vijayashree

Abstract: Very important element in the entire process of Governance is the performance of employees, which leads to achievement of goals. Nowadays lot of changes are taking place around the world due to ICT enabled governance. As these changes are occurring very rapidly, organisations tend to adopt ICT at the same pace and speed to remain in the competitive market. Many studies and research has undertaken to evaluate the impact assessment in relation to cost, quality, revenue generation, and perceived value delivered to the customers, but very little research has undertaken to assess the impact in relation to the employees, who are the first caretakers in the whole process, hence it is felt that there is need for development of a Frame work for assessing impact of E-Governance on Employees. After extensive research survey, authors has concluded that creativity, Personal efficacy and Effectiveness leads to efficient delivery of services by the employees in E-Governance scenario.



      Dr Mamta Mohan, Kavita Tandon

Abstract: Mall management is a multifaceted and more complex business proposition. Mall culture is viewed as a significant change in the lifestyle of Indians. Malls have completely redefined the shopping experience. These malls have hoped to capitalize on teeming crowd, but it did not materialize, as per (Malls in India report, 2014) about 90% of the Malls are struggling to sustain. Today the deserted mall buildings e.g. Star City Mall, DLF Promenade are leased out to corporate offices and banquet halls owners.



      Dr. L. Muralidhar, M.D., Dr. D. Sridhar, M.D., Dr. V. Shiva Prasad, M.D., Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D., Dr. M. Ashok Kumar

Abstract: Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease is the most frequently seen type of prion diseases. Its clinical findings consist of predominantly progressive dementia with a rapid onset, myoclonus, and also cerebellar, pyramidal, extrapyramidal and visual signs. Occurrence of periodical spikes in EEG, observation of cortical signal alterations during diffusion weighted (DW) MRI studies, and detection of protein 14-3-3 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) substantiate the diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis is established with histological examination of brain biopsy or autopsy materials.



      Dr. Gurinder Singh and Ms. Navleen Kaur

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to access the factors which resist common man in India from investing in stock market and ways to overcome such hesitations with the sole motive to induce investment in Indian Stock Market. India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world. As country’s growth is mainly dependent upon its financial markets, India is also concentrating towards its share market sector. Indian stock markets are the engines that drive the vehicle of our economy by pumping in much needed capital. The study compares investment in Indian Stock Market with United State, London and Japanese Stock Market. This research is based upon a survey conducted on both investors and non-investors. This paper tends to find out why in a population of over one billion; barely 3% invest in equity markets in India, whereas in developed countries like US, UK and Japan more than 50% invest in equity markets.



      M. K. Basher, K. M. Shorowordi

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the materials and methods used for fabricating a monocrystalline silicon solar cell. The aim of this research is to study the solar cell fabrication technology and fabrication of monocrystalline silicon solar using phosphorous diffusion technique locally. For solar cell fabrication we have used several number of processing steps to get the final solar cell output. At first we took a p-type monocrystalline silicon wafer with square shape 150×150 mm2 in size, 200µm in thickness and which is a (100) oriented Czochralski Si wafer. Then Cleaning and texturing of the wafer was done using different chemical solutions and edge isolation of wafer was done using edge isolation paste. Phosphorous diffusion was done by diffusion furnace to form p-n junction using liquid Phosphorus Oxychloride (POCl3). Front and back side metallization was done by screen printers using silver paste and aluminum paste respectively. Then Rapid Thermal Annealing of the wafer was done at high zone temperature for curing the contact. Finally, fabricated solar cell was characterized by LIV tester.



      Devendran Indiran, Nurfadhlina Abdul Halim, Wan Muhamad Amir W. Ahmad

Abstract: Rational speculative bubble can be defined as transient upward movements of stock prices above fundamental value due to speculative investors. The Generalised Johansen-Ledoit-Sornette (GJLS) model have been developed as a flexible tool to identify the size of rational speculative bubble. This model is combines the economic theory of rational expectation bubbles with finite-time singular crash hazard rates, behavioral finance on imitation and herding of investors and traders as well as mathematical statistical physics of bifurcations and phase transitions. It has been employed successfully to a large variety of stock bubbles in many different markets. The purpose of this study is to predict crash-time, intrinsic value and size of rational speculative bubble of Malaysian stock market during global economic crisis 2008. The predicted crash-time by employing GJLS model is exactly same as empirical date of crash during 2008.



      Fatemeh Shafaei, Badaruddin Mohamed

Abstract: The study of tourism impacts has been the topic of studies by several researchers since many years ago. Social impact, as one of the fundamental pillars of tourism impacts, has been consequently investigated from different perspectives. This study aims at demonstrating the developmental stages of tourism social impacts assessment including model development, instrument design, and instrument testing. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review on social impact studies has been conducted to acknowledge the major theories. The attitudinal surveys have been found to be the common method of addressing a range of social-cultural impacts, especially with the focus on communities’ attitude towards social impacts of tourism in touristic destinations.



      Vinoth.V, Madhavan.R., Tharanitharan.G.

Abstract: In the present work an investigation was made on property relationship of SS 304L austenitic stainless steel welds. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) methods were used to make welds. Tensile test was used to measure the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the welds. Impact test was used to measure the toughness of the welds. Experimental results clearly revealed that these properties of GTAW was superior compared to the other two welds. This was due to more weld penetration at lower heat input into the base metal. The disadvantage of SMAW and GMAW is that the slag must be chipped off of the weld after it cools and can sometimes infiltrate the weld causing weakness.



      Mayur Jagtap, Suryakant Nachan, Vandana Nagre, Snehal Shivathare

Abstract: Android based lab control is a system which allows you to access desktop of remote computers act as “Server” through the android phone act as “Client” using Wi-Fi network. This system is based on VNC architecture where user is able to see and access the desktop of remote computer of any platform like Linux, Mac, and Windows etc .For that, a VNC server must be installed on a computer connected using Wi-Fi network. The image of the desktop is compressed before it is transmitted to the phone. So to work on this, we must use a VNC protocol to access the graphical user interface of remote computer. The user can perform the operations like capturing the screen, mouse clicking, zooming, panning, opening documents and file transfer etc.



      Yurembam Motilan, Konsam Nishikanta

Abstract: For the breeding of Trichogaster labiosua (Day), male and female individuals were kept in the ratio of 1:1 in clean and clear water containing the aquatic weeds, Hydrilla sp. Trichogaster labiosua easily bred in the aquarium conditions on gradually increasing temperature of aquarium water. Nesting behaviour of the fish was observed within the temperature range 24−28⁰C. Spawning rate ranged from 20,000−25,000. The developmental period was observed between18−25 days.



      B.Chinna Narasaiah, V.Leelavathi, Anil Kumar.Manne, G.Swapna, Moparthy John Paul, P.Mariya Dasu

Abstract: A total of ten actinomycete strains were isolated from the soil sample. All the strains were sub cultured as pure on Yeast extract, Malt extract and Dextrose agar and screened for the biologically active enzymes, and optimization of L.aspariginase enzyme was carried out by various parameters including pH, temperature, and carbon, nitrogen sources by growing the strain CN-4 in modified ISP-5 broth for 96 h. Among the seven carbon sources tested, lactose proved to be the best carbon source by supporting high yields of L-asparaginase enzyme. Influence of six nitrogen sources on L-asparaginase production and growth of the strain was tested. Yeast extract was found to enhance both growth and production of L-asparaginase. Once the preferable carbon and nitrogen sources were determined as lactose and yeast extract, efforts were made to identify their suitable concentrations. Lactose @ 0.5% and yeast extract @ 0.5% with 1% L-asparagine as optimized nutrient broth adjusted to pH 7.0 inoculated with Streptomyces albus CN-4 incubated at 30°C for 96 h improved the production of L-asparaginase.



      L. K. Dospatliev, N. Y. Valchev, G. D. Panayotova, A. K. Stoyanova

Abstract: To establish the weed thresholds of injury to seedlingless growing of tomatoes a field trial was carried out in the conditions of artificial weed infestation, and variants of particular types of weeds with particular density were tested. The trial recorded weed infestation, growth, development and productivity of tomatoes, content of soil humidity and soil nutrients. It was established that at equal number of weeds per area unit, most nitrogen was consumed by Chenopodium album L. and Solanum nigrum L., phosphorus – Datura stramonium L., and potassium – Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L. and Echinochloa crus-galli L. The strongest tomato competitor for water was Solanum nigrum L., and the weakest – Setaria veridis P.B. The highest injury levels were manifested by Datura stramonium L. and Solanum nigrum L. and the biological threshold of injury levels for these weeds was 1 per m2. Echinochloa crus-galli L., Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. had lower injury levels, and the biological threshold of injury for them was 2 per m2. Setaria veridis P.B. manifested the lowest injury level. Its biological threshold was 4 per m2.



      Miss. Vibha P.Pode, Prof.S.V.Channapattana, Prof.A.A.Bagade

Abstract: The conventional suction geometry is not efficient for higher capacity of pump and thus reduced discharge on the delivery side. Intake manifold is being designed for this work. The previous configuration would be studied using CFD techniques while pursuing the objective of arriving at the most efficient geometry for the given application. The marginal increment in the discharge for the Centrifugal Pump tends to depreciate with each marginal rise in capacity the pump; especially for the higher order pumps (25HP and above).



      F. Figueroa Godoy, J. M. García Guzmán, Rubén Jaramillo Vacio, F. J. Ortega Herrera

Abstract: This paper presents a computational implementation of a Probabilistic Neural Network for obtaining patterns of partial discharges in power cables XLPE. The experimental measurement data of the power cables are obtained in the Laboratory Testing Equipment and Materials (LAPEM), which is a certified laboratory property of the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in México. These data implicitly contain the patterns of partial discharges and are used to carry out the training and testing of Probabilistic Neural Network. In order to illustrate the reliability and validity of the proposed computational implementation, the results obtained by this proposed implementation are compared with those calculated by the methodologies given in the standard IEC 60270.



      S. Aliyu, A. G. Ibrahim, B. S. Mohammed, A. B. Zarami

Abstract: Background: Retroperitoneal tumours are fairly common though may present as a diagnostic puzzle as a result of non specific clinical features. This study reviewed our ten-year experience in the university of Maiduguri Teaching hospital (UMTH) and the State Specialist Hospital. Patients and methods: The study reviewed all patients with retroperitoneal tumors managed at the two centres between January, 2004 and December 2013. Results: A total of 130 patients were analyzed, age ranged from 3 months to 79 years with a mean 38.75years, comprising 77males and 53 females with a male to female ratio of 1.45:1. The peak age group was 30 – 39 years .Complications at presentation include severe anemia in 16.15%, impaired renal function in 14.62%, and urinary tract infection in 11.54%. Histology of tumours revealed fibrosarcoma in 18.46% and lymphoma 15.39%. The post- operative complications include surgical site wound infection in 13.08%, acute renal failure in 3.85%, and deep vein thrombosis in 2.31%. Mortality was 13.08%. Conclusion: Retroperitoneal tumours present late and become symptomatic and palpable only when they reach significant size, they are best evaluated with good quality cross – sectional imaging and preoperative histology by core needle biopsy. Complete surgical resection is the most potential curative treatment modality for retroperitoneal sarcomas and is best performed by a multidisciplinary sarcoma team.



      Inoka E. Weerasinghe, Anura W. Rajapaksa, C.S.Premaratne, J.A.M.S. Jayatilake, S.D. Dharmaratne

Abstract: Injuries were the leading cause of hospital admissions in Sri Lanka for the past two decades. Common causes for injuries in Sri Lanka are road traffic crashes, falls, animal bites, occupational accidents, violence and humanitarian crisis. However, community based data on injuries in Sri Lanka is scarce. Therefore the objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of injuries and the associated factors in a semi-urban community in Central Sri Lanka. A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Gangawatakorale administrative area among 696 households selected by cluster sampling which included 3110 household dwelling residents.



      R. Suhasini, Dr. T. Suganthalakshmi

Abstract: Organizational training is undergoing a transformation. This is primarily due to changes in technology, mainly the computer/internet. The article traces the evolution of training to present day. It then discusses the current technological trends in training- YouTube, Social Media, Smartphone, and E- Learning trends are discussed.



      M. Jeevitha Lakshmi S., Umapriya, R. Ramya M., SivaSindhu

Abstract: Now-a-days image or data is not retrieve properly in cloud because large number of problem is created, from this the data may losses. So, we choose OIRS under the compressed sensing framework, which is known for its simplicity of unifying the traditional sampling and compression for image acquisition. Data owner only need to outsource compressed image samples to cloud for reduced storage overhead. OIRS provides security, efficiency and it also reduce design complexity. In OIRS design the sparse image is taken because, it takes less memory in the database memory. By using this technique the retrieved image becomes accuracy and efficiency. The data users can easily reconstruct the original image without any loss.



      Anas Abdelsatar Salameh, Shahizan Bin Hassan

Abstract: Due to the scant research in the area of m-commerce service quality, this study proposes a model for measuring the service quality of m-commerce in a commercial environment. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the literature in the area of marketing, service quality (SQ), and information systems service quality was carried out to identify the inter-related factors that lead to the service quality of m-commerce. The various past measurement models of electronic service quality (e-SQ) were also reviewed. It was found that overall perceived service quality is determined by three dimensions, which are service quality, information quality, and system quality. The overall service quality will have an impact on customer satisfaction, which will then affect the customer behavioral intention. The study provides insights to researchers and practitioners in the area of m-commerce on the important inter-related dimensions and determinants for measuring service quality. The proposed m-commerce service quality model was developed by revising and modifying the SERVQUAL scale.



      Prof Pramod Kumar Naik, Prof Arun S Tigadi, Dr.Hansraj Guhilot

Abstract: Safeguarding creative content and intellectual property in a digital form has become increasingly difficult as technologies, such as the internet, broadband availability and mobile access advance. It has grown to be progressively easier to copy, modify and redistribute digital media, resulting in great declines in business profits. Digital watermarking is a technique which has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. Digital Watermarking is a technology which is used to identify the creator, owner, distributor of a given video or image by embedding copyright marks into the digital content, hence digital watermarking is a powerful tool used to check the copy right violation. A robust watermarking technique based on DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform), DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) and combined DWT-DCT is presented. In these techniques the insertion and extraction of the watermark in the gray scale image is found to be simpler than other transform techniques. All three methods are simulated using two watermarking algorithms. The performance of the two algorithms is evaluated by applying various attacks on the watermarked image and results tabulated. This paper describes SDRAM control which enhances the overall performance.



      Sufian A. Tapadar and D. K. Jha

Abstract: Open cast coal mining cause severe alteration of soil characteristics that leads to instability and functional irregularity of ecosystem. The present investigation, therefore, was carried out to evaluate the role of open cast coal mining in alteration of native soil characteristics. Soil samples are collected from disturbed soils of Ledo colliery and undisturbed forest soil. Soil characteristics of Ledo colliery deviated from forest soil. The pH of the disturbed soil was 4.53 compared to 5.83of undisturbed forest soil. Open cast mining significantly (P0.05) altered the soil pH from normal forest soil. Statistically insignificant deviation of soil Temperature, MC, OC, N and Mg in disturbed soil was observed. However, pH, P, K and Ca of disturbed soil varied from forest soil significantly (P0.05). The concentration of all the heavy metals studied viz. Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb was high in disturbed soil compared to forest soil. However, site has significant influence on the variation of Ni (P0.01), Zn (P0.01) and Cu (P0.05) concentration. Thus, open cast mining altered the soil properties, making nutrient deficient, highly acidic and increased heavy metal toxicity.



      Dr. Ahuti Singh

Abstract: Over the years the population of country has increased manifolds. To sustain the growth, people have cleaned the forest & changed into the agricultural land to maintain the living standard. We need to provide infrastructures for an industrial base to run the industry. We need power to run the industries. Power is derived from two sources i.e. -renewable sources of energy, & non renewable sources of energy. We are still banking on non renewable sources of energy to a greater extent .our energy consumption pattern may be categorized in two ways i.e. commercial energy & non commercial energy. More emphasis is given on renewable sources of energy to meet our demands as the non renewable sources of energy reserves are limited. The environmental impact of the energy industry is diverse. Energy has been harnessed by humans for millennia. Initially it was with the use of fire for light, heat, cooking and for safety, and its use can be traced back at least 1.9 million years.( Bowman, D. M. J. S. (2009). "Fire in the Earth System". Science 324 (5926) 481–4 In recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources.



      Rajendra Desale ,Vaibhav Patil , Tushar Aware

Abstract: Traditional DBSMs are suited for applications in which the structure, meaning andcontents of the database, as well as the questions to be asked are already well understood. There is, however, a class of applications that we will collectively refer to as Interactive Data Exploration (IDE) applications, in which this is not the case. IDE is akey ingredient of a diverse set of discovery-oriented applications we are dealing with, including ones from scientific computing, financial analysis, evidence-based medicine, and genomics. The need for effective IDE will only increase as data are being collected at anunprecedented rate. IDE is fundamentally a multi-step, non-linear process with imprecise end-goals. For example, data-driven scientific discovery through IDE often requires non-expert users to iteratively interact with the system to make sense of and to identifyinteresting patterns and relationships in large, amorphous data sets.



      Rehmat Ali, Babar Khan, Garee Khan, Muhammad Zafar Khan, Saeed Abass, Uzma Rais

Abstract: The team conducted informal interviews of the shepherds, farmers, teachers, religious, political leaders and elites of Gais valley District Diamer Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan to determine threats to Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus) from October 29 to November 6, 2013. Based on our interviews and discussions, we evaluated the existence of Black bear in the valley and one other adjacent valley of the district. During the visit we conducted interviews in Banga, Gumbas, Katrochung, Changa, Shang, Sonologah and proper Gais village. Eleven (11) numbers of bears have been reported by the local in the valley which they have seen in the year 2013. The shepherds told that they have seen the species mostly in night and very rare in day time, while damaging fruits of mulberry. Some of the old hunters and community members told that the species has been sighted during the month of January in the valley. Due to harvesting of forest in adjacent valleys, the Black bear shifted to Gais valley forest. According to the respondents the species damage with an estimated figure of 4 mounds crop/fruits per household with a market value of Rs.3000-4000/- per household and per year and damage Fifteen (15) livestock (Cow, goat and sheep) annually in the pastures, of the valley with a market value of Rs 450000/- in Pak Rupees. Mostly, the Black bear attacks on crop filed of Maize, grapes, apricot, walnut, mulberry fruits during night time. The fruits were usually damage in late evening and especially, when the people shifts from lower villages to upper villages. 85% of the population told about the damages of their crops and fruits. The agriculture field near to forest is most affected by the bear.



      Hina Kousar, Kavitha Kumar, Shoney Sebastian

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to highlight the implementation of dynamic memory allocation using arrays and how it is better than other methods. It is often observed that parking vehicles manually takes longer time wherein user searches the parking area and parks the vehicle which is a tedious task, to save the time spent for searching the slot a registration based application circle parking system is designed which provides platform to users to book parking spaces online in advance for a given location and then park the vehicle with a minimal fees. This application allocates slots dynamically using array and stores the booking details. This paper discusses the benefits of the dynamic allocation in circle parking system.



      Padmavathi Narahari, Hephzibah kirubamani

Abstract: Anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disorder in the world. WHO has estimated that prevalence of anemia in developed and developing countries in pregnant women is 14 per cent in developed and 51 per cent in developing countries and 65-75 per cent in India. Anemia is one of the important factor which decides the outcome of pregnancy. Affects of anemia among pregnant women includes increased risk of low birth-weight or prematurity, perinatal and neonatal mortality, increased risk of maternal morbidity and mortality. Anaemia is estimated to contribute to more than 115,000 maternal deaths and 591,000 perinatal deaths globally per year(4).



      Sreemoyee Das, A. Mitra and Md. H. Ali

Abstract: The emergence of women entrepreneurs and their contribution to the national economy is quite visible in India. The women entrepreneurship is seen as an effective strategy to solve the problems of rural poverty as well as urban development. It promotes the quality of life by motivating female human potential. This proposed research work aims at focusing some specific areas pertaining to possibilities and constraints of developing rural entrepreneurship exclusively governed by rural women SHGs. Role of SHGs for promoting rural entrepreneurship using local skills, local knowledge and local resources involving women workforce has long been emphasized . During the last three decades rural development practitioners have been focusing on SHGs as an instrument for rural- entrepreneurship development in rural sector.



      Joseph .B. Ndawi, Nanzia Florent and Robert A.Majula

Abstract: This study analyzed the influence of income on household mortality and life expectancy in Dodoma. Mortality and life expectancy were used as proxies for health status. The effect of income was assessed along with the social determinants of health. The study employed cross sectional design involving 150 households. Twomodels based on mortality and life expectancy were applied.



      Jayantha K

Abstract: There is a negative perception towards the productivity of the government sector organizations in the general public in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the wastes in the OTPP of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study is to improve the productivity by eliminating waste and improving efficiency in the University OT payment process. The key objective of this particular study is to explore the possibility of re-engineering the existing OTPP that is leading to reduce the Lead Time (LT). There are four specific objectives viz., 1) to recognize the existing OTPP, 2) to understand the bottle necks of the existing OTPP; 3) to understand the existing rules and procedures belongs to the payment of OT, 4) to identify ways and methods to overcome barricades leading to delaying OTPP. Ten numbers of individuals, twenty five OT vouchers and three hubs of the OT payment process were selected for the sample study. As the nature of the study simple random sampling technique as well as the purposive sampling technique were associated to select ten numbers of individuals appropriately. Data were collected in relation to seven types of wastes, time in minutes, distance in footsteps and numbers were used to measure the data applicably.



      Dahanayake Nilanthi, K.P.I Inoka, DMP Dissanayaka and P.A Madhushani

Abstract: The study was carried out as pot experiments in the green house condition to evaluate the growth and yield performances of vegetables (tomato, curry chilli, okra) with legumes (cowpea, bush bean, Mung bean, soybean, ground nut, Snuhemp) under mono-cropping and mixcropping as well as compare the degree of soil microbial activity.



      V.Hariharakrishnan, R.Ramasamy, S.Sekar

Abstract: The compressibility of the solution decreases with increase of solute concentration. The decrease in the compressibility is explained by assuming that the solvated molecules are fully compressed by the electrical forces of the ions. Hence a fraction namely those within the primary solvated shell of the ions is rendered incompressible. The compressibility of the solution is mainly due to the free solvant molecules. Internal pressure of liquids provides a wealth of information about the state of liquid. It explains many of the properties of liquids and solutions. The concept of free volume is a generalized aspect of the idea that its neighbors in a cell enclose each molecule. Let us consider some of the sugar alcohols like Maltose,Galactose,Mannonose



      Rajmadhangi D, Swathy moorthy, Ramakrishnan S R

Abstract: A 65-year-old female patient presented with unilateral massive pleural effusion. CECT abdomen and thorax revealed features suggestive of pleural, lung, parenchymal, liver and peritoneal metastasis. Despite intensive investigation primary could not be identified. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry examination narrowed down the possibilities of the metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary.



      Mehnuma Tabassum Omar, Seemanta Saha, Monika Gope and Ariful Islam Khandaker

Abstract: In this contemporaneous world, in order to fulfill consumers’ limitless mandate for developing density, advancing functionality, and dominating power consumption, the dimensions and operating voltages of computer electronics are lessening day by day. This reduction in size raises sensitivity to radiation dramatically triggering soft error. If the radiation is large enough then even a single radiation may cause a stored data bit to be corrupted and flipped [1]. This deviation in the data values is termed as data errors. The consequence of the deviation is very vital on critical variables which consequently modify the system control flow prompting system failure [2]. Critical variables are characterized as those having high sensitivity to errors. This paper concentrates on critical variables for developing and employing error detectors to keep them away from data errors and provides high coverage for errors in any data value used in the program. The development is performed automatically through the support of backward slice of a program. The error detectors yield the method of checking expressions optimized in each control flow path surveyed at runtime [3].



      Dr.Ravikeerthy.M

Abstract: Introduction: Increased arterial pressure is one of the most important public health problem in developed as well as in developing countries.It is common , asympomatic, readily detectable,easily treatabale. Burden of hypertension increases with age among individuals aged above 60 years, the prevalence is 65.4%. Left ventricular hypertrophy has been shown to be a common and surprisingly early finding in hypertension even in patients without the evidence of coronary artery disease. Studies have also shown that aggressive control of hypertension not only reduces the hypertrophy but also reduces the long term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.



      Dr Usha Pranam, Dr Pranam G M, Dr G A Manjunath

Abstract: Background : Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for various important body function. Deficiency would affect any and every system including vision. Serum vitamin A level is low in children with protein energy malnutrition.



      Dr. Sunita Singh, Sangeeta Yaduvanshi

Abstract: Constructivism is buzz word widely used in paradigm of teaching-learning. Constructivism emphasises how the learner constructs knowledge from experience, which is unique to each individual. In the present paper the areas of discussion are 1) historical background of constructivism and its importance. 2) Role of mentor and learner in constructivist science classroom. 3) An attempt is made to prepare a lesson plan for science teachers based on 5E’s model (one of the model of constructivism) on the topic ‘Images formed by concave lenses’. This sample lesson plan will facilitate the science teachers in the implementation of constructivism in their classroom.



      Dr. Ravikiran, Prof. L. Ramachandra, Dr. Rajesh Nair

Abstract: Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired disorder in which there is immune-mediated destruction of platelets. ITP is characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding and a low, often very low platelet count with an otherwise normal peripheral blood cells and smear. Patients usually present either with ecchymoses and petechiae or with thrombocytopenia incidentally found on a routine complete blood count (CBC). Mucocutaneous bleeding, such as oral mucosal, gastrointestinal, or heavy menstrual bleeding may be present. Rarely, life threatening including central nervous system bleeding can occur. Splenectomy was initially described as a therapeutic measure for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) by Kaznelson in 1916.1 This procedure remained the only effective treatment for ITP until 1951, when Harrington and colleagues2 discovered the role of plasma immunoglobulin in the induction of thrombocytopenia in ITP. Dameshek et al.3 coined the term hypersplenism and demonstrated a rise in platelet counts with the administration of steroids. Since then, medical management has been the primary treatment for ITP. Today, splenectomy is indicated in (1) refractory symptomatic thrombocytopenia after 4 to 6 weeks of medical therapy, (2) when toxic doses of steroids are required to achieve remission, and (3) for relapse of thrombocytopenia after an initial response to steroid therapy.



      Prof. RNDr. Michal Gregus

Abstract: There is no doubt that social and mobile technologies are profoundly changing consumers' shopping habits and expectations, and the pace of change is impressive. Even in a struggling economy, online shopping in 2011 grew 15% over the previous year. Retail giant Amazon sold $1B through its e-commerce site and mobile applications in 2010, and that figure was forecasted to double in 2011.



      Abdul Kaium, M. Islam, S. Sultana, E. Hossain, S.C.Shovon, A.Mahjuba

Abstract: The study was conducted at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University farm, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the rabi season of 2011-2012 to find out the Yield and yield contributes of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) as influenced by spacing and variety. The experiment consisted varieties, spacing and their combination viz., spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm produced the maximum seed yield (2.01t ha-1) which was statistically similar with 20 x 15 cm (1.99 t ha-1), 25 cm x 10 cm (1.94 t ha-1) and 20 x 10 cm spacing (1.95 t ha-1) following randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The variety BARI Dhonia 1 gave higher values compared to Faridpur local. The variety Faridpur local in combination with 30 x 10 cm spacing gave the highest seed yield (2.16 t ha-1) identical with 25 cm x 10 cm spacing with the same variety Faridpur local (2.10 t ha-1).



      Mary Josephine C. Bautista, Ph. D.

Abstract: This study sought to determine the relationship between adversity quotient and teaching performance of thirty (30) faculty members at West Visayas State University–Lambunao Campus during the first semester of the school year 2008-2009. The researcher utilized to gather data the respondent’s profile, adversity quotient profile, and the performance evaluation sheet. The study revealed that, generally, the faculty members had “high” adversity quotient mean scores and a “very satisfactory” teaching performance. Likewise, it identified some personal variables which may influence the adversity quotient of the faculty members. Further, the results showed that faculty members who were classified according to their age and academic rank had “high” adversity quotient. However, when they were classified according to length of service, those who served the school for more than 20 years have “high” adversity quotient while those who served less than 20 years have “average” adversity quotient. SPSS Computer Software was utilized in the computation of the research data. Results of the t-test showed that there is a significant difference in the adversity quotient of faculty members when they were classified according to their academic rank and length of service. Results of Pearson’s r showed that there is a significant relationship between adversity quotient and teaching performance of faculty members at WVSU-LC.



      Aravind, R, V.S. Bharti, M. Rajkumar, P.K. Pandey, C.S. Purushothaman, A. Vennila and S.P. Shukla

Abstract: Free floating aquatic macrophytes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza, were exposed to graded concentration of cadmium in a concentration range 1 to10 mg L-1 for a period of one month to evaluate cadmium accumulation in the presence of EDTA. The EDTA was added at the rate of 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1 separately and the experiment was conducted in triplicate. The water and plant samples were collected at fortnightly interval for analysis of cadmium. At higher concentration of cadmium and EDTA, complete discoloration of plants was observed on the 30th day in the treatment with L. minor compared to S. polyrhiza. There was a significant difference in the cadmium uptake by the plants in the presence of EDTA when compared to the control (P0.05). Cadmium removal from the water by the macrophytes showed significant difference (P0.05) in the presence of EDTA compared to the control. Based on the result obtained during the study, it is concluded that, the uptake of cadmium by both the species showed a considerable extent of enhancement in the presence of EDTA. Overall observation reveals that a chelating agent such as EDTA can be used as an additive for enhanced phytoremediation potential of S. polyrhiza and L. minor.



      Shobhit Gupta

Abstract: Delivering on time good quality product / project is the main objective of any organization. The basic quality measure is post release defect in the product / project. In software development organization, defects identified in the product / project can primarily be because of un-clarified requirements, faulty coding, insufficient testing or poor reviewing capability. Different kinds of reviews are done to ensure highest level of quality. Hence, the role of reviewer at any stage is very crucial to avoid any defect in later stage of the SDLC.



      Yousif Shoaib Mohammed

Abstract: Electronic structure and magnetic moments of (Boron) B-doped ZnO was investigated by ab initio electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We also performed GGA+U calculations to further refine our results. It is found that single B atom at O site in ZnO becomes spin polarized with its many neighboring atoms with a total magnetic moment of 0.94 and 1.27 μB for GGA and GGA+U respectively. The magnetic coupling between doped B atoms is substantial leading to either antiferromagnetism or ferromagnetism with GGA+U. For the B-B distance is 7.942 Å by replacing two oxygen atoms at the opposite vertices of a ZnO wutizte. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling occurs.



      Aliyu M. Ja'o, Nnabuk O. Eddy, Sani I. Alhassan, Ishaq Y. Habib

Abstract: Ficus sycomorus gum was tapped, collected and purified. The adsorption properties and inhibition potentials of the gum on aluminium in HCl was studied at different temperature of 303K and 333K using gravimetric method. The inhibition efficiencies of the gum increase with increase in concentration and decrease with increase in temperature and period of immersion. Values of activation energy of the inhibited corrosion reaction of aluminium were greater than the value obtained for the blank. Thermodynamic consideration revealed that adsorption of the inhibitor on aluminium surface was first order, exothermic, spontaneous and was through the mechanism of physical adsorption. The adsorption characteristic of the inhibitor was best described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.



      Sadia Nasreen, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ashraf, Ahmad Raza and Bahar-e-Mustafa

Abstract: Dengue fever (DF) is globally emerging mosquito born viral disease. Pakistan is at high risk of dengue fever due to unavailability of vaccine, crowded cities, inadequate sanitation, unsafe water and large number of refugees. The present study was intended to investigate the epidemiology of DF in Faisalabad, Pakistan. This was a retrospective study to measure the frequency and distribution of the disease. Total 1509 cases of Dengue fever were admitted in Allied Hospital, Faisalabad during 6 months. Case-control epidemiological study was also conducted to identify some of the risk factors of the disease. For this purpose cases (n = 200) and control (n = 200) were confirmed through identification of antibodies against Dengue virus (immunoglobulin G) in the serum.



      P.A.Kamble, Prof M.B.Mali

Abstract: The motive of this work is to design on chip efficient low power techniques using VHDL coding. Serial links in network on chip provide many advantages in terms of crosstalk, skew, area cost, clock synchronization, and wiring difficulty when compared to multi-bit parallel data transmission. The proposed a novel coding technique reduces the number of transitions and hence reduces transmission energy on the serial wire. Also low power consumption is achieved by using the mux-tree based round robin scheduler. A scheduler (or arbiter) is needed when more than two input packets from different input ports are destined for the same output port at the same time.



      Rajput Rekha T., Gohil Kashmira J., Singh Poonam and Singh Surendra

Abstract: The present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of developed polyherbal formulation in the form of ointment by using hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves of Ficus religiosa, Mentha arvensis and roots of Rauwolfia serpentina with excipients. The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterol, tannins, flavonoids and protein. The developed polyherbal ointment was examined for wound healing activity in two types of wound models on rats; the excision and incision wound model. The polyherbal formulation was applied once daily until complete healing of wound and it was noted that the period of epithelization significantly (P < 0.05) reduced when compared with vehicle control group (15 ±0.34) which was nearly comparable with standard drug group. The tensile strength of healed wound was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to vehicle control group. Hence the developed polyherbal formulation showed significant (P < 0.05) wound healing activity as compared to control group. The obtained results were nearly compared with standard drug group betadine ointment in terms of contractibility, wound closure time and tensile strength.



      Rajesh Kumar Singh, Dr. S.N Hiremath

Abstract: Garlic contains medicinally active compounds like Alliin/Allicin, Di-allyl Disulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1, 3-dithiin, Ajoene. Alliin (Allicin) is cholesterol lowering and antihypertensive (Ref. see Sukhdev, 1997, Sculz et al, 1998 and Hung, 1999).



      JS Bulama, SM Dangoggo, SN Mathias

Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify and characterized the bioactive compounds from the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the root bark extract of Terminalia glaucescens revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycoside. The plant has wide folk medicinal use in traditional medicine. The air dried root bark was pulverized to powder, subjected to hot extraction (soxhlet) with methanol, and fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions. Ethyl acetate as bioactive fraction based on sensitivity test was subjected to TLC and column chromatography. The isolated compound was colourless powder, which was further subjected to IR, UV, 13CNMR and 1HNMR for proper characterization and elucidation of the structure. The compound was concluded as β-Sitosterol.



      Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Hamzat Ibiyeye Tijani, Ahmed Ibrahim Galadima, Bashir Sajo Mienda, Fatima Aliyu Deba, Laila M Zargoun

Abstract: The growing concerns for environmental sustainability, economic and energy security had made it obligatory to source energy alternatives that harmonize environmental friendliness with biodegradability, renewability, and less reliance on petroleum products dependence. One of such energy sources is called biodiesel. Wide range of substrate; vegetable oils e.g. palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil, micro algal oils, animal fats, waste products of vegetable oil refinery, used frying/cooking oils was used in its production. To produce biodiesel with these substrates conventionally is complex, as the method is faced with limitations in the downstream processing costs, byproducts recovery and environmental issues. Enzymatic method, involving enzymes particularly lipases in a process of alcoholysis with waste cooking oil emerged to be efficient in curtailing the problems. The potentiality of the waste cooking oil for this purpose among other applications qualified it as a resourceful waste in view of the fact that no concrete waste definitions limit it to only waste. This review focuses distinctively on how biodiesel fuel is produced by lipase catalysis of waste cooking oil, waste concept and definitions and how waste oil can be a viable recourse. Sources of different lipases and substrates were reviewed to include specific substrate modifications to describe the current substrate used in this article. Thus, the economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil is conclusively viable.



      H. Aminah, M. S. Ahmad Fauzi, H. Tariq Mubarak & M. Hamzah

Abstract: An experiment on Tinospora crispa cuttings using three cutting lengths, two hormone treatments and control (without hormone) was carried out in the nursery of Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The length of cutting used was: 7.5 cm, 15 cm and 22.5 cm. The base of each cutting was treated with two types of powdered hormones: 1) Seradix 1 (0.1% indole butyric acid-IBA), 2) Seradix 2 (0.3% IBA) and 3) control (without hormone). These cuttings were planted in cleaned river sand medium in a non mist propagation system. Results twelve weeks after planting showed that cuttings of 22.5 cm length produced significantly higher rooting (81%) than the other two length (59% and 38%). Similar results were obtained with the number of roots where 22.5 cm length had significantly most number of roots (1.9) compared to the other two lengths (1.3 and 1.2). This experiment showed that Tinospora crispa can be propagated by cuttings as an alternative source of planting materials for domestication purposes.



      Pallavi Taywade, Santosh Shejwal

Abstract: Façade Engineering is the art of resolving aesthetic, environmental and structural issues to achieve the enclosure of habitable space. Today lightness and transparency are properties that both architects and clients try to obtain. This has rapidly increased the use of glass in facades. By using steel as a load bearing structure, it is possible to keep the transparency restricting structures slim. The aim of this master’s thesis is to gather together information on research, design and codes about the structural design in steel-glass facades. The use of glass in facades causes many problems due to the material properties of glass. Glass differs from other building materials in aspect of being an extremely brittle material and breaking without a forewarning. This material property of brittleness has to be taken into account when designing large glass facades. The requirements of designing load-bearing structures are normally gotten from either the glass supplier or the producer of glass pane elements, who both are thereby responsible for the strength and functionality of the fastening.



      K.A.Mistry, I.B.Patel, A.H.Prajapati

Abstract: In the present work, the different composition of Bismuth-lead binary alloys are grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.



      T.Veeresh, D.Moulali, Dr.D.V.H. S Sarma

Abstract: Thyroid disorders both hypo and hyperthyroidism are frequently seen in women, the incidence of hypothyroidism is being much higher than hyperthyroidism. Reported studies in these two conditions on reproductive physiology in women and in experimental female animals have shown that both hypo and hyperthyroidism are associated with delay in onset of puberty, anovulation, various menstrual irregularities, infertility and spontaneous abortions. The present study conducted on the levels of FSH, LH and Prolactin in 36 women subjects between the age group 18 – 35 years out of which 10 are control, 26 are with thyroid disorders. In this 26 thyroid disorder patients 16 are hypothyroid cases and 10 are hyperthyroid cases. The result of the present study indicates that there is significant (>0.001) increased basal levels of serum LH as compared to FSH. Thus the ratio of LH: FSH altered from 1:1 to 6:1, and also there is significant (>0.001) increase in serum prolactin levels in hypothyroidism, where as no change in hyperthyroidism seen.



      Dr. Swapnali Patil, Dr. Ajit Patil, Dr. Pranita Solanke

Abstract: This study was an prospective study conducted on 500 women attending OPD of D. Y. Patil Hospital, Kadamwadi, Kolhapur. Aim of D. Y. Patil study was to know the efficacy of Pap Smear cytology in screening for early diagnosis CIN & ca Cx & co-relation of cytological finding with histological findings.



      Rabiatul Adawiah Megat Jiwa, Norizan Esa

Abstract: Within this Decade on Biodiversity from 2011-2020, educational institutions are expected to play a critical role to educate their students for better understanding of biodiversity. According to the United Nations, the ultimate aim of the Decade on Biodiversity is to ensure the integration of biodiversity considerations into work related to the core issues of sustainable development. In the Decade on Biodiversity, knowledge about biodiversity is crucial because the outcomes of human activities nowadays are affecting the equilibrium of biodiversity in the world. Biodiversity education becomes necessary to educate people and promote awareness on biodiversity. Teachers are most influential in educating people to protect biodiversity and integrate it through biodiversity education. Teachers should be knowledgeable about biodiversity to ensure the successful integration of biodiversity education in teaching. This paper reports on various aspects of knowledge of biodiversity among student teachers, thus their readiness to integrate biodiversity education in teaching. The results suggest future study directed towards the need for more concerted effort in teacher education to prepare teachers with the necessary knowledge to integrate biodiversity education.



      Abhisekh Chatterjee, Mr. Saroj Kumar, Ms. Megha Pandeya

Abstract: With the advancement of technology, mobile devices nowadays incorporate multiple Radio Access Technologies (RAT). So, switching from one RAT to another becomes obvious. This procedure is called vertical handover. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) are two such networks whose interoperability is being studied for years. WLAN covers relatively smaller area but provides a high data rate, on the other hand, UMTS covers a larger area but has comparatively lower data rates. We know heavy load on a particular cell can deteriorate its performance. Therefore, both the networks can co-ordinate to facilitate each other if loads of their neighboring cells are quite high. In this work we propose a dynamic load balancing heuristics using adaptive handover thresholds, which adapts as per the traffic load in a given cell. This can improve the service provided to the end users who are at the edge of the cell or closer. The metrics for performance considered in this work are outage probability and handover area.



      Mridula Pentapati, Suchi Shah

Abstract: Filamentary keratitis describes a condition in which filaments which are adherent complexes of mucus and corneal epithelium are present on the corneal surface. Filaments appear as small, gelatinous strands on the anterior surface of the cornea and may differ in size, shape, composition, and distribution. We hereby report five different cases of filamentary keratitis due to various ocular conditions and their respective management.



      Dr. S. Sreevani M.D, Dr. M. Bhargavi Devi, M.D, Dr. P. Shakunthala M.D, Dr. R. Siddeswari, M.D, Dr. N. Srinivasa Rao, M.D

Abstract: AIM: To study the validity of, Siriraj and Allen’s clinical scores for the differential diagnosis of cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage in acute stroke patients. Methods: 100 cases of acute stroke admitted in Government General Hospital, Kurnool were included in the study. All the patients were examined clinically and CT scan brain done and they were validated according to Siriraj and Allen’s clinical scores. Results: In this study group 69 were male patients and the rest were females. According to Siriraj score 51 patients were classified as having cerebral infarct and 23 patients as having hemorrhage and 26 patients as equivocal. Out of 51 patients who were classified as cerebral infarct 49 had infarct and 23 patients who were classified as having cerebral hemorrhage 16 patients showed cerebral hemorrhage by CT scan. Out of 26 patients who were classified as equivocal, 19 had cerebral infarct and 7 had cerebral hemorrhage.



      Prof. Dr. Arindam Kanta Banerjee, MBBS, MS, Ms. Parampreet Kaur, Ms. Kuldeep Kaur, Mr. Manjot Singh

Abstract: A Child is defined as a every human being below the age of 18 years. Human rights begin with child rights. These rights are : 1. Subsistence rights 2. Development rights 3. Protection rights 4. Participation rights. But, in India, many of these feeble hands, instead of carrying books are often bruise in factories of pan, bidi, cigarettes (21%), construction (17%), domestic workers (15%), spinning & weaving (11%), apart from brick kilns (7%) dhabas (6%) auto workers (4%) ,paddy-fields and football making etc. Punjab has an alarmingly low under-5 sex ratio(846:1000) and the lowest sex ratio at birth(832:1000). It also has 1,77,268 child laborers. Among all reported feticides, 56% are registered in Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Punjab. Crime against children saw a 24% increase; from 26,694 cases in 2010 to 33,098 cases in 2011. Rape cases increased by 30%, feticide by 19% while buying of girls for prostitution declined by 65%. There is an increase of 10.5% in juvenile crimes from 2010(22,740) to 2011(25,125). As a result of such forced labor, children are often subjected to malnutrition, impaired vision, deformities and easy victims of deadly diseases like Tb, Cancer and AIDS.



      Sumathi Manoharan, Seshadri Shivashankar, Sathisha Gonchigar.J

Abstract: Corky tissue (CT) is a major physiological disorder adversely affecting fruit quality in sapota (Manilkara achras) cv.Cricket ball in India. Corky tissue affected fruits are characterized by a dry acidic flesh and hard lump in the pulp, without showing external symptoms. Loss of seed viability during fruit growth has been found to cause the formation of the disorder. However, the exact process which triggers CT development remains unclear. It has been frequently observed that seed fat content in seeds from CT affected fruits remains significantly lower in comparison with that of seed in healthy fruit. Since seed fats play a major role in determining seed viability, the purpose of the present study was to determine the possible association between seed fats and seed viability in the development of corky tissue.



      Dr.Debesh Bhowmik

Abstract: The paper verified that the inflation model in India is cointegrated in the order I(1) considering GDP growth rate, degree of openness, growth rate of money supply, nominal exchange rate of Rupee with respect to US$ , fiscal deficit as per cent of GDP, interest rate (lending rate ), and crude oil price US$/barrel respectively as the determinants during the study period of 1970-2013.Johansen cointegration test showed that there is one cointegrating vector as shown by trace statistics and there are two cointegrating vectors as shown by λmax statistics. VECM showed that the inflation rate is associated with interest rate in one period lag and previous period inflation rate is associated with GDP growth rate and growth of money supply significantly. VECM states that the estimated equation 1 is adjusting its error by 23%, equation 2 is adjusting by 14% equation 3 by 34% and equation 7 by 71% respectively within one year but others equations are adjusting negligibly. There are six AR polynomial unit roots and all others roots lie inside the unit circle which proves that the model is unstable where the impulse response functions are diverging.



      Endes N. Dachlan and M. Irzaman

Abstract: Most of the societies used the air conditioners to reduce overwarming. However, besides apart from costly, air conditioner can increase global warming. One attempt to control temperatures in urban areas is to develope urban forest. The purpose of this research was to assess the ability of urban forest vegetation in absorbing heat in replacing air conditioner, hence the efficiency of urban forest. The research were conducted in Bogor Agricultural University Darmaga Campus and the city of Surabaya. The research was initiated by performing measurements at room with Room Air Conditioner methods.



      Geoffrey S. Sikolia, Dr. Hellen K. Mberia, and Prof. Okumu – Bigambo, W

Abstract: Teenagers are considered the most prolific users of social network sites (SNSs), where they spend a considerable amount of time. The growth of these online communities has skyrocketed with familiar examples being Facebook, Twitter and MySpace. Although research on young people’s use of SNSs is emerging, questions remain regarding exactly what motivates them to choose specific sites. This review outlines the theoretical framework and gratifications that researchers have used to understand teenagers’ interactions with SNSs. It brings together work that examines gratifications sought, such as diversion, personal identity, surveillance, and social capital. These gratifications point to a growing demand for more user-generated media and offers insights into potential areas for further research.



      Vidhya R. V, Achuthsankar S. Nair, Pawan K. Dhar, Anuraj Nayarisseri

Abstract: Pathogenic aspects of Chikungunya virus requires detailed study in order to develop drugs for controlling the outspread of Chikungunya infection. Previously it has been identified that Chikungunya viral envelope 1 and 2 proteins (E1 and E2) and the nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) are involved in CHIKV pathogenesis. In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach has been used to elucidate the epitopic peptides associated with the envelope protein E2 of CHIKV. The study characterizes as well as maps B cell and T cell epitopes of the protein using various bioinformatics tools. Further, the predicted epitopes were modeled and docked with human receptors (2X40 and 1DLH) to analyze the binding affinities. The epitopes with high binding affinities for human receptors were identified as effective epitopes. We anticipate that the peptides identified as most effective epitopes from this study can be considered for designing epitope-based vaccines against Chikungunya disease.



      S.C. Jayamanne, G.G.N. Thushari and N.P.P. Liyanage

Abstract: Simulated caviar also named as imitation caviar, is defined as salted roe that comes from a fish except sturgeon fish. Fish roe is removed as a by-product from processing plants and doesn’t have a high demand in Sri Lanka at present. It is essential to add value to fish roe which is of low demand at present and enhance the income of fish processing industries and suppliers. Since Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) is one of the most commercially important tuna fishery resources in Sri Lanka, Bigeye tuna was used as the resource species for the present study. Fish roe samples were subjected to “dry salting” method for different treatments with salt (g): fish roe (g) ratios as Treatment 01 - 0.25: 1.00, Treatment 02 - 0.50: 1.00 and Treatment 03 - 0.75: 1.00. Most appropriate treatment was assessed using sensory evaluation, proximate analysis, pH test and microbiological analysis. Highest average ash content (6.95 % ± 0.06) and maximum lipid content (11.89 % ± 0.88) were recorded for Treatment 03, while greatest protein value (25.65 % ± 0.11) was indicated by Treatment 01. Initial average pH values of the 03 treatments varied between 6.00 - 6.39 with significant difference for all 03 treatments. Treatment 03 (0.75 salt: 1.00 fish roe) has recorded lowest Total Plate Count (TPC) value for a period of 02 months with significant difference for all treatments (P < 0.05).



      Shahnaj Parvin

Abstract: This study is an attempt to the exploration of the social inclusion of visually impaired (VI) pupils studying in a Comprehensive Secondary School level in the regular school setting in the south of England which involves the individual, cultural and social factors of a particular society. This school has a very well established VI resource centre which opened in 1996. The pupils enrolled in this school have varying degrees of visual impairment. The lack of sight causes a detachment from the physical and to some extent from the social environment. The pupils studying at secondary school level face difficulties in social inclusion as their behaviour changes at this stage and they strive to adjust with the society. Though there are some biological differences between male and female, they may share some common values, feelings and interests. If the VI pupils are socially accepted in the same way as other children, difficulties around school are then less apparent and they can adjust themselves better in the culture of the mainstream school.



      Omar A. AL-Sammarraie, Mohammed Ali Bashir

Abstract: In this paper we generate new Newton’s Forward Interpolation Formula`s using 12 , 13 and 14 points , that help us to calculate any numerical integration with very much less amount of error`s , the idea is increase the coefficients instead of making many intervals .



      Anuradha Yadav, Kusum Gaur, I. D. Gupta , Poonam punjabi, Bhupendra Patel, Rahul, Kapil Dev

Abstract: Background and Objectives: Mental disorders account for a large proportion of the disease burden in young people in all societies and earlier diagnosis can facilitate better treatment .1 So, this study was conducted to find out the psycho-wellness of Ist MBBS Students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 250 students of I MBBS. They are interrogated as per MMS scale to assess the psycho-wellbeing of students. These data collected were analyzed and inferred with Chi-square, ANOVA and Tukey test of significance. OR for suicidal tendency and PTSD was also found out.



      Surya Nath R S, Afseena S

Abstract: In the field of pattern recognition, HCR is one of the most intricate and tricky area. Plenty of works were proposed for foreign languages but a few works exists for south Indian languages due to the complex shape and varying writing styles of individuals. This paper introduces a review of offline and online recognition of different natural languages. HCR is an optical character recognition, which convert the textual document in to machine readable format. To attain 99.9 % accuracy in the field of HCR is very difficult. The efficiency of HCR depend the features extracted and the classifier used.



      M. A. El-Damcese

Abstract: In this paper availability model for a linear (circular) consecutive-k-out-of-n:F system (or C(k, n:F) system) of non-identical components has been considered. It is assumed that both the working time and repair time of each component are Rayleigh distributed. The estimate of the parameters from the Rayleigh distribution can be represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. A numerical example is solved to demonstrate the procedure clarifying the theoretical development.



      A.R Ahmed, B.K Dutta & D.C Ray

Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken with seven rice varieties to assess their responses to three management practices, namely System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Recommended Practice (RP) and Traditional Practice (TP) towards morpho-physiological and yield parameters. The results indicated that all the cultivars under study performed better under SRI as compared to other two practices with respect to different morphological and yield traits including grain yield. All the cultivars exhibited delayed panicle initiation, increased leaf area, leaf area index and leaf area duration under SRI practice as compared to other two cultivation practices. Among the varieties, PAC 837 recorded the highest grain yield (7.83 t/ha), followed by Arize 6444 (6.55 t/ha) and IR-64 (5.07 t/ha) under SRI practice.



      Mutaz Mohammad Abdullah Alkhresheh

Abstract: The aim of this study is to posit some points touching the use of Code-switching and mixing of English and Arabic . The objectives of this study were to show 1- whether Arab students at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) code-switch and mix to English in their daily contacts or not ,2- why Arab students at AMU code switch and mix to English.



      Alfred S. Ekpenyong, Egerson, Daniel

Abstract: Migration is one inevitable action in human race. Having known the myriads of migration processes carried out by man and studied by researchers, this project seeks to expose a rare scenario of rural-rural migration; its inherent causes, effect and suggest remedies. With a target population of 50 rural migrants in a household grouping along the Tombia-Amassoma express road, this project successful examined the entire population using the probability/non-probability sampling techniques and holistically retrieved vital information’s which conveniently brought us the conclusion that this rural-rural migrants were actually living at the margin of life and in suggestions could be assisted in various ways by initiating community development programs through the building of schools, infrastructures and basic amenities which could be orchestrated by either governmental or non-governmental agencies to help raise their standard of living.



      Baye wodajo, Kassahun Tesfaye

Abstract: Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, L. is an oilseed crop that belongs to the family Asteracea. The genus Carthamus is comprised of 25 species including the only cultivated species of Carthamus tinctorius. So far, the characterization of safflower using molecular markers has been limited. The objective of this study was to examine the cluster analysis of safflower accessions collected from different regions of Ethiopia using ISSR molecular markers.



      Ahmed Shoaib Mohammed, Xiao Zan Wang, Yousif Shoaib Mohammed

Abstract: In this study we investigate the current status of physical education Curriculum in Sudanese High Secondary schools. The main tools for collecting data in this research are analyzing educational polices, Questionnaires and Interviews. Our questionnaire form contains 5 parts for our most important 18 items, and the sample size are 60 forms. The Cranach alpha coefficient for identification equals to 0.8570 which confirms the stability of resolution and suitability for use. The Statistical Software (SPSS) also used for analyzing our questionnaire data. We found that the main problem facing physical education and sport activities in Sudanese High Secondary schools is the absence of the special physical educations curriculum. In addition to that, the shortage in the textbook of physical education, and the scarcity of the physical education teachers at high schools.



      Faisal-Al-Mozahid, Dr. M. Tanseer Ali

Abstract: Carbon Nanotube is one of the rising technologies within nano science, which is showing high efficiency and wide range of applications in many different fields of science and technology. The Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFETs) have been explored and proposed to be the rising candidate for the next generation of integrated circuit (NGIC) devices. In this paper first the Carbon Nanotube and density of state (DOS) with different types of nanotubes considering energy gap have been reviewed. We have then studied the carbon nanotube field effect transistor. In this research CNTFET is analyzed where the bandgap is 0.94eV with HfO2 as gate dielectric. Finally the simulation of proposed model is given.



      Miss. Swati M.Raut, Mr. Zakir M.Shaikh

Abstract: People of different linguistic background could not able to interact with each other. This concept of translation will help people to communicate comfortably. Also it will help to fill communication gap between two linguistically different back-grounds. It will help to the people in the villages, who have taken education of English. Majority of the Indian population is not familiar with English while most of the information available on web or electronic information is in English. So, to reach out to the common man across various sections and field, an automatic language translator is important. So the main objective of Machine Translation (MT) is to break the language barrier in a multilingual nation like India.MT gives several approaches to translate source language to target language. In this paper we are translating English to Marathi with retaining structure of data.



      R. Swathi, S. Kirubakaran, C. Kamalanathan

Abstract: A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is built from a network of devices referred to as nodes, which can sense the environment and are used to communicate the required information collected from monitored fields. The communication and collection of information is done with the help of wireless links, where each node is linked to one or a number of sensors. The nodes in turn are deployed in large numbers depending upon the application where it is used. In modern days the process is bidirectional where the sensor activity can be monitored. The longevity in network lifetime is necessary as they have limited battery power which is to be used efficiently. This has led to new horizons upon energy saving and reduced power consumption among sensor nodes. Hierarchical cluster-based routing protocols are considered as one of the most efficient routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to its higher energy efficiency, network scalability, and lower data retransmission. An energy efficient hierarchical routing protocol LEACH-EN based on LEACH-C is designed by introducing the concept of dynamic node scenario in LEACH-C where movement of nodes is introduced along with compression of data from each node using LZW compression technique. The energy of nodes by introducing dynamic node concept along with compression seems to be efficient than the energy of nodes in LEACH-C protocol and therefore network longevity can be maintained to a certain extent.



      Geetu Singh, Renu Agarwal, Shobha Chaturvedi, Preeti Rai

Abstract: Tobacco is the foremost preventable cause of disease and death in the world today,killing half of the people who use it.Tobacco use kills nearly six million people worldwide each year. This epidemic can be resolved by becoming aware of the devastating effects of tobacco, learning about the proven effective tobacco control measures, national programs and legislation prevailing in the home country and then engaging completely to halt the epidemic to move toward a tobacco-free world. This study will review evidence based strategies to control tobacco menance



      Dr. G.M. Rather & Sameer Fayaz

Abstract: Variation in the availability of nutrients in diet and departure of same from standard requirement had badly affected the health of school children of Gujars of Great Kashmir Himalayas. Eighty percent of the sample pre-school children were identified under various levels of malnutrition. Severe degree of malnutrition has been computed at a very low weight. Even average weight was less by three and half kg than the weight recommended by I.C.M.R. The present paper attempts to analyze not only the geographical distribution and assessment of magnitude of malnutrition as a health problem among preschool children but also attempts to identify the causes that are directly or indirectly responsible.



      Amol R. Thakare, Senha B. Urkude, Rahul P. Argelwar

Abstract: In this paper a high D.C. voltage is based on Cockcroft-Walton cascade rectifier, without using transformer. The purpose of this paper is to get an output of a high dc voltage by applying input as an low dc voltage. It provides continuous input current to load with low ripple voltage and current. Moreover, based on the n-stage CW voltage multiplier, the proposed converter can provide a suitable dc source for an n + 1-level multilevel inverter. In this paper, control strategy employs two independent frequencies, one of which operates at high frequency while the other one operates at relatively low frequency.



      Ashish S. Ingole, Prof. Bhushan S. Rakhonde

Abstract: Now a day’s electricity is most needed facility for the human being. All the conventional energy resources are depleting day by day. So we have to shift from conventional to non-conventional energy resources. In this the combination of two energy resources is takes place i.e. wind and solar energy. This process reviles the sustainable energy resources without damaging the nature. We can give uninterrupted power by using hybrid energy system. Basically this system involves the integration of two energy system that will give continuous power. Solar panels are used for converting solar energy and wind turbines are used for converting wind energy into electricity. This electrical power can utilize for various purpose. Generation of electricity will be takes place at affordable cost. This paper deals with the generation of electricity by using two sources combine which leads to generate electricity with affordable cost without damaging the nature balance.



      Vaibhav S. Malunjkar, Santosh K. Deshmukh, P. Balakrishnan

Abstract: Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are mainly responsible for global warming which is most dreaded problem of the new millennium. Electricity generation based on fossil fuel is the major source of emission of GHGs. In India about 52 per cent of its total electricity is generated using fossil fuel (coal). Indian agriculture consumes about 30 per cent of its total electricity. There is vast scope in minimizing the GHGs emission caused by power consumption in agriculture sector by adopting energy efficiency tool viz: modern irrigation methods like micro irrigation.



      Saminath

Abstract: Firefox is the emerging mobile operating system from Mozilla Gecko Technology. It creates the new revolution for the handheld device product development. Open source operating system has great support to platform integrator and power full to the mobile Application developer. This paper highlights the Layers of the Firefox operating system with details of layered architecture system. In general this explains about the How Android BSP is coupled with Firefox Layers. It briefs about the Firefox specific changes on the Android BSP. Detailed explanation on the NFC components, NFC data structures, NDEF messages structure and NFC daemon in Firefox system. This paper elucidate the requirement of Firefox operating system and constraint on Hardware and software. Currently, Firefox Application runs in various target systems like, simulator, Emulator, Desktop System, Mobile Phones, Hardware Development platform, and Dual boot support with Android OS.



      Patrika Handique

Abstract: Patriarchy is delineated as that kind of society where the supreme authority is vested in the hands of males. Due to such social system, a type of hierarchy and hegemony is maintained between the two biological sexes. But, it is maintained that such a system is not a biological but social construction. In patriarchy, females are perceived through the lens of being mere sexual object with no feelings. They have to undergo a lot of misery and exploitation in different fields and phases. This paper is an attempt to analyze Ruskin Bond’s attempt to portray such a patriarchal system, that which he certainly observes through the eyes of criticism. If explored minutely, one can find traces of feminine suffering depicted inhabited.



      Prof. Priti Shirbhate, Dr. Mujahid Husain, Prof. Joyti R Mali

Abstract: Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Indian rivers are polluted due to the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In these study industrial effluents samples from the various detergent factories were collected and analyzed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution. The use and effectiveness of granular and powder activated carbon made from agricultural waste i.e. coconut husk and that coconut husk is a suitable adsorbent for such an effluent. Maximum adsorption capacity is a derived from Langmuir isotherm. A series of fixed bed experiments was carried out and the results were applied to a bed-depth/service time model for column adsorption. The validity of such a model is discussed. In the removal of organic matter in wastewater effluents from a industry waste water were investigated. The effect of process variables such as carbonization temperature, carbonization duration and activation temperature on the production and quality of activated carbon was studied as well as adsorption capacity was studied.



      Bharat Bhanjana

Abstract: In this paper, SIM Storage Memory that is used to store Short Message Service (SMS) is discussed. In addition, different behaviours implemented by mobile manufacturers to delete a message from SIM Memory are also studied. Two solutions for recovering the deleted message (from SIM Memory) are proposed based on the FREE MEMORY available in SIM Card.



      Dr G Gnanamani, Dr K N Prasad, Dr Basavaraj M Ingalgeri

Abstract: The health status of people significantly depends upon their health related behavior life style. Medical students as a distinct and young adults segment of our population need to address their health and life style problems. This study highlights the existing life style factors among incoming and outgoing medical students on their health status.



      Alka Sharma, Porf. (Dr.) Alka Pradhan, Jitendra P. deshmukh

Abstract: Tribal’s and their symbiotic relationship with forest and their surrounding environment has been seen from the ancient time. Their relationship with forest has crossed many centuries and forest maintained their existence until now. The nature of any type of new project in the forest area has negative and positive impacts and widen of these impacts can be minimal to significant in terms of biological environment and dependency of tribal habitat on the forest area. Therefore, mining operations essentially involves many significant impacts on deforestation, habitat destruction and biodiversity. Present study was based on study of biological environment and tribal habitat dependency on it in various sectors in the context of Ambaji Multimetal Mine project. Study of flora and fauna and tribal habitat was carried out to observe the interrelationship of these two.



      Heba M. Karam, Esmat A. Shaaban, Aly F. Mohamed, Hala F. Zaki, and Sanaa A. Kenawy

Abstract: Snake-bite is considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Administration of antivenom is the corner stone in the therapy of snake bite. The study aimed to improve the production of antivenom using calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPN) as adjuvant and gamma irradiation to detoxify venom. This was carried out by studying the toxicological and immunological properties of the Naja haje venom before and after exposure to 2 KGy gamma radiation. Furthermore, the cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic biomarkers of the envenomed rats were examined to compare the effect of native and gamma irradiated venoms. Moreover, in order to achieve the goal of the present study the immune response of immunized rabbits was evaluated through determination of antibody titer using ELISA technique and comparing the neutralizing capacity for lethality and enzyme activities of the serum obtained from rabbits inoculated with Naja haje venom in its native and ? irradiated form in presence of CPN as adjuvant or complete Freund's adjuvant. Data revealed that the toxicity of ? irradiated Naja haje venom was reduced 6 times as compared to the native venom. There was no change in the antigenic reactivity between both native and ? irradiated Naja haje venoms. Furthermore, injection of ? irradiated Naja haje venom did not significantly change activities of serum LDH, CPK, CK-MB, ALT and AST as compared to the normal group.



      R.SIVAKUMAR, R.V.SATHYANARAYANAN, T.R.HARIKRISHNAN

Abstract: The paper presents a novel framework that includes an inhomogeneous (time-variant) Hidden Markov Model(HMM) and learning from data concepts. The framework either recognizes or estimates user contextual inferences called ’user states’ within the concept of Human Activity Recognition (HAR) for future context-aware applications. Context-aware applications require continuous data acquisition and interpretation from one or more sensor reading(s). Therefore, device battery lifetimes need to be extended due to the fact that constantly running built-in sensors deplete device batteries rapidly. In this sense, a framework is constructed to fulfill requirements needed by applications and to prolong device battery lifetimes. The ultimate goal of this paper is to present an accurate user state representation model, and to maximize power efficiency while the model operates. Most importantly, this research intends to create and clarify a generic framework to guide the development of future context-aware applications. Moreover, topics such as user profile adaptability and variant sensory sampling operations are examined. The proposed framework is validated by simulations and implemented in a HAR-based application by the smart phone accelerometer.



      M.Vijaya

Abstract: In this work we introduce the complement of strong fuzzy graph, tensor product of fuzzy graphs and strong fuzzy graph. Complement properties of tensor product of strong fuzzy graphs are discussed.



      Muhammad Ahsan Chughtai, Quratulain, Dr.Yahya Rashid

Abstract: In Projects, the Project manager is single individual accountable for the success of project so measuring the performance of project manager based on appropriate skills which are widely seen as the only viable way to validate and generate better management practices. A model based on skills is to test the importance of Project Manager’s (PM) performance in the construction of mass housing building Projects (MHBPs) is proposed. Informed by the literature, an appropriate theoretical framework is adopted which draws on the organizational psychology theory of job performance, the conventional wisdom in project success criteria and an emerging framework of project lifecycle.



      Leif Marvin R. Gonzales

Abstract: Priming materials are important to enhance germination ability of seeds. One of the materials used was vinegar. This study was conducted to determine effect of vinegar on the germination of eggplant seeds and to identify, which vinegar concentration is suitable for seeds germination. A petri dish method was used in this study with six treatments, replicated three times and arranged Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments composed of five vinegar concentration (10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001%) and a control. The parameters includes germination percentage, germination rate and germination index. The result showed that application of 0.001% vinegar concentration showed significant effects in terms of percent germination and germination rate. Application of 10% vinegar concentration has detrimental effect of eggplant seeds. Thus, application of vinegar with 0.001% concentration is effective in germination of eggplant seeds.



      Dr.S.S.Pandey, Manu Pratap Singh & Vikas Pandey

Abstract: Image compression with DCT, quantization encoding method transform coding is widely used in image processing technique, however in these transformations the 2-D images are divided into sub-blocks and each block is transformed separately and into elementary frequency components. There frequency components (DC & AC) are reducing to zero during the process of quantization which is a lossy process. In this paper we are discussing about the image compression techniques with DCT and quantization method for reducing the blocking artifacts in reconstruction. The proposed method applies to several images and its performance is further analyzed for the reduction in image size. The picture quality between the original image and reconstructed image measured with PSNR value with different quantization matrices.



      Komal J. Anasane, Dr. Ujwala A. Kshirsagar

Abstract: Large capacity content addressable memory (CAM) is a key element in wide variety of applications. A major challenge in realization of such systems is the complexities of scaling MOS transistors. Converges of different technologies, which are well-matched with CMOS processing may allow extension of Moore’s law for a new years. This paper provides a new approach towards the design and modeling of memristor based CAM (MCAM) using a combination of MOS devices to form a core of a memory or logic cell that forms the building block of the CAM architecture. The non volatile characteristics and the nanoscale geometry together with compatibility of the memristor increases the packing density with CMOS processing technology , provides for the new approaches towards power management through disabling CAM blocks without loss of stored data, reduces power indulgence, and has scope for speed improvement as the technology matures.



      Ashutosh Dixit, Sandeep Kumar Singh

Abstract: A mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of wireless nodes that can dynamically be set up anywhere and anytime without using any pre-existing network infrastructure. It is an autonomous system in which mobile hosts connected by wireless links are free to move randomly and often act as routers at the same time. Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes such as wireless connection, continuously changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment. The most important feature of a routing protocol, in order to be efficient for WSNs, is the energy consumption and the extension of the network’s lifetime The distributed nature and dynamic topology of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) introduces very special requirements in routing protocols that should be met. An analytical survey on energy efficient routing protocols for WSNs is provided. Energy efficient routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: Network Structure, Communication Model, Topology Based and Reliable Routing. In this paper, the classification is expanded, in order to enhance all the proposed papers earlier and to better describe which issues/operations in each protocol illustrate/enhance the energy efficiency issues. In this paper we have compared the performance of three MANET routing protocol DSDV, AODV and DSR by using NS-2. DSDV is proactive (Table driven routing Protocol) whereas AODV and DSR share similar On Demand behavior, but the protocol's internal mechanism leads to significant performance difference. A detailed simulation has been carried out in NS-2. The metrics used for performance analysis are Routing Overload, Delivery Ratio, And Average Delay.



      Dr. Bharathi N, Dr. S Kalpana, Dr. B L Sujatha, Dr. Afaq Nawab, Dr. Hemanth Kumar

Abstract: To estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among the diabetics of Chikkaballapur and Ramanagara Districts of Karnataka, India.



      Konthoujam Sarda

Abstract: The growing strength of India-ASEAN relations has created unease for China with the improvement of India-US relations. China's main concern is that the new focus of US foreign policy toward the Asia-Pacific region - the so-called "pivot" - is aimed at containing China's rise. This paper is oriented towards assessing as to why India needs to involve China in shaping the future of Asia as the powerhouse of the world so much so that the world is redrawing its focus in Asia. India and China need to acknowledge each other’s strengths and weaknesses and contribute to shaping regional economic and security architecture. It is also in India’s interest to develop a strategy and build a peaceful environment conducive to both India and China’s aspirations rather than to be perceived by China to have any kind of a role in the so-called US led containment of China.



      Prof. K.D. Tamhane, Mr. Wasim T. Khan, Mr. Sagar R. Tribhuwan, Mr. Akshay P. Burke, Mr. Sachin B. Take

Abstract: This paper presents the design and development of Mobile Learning Application on Android Platform using Java Programming Language to help students in computer courses at the Department of Computer Engineering. Our approach is to incorporate multimedia animations concept with command language to create the pervasive learning environment in presenting the mobile learning application. With this mobile learning application, student could learn at his or her own pace, anywhere and anytime. This mobile learning application intends to complement the current traditional classroom and e-learning systems.



      Irene Taruru, Prof. Joseph M. Keriko, Dr. Kepha Ombui, Dr. Kabare Karanja, Ondabu Ibrahim Tirimba

Abstract: Research has demonstrated that there are a variety of factors that influence performance at the work place, such as team coaching, Business Coaching, Executive Coaching and self/personal coaching. This study aimed at determining the effects of coaching Programs on employee performance and the reduction of staff attrition in the BPO industry in Nairobi, Kenya. Both Primary and Secondary data sources were adopted. Quantitative research methodology was employed to inference an effect of the four coaching techniques on employee performance by use of 2 ways ANOVA and Multiple regression analysis.



      Ms. G. K. H. Thondilege, Dr. G. H. J. Lanel, Mr. P. D. A. Gratien D. De Almeida

Abstract: Clustering has become a special tool in the case of identifying homogeneous groups among large population of dynamic species. Graph coloring technique plays the main role in clustering procedure in many real world problems', since dynamic objects can represent by a graph using a set of vertices, V and a set of edges, E and the graph formed can be clustered in to several number of homogeneous subgraphs according to any considered variable using the graph coloring technique. Basically during this research a vertex coloring algorithm has been used for finding subgraphs (clusters) from the initial graph according to certain order. Our main contribution in this research is investigating the possibilities of multi species sharing the same cage (multi species exhibits) based on their food preference using graph coloring technique at the National Zoological Gardens, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka and proposing an algorithm that can be used to achieve that target for any zoological garden using graph coloring technique for clustering.



      Dinah Theresa Levillard, Srinath M Kambil

Abstract: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with various cutaneous abnormalities caused either by the disease or by treatment and can precede or follow initiation of dialysis, significantly impairing the quality of life in individuals. This study was undertaken to study the variety and prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in chronic renal disease, and their correlation with severity of CKD, and also to correlate variations in cutaneous changes with hemodialysis. 75 patients on CKD, including patients on hemodialysis, were examined for cutaneous changes. Creatinine clearance was calculated for staging of CKD. The common skin changes observed were xerosis (75%), hyperpigmentation (56%), pruritus (48%). Other changes seen were striae, purpurae, ecchymoses, Kyrle’s disease, pyodermas, mucosal, hair and nail changes and other infections. One case of Calcinosis cutis was seen. There was a significant decrease in pruritus(p=0.034) and an increase in pallor(p=0.001) in dialysis patients compared to others. There was also a remarkable increase in the diversity of skin changes that correspond with severity of CKD (p=0.044). Black pigmentation of the tongue, not usually seen was observed in 41% of patients. With an almost 100% prevalence in CKD, early recognition of these skin manifestations and prompt initiation of treatment can dramatically alter their course and even detect underlying renal disease.



      Luc Magloire Anicet BOUMBA, Samira ZOA ASSOUMOU , Donatien MOUKASSA, Nadia Touil, Omar MESTOUI, Abdelkrim KHATTABI, Lahoucine HILALI, Moulay Mustapha ENNAJI

Abstract: Since the advent of the polymerase chain reaction in 1985, the extraction of DNA has become an important step in the diagnosis of certain diseases. To do this, manual extraction methods remain indispensable alternative for limited resources laboratories in developing countries because of the cost of commercially available kits. The main objective in this study was to test and optimize a fast, non-toxical, high reliable and low cost silica-based method of viral HPV-DNA extraction protocol from tissue specimens.


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